You are on page 1of 82

ASSET

Technical Reference Guide

Software Version 6.1
Reference Guide Edition 2

© Copyright 2008 AIRCOM International
All rights reserved
ADVANTAGE, ASSET, CONNECT, DATASAFE, DIRECT ENTERPRISE, NEPTUNE,
ARRAYWIZARD, OPTIMA, OSSEXPERT, and WEBWIZARD are recognised
trademarks of AIRCOM International. Other product names are trademarks of their
respective companies.
Microsoft Excel , .NET™, Microsoft Office, Outlook , Visual Basic Windows®,
Windows XP™, Windows Vista™ and Word are trademarks of the Microsoft
Corporation.
This documentation is protected by copyright and contains proprietary and
confidential information. No part of the contents of this documentation may be
disclosed, used or reproduced in any form, or by any means, without the prior
written consent of AIRCOM International.
Although AIRCOM International has collated this documentation to reflect the
features and capabilities supported in the software products, the company makes no
warranty or representation, either expressed or implied, about this documentation, its
quality or fitness for particular customer purpose. Users are solely responsible for the
proper use of ENTERPRISE software and the application of the results obtained.
An electronic version of this document exists.
This User Reference Guide finalised on 02 July 2008.
Refer to the Online Help for more information.
This User Reference Guide prepared by:
AIRCOM International Ltd
Cassini Court
Randalls Research Park
Randalls Way
Leatherhead
Surrey
KT22 7TW
Telephone: +44 (0) 1932 442000
Support Hotline: +44 (0) 1932 442345
Fax: +44 (0) 1932 442005
Web: www.aircominternational.com

5g (Non-Sim) Arrays 8 Coverage and Interference Arrays (2g + 2.Contents Appendix A Array Descriptions 7 2g and 2.5g) (Non-Sim) 8 GSM (Sim) Arrays 19 Pathloss Arrays 19 Coverage Arrays 20 UMTS and CDMA2000 Arrays 21 Pathloss Arrays 22 Pilot Coverage Arrays 22 Handover Arrays 25 Uplink Noise Arrays 26 Downlink Noise Arrays 26 Uplink Coverage Arrays 27 Downlink Coverage Arrays 28 Coverage Balance Arrays 29 Soft Blocking Arrays 29 Hard Blocking Arrays 30 HSDPA Arrays 30 All Servers Array 32 DVB-H C/I Array 33 Fixed WiMAX Arrays 34 General Arrays 34 Thresholded Arrays 35 Mobile WiMAX Arrays 36 Pathloss Arrays 37 Preamble Arrays 37 Uplink Coverage Arrays 38 Downlink Coverage Arrays 39 General Arrays 40 Appendix B The Prediction Management System 41 The Prediction Management Algorithm 42 Appendix C 2g and 2.5g Algorithms 45 Interference Table Algorithm 46 Interference and Connection Array Calculations 47 Worst Connection Array Calculation Method 48 Average Connection Array Calculation Method 48 Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method 49 Total Interference Array Calculation Method 50 Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values 50 Frequency Hopping Algorithms 51 Synthesised Hopping Algorithm 53 Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms 53 Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) 54 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 5 Version 6.1 .

1 .Circuit Switched. HSCSD and GPRS Traffic 57 Grade of Service and Data Rate 58 Channel Occupation Table 59 FCC Calculations 60 Frequency Calculations 62 Appendix D Packet Quality of Service Algorithms 63 Simulation Inputs for QoS Analysis 64 Preliminary Tests 64 Traffic Generator for QoS Analysis 64 Matching Generated Traffic to the Simulator's Mean Number of Served Users 65 WWW Traffic Model 66 Packet Model 67 About the Code Schemes for GPRS 68 QoS Profiles for GPRS 69 Time Simulator for QoS Analysis 71 System Model for QoS Analysis 71 Simulation Model for QoS Analysis 72 Results of QoS Analysis 73 Confidence Interval Half Width 74 Simulation Duration 75 Delay and Cumulative Delay Probability Distributions 76 Mean and Standard Deviations of the Queuing Delays 77 95th Percentile Delay 77 Mean Transmission Time 77 Mean Retransmission Delay 78 References 78 Appendix E Static Simulation Algorithms and Outputs 79 Index 81 Page 6 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD 56 TRX Requirement . The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm 55 MAIO Planning Cost Function 56 GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations 56 TRX Requirement .

managing and displaying arrays. which licences you have. please see Static Simulation Algorithms and Outputs on page 79. there are specialist documents containing more detailed descriptions of the array outputs and algorithms used in the Simulator.5g (Non-Sim) Arrays 8 GSM (Sim) Arrays 19 UMTS and CDMA2000 Arrays 21 Fixed WiMAX Arrays 34 Mobile WiMAX Arrays 36 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 7 Version 6. The ranges of arrays available may vary according to which technology you are using.1 . CDMA2000. 2. In addition to this section.5g and LMU) Simulation Arrays for GSM. Fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX For information on creating.APPENDIX A Array Descriptions This section describes the different types of array available in ASSET. For information on how you can obtain these documents. see the ASSET User Reference Guide. The following types of array are described: Non-Simulation Coverage/Interference Arrays (2g. UMTS. and which processes you have chosen to run. In This Section 2g and 2.

2g and 2.5g (Non-Sim) Arrays
There are a number of different Coverage/Interference arrays that can be generated
for 2g and 2.5g, using the Array Creation wizard.

Coverage and Interference Arrays (2g + 2.5g) (Non-Sim)
The 2g and 2.5g arrays, generated using the Array Creation wizard, are listed within
the Coverage heading in the Map View Data Types.

Example of the 2g/2.5g Arrays under the Coverage heading in the Data Types list

Page 8 ASSET Technical Reference Guide
Version 6.1

Best Server Array
This array displays the signal strength of the best serving cell at each pixel on the Map
View. This decision is based on parameters specified in the Site Database window and
in the Array Settings dialog box.
As with all the arrays, you can change the display settings in the Map View by
double-clicking the array in the list of Data Types. For details of how to modify or set
up schemas for this array, see the ASSET User Reference Guide.
This picture shows an example of the Best Server array:

Best Server array

Best Server (GPRS) Array
For each pixel, ASSET determines which serving cell layer will be the most likely
server of a mobile in that pixel. This decision is based on parameters specified in the
Site Database window and in the Array Settings dialog box.
The Best Server (GPRS) array is identical to the Best Server array, except that it will
exclude non-GPRS sub-cells from the calculation.

ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 9
Version 6.1

Best Server (EGPRS) Arrays

Best Server (EGPRS GMSK) Array
A subset of the GPRS Best Server array, which only includes EGPRS cells. The EGPRS
GMSK array displays the pathloss from the server to that pixel of a signal using
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation.

Best Server (EGPRS 8-PSK) Array
Covers the same sub-cells as the EGPRS GSK array, but applies the APD to the sub-
cells, making the service area of each sub-cell generally smaller. If the APD is set to 0,
then both Best Server EGPRS arrays will be identical. The EGPRS 8-PSK array
displays the pathloss from the server to that pixel of a signal using 8-PSK modulation.

Nth Best Server Array
For each pixel on the selected cell layer, ASSET determines which serving cell layer
will be the most likely server of a mobile in that pixel, plus the next most likely until
N. This decision is based on parameters specified in the Site Database window and in
the Array Settings dialog box.
The difference between Best Server arrays and Nth Best Server arrays is that when
creating an Nth Best Server Array, the number of layers is the same as the number of
GSM covering cells. You then choose which layer you wish to view.

LMU Arrays
Location Measurement Units (LMUs) are used to locate a subscriber and/or their
mobile equipment. LMU arrays can indicate geographically where a mobile station
can be measured by more than three separately located base stations (through
position triangulation).
The mobile can only receive effective signals where:
1 The received signal strength at the mobile station is above the signal strength
threshold that you have set in the Array Settings dialog box.
2 The total C/I due to inteference from the other cells at the mobile station is above
the C/I threshold that you have set.
Therefore, you can create two separate arrays:
MS Measured Cells
MS Measured Cells (C/I)

Page 10 ASSET Technical Reference Guide
Version 6.1

MS Measured Cells Array
For the MS Measured Cells array, ASSET creates an Nth Best Server array for the
selected region based on the selected cells and settings specified in the Array Settings
dialog box (including the received signal strength threshold and the timing advance).

Only the count of Best Servers are stored, and not the sub-cells.

MS Measured Cells (C/I) Array
For the MS Measured Cells (C/I) array, ASSET creates an Nth Best Server array for
the selected region, based on a received signal strength threshold of –160dBm, the
selected cells and the rest of the settings specified in the Array Settings dialog box.
To calculate the C/I for each potential server, ASSET performs the following
calculation for each pixel in the Nth best server array:
1 ASSET calculates the worst C/I and the total C/I.
2 ASSET then calculates and stores the worst interfering sub-cell, based on a
consideration of every other serving cell entry in the Nth Best Server array for that
pixel.
The calculations in steps 1 and 2 are based on:
 Each serving cell entry in the Nth Best Server array, where the signal strength
is equal to or greater than the received signal strength threshold in the Array
Settings dialog box
 Each carrier of the serving cell, where the carrier is on a control layer
3 ASSET then post-processes the array to calculate the average C/I for each pixel,
and each serving cell entry in the Nth Best Server array.

In the Map Information Window (accessed from the View menu in the Map
View), if you hover over a cell, the number of cells that could be measured by the
LMU is displayed for each array that has been calculated.

ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 11
Version 6.1

Therefore. in cases where you suspect the Best Server array in memory has become out of date for any reason. Worst Connection Array For each pixel. the serving sub-cell is determined. For information on the algorithm used for the calculation of this array. a list is obtained of serving carriers plus the worst and total C/I for each carrier. which no longer exists when all the other selected arrays have been created. ASSET requires a Best Server array in memory. taking into consideration all co. For each pixel in the array. The total C/I is determined by summing the interfering signals in watts and then later converting back to dB. Page 12 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. the serving sub-cell is determined. For example: Example of creating Best Server array and required Interference array in the Coverage/Interference wizard Per Carrier Interference Array For all the interference calculations. Interference Arrays When creating one of the Interference arrays. The result is an array such that for each pixel. However. you should explicitly create both the Best Server array and the required Interference array when running the Array Creation wizard. and for each carrier of the serving sub-cell the worst carrier to interference (C/I) (lowest numerical value) and the total C/I is calculated. that is. The mean Bit Error Rate is converted back to dB and the hopping carrier group with the lowest resultant C/I is presented. ASSET generates an intermediate internal array called a 'per carrier interference array'. and for each hopping carrier group the average carrier to interference (C/I) is calculated from the corresponding pixel in the 'per carrier interference array'. see Worst Connection Array Calculation Method on page 48. by converting total C/I to BER and calculating the mean.and adjacent carriers from all interfering sub-cells. a Best Server array will be automatically created. it corresponds to the worst of the mean connection C/I values. ASSET does not automatically create a fresh Best Server array.1 . If this is not the case. if you later create subsequent Interference arrays after making changes to the network. You cannot currently visualise this intermediate array.

see Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method on page 49. This interference array type was designed for networks using frequency hopping. For information on the algorithm used for the calculation of this array. the carrier with the worst carrier to interference (C/I) is determined from the corresponding total C/I value in the 'per carrier interference array'. Average Connection arrays require a Best Server array. although it also works for non-hopping networks. This interference array type was designed for networks using frequency hopping. the carrier group can be considered to contain just a single carrier in the above description. This array is not available for AMPS/TDMA networks. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 13 Version 6. see Average Connection Array Calculation Method on page 48. the serving sub-cell is determined. although it also works for non-hopping networks. In a non-hopping network.1 . which is generated automatically if one does not already exist in memory. the carrier group can be considered to contain just a single carrier in the above description. Average Connection Array For each pixel. If a best server array already exists but its contents are out of date. If a best server array already exists but its contents are out of date. For information on the algorithm used for the calculation of this array. This array is not available for AMPS/TDMA networks. which is generated automatically if one does not already exist in memory. and for each hopping carrier group the average carrier to interference (C/I) is calculated from the corresponding pixel in the 'per carrier interference array' by converting total C/I to BER and calculating the mean. Worst connection arrays require a Best Server array. which is generated automatically if one does not already exist in memory. Worst Interferer Array For each pixel. you will need to recreate it by explicitly selecting to create both the Best Server and Worst Connection arrays in the Array Creation wizard. The result is the worst C/I and the sub-cell from which the interference originates. If a best server array already exists but its contents are out of date. you will need to recreate it by explicitly selecting to create both the Best Server and Worst Interferer arrays in the Array Creation wizard. The mean BER is converted back to dB and the average value for all hopping carrier groups is presented. In a non-hopping network. Worst Interferer arrays require a Best Server array. you will need to recreate it by explicitly selecting to create both the Best Server and Average Connection arrays in the Array Creation wizard.

Total Interference arrays require a Best Server array. This array does not consider frequency hopping. see Total Interference Array Calculation Method on page 50. This array is applicable to both fully-loaded frequency hopping and non-hopping networks. When you have determined the total received power. but rather it represents the total of the interference experienced by ALL subscribers at each pixel. Each pixel in the area of map you have selected is processed and a list is created of sub-cells that have prediction files overlapping the area. which is generated automatically if one does not already exist in memory. Page 14 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.1 . For each pixel. This value is converted to watts. summed and converted back to dBm. You can also generate statistical reports showing this information. the total carrier to interference (C/I) is calculated by summing the total C/I per carrier. and so can be considered to be an interference calculation for a non-hopping version of the frequency plan. Total Received Power Array This array shows the sum of energy absorbed at any one point from all base stations on a per pixel basis. Distributed antenna systems are treated as separate power sources. The calculated C/I is NOT merely as experienced by any individual subscriber. received power is calculated in dBm from each of the sub-cells. you can use this information for making safety decisions. you will need to recreate it by explicitly selecting to create both the Best Server and Total Interference arrays in the Array Creation wizard. If a best server array already exists but its contents are out of date. Total Interference Array For each pixel. For information on the algorithm used for the calculation of this array.

When the average C/I value for each pixel has been determined. Use the GPRS Data Rate array to see where in a area you will get what performance. The GPRS Data Rate array determines coverage for cells that support GPRS and includes the effect of Frequency Hopping and DTX. see the ASSET User Reference Guide. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 15 Version 6. GPRS Average Data Rate per Timeslot Array The GPRS Average Data Rate per Timeslot display uses the serving cell information from the Best Server (GPRS) array. This value is then multiplied by the number of terminals of that type present to get the demand for that pixel for that terminal type. The result for each terminal type present is then averaged to generate the average data rate per timeslot. The data rate is stored in the array. both GPRS and non-GPRS. It then calculates an average data rate per timeslot for the cell. The results for each terminal type for all the pixels within a sub-cell are then divided by the number of terminals of that type with the sub-cell.1 . the GPRS Data Rate array is interpolated to get the corresponding kb/s for each traffic array pixel. It uses the GPRS Data Rate array to give a data rate per timeslot (kb/s). which is then stored on the sub-cell. The Average Data Rate per Timeslot array uses the distribution of traffic (Terminal Types/km²) and the data demands of each type. You can specify the cell layer/carrier layer combinations to be considered when calculating the GPRS data rate array by selecting the appropriate combinations in the Interference tab of the Array Settings dialog box. This is calculated and stored when the GPRS Data Rate array is produced. This type of array requires a Best Server (GPRS) array. Only Channel Coding Schemes supported by the best serving sub-cell are included. If the traffic array and the GPRS Data Rate array are of different resolutions. ignoring the signal (C) from non-GPRS cells but considering interference for all cells. The array calculates a pixel's average C/I value. which is generated automatically if one does not already exist. For more details on the calculations. For details. see Grade of Service and Data Rate on page 58. the array converts it from a signal to noise ratio to a data rate per timeslot by referring to the Channel Coding Scheme. As with other arrays. you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. GPRS Data Rate Array The GPRS Data Rate array shows the maximum data rate (in kbits per second) that you can achieve at a particular pixel using GPRS technology.

Page 16 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. As with other arrays. ensure Average Data Rate per Timeslot (GPRS) is selected in the list of data types to display. If you are taking traffic into account for interference and the 8-PSK traffic mix of any sub-cell is greater than zero. for a server whose capacity limited data rate is 6kb/s. you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. the array has different colours representing the different service levels in a kb/s/timeslot. ASSET assumes that the percentage of the traffic is 8- PSK (which uses less power because of the APD and causes less interference). The data rates are displayed accordingly to chosen categories over the service area of each server. The array calculates a pixel's average C/I value.1 . When displayed on the map. GPRS Service Area Data Rate Array The GPRS Service Area Data Rate array displays the capacity limited GPRS data rate for each serving cell. To display this on the map. The service area for this cell would therefore be coloured in the colour for the category e-mail. The area covered by each GPRS sub-cell is displayed on the map in the colour corresponding to its average data rate per timeslot. EGPRS Data Rate Array Use the EGPRS Data Rate array to see where in a area you will get what performance. both EGPRS and non-EGPRS. The EGPRS Data Rate array is based on the following data: EGPRS-enabled cells EGPRS modulation/coding schemes Frequency hopping LA families supported by the sub-cells The power drop (APD) observed with 8-PSK modulation The EGPRS Data Rate array determines coverage for cells that support EGPRS and includes the effect of Frequency Hopping and DTX. you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. For example. For example:  High (Multimedia) >12kb/s (Red)  Medium (Web access) 7-12kb/s (Green)  Low (e-mail) 2-7kb/s (Blue) As with other arrays. This type of array requires an EGPRS best server array. the service area of this server will be displayed as the appropriate category. ignoring the signal (C) from non-EGPRS cells but considering interference for all cells. The default category in this case would be e-mail as according to the default scheme. the data rate range for e-mail is 1-28 kb/s. which is generated automatically if one does not already exist.

As with other arrays. and then chooses the one that gives the best overall data rate to store. one for the best GMSK available. When the average C/I value for each pixel has been determined. It then calculates an average data rate per timeslot for the cell. For more details on the calculations. For example:  High (Multimedia) >12kb/s (Red)  Medium (Web access) 7-12kb/s (Green)  Low (e-mail) 2-7kb/s (Blue) As with other arrays. the EGPRS Data Rate array is interpolated to get the corresponding kb/s for each traffic array pixel. It works out two of these data rates. To display this on the map. The results for each terminal type for all the pixels within a sub-cell are then divided by the number of terminals of that type with the sub-cell. You can specify the cell layer/carrier layer combinations to be considered when calculating the EGPRS data rate array by selecting the appropriate combinations in the Interference tab of the Array Settings dialog box. and one for the best 8-PSK available. see Grade of Service and Data Rate on page 58. ensure Average Data Rate per Time Slot (EGPRS) is selected in the list of data types to display. This is calculated and stored when the EGPRS Data Rate array is produced. This value is then multiplied by the number of terminals of that type present to get the demand for that pixel for that terminal type. The area covered by each EGPRS sub-cell is displayed on the map in the colour corresponding to its average data rate per timeslot. the array has different colours representing the different service levels in a kb/s/timeslot. For details. It uses the EGPRS Data Rate array to give a data rate per timeslot (kb/s). you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. the array converts it from a signal to noise ratio to a data rate per timeslot by referring to the Coding Scheme.1 . When displayed on the map. you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. The result for each terminal type present is then averaged to generate the average data rate per timeslot. The Average Data Rate per Timeslot array uses the distribution of traffic (Terminal Types/km²) and the data demands of each type. which is then stored on the sub-cell. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 17 Version 6. If the traffic array and the EGPRS Data Rate array are of different resolutions. see the ASSET User Reference Guide. EGPRS Average Data Rate per Timeslot Array The EGPRS Average Data Rate per Timeslot display uses the serving cell information from the Best Server (EGPRS) array.

the service area of this server will be displayed as the appropriate category.1 . As you move your cursor to different cells (with allocated carriers). It uses the same information as the Best Server array. you can change the display settings by double-clicking the array in the list of Data Types. You can then choose whether to display Co-Channel and/or Adjacent Channels. The service area for this cell would therefore be coloured in the colour for the category e-mail. and you can also distinguish between Control (BCCH) channels and Traffic(TCH) channels. As with all the arrays. for a server whose capacity limited data rate is 6kb/s. but displays it in a different way. For example. as it is sensitive to the location of your mouse cursor. Contour) Service areas enable you to view the information from the Best Server array in terms of the geographical areas where each cell is the Best Serving Cell. Co/Adjacent Channel Assignments This feature is not a true array. The data rates are displayed accordingly to chosen categories over the service area of each server. you can double-click the item from the Data Types list on the Map View to change the displayed colours and categories for the array. As with other arrays. a set of lines display information about which cells share the co-channels or adjacent channels. as set in the Carrier Layers. This picture shows an example of the Service Area Block array: Service Area Block array Page 18 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. The default category in this case would be e-mail as according to the default scheme. the data rate range for e-mail is 1-28 kb/s. EGPRS Service Area Data Rates Array The EGPRS Service Area Data Rate array displays the capacity limited EGPRS data rate for each serving cell. Service Area (Block.

The arrays change little after a relatively small number of snapshots have been performed (10s of snapshots in most cases). To obtain coverage arrays for a loaded system the user must run some snapshots. They represent average values and are therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Indoor arrays use the in-building parameters for the clutter type at each pixel (that is. Indoor These are the lowest (and Nth lowest) downlink losses.GSM (Sim) Arrays This is an overview of the GSM arrays generated by the Simulator in ASSET.1 . ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 19 Version 6. indoor loss and indoor shadow- fading standard deviation). Many arrays depend on whether the terminal is taken to be indoor or outdoor. but the user should note that the arrays then refer to coverage in an unloaded system. Here is an example of the GSM arrays you can generate on the Map View when using the Simulator: Example of the GSM (Sim) arrays appearing in the Map View Data Types Pathloss Arrays DL Loss & Nth DL Loss Dependencies: Terminal. All arrays are produced on a per cell-layer basis. the key purpose of running snapshots is to provide measures of traffic load. Cell layer. Coverage arrays can be drawn even if no snapshots have been run. This is because only a small number of snapshots are needed to get an idea of the average loading on each sub-cell.

Fading This is the probability that the Best DL Cell (by RSS) satisfies the RSS requirement specified on the terminal type. If this standard deviation has been set to zero. Indoor This is the highest bitrate that can be achieved by the terminal based on CINR regardless of system loading. Indoor These are the highest (and Nth highest) RSS levels. Cell Layer. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. Cell Layer. Cell Layer. Service. They represent average values and are therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Best DL Cell by RSS Dependencies: Cell Layer This is the sub-cell that provides the highest RSS for the terminal. Indoor. not necessarily the highest (and Nth highest) CINR (Traffic + Control) values. Coverage Arrays These arrays all provide information on coverage levels and coverage probabilities. CINR (Traffic + Control) & Nth CINR (Traffic + Control) Dependencies: Terminal. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. not necessarily the highest CINR(Control) values. Indoor These are the CINR (Traffic + Control) values corresponding to the best (and Nth best) serving sub-cells. Cell Layer.1 . Page 20 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Achievable Bitrate Dependencies: Terminal. i. CINR (Control) Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor These are the CINR(Control) values corresponding to the best serving sub-cells. RSS Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. i. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly.e. Cell Layer.e. Best RSS & Nth Best RSS Dependencies: Terminal.

Many of them depend on whether the terminal is considered to be indoor or outdoor. Here is an example of the 3g arrays you can generate on the Map View when using the Simulator: Example of the Simulator 3g arrays appearing in the Map View Data Types ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 21 Version 6. All these arrays are produced on a per carrier basis. 20%. If 5 snapshots have been run then all blocking probabilities will belong to the set {0%. This is because blocking is evaluated by reporting the proportion of snapshots that would block further connections. Arrays for coverage tend to have a weak dependence on the number of snapshots run. 100%}. Indoor arrays use the in-building parameters for the clutter type at each pixel (that is. To obtain coverage arrays for a loaded network. you must run some snapshots. Coverage arrays can be displayed even if no snapshots have been run. and the arrays change little after a relatively small number of snapshots have been performed (10s of snapshots in most cases). Most of them have a dependency on terminal type because body loss and terminal antenna gain are always included in the link budget. The key purpose of running snapshots is to provide measures of system load. This is because only a small number of snapshots are needed to get an idea of the average noise rise and average DL traffic power on each cell. 60%. 80%. For example.1 .UMTS and CDMA2000 Arrays This is an overview of the 3g arrays for UMTS and CDMA2000 generated by the Simulator in ASSET. but you should note that in these circumstances the arrays represent coverage in an unloaded network. Indoor terminals are always taken to be slow moving. then all blocking probabilities will be either 0% or 100%. indoor loss and indoor shadow fading standard deviation). Arrays for hard or soft blocking probabilities have a strong dependence on the number of snapshots run. if only 1 snapshot has been run. 40%.

Carrier. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. Carrier. Represents average values and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Represents average values and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. RSCP Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. Pathloss Arrays DL Loss Dependencies: Terminal. Ec/Io. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. Carrier. Best DL Cell by RSCP Dependencies: Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest RSCP for the terminal. Page 22 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Indoor The Nth highest RSCP level. Pilot Coverage Arrays These arrays all provide information on pilot levels and coverage probabilities. Carrier. Indoor The highest RSCP level. Carrier.1 . and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. If this standard deviation has been set to zero. SIR) and there are arrays for all of these. Indoor The lowest downlink loss. Represents average values and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Nth Best RSCP Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor The Nth lowest downlink loss. Represents average values and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Indoor This is the probability that the Best DL Cell (by RSCP) satisfies the RSCP requirement specified on the terminal type. Best RSCP Dependencies: Terminal. Nth DL Loss Dependencies: Terminal. There are 3 types of quantity relating to the pilot (RSCP.

Indoor This is the probability that the Best DL Cell (by RSCP) satisfies the Ec/Io requirement specified on the terminal type. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. Carrier. A cell is counted as having a satisfactory RSCP if its RSCP coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Indoor These are the highest (and Nth highest) Ec/Io values. Indoor This is a thresholded version of the Pilot Ec/Io Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the RSCP Coverage Probability array.1 . Carrier. RSCP Coverage OK Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor This is the number of covering cells with a satisfactory RSCP. Pilot Ec/Io & Nth Best Pilot Ec/Io Dependencies: Terminal. A value of “Yes” means that the RSCP coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. Pilot Ec/Io Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. Pilot Ec/Io Coverage OK Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. A value of “Yes” means that the pilot Ec/Io coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 23 Version 6. Carrier. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. Carrier. Number of RSCP OK Dependencies: Terminal. They represent average values and are therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the Pilot Ec/Io Coverage Probability array. Indoor This is a thresholded version of the RSCP Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). If this standard deviation has been set to zero.

Indoor This is the probability that the Best DL Cell (by RSCP) satisfies the pilot SIR requirement specified on the terminal type. Pilot SIR Coverage OK Dependencies: Terminal. Number of Pilot SIR OK Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Carrier. A value of “Yes” means that the pilot SIR coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Carrier. Pilot SIR Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Number of Pilot Ec/Io OK Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Indoor This is the number of covering cells with a satisfactory pilot SIR. Page 24 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Pilot SIR Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor This is a thresholded version of the Pilot SIR Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). If this standard deviation has been set to zero. It represents an average value and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Indoor This is the best Pilot SIR value. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. A cell is considered as having a satisfactory pilot SIR if its pilot SIR coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the Pilot SIR Coverage Probability array.1 . 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. Indoor This is the number of covering cells with a satisfactory pilot Ec/Io. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. A cell is considered as having a satisfactory pilot Ec/Io if its pilot Ec/Io coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box.

then no result is given. Available Softer Cells Dependencies: Terminal. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 25 Version 6. If the Ec/Io level of the best DL cell is below the Ec/Io requirement on the terminal type. It is related to the Available Soft/Softer Cells array by: Active Set Size = min (1 + Available Soft/Softer Cells. If the Ec/Io level of the best DL cell is below the Ec/Io requirement on the terminal type. Carrier. Available Soft/Softer Cells Dependencies: Terminal. Active Set Size Dependencies: Terminal. Pilot Polluters Dependencies: Terminal. then no result is given. Carrier. Indoor This is the number of suitable soft HO candidates for the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). Available Soft Cells Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Indoor This is the number of suitable HO candidates for the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). Handover Arrays The aim of the following arrays is to provide the planner with an idea of potential handover areas. Indoor This is the number of suitable softer HO candidates for the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). Indoor If the Pilot Pollution Threshold specified in the Simulation Wizard is XdB then: For UMTS. Otherwise all the other cells (on different sites to the best cell) are checked to see if their pilot Ec/Io levels make them suitable HO candidates. Otherwise all the other cells are checked to see if their pilot Ec/Io levels make them suitable HO candidates. Carrier. If the Ec/Io level of the best DL cell is below the Ec/Io requirement on the terminal type. Therefore the pilot pollution threshold in UMTS is a relative quantity. All arrays are based on mean Pilot Ec/Io levels calculated with fades of 0dB. Max Active Set Size). Indoor This is the potential size of the active set. Carrier. Otherwise all the other cells (on the same site as the best cell) are checked to see if their pilot Ec/Io levels make them suitable HO candidates. A typical value for UMTS is 6dB.1 . and to indicate areas of pilot pollution. the number of pilot polluters at a location is: The number of cells that are not in the active set. then no result is given. but provide an Ec/Io level within XdB of the best Ec/Io in the active set.

there can be a different uplink FRE on each antenna used by the cell (just as in the uplink simulation reports for OTSR cells). For CDMA2000. Carrier. Downlink Noise Arrays DL Io Dependencies: Terminal. DL FRE Dependencies: Carrier This is the downlink frequency re-use efficiency at a pixel and it is related to DL Iother/Iown as follows: DL FRE = 1 / ( 1 + Iother/Iown ). to downlink power received from own cell. there can be a different uplink load on each antenna used by the cell (just as in the uplink simulation reports for OTSR cells). A typical value for CDMA2000 is -15dB.1 . DL Iother/Iown Dependencies: Carrier This is the ratio of downlink power received from other cells. Therefore the pilot pollution threshold in CDMA2000 is an absolute quantity. UL FRE Dependencies: Carrier This is the uplink frequency re-use efficiency of the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). but provide an Ec/Io level higher than XdB. where “own cell” is the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). Uplink Noise Arrays UL Load Dependencies: Carrier This is the uplink cell load of the Best DL Cell (by RSCP). the number of pilot polluters at a location is: The number of cells that are not in the active set. Note that for OTSR cells. It represents an average value and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Indoor This is the total downlink power spectral density. Page 26 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Note that for OTSR cells.

UL Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. assuming the terminal transmits at full power. UL Eb/No Margin Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. assuming the terminal transmits at full power. Speed This is the probability of satisfying the uplink bearer Eb/No requirement on the Best UL Cell. Carrier. Speed This is how much we exceed the uplink Eb/No requirement by on the Best UL Cell.1 . The array shows the highest priority uplink bearer with acceptable uplink coverage. Uplink Coverage Arrays Uplink coverage arrays are available for each bearer at different speeds. UL Bearer. with UL Coverage Probability meeting the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Achievable UL Bearer Dependencies: Terminal. Speed This is the cell requiring the minimum uplink transmit power. Speed The purpose of this array is to provide a composite coverage plot for the uplink bearers of a service. UL Bearer. Indoor. the Best UL Cell must have an RC type that is supported by the terminal type. Carrier. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. Carrier. Indoor. Indoor. For UMTS bearers. UL Bearer. Service. Indoor. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. Indoor. Best UL Cell Dependencies: Terminal. Service. the only real dependence is on the carrier used. UL Coverage Probability OK Dependencies: Terminal. Service. Carrier. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 27 Version 6. However. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. Service. that is. Speed This is a thresholded version of the UL Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). UL Bearer. If this standard deviation has been set to zero. Service. It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the UL Coverage Probability array. A value of “Yes” means that the uplink coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. for CDMA2000 bearers.

Carrier. It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the DL Coverage Probability array. Speed This is the cell requiring the minimum downlink transmit power. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. Service. Service. Indoor. DL Eb/No Margin Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. with DL Coverage Probability meeting the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. DL Bearer. Page 28 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Indoor. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. Best DL Cell Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor. DL Bearer. DL Bearer.1 . Achievable DL Bearer Dependencies: Terminal. Speed The purpose of this array is to provide a composite coverage plot for the downlink bearers of a service. Service. Service. This probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. Downlink Coverage Arrays Downlink coverage arrays are available for each bearer at different speeds. Indoor. A value of “Yes” means that the downlink coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. For UMTS bearers. The array shows the highest priority downlink bearer with acceptable downlink coverage. If this standard deviation has been set to zero. Speed This is how much the downlink Eb/No requirement has been exceeded. and so this array is exactly the same as the Best DL cell by RSCP. Speed This is the probability of satisfying the downlink bearer Eb/No requirement. However. DL Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. that is. DL Bearer. Indoor. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied. Service. assuming that the link powers of cells in the active set are at maximum allowed levels. the Best DL Cell must have an RC type that is supported by the terminal type. Carrier. DL Coverage Probability OK Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Speed This is a thresholded version of the DL Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). assuming that the link powers of cells in the active set are at maximum allowed levels. the only real dependence is on the carrier used. for CDMA2000 bearers. Carrier.

Soft Blocking Arrays UL Soft Blocking Probability Dependencies: Terminal. Speed This is the probability of uplink soft blocking on the Best UL Cell. The downlink soft blocking probability is determined by examining the proportion of snapshots that would block a connection with the downlink bearer in this way.1 . Carrier. Note that for OTSR cells. Uplink soft blocking occurs if an additional connection with the uplink bearer would cause the noise rise limit to be exceeded. Service. The uplink is deemed to have coverage if any of the uplink bearers on the service have UL Coverage Probability meeting the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Indoor. Carrier. Service. DL Soft Blocking Probability Dependencies: Terminal. the downlink is deemed to have coverage if any of the downlink bearers on the service have DL Coverage Probability meeting the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Coverage Balance Arrays Coverage Balance Dependencies: Terminal. UL Bearer. Downlink soft blocking occurs if an additional connection with the downlink bearer requires more power than is available on the cell. This array also considers (where appropriate) HSDPA downlink bearers. The uplink soft blocking probability is determined by examining the proportion of snapshots that would block a connection with the uplink bearer in this way. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 29 Version 6. the noise rise is measured on a per antenna basis (as in the simulation reports). Speed The purpose of this array is to provide a composite uplink/downlink coverage plot for a service. so the soft blocking probability depends on the antenna that covers the pixel. Speed This is the probability of downlink soft blocking on the Best DL Cell. Carrier. Service. DL Bearer. Indoor. Similarly. Indoor.

Indoor. Bearer. Page 30 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Indoor. Carrier. Indoor. This does not have a “primary” blocking array because there are no “primary” limits for HSDPA codes. Speed This is the probability of hard blocking on the Best DL Cell because of lack of resources. Carrier. Carrier. The blocking probability is determined by examining the proportion of snapshots that would block a connection with the bearer in this way. Bearer. Hard Blocking Probability – Primary Dependencies: Terminal.Best DL Cell by SINR Dependencies: Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest SINR level for the terminal. This type of blocking occurs if an additional connection with the bearer requires more resources than are available. HSDPA . Service. Service. This type of blocking occurs if an additional connection with the bearer requires more primary resources than are available. Speed This is the probability of hard blocking on the Best DL Cell because of lack of primary resources. Indoor This is the highest SINR level. Service. Hard Blocking Probability Dependencies: Terminal.SINR Dependencies: Terminal.1 . and choosing the cell with the largest level. Hard Blocking Arrays There a two types of hard blocking arrays for each uplink and downlink resource type. The cell of interest is chosen by examining the SINR levels of cells that support the HSDPA bearer. The exception is the HSDPA resource type used to represent HSDPA codes. HSDPA Bearer. It represents an average value and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB. Carrier. HSDPA Arrays HSDPA .DL Eb/No Margin Dependencies: Terminal. Speed This is the extent to which the Eb/No requirement of the HSDPA bearer is exceeded. The blocking probability is determined by examining the proportion of snapshots that would block a connection with the bearer in this way. HSDPA .

Indoor. HSDPA . Carrier. Therefore. HSDPA . with HSDPA . if the HSDPA resources have been pooled on a site. A value of “Yes” means that the coverage probability meets the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 31 Version 6. HSDPA Bearer. i. Speed This is the probability of satisfying the Eb/No requirement of the HSDPA bearer.Achievable DL Bearer by its activity factor. It is calculated by multiplying the bitrate of the HSDPA . Carrier. This is the offered HSDPA load on the Best DL Cell by SINR. If this standard deviation has been set to zero.1 .Offered Load Dependencies: Carrier. HSDPA . all HSDPA cells on that site will show the same offered load. and choosing the cell with the largest level. The array shows the highest priority HSDPA bearer with acceptable coverage. Indoor. It has the advantage of being quicker to calculate than the HSDPA .Effective Service Rate (Unloaded) Dependencies: Terminal. HSDPA . Indoor.DL Coverage Probability array. Service. 50% if the requirement is satisfied exactly. Speed This is the bitrate that the user experiences at a location when there is no queuing delay on the cell.DL Coverage Probability Dependencies: Terminal. and 100% if the requirement is exceeded. Service.e. Service. Speed The purpose of this array is to provide a composite coverage plot for the HSDPA bearers of a service. Carrier.DL Coverage Probability array and has just 2 values (Yes/No). Service. Note that the offered load is calculated for each HSDPA resource pool in the network. HSDPA . Carrier. The cell of interest is chosen by examining the SINR levels of cells that support the HSDPA bearer.Achievable DL Bearer Dependencies: Terminal. then there are only three possible coverage probabilities: 0% if the requirement is not satisfied.DL Coverage Probability OK Dependencies: Terminal.DL Coverage Probability meeting the coverage reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Speed This is a thresholded version of the HSDPA . Indoor. The probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. HSDPA Bearer.

Carrier. Service This is similar to the HSDPA .Effective Cell Service Rate (Loaded) Dependencies: Carrier. since it is sensitive to the location of your mouse cursor.Effective Cell Service Rate (Unloaded) Dependencies: Carrier. Indoor. The rate drops to zero as the HSDPA load on the cell approaches 100%. A set of lines is drawn between all possible serving cells to the simulation pixel where the mouse cursor is located. except that the mean service time per user on the cell is increased because of queuing delay. see the ASSET User Reference Guide). Lines are only drawn if a terminal has been served on that pixel. not to any simulation results. Best Servers by Ec/Io. This will work even if you have not yet run any snapshots because it relates to the power in the cell and path loss. assuming there is no queuing delay. All Servers Array This feature is not a true array. Service This is the total amount of data in a service session (bits) divided by the mean service time per user on the cell (seconds). It is a more basic version of the Pixel Analyser tool (for more information on the Pixel Analyser. the queuing delay approach infinity and the Effective Cell Service Rate (Loaded) drops to zero. This array enables you to identify distant servers so that you can optimise your network design by lowering. HSDPA . Page 32 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Service. As the offered HSDPA load on the cell approaches 100%. the line thickness increases proportionally. HSDPA .Effective Service Rate (Loaded) Dependencies: Terminal.Effective Cell Service Rate (Unloaded) array. HSDPA .1 . It displays information about which cells are "covering" each pixel. The covering cells are shown in order of either: Best Servers by Pilot Strength (according to the threshold set in the Array Settings dialog box). Speed This is the bitrate that the user experiences at a location when there is queuing delay on the cell. For pixels with more than one covering cell. This requires snapshots to have been run because it relates to attempted connections. moving or reducing the pilot power of problematic sites.

The array shows combined C/I value for DVB-H at each pixel. As with all arrays. using the mapping relationship between C/I and Throughput. You should also add appropriate descriptive labels for each range. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 33 Version 6. This picture shows an example of the All Servers array: All Servers array DVB-H C/I Array This array is exclusively for DVB-H analysis. as described in the DVB-H section of the ASSET User Reference Guide. in accordance with the values for your network. you can customise the display properties by double-clicking on the array heading. When you display the results of a DVB-H simulation on the Map View. you should ensure that you set the array display properties to display appropriate ranges of values.1 . calculated from the DVB-H parameters set in the Simulator wizard.

All arrays are produced on a per carrier basis. Most arrays have a dependency on the terminal type because terminal antenna gain is always included in the linkloss. Calculated with fades of 0 dB as it represents an average value. Page 34 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Many arrays depend on whether the terminal is taken to be indoor or outdoor. Achievable DL Bearer This array shows the highest priority DL bearer with acceptable DL coverage (based on the CINR). Indoor arrays use in-building parameters for the clutter type at the given pixel. The array is based on the UL CINR value. DL RSS This array represents the DL RSS at a given point. Coverage arrays can be drawn even if no snapshots have been run. Fixed WiMAX Arrays This is an overview of the Fixed WiMAX arrays generated by the Simulator in ASSET. Here is an example of the Fixed WiMAX arrays you can generate on the Map View when using the Simulator: Example of the Fixed WiMAX arrays appearing in the Map View Data Types General Arrays Achievable UL Bearer This array shows the highest priority UL bearer with acceptable UL coverage.1 .

A value of “Yes” means that the probability meets the reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Best Server by DL RSS This array represents the service area of each WiMAX sector based on DL RSS. Thresholded Arrays DL CINR OK. UL RSS OK These are thresholded versions of their corresponding arrays. UL CINR OK. UL CINR This array displays the CINR in the UL. DL Loss This array represents the lowest DL losses. The C/(I+N) is calculated by taking into account the signal strength from the reference base station and signal strength from all interfering base stations. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 35 Version 6. DL CINR This is the best C/(I+N) in the DL.1 . Calculated with fades of 0 dB as it represents an average value. CPE Azimuth This array displays the CPE azimuth required in order to connect to the best server (server with the highest signal strength). They have just 2 values (Yes/No). DL RSS OK. and have the advantage of being quicker to calculate than their corresponding arrays. UL Required TX Power This array displays the UL required TX power for a given receiver sensitivity (specified in the Site Database).

This is because only a small number of snapshots are needed to get an idea of the average noise rise and average DL traffic power on each cell. Indoor terminals are always taken to be slow moving. Mobile WiMAX Arrays This is an overview of the Mobile WiMAX arrays generated by the Simulator in ASSET. indoor loss and indoor shadow-fading standard deviation). Most arrays have a dependency on terminal-type because body loss and terminal antenna gain are always included in the linkloss. Arrays for coverage tend to have a weak dependence on the number of snapshots run. Indoor arrays use the in-building parameters for the clutter type at each pixel (i.1 .e. Coverage arrays can be drawn even if no snapshots have been run. All arrays are produced on a per carrier basis. Here is an example of the Mobile WiMAX arrays you can generate on the Map View when using the Simulator: Example of the Mobile WiMAX arrays appearing in the Map View Data Types Page 36 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Remember that the key purpose of running snapshots is to provide measures of system load. but the user should note that the arrays then refer to coverage in an unloaded system. To obtain coverage arrays for a loaded system the user must run some snapshots. Many arrays depend on whether the terminal is taken to be indoor or outdoor. and the arrays change little after a relatively small number of snapshots have been performed (10s of snapshots in most cases).

Indoor These are the lowest downlink losses. Preamble RSS and Nth Best Preamble RSS Dependencies: Terminal. They represent average values and are therefore calculated with fades of 0 dB. Preamble Arrays Best Server by Preamble RSS Dependencies: Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest Preamble RSS for the terminal. A value of “Yes” means that the RSCP coverage probability (the probability that the Preamble RSS satisfies the RSS requirement in the terminal dialog) meets the coverage reliability criteria specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Carrier. Preamble RSS OK Dependencies: Terminal. Pathloss Arrays DL Loss Dependencies: Terminal.1 . Indoor This array has two values (Yes/No). The preamble power is the TX power for the cell boosted by the preamble boosting factor. Both these parameters are specified in the Site Database. They represent average values and are therefore calculated with fades of 0 dB. Preamble CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. The coverage probability depends on the standard deviation of shadow fading for the clutter type at the pixel. Sectors on the same site are not considered as interferers because such sectors will be allocated different segments. It represents an average value and hence is calculated using fades of 0 dB. Carrier. Indoor This is the best preamble CINR. Indoor These arrays display the highest (and Nth highest) Preamble RSS levels. Carrier. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 37 Version 6.

UL OPUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. The UL CINR represents an average value (with fades set to 0 dB). The power transmitted by the terminal can be assumed to be the power specified in the terminal type dialog. Carrier. Carrier. Carrier. For the uplink CINR analysis. Service. Bearer This array displays the UL CINR in the AMC zone. Best Server by UL OPUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. UL Achievable Bearer Dependencies: Terminal. Indoor. Uplink Coverage Arrays UL PUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Service. Indoor. the signal from the connected terminal is the server signal and the signal from all other terminals are the interferers.1 . Indoor. Carrier. the signal from the connected terminal is the server signal and the signal from all other terminals are the interferers. For the uplink CINR analysis. Carrier. speed The calculation of the UL PUSC CINR assumes that the terminal is transmitting over all available data subcarriers. Best Server by UL PUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Service. The array shows the highest priority bearer with acceptable UL coverage. Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest CINR at a given pixel. Page 38 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. where the UL coverage probability meets the reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. Indoor. Best Server by UL AMC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Bearer This array displays the UL CINR in the OPUSC zone. The UL CINR represents an average value (with fades set to 0 dB). Indoor. Speed This array shows the combined coverage plot for the UL bearers of the service. Bearer This array displays the cell with the highest UL OPUSC CINR. Carrier. that is. Service. The power transmitted by the terminal can be assumed to be the power specified in the terminal type dialog. Indoor. Bearer This array displays the cell with the highest UL AMC CINR. UL AMC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Service.

Indoor. The pixel ownership is determined by the Best Server by DL FUSC CINR array. Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest CINR at a given pixel. where the DL coverage probability meets the reliability level specified in the Sim Display Settings tab of the Array Settings dialog box. The pixel ownership is determined by the Best Server by DL PUSC CINR array. for the PUSC zone. Service. The array shows the highest priority bearer with acceptable DL coverage. DL OPUSC Worst Interferer Array Dependencies: Terminal. DL PUSC Worst Interferer Array Dependencies: Terminal. Speed This array shows the combined coverage plot for the DL bearers of the service. The pixel ownership is determined by the Best Server by DL OPUSC CINR array. Carrier This array displays the worst interferer at each pixel. Downlink Coverage Arrays DL PUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal.1 . ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 39 Version 6. speed Best Server by DL PUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. for the FUSC zone. Carrier This array displays the worst interferer at each pixel. Carrier This is the cell that provides the highest CINR at a given pixel. Carrier This array displays the worst interferer at each pixel. speed DL FUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. DL Achievable Bearer Dependencies: Terminal. Best Server by DL FUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. Indoor. Carrier. DL FUSC Worst Interferer Array Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier. that is. Indoor.

Indoor. UL Required TX Power Dependencies: Terminal. DL AMC Worst Interferer Array Dependencies: Terminal. Carrier This array displays the worst interferer at each pixel. Bearer This array displays the DL CINR in the AMC zone. Page 40 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Service. CPE Azimuth Array Dependencies: Carrier This array displays the azimuth that the directional CPE should point to in order to connect to the best server. General Arrays Throughput Array Dependencies: Terminal. The CINR represents an average value (with fades set to 0 dB). DL OPUSC CINR Dependencies: Terminal. The throughput is summed for all services. The throughput for a given sector is presented within the region specified by the Best Server by Preamble RSS array. For the downlink CINR analysis. Carrier. Carrier The throughput array displays the information displayed in the Simulator throughput report in a graphical format. the CINR is calculated by taking into account the level from the connected BS (reference base station) as server and the level from all other sites as interferers. The CINR represents an average value (with fades set to 0 dB). Indoor This array displays the minimum UL required TX power for a given receiver sensitivity (specified in the Site Database). the CINR is calculated by taking into account the level from the connected BS (reference base station) as server and the level from all other sites as interferers. For the downlink CINR analysis. Carrier. Bearer This array displays the DL CINR in the OPUSC zone. Indoor. Service. DL AMC CINR Dependencies: Terminal.1 . Carrier. The pixel ownership is determined by the Best Server by DL AMC CINR array.

Therefore. As a vital input to this algorithm. it is more efficient to store the files on the disk when they are created. these files are automatically managed within ENTERPRISE by a caching algorithm. and manage them as a cache of precalculated data. you need to specify the maximum disk space for the storage of these files. The major benefit of this is that they can be reused whenever they become 'valid' again. but.0 onwards. based on a 'least-used' algorithm.1 .APPENDIX B The Prediction Management System Prediction files contain data that can be freshly regenerated at any time. the concept behind the storage of the prediction files is that they are stored on disk and remain stored. For this reason. which can dispose of unwanted files on the basis of specific criteria. even if they become 'invalid' due to changes to the cell parameters or locations. This limit is specified on the User Data Directories tab of the Project Settings (Modify Project) dialog box. on a per prediction folder basis. in ENTERPRISE 6. as this process takes time. Example of Setting Maximum Disk Space for Prediction File Storage in the Modify Project dialog box ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 41 Version 6. and is described in the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide. It is evident from this that at some stage the disk might become full and consist of many unwanted prediction files.

a statistics file is updated at the end of every prediction creation session. the prediction management system gathers information about the prediction files from the statistics file. It uses the information to generate an ordered list of the files. prioritised for deletion. as described above. the system deletes the files until the required disk space requirements have been satisfied. The weighting function takes the following factors into consideration for each prediction file (most important first) : The elapsed time since the file was last used The amount of time that was needed to perform the pathloss calculation The number of times the file has been loaded If a "disk full" error occurs during prediction creation. If this fails to provide enough space then a "disk full" error is written to the message log. The basic concept is as follows: The most important factor used in determining the position of a file in the list is the elapsed time since the file was last loaded. are stored in a configuration file in the root of the prediction folder. In order to monitor this. and ignores any other files. using a „weighting‟ function to determine which files are to be removed whenever the cache exceeds its maximum space. The prediction management algorithm only monitors files generated by ENTERPRISE. Overview of Algorithm The settings for maximum disk space specified. the following formula is used: Position = ( Now – Last Loaded Time ) × modifier A file with a large 'position' has more chance of being deleted than one with a small 'position'. From the top of this list. The Prediction Management Algorithm Whenever necessary. To determine a file‟s position in this prioritised list.1 . then the file management system may be automatically invoked early to try to provide some space for the prediction that has just been calculated. The position can also be influenced by a modifier weighting:  Files that were 'quick to create' are more likely to be deleted  Files that have been 'loaded many times' are less likely to be deleted Page 42 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. The prediction management algorithm is designed to manage the files as a cache.

1 .15 20s-40s 1.15 160-320 -0. Modifier Calculation 1 The time taken to create the prediction is recorded and will result in an initial modifier as follows: Creation Time Modifier 0-10s 1.8 40m+ 0. as follows: Number of loads Add to modifier 0 +0.03 10-20 -0.5m-2.85 20m-40m 0.12 80-160 -0.21 640+ -0.18 320-640 -0.09 40-80 -0.06 20-40 -0.2 10s-20s 1.5m 1 2.5m-5m 0. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 43 Version 6.5m 1.95 5m-10m 0. and can be modified by your administrator if necessary.75 2 The number of times a file has been loaded is recorded and then used to adjust the modifier.05 1.24 All the above values are stored in the configuration file in the root of the prediction folder.05 1-5 0 5-10 -0.1 40s-1.9 10m-20m 0.

Page 44 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.1 .

5g network planning.5g Algorithms This section contains information about the algorithms and calculations that ASSET uses in relation to 2g and 2. In This Section Interference Table Algorithm 46 Interference and Connection Array Calculations 47 Frequency Hopping Algorithms 51 Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms 53 Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) 54 MAIO Planning Cost Function 56 GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations 56 FCC Calculations 60 Frequency Calculations 62 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 45 Version 6.APPENDIX C 2g and 2. For information on the GSM Simulator algorithms and outputs.1 . please see Static Simulation Algorithms and Outputs on page 79.

This means that if. for example. Interference Table Algorithm The Interference Table stores the following four values for any pair of sub-cells A and B. The assumption is that a difference in signal level between server and interferer exactly equal to the threshold value would give rise to a 50% chance of co-channel interference. Co-channel Area The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier. a -18dB offset is used for the adjacent channel interference. Adjacent Channel Traffic The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers. By default. For more information on how these values can be specified. The probability of interference at a given pixel is calculated using a standard statistical technique based on a C/I signal threshold value and a standard deviation. Page 46 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Adjacent Channel Area The area served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned adjacent carriers. Field Name Description Co-channel Traffic The amount of traffic served by cell A that would be affected by interference if A and B were to be assigned the same carrier. The average is taken over all pixels in the appropriate coverage array. The C/A offset can be modified in the Array Settings dialog box. The values for area are obtained by averaging the probability of interference over the region where A is the best server. the value to be averaged is the probability of interference x the traffic (in mE) at that pixel. Thus it is necessary to have a traffic raster available to make this calculation.1 . For traffic. relative to the co-channel interference. the co-channel C/I threshold value is set at 9dB. These relate to the region where A is the best server. a signal difference of -9dB between server and adjacent channel interferer would give rise to a 50% chance of adjacent channel interference. see the ASSET User Reference Guide.

using a standard deviation of 7. Each pixel presents the total C/I level. Each pixel presents the worst C/I level and frequency. Worst Connection C/(Ic+Ia) Determines the combined co-channel/adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection. server and interfering sub-cells and interfering frequency. Average Interference C/(Ic_Ia) Sums the combined co-channel and adjacent C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/(Ic_Ia) level. Interference and Connection Array Calculations This table shows the different interference analyses that are possible: Field Name Description Worst Connection C/Ic Determines the co-channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection. Each pixel presents the worst C/Ic level and frequency.78dB. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 47 Version 6. the C/I signal threshold value is 9dB. Worst Interference C/Ic For non-frequency hopping networks sums all of the co-channel C/I levels for an interfering frequency. Worst Connection C/Ia Determines the adjacent channel C/I levels for all of the possible interfering frequencies that may be used by the MS-BTS connection. Average Interference C/Ia Sums the adjacent channel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ia level. C/I and C/A weights curve An example of an Interference Table can be found. in the ENTERPRISE Technical Reference Guide. All signal differences are converted into probabilities of interference. Each pixel presents the worst C/Ia level and frequency.1 . along with a description of its File Format. Average Interference C/Ic Sums the co-channel C/I levels for all possible interfering frequencies and presents the average C/Ic level. Here. The following graph displays the spread of probabilities for both C/I and C/A based on the default Interference Weights.

is frequency Diversity Gain. Field Name Description Worst Interference C/Ia For non-frequency hopping networks sums all of the adjacent channel C/I levels for an interfering frequency. the connection refers to the carrier(s) corresponding to a single call: In the case of hopping frequencies. summing over all interferers. Worst Connection Array Calculation Method In the Worst Connection Array calculation. Average Connection Array Calculation Method The Average Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection. The worst connection and the worst interferer calculations are the same in the case of a non-frequency hopping network. a single C/I(FH) is calculated. The algorithm for this is as follows: (2) Where: is the averaged C/I for the hopping carriers. and then selects the connection with the lowest C/I. The algorithm for this is as follows: Where: For each non-hopping carrier fi in the serving sub-cell. is the number of hopping frequencies. it corresponds to the entire group of hopping frequencies In the case of non-hopping frequencies. For the hopping frequency group in the serving sub-cell. C/I(fi) is calculated. server and interfering sub-cells and interfering frequency. and then calculates the average of those. is the number of non-hopping frequencies. Each pixel presents the total C/I level.1 . it corresponds to a single frequency The Worst Connection Array calculates the C/I per connection. Page 48 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. summing over all interferers.

1 . It also finds the interferer that causes the most interference on that frequency. The most interfered frequency and its corresponding C/I are calculated as follows: If . C/I(f1) is calculated. are the non-hopping frequencies. For the hopping frequency group in the serving sub-cell. For each non-hopping carrier fri in the serving sub-cell. Worst Interferer Array Calculation Method The Worst Interferer Array calculates the C/I per frequency. summing over all interferers. if at least one carrier layer is allocated. The denominator in the equation above can never be zero ( and cannot both be 0 at the same time). where is the number of hopping TRX. This is because ASSET does not allow you to set the total number of TRX allocated to a sub-cell to zero. and selects the frequency with the lowest C/I. a single C/I(FH) is calculated. The worst interferer is calculated as follows: ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 49 Version 6. then If . C/I(fri) is calculated. is the fractional loading. then Where: For each (non-hopping) carrier f1 in the serving sub-cell. calculated as follows: . This array does not take into account fractional loading.

0900000000 7 0.0300000000 13 0.1000000000 6 0.2500000000 0 0.2200000000 1 0.4650000000 -7 0. The total interference is calculated as follows: Where: For each (non-hopping) carrier fi in the serving sub-cell.0550000000 10 0.5000000000 -9 0. Total Interference Array Calculation Method The Total Interference Array calculates the C/I per frequency.3500000000 -4 0. summing over all interferers. and then sums the C/I for each frequency at the serving cell.1200000000 5 0.3880000000 -5 0.3000000000 -2 0.4880000000 -8 0.0370000000 12 0.1500000000 4 0.2000000000 2 0.0450000000 11 0.2700000000 -1 0.0780000000 8 0.1700000000 3 0.0660000000 9 0. C/I(fi) is calculated. Table of Default C/I BER Conversion Values This table shows the Default C/I BER Conversion Values in ASSET: C/I (dB) Bit Error Rate -10 0.3200000000 -3 0.0260000000 Page 50 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. This array does not take into account fractional loading.4300000000 -6 0.1 .

0120000000 17 0.1 . 0 is used otherwise Where: C/I(i) = C/I ratio for frequency i SSC(i) = Signal strength from frequency i for serving cell i.0000004000 25 0.0060000000 19 0.0000000001 27-45 0.0200000000 15 0.j = A particular frequency N = Number of interfering cells n = Number of frequencies in serving cell m = Number of frequencies in interfering cell K SIC(K.j) = Load in interfering cell K on frequency j V(K. C/I (dB) Bit Error Rate 14 0.j) = DTX factor in interfering cell K on frequency j ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 51 Version 6.0000000000 Frequency Hopping Algorithms The algorithms used for frequency hopping cells are as follows: 1 is used if .0080000000 18 0.i) = Signal strength from frequency i for interfering cell K K = Interfering cell L(K.0020000000 21 0.0150000000 16 0.0000070000 24 0.0040000000 20 0. α is used if .0001000000 23 0.0007000000 22 0.0000000100 26 0.

see the ASSET User Reference Guide.1 . you also need to add a given gain figure to the hopping C/I. If frequency diversity gain GFDIV(m) is enabled. BER(i) The following graph shows the relationship between the Probability of Bit Error and the C/I: BERAV(serving cell) is calculated as the average BER(i) for all frequencies in the cell: Where: x Number of FH frequencies per TRX mFH Number of FH frequencies/serving cell nTRX Number of TRX/serving cell BERAV(serving cell) is then converted back to dB to give C/I (FH)(serving cell). f (i) = Fractional loading for frequency i for interfering cell α = Adjacent interference factor Each C/I(i) is converted to a Bit Error Rate. Page 52 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. For more information on this.

0 is used otherwise P(i) = f(C/I(i)) P(i) is the Probability of interference. fractional loading is calculated as follows: Where: is the number of TRX allocated to the hopping carrier layers is the number of hopping carriers Non-Frequency Hopping Algorithms The calculations for non-frequency hopping are as follows: 1 is used if . and PTOT = Average of all P(i) in the cell ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 53 Version 6.1 . Synthesised Hopping Algorithm For synthesised hopping carrier layers. α is used if . and is calculated from the cumulative normal distribution of combined standard deviation of serving and interfering cell models.

which typically will be the state with the lowest cost.1*1012. This allows ILSA to make very rapid initial progress. Search algorithms specialise in looking for solutions to problems that have too many possible solutions to allow a simple solution. Using an advanced heuristic algorithm. Page 54 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. Moreover. then the maximum number of new states that ILSA needs to consider has been reduced from 3. with 20 available carriers. They use a 'cost' function to determine the most desirable next state. ILSA initialises with a random frequency plan (unless the option is chosen to load the current plan from the database). the results may not be the same. For example. and greatly speeds up the frequency planning process.1 . ILSA searches for improvements based on user-specified criteria. incorporating the latest techniques in combinatorial mathematics. Advanced heuristic search algorithms use the algorithmic equivalent of taking the path that “looks like the best one”. if ILSA is attempting to plan for a network requiring 60 carrier allocations.8*1025 to 6. ILSA (as its 'Local Search' name implies) reduces the number of options it has for new states derived from a current state. ILSA can give special attention to areas of high cost within the network (analogous to areas of high interference). The following picture shows an example conversion curve: Example C/I/Probability Curve Automatic Frequency Planning (ILSA) ILSA (Intelligent Local Search Algorithm) is ASSET's frequency planning tool. This means that for any two runs of ILSA. certain starting frequency plans can allow ILSA to make either more rapid initial improvement or allow a much better plan to be found within a reasonable period of time. temporarily ignoring lower cost areas. and identifies a subset of 10 high cost carrier allocations.

ILSA is licensed separately.1 . The algorithm monitors its own progress and will behave differently depending on how quickly the cost is decreasing at a given time. For a given frequency plan the value of the cost function is given by the formula: Where: = The adjacent channel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20. The cost function measures how much interference there is in the network. The cost function measures how much interference exists in the network. Random changes can be made by ILSA if only low improvement rates are being achieved. and what separations have been broken. neighbours. while taking account of any user-specified 'importance' weightings for different sub-cells. and also allows for the different weights that you may have imposed.000*km²) = The frequency allocated at allocation i = Members of the set of all frequency allocations = The retune cost associated with allocation i = The fixed or forbidden carrier cost associated with allocation i = The separation costs (from equipment. The algorithm then tries to minimise the cost over the set of all possible frequency plans. As an optional add-on to ASSET. This intelligent behaviour enables it to continue finding improvements over long periods of time. exceptions or close separations) between allocations i and j = The handover count and intermodulation interference costs associated with allocation i = The weighting factor applicable to carrier allocation i ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 55 Version 6. or if a dead end is reached. The Cost Function of the ILSA Algorithm The principle behind the algorithm used in the frequency planning tool is that the effectiveness of any particular frequency plan is measured by a single number (the cost). The algorithm then tries to minimise the cost over the set of all possible plans. The principle behind ILSA's algorithm is that a single number (the cost) measures the effectiveness of any particular frequency plan.000*km²) = The co-channel interference caused on allocation i by allocation j (Units: 200*mE or 20.

and weighted by the interference matrix. as follows: TRX Requirement . Page 56 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. The number of TRX required is determined using the Channel to Transceiver Map by increasing the number of TRX from 1 until the map‟s is equal to or greater than and is greater than or equal to .Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD The number of TS required ( ) for the CS traffic load ( ) given specified two Grade of Services and a choice of Erlang table. based on MAIO step and offset values.Circuit Switched Traffic and HSCSD TRX Requirement -Circuit Switched. HSCSD and GPRS Traffic Grade of Service and Data Rate Channel Occupation Table TRX Requirement . It has the following form: Where: are sub-cells and are traffic and area percentages and are traffic and area associated with sub-cell c and are interference matrix coefficients is the C/I or C/A separation count for all TRX combinations on sub- cells GPRS and HSCSD Capacity Calculations This section describes GPRS and HSCSD capacity calculations.1 . MAIO Planning Cost Function The cost function for MAIO planning is an aggregate of C/I and C/A separation counts generated by per cell pair frequency combinations.

ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 57 Version 6. TRX Requirement . The number of TRX required and are determined using the channel to transceiver map by increasing the number of TRX from the result of the previous section until the number of available TS for traffic (NCS allocation) is equal to or greater than .Circuit Switched. HSCSD and GPRS Traffic For cells where GPRS is enabled.1 . the number of TS required from the shared traffic channels for the GPRS ( ) traffic load ( ) can be determined using the average GPRS data rate per TS ( ): The total number of TS required for CS and GPRS traffic ( ) can then be determined using the average Circuit Switched TS requirement and the channel occupation efficiency (e) as follows: Where: is total shared traffic channels required is average (long term) number of TS required for Circuit Switched traffic (= ) is average (long term) number of TS required for HSCSD traffic (= ) The channel occupation efficiency (e) is determined by first calculating ( ) without dividing by e and then using the result to look up e in the Channel Occupation table.

Page 58 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. HSCSD Blocking Blocking is calculated from Erlang B or C using the number of HSCSD TS currently allocated to the cell and the HSCSD load in timeslot Erlangs. = HSCSD traffic load =timeslots allocated to CS = number of CS timeslots that may be allocated to HSCSD Erl = Erlang B or C functions returning blocking given traffic and channels Summary blocking is the average of the four separate blocking values weighted by the known distribution. Calculate the blocking for the CS traffic given the traffic load ( ) the current allocation of TRX using the selected Erlang table.1 . It has been assumed throughout that CS traffic and HSCSD traffic will take precedence over GPRS traffic and therefore the Grade of Service for CS and HSCSD will not be affected by the GPRS load. Grade of Service and Data Rate Circuit Switched Traffic This section presents the calculation for the blocking for the current allocation of TRX for CS and for each HSCSD multi-slot type traffic (%).

Example of Channel Occupation Table. That is: Where: e is the efficiency from the Channel Occupation table determined from N is the number of TS from the Channel Carrier Map for the current allocation of TRX Channel Occupation Table A table (similar to the one shown below) is used to relate the number of timeslots available to the channel occupancy for GPRS capacity calculations. The remaining TS are available for GPRS. The table is stored in the database and you can edit the occupancy values.1 . GPRS Data Rate The GPRS data rate for the current allocation of TRX is determined by first calculating the number of TS required for CS and HSCSD. for Illustrative Purposes Only ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 59 Version 6.

The best available resolution of the map data is used for this calculation.1 km for Gulf of Mexico cells). Transmitting ERP Watts The transmitting ERP for a cardinal radial is the radiated power in Watts taking into account the antenna gain for the azimuth. You will receive a warning if the ERP exceeds 500W. Feature height data and clutter heights are ignored in the calculation. Used Antenna Height The Used Antenna Height AAT (metre) is subject to some minimum values according to the FCC category and. the ERP. If the mapping data prevent this then it will not be calculated and this will be flagged in the FCC report. FCC Calculations This section describes the algorithms used to calculate the data provided in the FCC report.2 km (79. Category ERP (if necessary) Minimum 32dBu Served N/A Minimum of 30 metres 32dBu Unserved ERP>=10 W Minimum of 30 metres ERP<=10 W Minimum of 3 metres Gulf of Mexico N/A Minimum of 8 metres You will receive a warning if the Average Radial distance exceeds 40.1 . the downtilt and the base station powers/losses. Page 60 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. If the best map data is 1000 m resolution then you will receive a warning noting that the map data is of insufficient resolution for the FCC form. The calculation is: Antenna height + Site ground height + Radial average terrain elevation The Radial average terrain elevation is the average ground height mapped along a radial of between 3 km and 16 km from the site. Antenna Height AAT The Antenna Height AAT is calculated in metres.

joining at the site.17 and Subject to a minimum distance of 5.34 x Used ERP for Radial in Watts ^ 0. The total area is then calculated by adding up the areas of each of the triangles. that is (a+b+c)/2 Distance to Service Area Boundary The distance to the SAB is calculated as shown here: For: The distance to the SAB is: 32dBu Served D = 2. it is the Transmitting ERP subject to certain minima.30 x Used ERP for Radial (W) ^ 0.1 W Maximum ERP/500 Transmitting ERP for the radial Area within the Service Area Boundary This will be calculated by finding the distance to the SAB for each degree by linear interpolation of distance as a function of angle. Heron's Formula for calculation of area of scalene triangle: A = SQR(S (S-a) (S-b) (S-c)) SQR . c – sides of the triangle S – half the perimeter of triangle. b. Used ERPS This is the value of the transmitting ERP which is used in the calculations.1 .531 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.15 There is no minimum distance for this SAB ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 61 Version 6. hence dividing the area into triangular sectors. Used ERP is the maximum of: 0.4 km 32 dBu Unserved Gulf of Mexico D = 6.895 x Used Antenna Height(m) ^ 0.Square Root a.

Effective Frequency Re-use The effective frequency re-use is an approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network. NCSTS is the total number of timeslots installed – this value is derived from the Carrier to Timeslot map using NTRX. at a user specified Grade of Service (GoS).e.e. It can be calculated for each sub-cell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole. Page 62 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.1 . Where: LFREQ is the Frequency Load of a sub-cell LFRACTION is the Fractional Load of a sub-cell LHW is the Hardware Load of a sub-cell NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the sub-cell NMA is the MA list length (i. all carriers assigned to hopping carrier layers on the sub- cell) E is the traffic that could be carried by the timeslots of hopping TRX on the sub-cell. Frequency Calculations Two frequency calculations are used when you create a Frequency Plan report. Where: REFF is the Effective Frequency Re-use for a sub-cell NF is the total number of carriers available to hopping TRX on the sub-cell (note: this is not the MA list length) NTRX is the number of hopping TRX on the sub-cell Frequency Load The average frequency load is another approximate indication of the quality of the hopping network. i. It can be calculated for each sub-cell and also the average of these calculated to give a figure for the network as a whole.

the packet transmission delays through a cell are modelled by a queuing system. The Excel workbook contains the following data per service. It is based on the www traffic model and multiple. enabling you to view percentile delays. prioritised services can be specified. The graphs include the cumulative delay distributions of the packet services on each cell. which has a time-series of packet traffic offered to it. or the raw the raw data saved in text or comma separated variable (csv) format. with 10 ms (single radio frame) resolution.APPENDIX D Packet Quality of Service Algorithms This section details the Packet Quality of Service algorithms used in ASSET. The packet QoS analysis feature is a downlink cell level simulation.1 . then the results are presented on the summary page of the QoS Analysis wizard as a spread sheet and graphs. The results can be saved as an Excel workbook containing graphs and spreadsheets. per carrier and. and therefore explains the associated reports generated by the QoS analysis. The simulation is run for a calculated period of time. It is a trace-driven queuing simulation. per cell: Mean and standard deviations of the queuing delays 95th percentile delay Confidence interval half width Mean transmission time Mean retransmission delay Total transmission delay ( mean queuing delay+mean transmission time+mean retransmission delay Graphs for each cell and carrier giving the cumulative queuing delay probability distributions In This Section Simulation Inputs for QoS Analysis 64 Traffic Generator for QoS Analysis 64 Time Simulator for QoS Analysis 71 Results of QoS Analysis 73 References 78 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 63 Version 6.

per service. per carrier. The site/cell. The simulation calculates the mean blocking probability for each packet service type. carrier. These are: 100% blocking on any service will result in delays building up to infinity Zero traffic on all services will result in zero delays Zero blocking on all services will result in zero delays These results are immediately updated on the summary page of the QoS Analysis dialog box. ready for the simulation. The mean blocking probability and mean number of terminals are then used as inputs to the QoS analysis. and the QoS analysis uses these parameters later to deduce: The number of queues to model The parameters of the traffic streams to generate Priorities of the service types. although at least 100 snapshots are recommended to produce statistically valid inputs to the QoS analysis. and per bitrate. before the time simulation You then need to run at least two snapshots of the simulation. on each cell in the simulation in the simulation and the mean number of terminals connected to each cell. on each carrier. Simulation Inputs for QoS Analysis Most of the packet QoS analysis parameters are input when you configure the network design. Traffic Generator for QoS Analysis This section describes the traffic generation processes: Matching Generated Traffic to the Simulator's Mean Number of Served Users WWW Traffic Model Packet Model About the Code Schemes for GPRS QoS Profiles for GPRS Page 64 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.1 . terminal type and service type parameters are configured at this stage. Preliminary Tests Some conclusions can be deduced from the input data without running the simulation at all.

Let = mean session arrival rate T = mean session holding time = mean number of users in the cell ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 65 Version 6. This figure is the starting point for the QoS analysis. Matching Generated Traffic to the Simulator's Mean Number of Served Users The Simulator calculates the number of users which can be served for each service. which matches the mean number of users over time.1 . the mean number of users in the cell and their mean session holding time. The blue blocks represent the holding times of the packet sessions produced by the traffic generator. Little‟s theorem gives us the relation between the arrival rate of packet sessions. it provides the mean number of users for each packet service in each cell and carrier in the simulation. as shown in the following diagram: The red line represents the mean number of users input from the simulation. The traffic generator generates a time series of packet sessions for each service in a cell and carrier. The mean is then calculated over the total number of snapshots run in the simulation. by each cell and carrier in every snapshot. The orange blocks represent the number of users varying over time.

The arrival of session set-ups to the network is modelled as a Poisson process. which consists of a sequence of packet calls. the user requires reading time to study the information. Nd . but not both ends simultaneously. The following diagram shows packets from a source. Dpc . Little‟s result says that: N .1 . which is determined using the WWW traffic model. The model requires the generation of six random variables: Session arrival process . several packets may be generated. with a mean number of packets of 25. with a mean reading time of 4 to 12 s. Number of packet calls per session. and the mean session holding time. Reading time between packet calls.T The traffic generator therefore generates sessions with mean arrival rate calculated from the mean number of users in the cell. For each service there is a separate process. Page 66 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. After the document has completely arrived. The user initiates a packet call when downloading a WWW document and during a packet call. Number of packets per packet call.A geometrically distributed random variable* is used.A geometrically distributed random variable* is used.A geometrically distributed random variable* is used. which may be at either end of the link. WWW Traffic Model The WWW traffic model is used to generate the activity of each packet session. Npc . The following diagram shows a typical WWW browsing (packet service) session. with a mean number of packet calls of 5.

Using the WWW traffic model. Sd . The packet service type lists are then merged and sorted in arrival time order.1 .A Poisson distributed random variable is used. lasting the duration of the simulation. A histogram of the generated traffic is displayed for each service on each cell and carrier in the graphs tab of the QoS Analysis dialog box. The departure time is updated each time step the packet is queued. Initially. and its randomly generated size. until it is successfully transmitted. the data contained in the packet boxes is the arrival time. the mean holding time of a packet session T is given by: T ( N pc 1)D pc N pc ( N d 1)D d Packet Model The traffic generator uses the session arrival and WWW models to produce a list of packets for each service type. with a mean size of 480 Bytes. the packet‟s departure time is set to be the same as its arrival time. to produce a single list of packets offered to the cell carrier: In the diagram. and also keeps a record of when it gets transmitted (its departure time). for each carrier. Size of packet. Dd .A geometrically distributed random variable* is used. for each cell. * (In other words. the departure time and the packet size. a discrete representation of the exponential distribution.) The session holding time is modelled implicitly by the number of events during the session. Inter arrival time between packets. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 67 Version 6. Each packet is stamped with its arrival time at the cell.

In the retransmission model.7 B 44. as shown in the following table: System Scheme Link Adaption Modulation Peak Rate per Slot Blocks Per RLC Block Family (kb/s) 20 ms Size (bits) GPRS CS .3 15.4 1 448 MCS . the following mapping is used to calculate the block size for the first transmission attempt for the link adaptation families: A – 592 bits B – 448 bits C – 352 bits There are no default BLER versus C/I curves for MCS – 7. Page 68 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. per service type.05 1 181 CS .PSK 22.9 A 59.8 2 896 MCS .8 A 54. About the Code Schemes for GPRS The peak throughput and block size in GPRS is determined by the coding scheme and.2 B 11. The block size can be inferred directly from the GPRS coding schemes.1 C GMSK 8.4 C 17. per bearer.6 352 MCS .2 13.5 1090 MCS .8 176 MCS .1 GMSK 9. per sub-cell array will be required as input). in EGPRS.4 21.4 268 CS .2 1184 In order to calculate the block size.3 A 14.4 428 EGPRS MCS . 8 and 9.1 . the lower bitrates of the link adaptation families are used.2 224 MCS .6 A 29.8 296 MCS . the coding scheme allocated to each connection needs to be input from the simulation (a mean number of MS connections per coding scheme. however.5 B 8 .6 312 CS . by the coding and modulation scheme.6 592 MCS .

see Simulation Model on page 72. For more information. For more information. QoS Profiles for GPRS GPRS defines several different QoS Profiles which consist of four components: Precedence class Delay class Reliability class Throughput class Precedence Class Traffic is given a precedence of 1 (premium). <4s/page For background traffic. 3g service types have traffic classes and are used in the packet service types dialog box in 3g to set default www parameters and delay targets. however the number of priorities needs to be restricted to three and different service types can have equal priorities. The following table shows the parameters that specify the related QoS requirements: Traffic Class Medium Application Data Rate (kbit/s) One-way Delay Conversational Audio Telephony 4-25 <150ms Data Telnet <8 <250ms Streaming Audio Streaming (HQ) 32-128 <10s Video On-way 32-384 <10 Data FTP . Traffic class is used to prioritise the queues. only bit integrity is required. with a precedence of 1 being highest. In the ASSET QoS Analysis the achieved 95th percentile delay per service type. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 69 Version 6.1 . see Simulation Model on page 72. per carrier. 2 (standard) or 3 (best effort). Delay Class GPRS has four different traffic classes. per cell is compared with the target 95th percentile delay. This precedence is similar to the service type priorities set in the QoS Analysis wizard in ASSET. The precedence class is used to prioritise the queues. <10s Interactive Audio Voice messaging 4-13 <1s Data Web browsing .

Mean throughput describes the data transfer rate over an extended period of time. Peak throughput class Peak throughput (kb/s) Mean throughput class Mean throughput (bytes per hour) 1 8 1 100 2 16 2 200 3 32 3 500 4 64 4 1 000 5 128 5 2 000 6 256 6 5 000 7 512* Page 70 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. A different approach is proposed for GPRS. This uses the block error rate (BLER) to analytically calculate the retransmission delay for packet services. in order to request the desired throughput for bursty IP traffic. Throughput Class Applications can request different mean and peak throughputs. per sub-cell is required as an input from the simulation. The following table shows the reliability classes that can be selected: Reliability Class Lost Block Probability 1 10 2 10 3 10 Reliability is only considered in terms of the retransmission delay formula used in ASSET. and is reported in the QoS Analysis spreadsheet. Peak throughput applies to short intervals where the transfer rate is at a maximum. Block errors also have implications for the retransmission model. The formula is: where: Throughput(C/I) = throughput in kb/s read off the throughput per timeslot graph for the C/I achieved by the link PeakDataRatePerSlot = peak rate per slot for the given coding scheme (the asymptote of the throughput per timeslot graph BLER(C/I) = block error rate for the C/I achieved by the link The mean BLER over all the connections made per service type. The BLER can be calculated using the Average Data Throughput per Timeslot vs Average Connection C/I curves. which could involve many idle periods.1 . For more information. Reliability Class Applications can request different reliability classes. depending on their ability to handle corrupt and duplicated blocks. see Mean Retransmission Delay on page 78.

This may be situated at the BSC in a 2g network or the RNC in a 3g network. at the same time ensuring the QoS of existing connections. Peak throughput class Peak throughput (kb/s) Mean throughput class Mean throughput (bytes per hour) 8 1024* 17 20 000 000 9 2048* 18 50 000 000 *Data rate only reachable 31 Best Effort with UMTS or EDGE In GPRS.1 . The mean throughput is logged as successful transmissions are made from the queue in the QoS analysis. and the number of timeslots for which the MS is enabled. It is therefore possible to do a preliminary check prior to running the GPRS QoS analysis to determine the peak throughput achievable for each service type on each sub-cell. the peak throughput is determined by the peak data rate per slot achievable by the coding scheme. it is dropped ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 71 Version 6. The peak throughput is reported in the QoS Analysis spreadsheet. The peak throughput is calculated as follows: PeakThroughput PeakDataRatePerSlot * BlocksPerFrame * MaxNumberOfSlots The coding scheme is identified by the bearer allocated to the connection during the simulation and the maximum number of timeslots enabled on the MS will be a parameter set on the terminal type. Time Simulator for QoS Analysis This section describes the time simulation processes and assumptions: System Model Simulation Model System Model for QoS Analysis The call admission manager monitors the system's available capacity and accommodates new packet transmission requests. The steps of a connection admission procedure are: A new packet transmission request is received by the call admission manager The capacity of the destination cell is monitored The system either accepts or blocks the new connection If the QoS of an existing connection is degraded. and are reported in the QoS Analysis spreadsheet.

If the random number is greater than the blocking probability. connection admission decisions are taken on a packet call. the packet is delayed in the queue until the next frame. If the random number is less than of equal to the blocking probability. If the packet call mode is selected instead of the packet mode.1 . instead of an individual packet basis. The service prioritisation is modelled in the simulator.example Page 72 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. that is every 10ms The cell capacity for each service type is generated using the blocking probability input from the simulation The blocking decision is prioritised to accept new connections in the priority order of their services The dropping of existing connections is not modelled The cell capacity for each service is determined in each frame by generating a uniformly distributed random number for each packet held in a queue. one for each service type. Simulation Model for QoS Analysis The simulation models the connection admission procedure by making the following assumptions: The call admission manager monitors the cell capacity in every radio frame. the packet starts transmission in that frame. All the packets awaiting transmission through a cell are stored in a set of queues. A diagram of the queuing model which would be used for three packet services being transmitted through a cell is shown here: Queuing Model .

This means that a terminal is still consuming transmit power between packet calls. and there is no data to transmit. which would mean that no packet data could be transmitted. each stamped with its arrival and departure times from the cell. thus freeing up transmit power and allowing packets or packet calls to be transmitted. When a terminal is connected and active. For example. and that if any higher priority packets remain queued. Packet QoS Session Timeout Calculation for CDMA2000 The main limitation on capacity on CDMA systems is the forward link PA power available. carrier or bearer for each user. Results of QoS Analysis This section describes the analysis results: Confidence Interval Half Width Simulation Duration Delay and Cumulative Delay Probability Distributions Mean and Standard Deviations of the Queuing Delays 95th Percentile Delay Mean Transmission Time Mean Retransmission Delay ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 73 Version 6. The session timeout parameter is employed to kill any sessions which have been active for longer than the session timeout. A histogram of the queue length throughout the simulation is displayed for each service on each cell and carrier in the graphs tab of the QoS Analysis dialog box. The simulator provides us with data on the total available transmit power on the sector carrier (minus noise contributions) and the average transmit power required per sector. The rule is then applied that if admissions for each service are considered in priority order. no lower priority packets are admitted. in between packets it uses a 1/8th rate fundamental channel.1 . The session timeout parameter was added to prevent all the available power being consumed by terminals transmitting at 1/8th rate. service . the simulator will have produced a list of transmitted packets. By the end of the simulation. it uses a fundamental and supplemental channel.

Let Y1.…. and experimentally determining how long the simulation should be run to obtain results of a given accuracy. The mean values are independent.1 . since a different random number stream was used for each run and. using a different random number stream for each run (3). An estimate of the length of time for which a queue simulation should be run has been obtained by setting up a simulation for an M/M/1 queue. Suppose we make k runs (replications). 3 If the confidence interval is less than 10% of the mean delay. for which analytical results for the mean delay can be obtained. and variance . 2 Repeat the run (replicate) 5 times and calculate the confidence interval half width H5. k Y Y i k i 1 k 2 (Yi Y) 2 (k 1) i 1 2. Confidence Interval Half Width The performance measure of the simulation is the mean delay of the first service on the cell. the following procedure has been recommended: 1 Set the basic run length to ensure at least 1000 or 2000 packet admission requests are made to the cell for each service. Y3. the desired accuracy has been obtained. Y. for a sufficiently large m. it will be approximately normally distributed. Yk be the mean values of the k runs. The confidence interval half width H5 is calculated by repeating runs. Hi m Page 74 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. The confidence 2 interval half width Hi is then calculated from the sample mean . Y2. To get an accuracy of 10% at a 95% confidence level. each generating m sample values of the packet delay.

Simulation Duration This is calculated for each cell and carrier. Using the same notation as the www traffic model section.N pc . the simulation duration is: N req D 1 .N S req Adding the duration of the session itself.N d . N req . plus the following definitions: N req = required number of packets S req N req = number of sessions required to generate packets Treq S req = time until the session arrives D = recommended simulation duration N pc . so N req S req N pc .1 .N d Each session contains packets.N d ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 75 Version 6. The value depends on the parameters that you have set for the services supported by that cell. and the mean number of users of those services input from the simulation.N d (1) The session arrivals are modelled as a Poisson process.T N . and carrier. and so the expected time until S req the session arrives is: S req Treq (2) Substituting Little's law and equation (1) and (2).T Treq N pc .

1 . However.F C2 ..F C1 2 2. The data for these graphs will be collected by maintaining counts during the simulation. .. .F C0 1 1. their state can be represented by this table: Bin Delay Count 0 0. each bin represents a delay of F frames. The delay probability graphs are the most easily understood.. .. which peaks before the next highest priority service. the cumulative delay probability graphs are more useful. It will be apparent that the highest priority service should have a delay distribution..F CN Total number of packets transmitted during the simulation: N TP ci i 0 Delay probability of n. For example. If there are N bins. on each cell and carrier. and c is the count in a bin at the end of the simulation..F frames: n ci i 0 CP(n) TP Page 76 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6. .. N n..F frames: cn P ( n) TP Cumulative delay probability of n.. when a packet which has been queued for 4 frames is finally transmitted... because you can read any percentile delay from them. Delay and Cumulative Delay Probability Distributions Graphs of the delay probabilities and the cumulative delay probabilities are produced for each service. the count in the 4 frame bin will be incremented.F Cn . and so on. N N..

The packet transmission time is calculated from the mean packet size Sd (Bytes). a „QoS target failed‟ message is generated. that you originally set in the Packet Service dialog box. S d Ttrans 1000. with the mean size set in the Packet Service dialog box). (a Poisson distributed random variable.P(n ) Mean delay n 0 N (F. and the service bitrate b (kbs-1) ). Transmission time: 8.b ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 77 Version 6.P(n ) Standard deviation n 0 95th Percentile Delay The 95th percentile is calculated from the cumulative delay graph.1 . listing the services which have failed on a particular cell and carrier.n D ) 2 . n. Mean and Standard Deviations of the Queuing Delays The following are the mean and standard deviations of the queuing delays: N D F. If the delay calculated from the graph is greater than the target. If the delay is less than the target. and compared with the target 95th percentile delay. Mean Transmission Time This is calculated using a running mean of the transmission time of each packet transmitted by the simulation. a „QoS target achieved‟ message is displayed in the QoS Analysis summary page.

A typical value of 10% is set as the default. G.193 Page 78 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.34 “Quality of Service for Multimedia CDMA”.114 “Introduction to Mathematical Statistics”. MacDougall. Sfikas. July 2000 “Simulating Computer Systems”. Dimitriou. Tafazolli. and the mean or median retransmission delay: BLER Mean retransmission delay 0. R. This has the following features: One block is received and handled at a time The receiver acknowledges each correctly received block If a block is corrupted. Hogg and A.1 . Packets are segmented by the RLC into equal sized blocks for transmission across the air interface.2. The retransmission protocol which is modelled in the calculation of the retransmission delay is Stop-and- Wait ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest). p. IEEE Communications Magazine. the blocks are put back into order and reassembled into packets by the RLC at the receiver In order to calculate the average retransmission delay.301. Mean Retransmission Delay Error detection and correction across the air interface is handled by the Radio Link Control (RLC) sublayer. the receiver discards it and sends no acknowledgement The sender uses a timer to determine whether or not to retransmit The sender keeps a copy of each transmitted block until its acknowledgement has been received Finally. rt 1 seconds 1 BLER References The following are documents that have been referred to throughout this chapter: “Selection procedures for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UMTS” TR 101 112 v3. detects dropped or corrupted blocks and guarantees their delivery by retransmission. p. You also need to set the re-transmission timeout in units of radio frames.H. p. M. The retransmission protocol can be configured to provide different levels of QoS. Craig.01. and is described in UMTS Standard TS 25. The BLER can then be used to calculate the increase in traffic through the link caused by retransmission. R. the block error rate (BLER) at which the system will operate is required as an input. MIT Press. Collier- Macmillan Ltd. The RLC then transmits the blocks.V.T. N. The block size and bearer rate determine the number of blocks which are transmitted per radio frame.0.

To do this. containing comprehensive details of all the algorithms and outputs related to the Simulator. The following technologies are supported: GSM UMTS (FDD) GSM/UMTS (joint) CDMA2000 EV-DO Fixed WiMAX Mobile WiMAX There are technology-specific documents available which contain comprehensive details of all the algorithms and outputs related to the Simulator. and then click the link named 'Static Sim' (Static Simulation Algorithms and Outputs). and you know the login password. Technology-specific documents are available.1 . you can download these specialist documents. ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 79 Version 6. click the User Reference Guides link.APPENDIX E Static Simulation Algorithms and Outputs The Simulator in ASSET enables you to perform static simulations for your network (depending on your licence). log in to the Support website. If your company is registered for a customer web account.

1 .Page 80 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.

1 . carriers • 54 PMR algorithms • 45 Prediction file management • 41 B Predictions Best Server arrays • 9. 18 CDMA2000 • 21 LMUs descriptions • 7 arrays • 10 GSM (Sim) • 19 HSDPA • 30 M interference (2g Non-Sim) • 12 LMU • 10 Measured cells. 10 file caching system • 41 file management algorithm • 41 C Q Caching algorithm for predictions • 41 Carriers QoS assignments • 54 algorithms • 63 E S ECSD Serving Cell arrays algorithms • 45 descriptions • 9 EGPRS arrays • 16. 14 2g (GSM Sim) • 19 2g and 2. 17. 13. 18 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Page 81 Version 6. 10. F Frequency Planning automatically using ILSA • 54 Index G GPRS algorithms • 45 arrays • 15. arrays • 11 measured cells (LMU) • 11 pilot coverage • 22 types available • 7 P UMTS • 21 Packet Quality of Service algorithms • 63 WiMAX (Fixed) • 34 Planning WiMAX (Mobile) • 36 frequency • 54 Assignments.5g (Non-Sim) • 8 3g (UMTS and CDMA2000) • 21 L best server • 9. 16 GSM algorithms • 45 A H Algorithms FCC calculations • 60 HSCSD Frequency hopping • 51 algorithms • 45 Frequency Re-use and Load • 62 GPRS and HSCSD capacity • 56 ILSA cost function • 55 I Interference arrays • 47 iDEN Interference Tables • 46 algorithms • 45 MAIO planning cost function • 56 ILSA Non-Frequency hopping • 53 about • 54 Packet QoS • 63 cost function • 55 Prediction file caching algorithm • 41 Interference Arrays arrays • 8. 12.

Page 82 ASSET Technical Reference Guide Version 6.1 .