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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

Heptane is a higher olefin, or alkene with the chemical formula of C7H14. The
commercial product is a liquid that is a mixture of isomers. Heptane is typically used as
an additive in lubricants, it also acts as catalyst and as a surfactant.

The purpose of this project was to simulate the separation process that occurs
during the production of 1-heptene and other unsaturated products from an initial
mixture of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons. 1-heptene is the main product desired from this
process since it has several applications including usage as a high-octane blending
agent for gasoline and it aids in the production of plasticizers.

a) Production of heptane from propylene and butane

Two liquid feed streams containing propylene and butene and a stream of catalyst
slurred with 1-hexene are mixed at a pressure of approximately 8 bars prior to being
sent to the reactor. The reactor consists of five essentially well-mixed sections, with
similar concentrations in each section. Heat removal is achieved by using pump-around
from each stage through external heat exchangers. The reactor effluent is partially
vaporized before being fed to the first of three distillation columns. The first column
(T-1201) removes the unreacted C3 and C4 components, which are used subsequently
as fuel (Stream 7) or sent to LPG storage (Stream 6). The next column (T-1202)
separates the 1-hexene product overhead (Stream 10) and sends the bottoms stream to
the final column (T-1203). In T-1203, the main 1-heptene product (Stream 13) is taken
overhead, and the C8 and heavier compounds are taken as the bottoms product (Stream
14). The bottoms product is processed off-site to remove the heavy material and to
recover spent catalyst. [Turton et all, 2013]

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Figure 1: Process Flow Diagram of Production of Heptene from Propylene and Butene (Unit 1200).

Source: (Turton et all, 2013)

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Figure 2: Stream table for Unit 1200
Source: (Turton et all, 2013)

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2.0 Process Hazard Analysis

Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) studies are the foundation for process safety and risk
management programs. They help companies identify hazard scenarios for a process
that could adversely affect people, property, or the environment. PHA techniques such
as Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP), What-If Studies, Failure Modes and
Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Major Hazard Analysis (MHA) are used.

For this assignment, we are required to provide 3 techniques of PHA which are: -

1) HAZOP
2) Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
3) Event Tree Analysis (ETA)

The major equipment that we choose to perform PHA are: -


1) reflux drum (V-1204)
2) reboiler (E-1203)
3) C3/C4 tower (T-1201),
4) butene feed tank (V-1202)
5) C7/C8 feed pump (P-1204 A/B).

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3.0 HAZOP FOR SELECTED EQUIPMENT

3.1 HAZOP FOR REFLUX DRUM: V-1204

Hazard and Operability Review


Project Name: Production of Heptane from Propylene and Butene Date: 10/May/2018 Page 1 of 3
Process: Production of Heptane from Propylene and Butene
Section: Reflux Drum (V-1204) Ref. Drawing: P&ID on page 3
Item Study Node Process Deviations Possible Causes Possible Action Required
Parameter Consequences
V-1204 Reflux Drum Temperature Higher 1. Heat exchanger 1. Temperature in 1.Proper
failure the reflux drum maintenance.
increase.
2. Blockage cold 2. Explosion due to
utility in the heat high temperature.
exchanger.

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Lower 1. Heat exchanger 1.Temperature in 1. Proper
failure the reflux drum Maintenance by
decrease. company.

2.The composition 2.Provide


different from the temperature
set point controller

Level Overflow 1. Valve failure 1. Volume overflow 1.Install level


in the reflux drum. sensor in the
equipment

2.Damage of the 2.Change the old


equipment. valve.

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3.2 HAZOP FOR REBOILER: E-1203

Item Study Note Process Deviation Possible Causes Possible Action Required
Parameter (Guidewords) Consequences

E-1203 Reboiler Flow Less Pipe blockage Temperature of Install high temperature
process fluid remain alarm
constant

More Water valve failure Temperature of Install low temperature alarm


process fluid decrease

Temperature Low Temperature low Vapour flow decrease Online monitoring of


the heat transfer
coefficient in control
system
monitoring of
bottoms temperature

Contamination Contamination Leakage of tube and Contamination of Proper maintenance and


process alert
of process fluid low temperature water process fluid
line goes in

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Corrosion Corrosion of Accumulation of Reduce heat transfer Continuous on-line
tube acidic inert operation have to be
maintained
The reboiler is
frequently spared to
facilitate cleaning
while the column is in
operation.
Remove by venting

Level High Reboiler sump level is Excessive circulation Proper supervising


too high

Low • Plugging of • Insufficient Ensure the tubes always


flooded by liquid set by the
the tubes circulation
overflow weirs
• Insufficient • Poor heat
liquid head transfer
• Unflooded • Tube over

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3.3 HAZOP FOR TOWER: T-1204

Item Study Process Deviation (guide word) Possible causes Possible consequences Action required
node parameter
T-1201 C3/C4 Flow No flow • Pipe blockage • Column dry out • Install low level alarm
Tower • Control valve • Possible dangerous • Check maintenance
shut concentration procedure and schedule
• Valve failed • No operation • Make bypass
• Tube leakage • Emergency plant shut
and blocking down
• Pump failure
Less flow • Pipe blockage • Column dry out • Install low level alarm
• Control valve • Changes in product • Check maintenance
shut quality procedure and schedule
• Valve failed • Make bypass
• Tube leakage • Emergency plant shut
and blocking down
Pump failure

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More flow • Control valve is • Flooding in the • Install high level alarm
fully opened column • Check maintenance
• Increasing • Changes in product procedure and schedule
pump capacity quality • Install control valves
• Control valve • Temperature • Install flow indicator
failure decrease • Make bypass
• Rise in bottom
liquid level

Reverse flow • Pressure inside • Column dry out • Install check valve
tower higher • No operation
than pressure
inlet

Temperature High temperature • Instrumentation • Separation cannot • Install temperature


failure be done indicator controller
• More steam • Changes in product • Instruct operator on
flow from quality procedure

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reboiler • Column flooding • Attention to heat input
• Exchanger tube • Film boiling in and output control
failure column and reboiler
• High steam • Phase effect
pressure • Pressure changes
• Cooling water
in condenser
failure
• Reboiler control
failure
• Heating
medium leak
into process
Low temperature • Instrumentation • Pressure change • Install temperature
failure • Product loss indicator
• Less steam flow • Changes in product • Instruct operator on
from reboiler quality procedure
• Loss of heating • Ineffective • Upgrade isolation
(steam leakage) separating process • Attention to heat input

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• Low steam • Phase effect and output control
pressure and
temperature
• Ineffective
isolation
Pressure High pressure • Vapour pressure • Low efficiency of • Install high alarm
high separation pressure
• Pressure • Rupture of column • Install pressure relief
indicator or other related valve
controller fail equipment
• Product loss

Low pressure • Vapour line • Low efficiency of • Install pressure indicator


leakage separation
• Loss of products

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3.4 HAZOP FOR BUTENE FEED TANK: V-1202

Ite Study Process Deviations


Possible Causes Possible consequences Action required
m Note Parameters (guide words)
1A V-1202 Level HIGH 1. High flow into V-1202. 1. The overflow could cause 1. Regular check on the level
Butene 2. Failure in V-1202 level explosion to the tank with the control system, inlet valve and
feed control system. presence of ignition. pumps.
tank 2. The overflow will be contained 2. Secondary containment system
in secondary containment designed to capture 50%
system. overflow.
LOW 1. Low flow into V-1202. 1. Can cause damage to pump 1. Regular check on the level
2. Failure in V-1202 level (P-1202 A/B) where the leak control system, inlet valve and
control system. can lead to personal injury. pumps.
3. Pump to the tank stops. 2. Pump (P-1202 A/B) shuts
down automatically when the
level is too low.
Component OTHER 1. Butene source 1. The final product may be 1. Do a standard test method to
THAN contaminated altered, or the targeted determine to purity if the
(not pure). conversion is not achieved. butane before running the
plant.

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3.5 HAZOP FOR C7/C8 FEED PUMP: P-1204 A/B

Item Study Process Deviations Possible Causes Possible Consequences Action required
Node Parameters
(Guide
words)

1A Pump Pressure More ❖ Valve fail - open ➢ Pump will damage because of high  Use pressure indicator
all the time pressure
 Use by pass manual
❖ LIC that connected ➢ The system afterwards will not valve system
to the tower continue. Hence, no main product
 Maintenance need to be
T-1202 fail and formed (Heptenes)
done regularly
valve fail to close
➢ When the level in the tower is so
low, high pressure may occur in
the pump and pump will damage.

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Less ❖ Valve fail - close ➢ Liquid level will keep increasing  Use by pass manual
all the time valve system
➢ When the level in the tower is so
❖ LIC that connected high, it will cause overflowing tank  Use pressure indicator
to the tower that lead to flooding
 Maintenance need to be
T-1202 fail and
done regularly.
valve fail to open
 Install level alarm

➢ Liquid level will keep increasing  Use flow indicator


Flow More ❖ Valve fail - close
and it will cause overflowing tank
all the time  Install level alarm
that lead to flooding
❖ LIC that connected  Use drain valve before
➢ More flow will accumulate in the
to the tower pump
pump, damage the pump and no
T-1202 fail
heptenes production since system  Use by pass manual

afterwards will be affected too valve system

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Less ❖ Valve fail - open ➢ Can cause deadhead pump. If  Use flow indicator
all the time prolonged, potentially causing
 Use by pass manual
pump bearings and seals to fail
valve system

➢ Pump will be working all the time


❖ Valve fail - open  Use temperature
Temperature Higher and can lead to overheated. Hence,
all the time indicator & install
pump will be damage because of
temperature alarm
the high temperature
 Maintenance need to be
done regularly

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4.0 FTA FOR SELECTED EQUIPMENT

4.1 FTA FOR EXPLOISION OF REFLUX DRUM (V-1204)

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4.2 FTA FOR TUBE CORROSION REBOILER (E-1203)

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4.3 FTA FOR CATASTROPHIC PROPANE RELEASE

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4.4 FTA FOR BUTENE FEED TANK EXPLOSION (V-1202)

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4.5 FTA FOR C7/C8 FEED PUMP (P-1204 A/B) EXPLOSION

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5.0 ETA FOR SELECTED EQUIPMENT

5.1 ETA FOR EXPLOISION OF REFLUX DRUM (V-1204)

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5.2 ETA FOR TUBE CORROSION REBOILER (E-1203)

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5.3 ETA FOR CATASTROPHIC PROPANE RELEASE

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5.4 ETA FOR BUTENE FEED TANK EXPLOSION (V-1202)

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5.5 ETA FOR PUMP (P-1205 A/B) EXPLOSION

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6.0 POSSIBLE MODIFICATIONS TO IMPROVE THE SAFETY OF THE
SELECTED PROCESS EQUIPMENT

6.1 Reflux Drum (v-1204)

1) Install temperature controller and temperature transmitter before mixture


coming out from the heat exchanger.
2) Install level controller and transmitter. As the level controller is already being
installed in the process will help to send a signal if level in the reflux drum
itself is more than set point. The level controller will send a signal to the valve
to open the valve if level is more than what it should.
3) Replace the valve if the valve failed to operate. Operator need to observe and
inspect the valve regularly to avoid any malfunction that can lead to explosion.
Proper maintenance also can be done to the valve to prevent thing problem
from happening.

6.2 Reboiler (E-1203)

1) Embrittlement Detector is used to determine whether a reboiler water has


embrittling tendencies.
2) Standard treatment for inhibiting embrittlement in boiler operating at low
pressure by using Sodium Nitrate and to eliminate the potential for caustic
embrittlement
3) Used oxygen Scavengers such as Catalyzed Sodium Sulphate and hydrazine
4) Use of Mineralized water to improve the cleanliness of boiler heat transfer
surfaces

6.3 Tower (T-1201)

1) Install temperature controller because high temperature is another reason for


overpressure.
2) The operator need to pay attention by maintaining the control system because
it is a key to prevent the accident occur.

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6.4 Butene feed tank (V-1202)

1) Locate the storage away from any sources of heat or ignition, for example
steam pipes.
2) All parts of the butene feed tank should be connected to one another and tp
common ground where it can prevent the accumulation of static electrical
charges.
3) Make the inlet of the butene feed tank at the bottom to avoid formation of
static electrical charges. It the inlet cannot be prevented on the top of the tank,
extend the pipeline until there is no difference between the inlet and the
bottom of the tank.
4) Connect the fill pipe electrically to the tank flange and the transfer pipeline. It
can deduce any static charge which is formed during filling. Eventually, it can
reduce the thermal expansion in the tank.
5) The tank and the piping system need to be made from welded carbon or alloy
steels. It is not recommended to locate the tank underground as it will cause
difficult in detecting leakage.

6.5Pump (P-1205 A/B)

1) Improve shaft stiffness, metallurgical upgrades or wear coatings to deal with


cavitation or suction recirculation.

2) Install an adjustable speed drive (ASD) to control the pump if flow varies
over time.

3) Establish a uniform-velocity flow profile upstream of the pump (a straight


run of pipe leads into the pump inlet), to avoid cavitation.

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7.0 REFERENCES /APPENDIX

1. Turton, R., Baeilie, R. C., Whiting W. B., Shaeiwitz, J. A., Bhattacharyya, D.


(2013). Anaysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes. United State,
America: Pearson Education International.

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