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Industrial hazard may be defined as any condition produced by Confined Spaces

industries that may cause injury or death to personnel or loss of

product or property.  A Confined Space is an enclosed or partially
enclosed space that is not primarily designed or
 Safety Hazards intended for human occupancy.
 Biological Hazards
 Chemical Hazards  It has a restricted entrance or exit by way of location,
size or means
 Physical Hazards
 Ergonomic Hazards  It can represent a risk for the health and safety of
 Work Organization Hazards anyone who enters, due its design, construction,
location or atmosphere, the materials or substances
Safety Hazard in it, work activities being carried out in it, and the
These are the most common and will be present in most mechanical, process and safety hazards present.
workplaces at one time or another. They include unsafe conditions
 There were 431 confined space incidents with 530
that can cause injury, illness and death.
fatalities in the US due to oxygen deficient and/or
Safety Hazards include toxic atmospheres from 1992-2005


 Electrical Hazards
 Confined Spaces  Oxygen Deficiency
 Falling Objects Hazard  Oxygen Enrichment
 Machinery-Related Hazard  Flammable Atmosphere
 Toxic Atmosphere
Trips, Slips and Falls  Temperature Extremes
 Engulfment Hazards
 Second leading cause of accidents and injuries in
 Causes 15% of all accidental deaths, and are second only
to motor vehicles as a cause of fatality  Isolation
 Ventilation
OSHA requires employers to:  Conduct tailboard briefing
 Complete Permit
 Provide working conditions that are free of known  Test the atmosphere
dangers.  Enter the space
 Keep floors in work areas in a clean and, so far as possible,
a dry condition.
 Select and provide required personal protective
equipment at no cost to workers. Falling-Objects Hazard
 Train workers about job hazards in a language that they
 Characterized by an being struck-by an object from a
can understand.
height of fall
 The most common injuries workers suffer from falling
Categories of Fall Protection
objects are bruises, fractures, strains, and sprains. The
objects that commonly fall range from large items such
 Fall Arrest System
as roof trusses and steel beams to small items such as
 Fall Restraint
fasteners and small hand tools.
 Positioning
 Suspension
 Retrieval
Objects-at-heights safety involves the following key risks:
Electrical Hazards

An electrical hazard is a dangerous condition where a worker can 1) Untethered, unorganized objects at an aerial jobsite.
or does make electrical contact with energized equipment or a
conductor. From that contact, the person may sustain an injury 2) Improper transport of objects to and from an aerial jobsite.
from shock, and there is a potential for the worker to receive an
arc flash (electrical explosion) burn, thermal burn or blast injury.
Identify controls
 According to the Consumer Product Safety
1) Physical controls - physically stop the object from falling
Checklist for Basic Electrical Safety (or from falling very far).
 Inspect Cords and Plugs
 Eliminate Octopus Connections 2) Procedural controls - refer to changing the way you work
so that objects can’t fall.
 Never break off the third prong on a plug
 Never use extension cords as permanent wiring
Physical Controls
 Controls Guardrails Protective Clothing
 Open grating covers
 Tool lanyard and tethers  Protective clothing includes protective coverall (with
 Carts with sides attached hood), gown, apron, head and shoe covers
 waterproof or impervious to liquids to protect the body
Procedural Controls from contamination by blood, droplets or other body
fluids and prevent these contaminants from getting into
 Securing loads the body through open wounds
 Good hoisting practices  disposable in most cases though some can be reused
 Proper material stacking
after sterilization

Machinery-Related Hazards

Goggles/Face shields
This includes unguarded machinery and moving machinery parts;
guards removed or moving parts that a worker can accidentally  Glasses without side shields can only protect the front
touch, unable to use of lockout/tagout system, hazardous energies
from liquid splash
from start-ups.
 Goggles fit the face snugly and therefore are better than
glasses in eye protection
Safety Precaution  If necessary, face shield should be used to protect the

Six step procedure for hazardous energy control: Gloves protect the hands from contacting blood, droplets, body
fluids and other body tissue of the infected, or pathogen-
1. Preparation for shutdown
contaminated objects and can avoid infection when touching the
2. Equipment shutdown
eyes, mouth or nose afterwards. Gloves can also protect open
3. Machine or equipment isolation
wounds from contamination by pathogen;
4. Application of lockout/tagout device
5. Release stored energy
6. Verification of isolation • Most gloves are disposable after use

Shoe Covers

Biological Hazards  Shoe covers prevent pathogens from being carried

outside the workplace
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer  Shoe covers are usually disposable after use
to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living
organisms, primarily that of humans. This can include medical Sterilization
waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a
biological source) that can affect human health. It can also include Sterilization is the process using ultra heat or high pressure to
substances harmful to other animals. eliminate bacteria, or using biocide to eliminate microorganisms,
including spores in bacteria

Preventive Measures
Personal Hygiene
Respiratory Protection
Washing hands with liquid soap is the simplest and most basic
method to avoid infection.
• Surgical masks – Surgical mask generally consists of
three layers of non-woven fabrics. It provides a barrier
protection against large respiratory droplets; Work Organition Hazard
• N95 or higher level respirators – This type of respirator
filters out particulates and liquid droplets in small Hazards or stressors that cause stress (short-term effects) and
particle size, therefore providing protection from strain (long-term effects). These are the hazards associated with
inhaling aerosols and microorganisms that are airborne. workplace issues such as workload, lack of control and/or respect,
• Powered Air Purifying Respirator, PAPR. This type of etc.
respirator uses an electric blower to bring the air
through the filter to the user, making it more comfortable Work Content
to wear
• Air-supplying respirators. Clean air is supplied by air  Job Content
compressor or high-pressure cylinder through a hose  Workload and Workplace
 Working hours
 Participation and Control

Work Context
 Career, Development, Status and Pay
 Role in the Organization
 Interpersonal Relationships
 Organizational Culture
 Home-Work Interface

When affected by work stress people may:

• become increasingly distressed and irritable
• become unable to relax or concentrate
• have difficulty thinking logically and making decisions
• enjoy their work less and feel less committed to it
• feel tired, depressed, anxious
• have difficulty sleeping
• experience serious physical problems, such as:
- heart disease,
- disorders of the digestive system,
- increases in blood pressure, headaches,
- musculo-skeletal disorders (such as low back pain
and upper limb disorders)

Work stress is thought to affect organizations by:

• increasing absenteeism
• decreasing commitment to work
• increasing staff turn-over
• impairing performance and productivity
• increasing unsafe working practices and accident rates
• increasing complaints from clients and customers
• adversely affecting staff recruitment
• increasing liability to legal claims and actions by stressed
• damaging the organization’s image both among its workers and

Risks Management

Risk management proceeds through a cycle of five actions:

[1] an analysis of the situation and an assessment of risk,

[2] the design of an action plan to reduce the risk of work stress

[3] the implementation of that action plan and

[4] its evaluation, and

[5] learning and further action based on the results of that