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# final position. The magnitude of the displacement is the shortest distance between the two positions.

2.2 Speed and Velocity The average speed of an object is the distance traveled by the object
divided by the time required to cover the distance, as shown in Equation 2.1.
The average velocity of an object is the object’s displacement _ divided by the elapsed time
_t, as shown in Equation 2.2. Average velocity is a vector that has the same direction as the displacement.
When the elapsed time becomes infinitesimally small, the average velocity becomes equal to
the instantaneous velocity Bv, the velocity at an instant of time, as indicated in Equation 2.3.
vB Bx
2.3 Acceleration The average acceleration is a vector. It equals the change _ in the velocity
divided by the elapsed time _t, the change in the velocity being the final minus the initial velocity;
see Equation 2.4. When _t becomes infinitesimally small, the average acceleration becomes equal
to the instantaneous acceleration , as indicated in Equation 2.5. Acceleration is the rate at which
the velocity is changing.
aB
aB Bv
2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration/2.5 Applications of the
Equations of Kinematics The equations of kinematics apply when an object moves with a constant
acceleration along a straight line. These equations relate the displacement x _ x0, the acceleration
a, the final velocity v, the initial velocity v0, and the elapsed time t _ t0. Assuming that x0 _ 0 m
at t0 _ 0 s, the equations of kinematics are as shown in Equations 2.4 and 2.7–2.9.
2.6 Freely Falling Bodies In free-fall motion, an object experiences negligible air resistance and
a constant acceleration due to gravity. All objects at the same location above the earth have the same
acceleration due to gravity. The acceleration due to gravity is directed toward the center of the earth
and has a magnitude of approximately 9.80 m/s2 near the earth’s surface.
2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration The slope of a plot of position versus
time for a moving object gives the object’s velocity. The slope of a plot of velocity versus time gives
the object’s acceleration.
(2.1)
_ (2.2)
Bv _ lim (2.3)
_t : 0
_xB
_t
_xB
_t
vB
Average speed _
Distance
Elapsed time
(2.4)
aB _ lim (2.5)
_t : 0
_vB
_t
aB _
_vB
_t
(2.4)
(2.7)
(2.8)
v2 _ v 2 (2.9)
0 _ 2ax
x _ v0 t _ 1
2at 2
x_1
2(v0 _ v)t

v _ v0 _ at
Note to Instructors: The numbering of the questions shown here reflects the fact that they are only a representative subset of the total
number that are available
online. However, all of the questions are available for assignment via an online homework management program such as WileyPLUS or
WebAssign.
Section 2.1 Displacement
1. What is the difference between distance and displacement? (a) Distance
is a vector, while displacement is not a vector. (b) Displacement is a
vector, while distance is not a vector. (c) There is no difference between
the two concepts; they may be used interchangeably.
Section 2.2 Speed and Velocity
3. A jogger runs along a straight and level road for a distance of 8.0 km and
then runs back to her starting point. The time for this round-trip is 2.0 h. Which
one of the following statements is true? (a) Her average speed is 8.0 km/h,
but there is not enough information to determine her average velocity.
(b) Her average speed is 8.0 km/h, and her average velocity is 8.0 km/h.
(c) Her average speed is 8.0 km/h, and her average velocity is 0 km/h.
Section 2.3 Acceleration
6. The velocity of a train is 80.0 km/h, due west. One and a half hours later
its velocity is 65.0 km/h, due west. What is the train’s average acceleration?
(a) 10.0 km/h2, due west (b) 43.3 km/h2, due west (c) 10.0 km/h2,
due east (d) 43.3 km/h2, due east (e) 53.3 km/h2, due east.
Section 2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration
10. In which one of the following situations can the equations of kinematics
not be used? (a) When the velocity changes from moment to moment,
(b) when the velocity remains constant, (c) when the acceleration changes
from moment to moment, (d) when the acceleration remains constant.
13. In a race two horses, Silver Bullet and Shotgun, start from rest and
each maintains a constant acceleration. In the same elapsed time
Silver Bullet runs 1.20 times farther than Shotgun. According to the
equations of kinematics, which one of the following is true concerning
the accelerations of the horses? (a) aSilver Bullet _ 1.44 aShotgun
(b) aSilver Bullet _ aShotgun (c) aSilver Bullet _ 2.40 aShotgun (d) aSilver Bullet _
1.20 aShotgun (e) aSilver Bullet _ 0.72 aShotgun
Section 2.6 Freely Falling Bodies
19. A rocket is sitting on the launch pad. The engines ignite, and the
rocket begins to rise straight upward, picking up speed as it goes. At
about 1000 m above the ground the engines shut down, but the rocket
continues straight upward, losing speed as it goes. It reaches the top of
its flight path and then falls back to earth. Ignoring air resistance, decide
which one of the following statements is true. (a) All of the rocket’s
motion, from the moment the engines ignite until just before the rocket
lands, is free-fall. (b) Only part of the rocket’s motion, from just after
the engines shut down until just before it lands, is free-fall. (c) Only the
rocket’s motion while the engines are firing is free-fall. (d) Only the
rocket’s motion from the top of its flight path until just before landing
is free-fall. (e) Only part of the rocket’s motion, from just after the
engines shut down until it reaches the top of its flight path, is free