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BOTTOM HOLE OPERATION

Reservoir data relates to rock and fluid properties and pressure transient tests.
Reservoir engineers and laboratory analysts acquire this data during discovery,
delineation, and development and production.

BOTTOM HOLE OPERATION – to generate data from bottom hole reservoir


1.Pressure measurement
2. Bottom hole sampling
3. Bottom hole temperature
4. Pressure transient test
WELL CONFIGURATION
ABOVE SURFACE SUB-SURFACE
Reservoir pressure BOTTOM HOLE STUDIES –
• Initial reservoir pressure (Pi) measured 10-15 m above
• Average reservoir pressure the perforation at tubing
• Static (Shut in) pressure shoe depth
• Flowing bottom hole pressure
• Saturated reservoir pressure (Pb)
WELL HEAD ASSEMBLY TO CONDUCT BOTTOM-HOLE STUDIES
EQUIPMENTS FOR BOTTOM HOLE
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
OPERATION SEQUENCES
Dummy
Bottom Hole pressure Simultaneous with Electronic memoru Gauge
Bottom hole temperature
Bottom Hole samples

Bottom hole pressure


flowing pressure
shut in pressure

1. Pressure recorders
2. Temperature recorders
3. Clocks ELECTRONIC MEMORY GAUGE
4. Pressure Charts
5. Chart reading microscope
CONCEPT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT AND
FLUID CONTACTS
EARLIER TECHNOLOGY PRESENT TECHNOLOGY

1. Pressure recorders
2. Temperature recorders
3. Clocks ELECTRONIC MEMORY GAUGE
4. Pressure Charts
5. Chart reading microscope
Down hole Memory Gauges Technology

1. What is a sensor?
2. Temperature Sensors
3. Pressure Sensors
4. Comparison between Straingauge and Quartz
5. Applications
What is a sensor?

1. Conversion of Physical value into Electrical signal


2. Analogic to Numeric conversion
3. Computed with Calibration Matrix

(1) (2) (3)


Num
φ (P,T) Σ(V, i,F) (count) (P,T)
Sensor
CAN M (X)
Main Characteristics

• ACCURACY Degree of closeness of a measured


• RESOLUTION quantity to its true value

• DRIFT
• NOISE +/-
Acc
Smallest change a sensor can .
detect in the quantity that it is
measuring
Drift
• Deviation of measurement from initial calibration:
– Time
– Repetition :
– Conditions (P,T)
Value
Drift

1

Time
T
Noise
Signal noise is an unwanted random addition to a wanted signal
• Electronic noise: Thermal, Flicker, Burst noise…
• Sensor noise: semiconductor noise, Flicker…
Temperature sensor(Pt-100)
• Pt-100 : Measurement of the resistance of two wires of
Platinium glued on a ceramic (100 ohms resistance at 0°C)

• Temperature Quartz crystal : Measurement of the


shift of frequency of a quartz.
Pressure sensor types
• Mechanical sensors
• Piezoresistive and Quartz sensors
– Higher accuracy, resolution and reliability
– Used with electronic memory
– Thermally compensated

P1 Σ1 (V, i,F)
Sensor

T1

P1
Sensor Σ2 (V, i,F)

T2
Mechanical gauges – Torque sensors

• Up to 500 deg F
• Very low accuracy (4 times under a piezo sensor and
20 times under a quartz sensor)
• Using a Bourdon tube to measure the pressure
The clock used to regulate the descent
of the pressure gauge chart
The chart is carried in a removable
cylindrical chart holder
The stylus moves across the surface of
the coated metal chart
Bourdon tube anchored at one end and
free to rotate at the other end –
positional the stylus
The bellows, together with bourdon
tube are liquid filled, forms a close
hydraulic system that retain a clean
liquid inside the bourdon tube and
pressure exerted on the bellow is
transmitted through it into the bourdon
tube
OPERATION
Insert the chart into the holder

Wind and attach clock

Insert chart holder – off position

Move upward – on position for base line


and engage with clock

Started lowering the manometer

With increase of pressure stylus move


anticlockwise and marked in the pressure
chart
BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE CHART

Pressure chart giving


Static/flowing bottom
fluid density under
hole pressure chart
reservoir condition

Static/flowing Bottom hole


Pressure gradient chart
Pressure Gradients in static condition in a well

Transition Zone Transition Zone


Piezoresistive Effect
• Variation or Resistivity due to a variation of
length of the sensor :
– Piezoresitive
– Sapphire

Wheatstone Bridge:
Schlumberger Sapphire Sensor

Thin layer of Sapphire

Vaccumed box
Temperature
compensation resistor
Piezoresistive Manufacturer
• Piezoresistive sensor
Quartz Crystal Manufacturers
• Quartz crystal resonating sensors
– Paroscientific (shock sensitive : for laboratory only)
– Hewlett-Packard then Quartztronics then Halliburton and
now GRC
– Schlumberger (CQG)
– Quartzdyne
Quartz Resonator Pressure Sensor
• Quartzdyne's Pressure Sensor is a quartz resonator which
changes frequency in response to pressure.

P
T ∆F

F1 Fo

V
3 Crystals: Quartzdyne
1 2

3
Quartz transducer: Quartzdyne
Quartz vs Piezoresistive:
Main specifications
Piezoresistive Quartz Crystal
PRM/ iGauge CGM/ iQuartz

Accuracy +/- 0.05% +/- 0.02%

Resolution 0.05 psi 0.01psi

Drift @120degC 10 to 5 psi/year < 3 psi/year


Pros and Cons

Piezoresistive Quartz

Metrological
High Very High
specifications

High Temperature High drift Stable

Robustness Yes Fragile

Response time Sec Up to few min

High
Price Low
(10,000 USD)
Applications
PRM4/ iGauge CGM4/ iQuartz
Piezoresistive Quartz Crystal

Flowing (slickline)
TCP
Gradient
Build up (short)
Build up (long)
Hi. Pressure
Hi. Temp
PI/ Interference
DST
Metrolog’s Products
1. Standards gauges:
– 2 technolgies: Piezoresistive and Quartz
– 2 diameters: 1,25’’ and 0,75’’
2. High-Temperature/ High Pressure Technology
– 350°F/ 177°C up to 30kpsi
– 365°F/ 185°C up to 30kpsi
3. Flow and Depth Meters
– Flow, Pressure, Fast Temperature
– Depth, Logging speed, Tension
4. Surface Aquisition System
EMG DATA FOR SBHP AND TEMPERATURE
Time (hrs) Pressure(psi) Temp (0C)
0.005556 123 29.3 Time (hrs) Pressure(psi) Temp (0C) Time (hrs) Pressure(psi) Temp (0C) Time (hrs) Pressure(psi) Temp (0C)
0.008333 123 29.3 0.391667 879.823 43.5 0.827778 2052.077 84 1.144444 754.853 49.8
0.011111 123 29.3 0.394444 881.716 43.7
0.830556 2060.939 84.3 1.147222 754.282 49.2
0.013889 123 29.3 0.397222 884.569 43.8
0.833333 2067.128 84.5 1.15 753.952 48.6
0.016667 127.6 29.3 0.4 890.998 43.9
0.836111 2083.35 84.8 1.152778 753.411 48.1
0.019444 127.6 29.3 0.402778 896.105 44
0.405556 897.788 44.2 0.838889 2101.915 85.1 1.155556 747.733 47.5
0.022222 127.6 29.3
0.408333 904.006 44.3 0.841667 2119.579 85.4 1.158333 730.52 47
0.025 127.6 29.3
0.411111 921.55 44.5 0.844444 2140.337 85.7 1.161111 715.47 46.5
0.027778 127.6 29.3
0.413889 939.484 44.6 0.847222 2163.919 86.1 1.163889 701.561 46
0.030556 127.6 29.3
0.416667 957.479 44.8 0.85 2193.299 86.5 1.166667 686.42 45.6
0.419444 975.143 44.9 0.852778 2212.526 87
0.194444 127.6 29.9 1.169444 673.683 45.1
0.422222 992.837 45.1 0.855556 2231.421 87.4
0.197222 127.6 29.9 1.172222 530.358 44.7
0.425 1010.411 45.3
0.2 127.6 29.9 0.858333 2244.069 87.9 1.175 266.869 44.3
0.427778 1028.015 45.5
0.202778 736.258 30 0.861111 2243.828 88.4 1.177778 139.526 43.9
0.430556 1045.438 45.6
0.205556 747.132 30 0.863889 2243.498 88.8
0.433333 1062.712 45.8 1.180556 127.6 43.4
0.208333 744.369 30 0.866667 2243.348 89.3
0.436111 1081.818 46 1.183333 127.6 43
0.211111 739.923 29.9 0.869444 2243.2 89.7
0.438889 1098.971 46.3 1.186111 127.6 42.6
0.213889 742.807 29.9 0.872222 2243.2 90.1
0.441667 1115.764 46.5 1.188889 127.6 42.2
0.216667 744.729 29.9
0.444444 1132.767 46.8 0.875 2243.17 90.5
0.219444 742.386 29.8 1.191667 127.6 41.8
0.447222 1149.5 47 0.877778 2243.257 90.8
0.222222 741.725 29.8 1.194444 127.6 41.5
0.45 1165.992 47.3 0.880556 2248.244 91.1
0.225 743.257 29.8 1.197222 127.6 41.1
0.452778 1179.15 47.6 0.883333 2248.304 91.5
0.227778 743.227 29.7 0.455556 1181.884 48 1.2 127.6 40.8
0.230556 742.176 29.7 0.886111 2248.515 91.7
0.458333 1182.244 48.3 1.202778 127.6 40.5
0.233333 742.386 29.7 0.888889 2248.635 92
0.461111 1182.034 48.6 1.205556 127.6 40.2
0.236111 742.897 29.7 0.891667 2248.845 92.2
0.463889 1182.124 48.9 1.208333 127.6 39.9
0.238889 742.506 29.7 0.466667 1182.214 49.2 0.894444 2248.905 92.4
1.211111 127.6 39.7
0.241667 742.176 29.7 0.469444 1182.184 49.5 0.897222 2249.145 92.6
1.213889 127.6 39.4
0.244444 742.416 29.7 0.472222 1182.274 49.8 0.9 2249.266 92.9
1.216667 127.6 39.2
0.247222 742.446 29.6 0.475 1182.334 50 0.902778 2249.506 93
1.219444 127.6 38.9
0.25 742.236 29.6 0.477778 1182.515 50.2 0.905556 2249.656 93.2
0.252778 742.326 29.6 1.222222 127.6 38.7
0.480556 1182.515 50.5 0.908333 2237.129 93.4
0.255556 742.837 29.6 0.483333 1182.665 50.7 1.225 127.6 38.5
0.911111 2219.916 93.5
0.258333 743.317 29.6 0.486111 1182.815 50.9 1.227778 127.6 38.3
0.913889 2202.552 93.7
0.261111 744.429 29.6 0.488889 1182.935 51 1.230556 127.6 38.1
0.916667 2184.978 93.8
2500

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1000

500
THP THP

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Time (in hour)