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2005 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution

Conference & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific


Dalian, China

A STUDY OF ALGORITHM AND


APPLICATION IN TRANSIENT SIGNALS
WAVELET POST-ANALYSIS METHODS1
Zhengyou He, Xiaoqin Chen, Yumei Cai

Abstract--The research and application actuality of wavelet statistic, energy distribution, wavelet neural network and
post-analysis methods in electrical transient signal analysis was wavelet entropy, are introduced. Take wavelet average
introduced, and several wavelet post-analysis methods were entropy and wavelet distance entropy as examples,
presented, then wavelet average entropy and wavelet distance
simulations are carried out. Finally, the applications of these
entropy were taken as examples to show its feasibility,
simulation results showed that wavelet entropy is effective for post-analysis methods are analyzed.
fault detection, which also opened new train of thoughts on fault
classification. Finally, application of several post-analysis II. RESEARCH ACTUALITY OF WAVELET POST-ANALYSIS IN
methods in power system transient signal was discussed, which ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT SIGNAL
showed the importance of wavelet post-analysis.
Recently, wavelet analysis is introduced into electrical
Index Terms--post-analysis methods, transient signal,
transient signal analysis, all kinds of post-analysis methods
wavelet entropy, fault classification.
are put forward and applied in analysis and research.
I. INTRODUCTION In Ref.[1], traveling wave based fault startup component
is introduced, according to its simulation result, some rules
A s an important subject of power system application,
electrical transient signal analysis has always been an
are obtained: with the increase of scale factor, the module
maxima of traveling wave increase, while the module
important task for electrical researchers, and relative research maxima of noise decrease, so it is easy to distinguish
on detection and classification has been applied broadly in traveling wave from noise, so to avoid misoperation. So, we
many fields, such as, fault detection and classification, relay can see to detect fault using traveling wave based on module
protection, electrical energy analysis, fault distance maxima is effective. Singularity theory is utilized in traveling
measurement and fault location, device state monitoring, wave based fault distance measurement, in which singular
transient stability analysis, etc. The introduction of wavelet points of traveling wave are picked up to locate the fault, just
technology opens new train of thoughts. Although wavelet as Ref.[2-4] shown. Its main idea is to decompose singular
can realize transient signal detection and classification, the and transient signal by wavelet transform, and gain the fault
transformed results contain abundant decomposition information denoted by module maxima in different scales,
information and data. Usually, in normal detection methods, then determine time-lag between time when fault occur and
the interruption and supposition of certain condition are the time when reflected wave surge arrive, using travel
required, as for classification methods, abundant velocity, the fault distance can be calculated.
decomposition information makes the intelligent differentiate In Ref.[5], wavelet fuzzy neural network is utilized to
system bulk. So, using appropriate post-analysis methods for realize precise fault distance measurement, the influence of
reference, the vector dimension and quantity of wavelet fault resistor is eliminated. In Ref.[6-8], wavelet transform
decomposition information can be reduced, providing and artificial neural network are combined to recognize
effective pretreatment for detection and classification devices, disturb in energy quality analysis, abundant EMTP
and the basis for fault diagnosis, fault distance measurement simulation results show that wavelet network constructed in
and relay protection. Present researches show that Ref.[6] can recognize system surge and other kinds of fault
appropriate data fusing methods for wavelet transform condition, it can get satisfying result even in the worst
information is also a good post-analysis method, it may offer condition. In some researches, wavelet neural network are
one or a series of universal quantities to detect and classify applied in data compression, harmonic detection.
fault. Unfortunately, the wavelet coefficients at each scale are too
On this basis, several post-analysis methods, i.e. module abundant for ANN as the input. While in some other papers,
maxima and singularity, wavelet coefficient clustering and wavelet fuzzy neural network can be used in detection and
analysis of electrical energy quality: firstly, the disturb
1
This work was supported by Chinese National Science Fund: component is picked up from the original signal and
No.50407009, Sichuan Province application research Fund: No.02GY029-
039 and SWJTU application research Fund: No.2003B02. eliminate the noise component, then the eigenvalue can be
Zhengyou He, Xiaoqin Chen and Yumei Cai are with the Department of obtained after wavelet transform, finally, analysis and
Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, SC 610031 recognition are made through ANN. In this method, the
PRC (e-mail: zheng_u@263.net).
0-7803-9114-4/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE. 1
number of eigenvalue is reduced, and it is adapt to every is no local maxima in smaller scale, then there is no
kind of disturb. Additionally, in order to solve the problem singularity in adjacent zone. The existence of singular points
that wavelet based ANN is restricted by its own structure, the relates to the module maxima in each scale, as the scale
Maximum likelihood method is used to replace perturbation smaller, module maxima converge to singular point. Multi-
classification of ANN block, the time variable harmonious resolution is just suitable for decomposition in multi-scale.
analysis method combined wavelet and least square method 2. Module maxima pick-up[10]
is put forward, also the data compression method combined Suppose Wf(s,t) as wavelet transform of f(t) at scale s0,
wavelet and HUFFMAN code principle. call (s0,t0) as local maxima, if ∂ W f ( s0 , t ) ∂t equals to zero
In a word, recent researches focus on the pick-up of
module maxima, singularity detection and wavelet neural at point t0 , also call (s0,t0)as wavelet transform module
network, other post-analysis methods, such as statistic, maxima point. For any t belongs to adjacent zone of t0 ,
clustering and energy analysis are easy to realize, few paper |Wf(s0,t)|≤|Wf(s0,t0)|.
study on them, only corresponding processing is needed Suppose θ (t ) as a low-pass smooth function, take its first
according actual application. The application of wavelet derivatives ψ ′(t ) = dθ (t ) dt as wavelet, there exist:
entropy in power system is rather new, Ref[10] has shown d
the ability and application prospect of entropy, this paper W f ′ (s, t ) = f (t ) ∗ψ s′ (t ) = s [ f (t ) ∗θ s (t )] (1)
dt
also indicated that the combination of wavelet and entropy,
by utilizing their virtues, avails to seek some universal
( )=1 (sθ (t s )) ,the differential coefficient of
Where θst
applicable quantities to signify fault. Universal applicable the transformed f(t) by wavelet that corresponds to the first
quantity must possess the following several conditions. order differential coefficient after f(t) is smoothed by θs(t) at
Firstly, it should be able to reflect omni-directional, every scale s, which utmost condition is step point. Take the
level of systematic characteristic; Secondly, it can reflect extremum of Wf´(s,t) as signal, abrupt point of which can be
long-term system function state, also function state in some detected, because its maximum and minimum can be
time can be analyzed. In addition, there is its peculiar law in differentiated.
specific trouble, and regular change law within some time, so B. Wavelet coefficient cluster analysis
we hope it reflect this kind of law again; Thirdly, the states at
In order to describe the difference of different categories,
normal running to appearing little troubles, to reach real
the expanding of dimension is required. One way is to cluster
trouble state, even more serious calamity, should be reflected;
wavelet coefficients in different frequency section. In
Fourthly, it can produce the corresponding change with the
statistic, distance is used to describe the similar, close or
change of electric current, voltage, etc. Based on these, there
intact relation of sample, here sample is the wavelet
is a simulation analysis about wavelet entropy especially in
coefficient in different scales, for example, Dpq is the distance
the fourth section of the whole paper.
of Cp and Cq, according to shortest and largest distance, these
coefficient are clustered. The number varies as the scale
III. POST-ANALYSIS METHODS OF WAVELET TRANSFORM
change. Another way is the technology of vector quantization
AND ALGORITHM
with divided frequency band, as the frequency band cluster,
Wavelet presentation of signal includes continuous it can get the time-frequency information of signal.
wavelet transform and multi-resolution based fast wavelet, Wavelet coefficients are abundant in characteristic
etc., it is the same as to electrical transient signal, following expression, they provide many available characteristic subset.
is the introduction of several wavelet post-analysis methods While standard is needed to judge its classification ability, so
and their algorithm. to choose the best characteristic, in ref.[12], three indices of
A. Singularity Detection and Module maxima pick-up separation degree are put forward.
1. Singularity analysis C. Wavelet coefficients statistic analysis method
Theorem 1[14]: Given n as a integer, Ψ as a wavelet with Picking-up characteristic by inputting wavelet coefficient
n order vanishing moments, n order successive derivatives or wavelet component into classification device directly is
and compact set, x(t)∈L1(c,d)([c,d]is a real number zone), rather complex, its computing procedure is complex, too,
If there is scale a0>0, a<a0, t∈(c,d), |Wx(a,b)|have no local while the effect is not necessarily good. In order to simplify
maxima, then in zone(c+ε,d-ε)is consistently Lipschitz α(ε is computation and reduce dimension of vector and lessen
plus quantity which can be small arbitrarily). storage, the statistical characteristic of wavelet coefficient are
In actual application, the singular point and singularity are calculated in engineering, for example:
usually taken as the eigenvector of the signal, singular
exponent indicates the singularity of the signal. If α=1, the
Average value: AVG j = C j (k ) ∑ k
(2)

signal is not singular at all; if α=0, it is discontinuous; if


0<α<1, the smoothness of signal decrease. This phenomenon
Absolute average value: AVG j = ∑C
k
j (k ) (3)
means: bigger the scale α is, smoother the signal is. Smaller
Covariance: CONV j = CONV [C j (k ), C j (k )] (4)
the scale α, abrupter the signal is. This theory proves, if there

2
Willison magnitude Willison: Using window energy for reference, characteristics of
WAMPj = ∑sgn(C (k) − C (k + 1) )
k
j j (5) transient signal can be taken from its energy distribution after
transformed by wavelet, thus a wavelet post-analysis method
Zero crossing number: is built up based on energy distribution.
ZC j = ∑
sgn{[−C j (k ) − θ j ][C j (k + 1) −θ j )]}
k
(6) For orthogonal wavelet transform, energy in each scale
can be obtained by the square of wavelet coefficients. For
Average frequency of divided frequency band: bio-orthogonal wavelet, energy in each scale can be obtained
by multiplying wavelet coefficients by dual wavelet

F j (k ) Pj (k )
k
coefficients. Energy in every scale is the distribution of
Fj = (7) energy in every frequency section, suppose C j (n ) as the
∑ F (k ) j
k component of x(n) at scale j , energy distribution coefficient
In Eq.(7), Pj(k) 、 Fj(k) are power spectrum and its and energy fluctuation coefficient as follows:
corresponding frequency at each scale respectively. N
Ej
1
Calculating average energy in each scale is a kind of statistic B j = E[|| C j (k ) || 2 ] =
N k =1 ∑
|| C j (k ) || 2 =
N
(13)
analysis methods, take the sum of squares of trend
coefficients at each scale as characteristic parameter: Bj E[|| C j (k ) ||2 ] Ej
1 Sj = = = , j = 1,2,L J (14)
Ej =
2 j ∑ k
c 2jk (8) B j +1 2
E[|| C j +1 (k ) || ] E j +1

Additionally, through the linear or nonlinear transform, E. Wavelet neural network analysis method
such as main component analysis, to the coefficient matrix Nowadays, wavelet analysis and neural network are
obtained after being transformed by wavelet, just a few data combined by two ways: expanded combination, namely,
can reflect abundant information. Pick-up of main wavelet analysis provide characteristic vector for neural
component shown as follows: network, it is the pre-processing way; another way is
Suppose wavelet coefficients at different scale compose compact combination, which is to use wavelet function or
matrix C,of which each element is cjk(k=1…P, j=1…n), a scale function as excitation function of neuron. The latter is
column vector is cj=(cj1,cj2,…,cjp)´,so C=(c1,c2,…cp) usually called Wavelet neural network, Wavelet network for
n short.
∑ c = (c ) ( )
1
c= j 11 c12 L c1 p ′ + c 21 c 22 L c 2 p ′ x1
n j =1 w1i
ui
(
+ L + c n1 c n 2 L c np ′ = c1 c 2 L c p ′) ( ) (9 )
w yi
x2 2i θ i
n

∑ (c j − c )(c j − c )′
1
∑= (10)
n −1 wni
j =1 si
xn
Where ∑ is a p × p matrix, λ1 ≥ λ 2 ≥ L ≥ λ p ≥ 0 are p
Fig.1. Configuration Model of Neuron
characteristic roots of ∑ , choose l1 to make a maximum
In figure1, u i is the internal state of neuron, θ i is
Var (Y1 ) = l1′Σl1 = λ1 , that is maximum characteristic root, l1 threshold, x j is input signal (here its wavelet coefficient),
is the characteristic vector corresponding to maximum
w ji is the weight from u j to u i , si is input signal outside (in
characteristic root λ 1 of Σ , so the first main component is:
some condition, it can control neuron u i , keep it maintain
Y = l ′C
1 1
some state), above model can be described as following,
If the first component is not enough to reflect the
information former p indexes can reflect, then the second
⎧σ i =
⎪ ∑ j
w ji x j + s i − θ i
⎪⎪
component Y = l ′C is required, the mth components is
2 2 ⎨u i = f (σ i ) (15)
⎪ y = g (u ) = h(σ ), h = (g o f )
picked up until the following condition is met: ⎪ i i i
m ⎪⎩
∑λ
i =1
i If the neuron has no internal state, let yi = ui , h = f , f
Accumulated contributive rate: p
> 85% (11) is activation function (here it can be wavelet function and
∑λ
i =1
i scale function). Additionally, there are other methods to
combine wavelet analysis with other nonlinear transform
Yi = li ′C is irrelevant to Y j = l j ′C : li′l j = 0 (12) technology, such as fuzzy processing, genetic algorithm,
least squares and so on.
D. Energy distribution analysis method F. Wavelet entropy analysis method
3
In ref.[13][14], six wavelet entropies have bee defined: window w=80 to calculate the entropy within the window
Wavelet energy entropy (WEE), Wavelet time entropy just as wavelet average entropy. Along with the move of
(WTE), Wavelet singularity entropy (WSE), Wavelet time- time-window, we can get entropy value in different time
frequency entropy (WTFE (kT,a) ), Wavelet average entropy section, thus to determine whether fault occur or not.
(WAE) and Wavelet distance entropy (WDE), they are Now we built EMTDC simulation model (see figure 2),
wavelet post-analysis methods with high integration. only source A supplies power in this system. At 0.2s, phase
Wavelet average entropy (WAE) and Wavelet distance C ground fault and a two phase short circuit fault occur at
entropy (WDE) will be introduction briefly. location F which is 20km away, the fault last 0.05s, system
Definition 1[13]:Given signal coefficients WT(t,a) at scale turn back to normal state at 0.25s, the sampling frequency is
a and instant t0, dividing the signal wavelet transform time- 20kHz, we can get zero-sequence current when single phase
frequency plane (t,a) by N scaled time-frequency window to ground fault occur and faulty phase current when two
area phase short circuit fault occur, and entropy value (see figure
[kT − a∆ψ , KT + a∆ψ ] × [ω * / a − ∆ ω / a, ω * / a + ∆ ω / a ] , 3).
Other loads Other load
( ∆ψ , ∆ ω are the time domain radius and frequency radius of 10kV 10kV
F
A B
the mother wavelet, ω ∗ is the mid-point of the mother
20km

wavelet, T is the discrete step and k is the discrete Fig.2. Simulation Model of Fault
sequence 0,1,2…N). If the energy of each area is We can see from figure3, wavelet average entropy values
N
increase significantly at the instant when fault occurs, while
Ei (i = 1,2,...., N ) and the total energy is E = ∑E
i =1
i
,
they are zero in other instants. While wavelet distance
N entropy values are not zero during fault. So, for two phase
standardize each energy and we get Pi = Ei / E . So
∑P i =1, short circuit, wavelet average entropy and wavelet distance
i =1 entropy can indicate the time when the fault finish, so to
which is satisfied with the standardization condition of the determine the fault is instantaneous or permanent, it is a
information entropy. Therefore the definition of the wavelet novel way of fault classification. While there is not such a
average entropy is : rule for single phase to ground fault, so more work is
N
required to find the characteristic of different fault.
W AE = − ∑ P ln P
i =1
i i (16)
V. APPLICATION ANALYSIS
Definition 2[14]: The discrete wavelet presentation
From nowadays research actuality and the algorithm and
WTx ( kT , a = 2 j ) is in fact a two dimension matrix. Along
expression, we can get the application of wavelet post-
with variable k we can get a vector sequence WTx (k ) . In analysis as follows:
reference to the definition of distance and introduce the Pick-up of module maxima and singularity detection
information calculation methods then we define wavelet principle utilize maximum value in each scale and the
distance entropy (WDE) as follows, subscript as characteristic to recognize the change of signal,
m m they can keep the information and have high recognition
WDE = ∑ ∑ d′ kl ln d kl′ (17) ability. They can pick up characteristics of signal, through
k = l l =1 the detection of module maxima point, the time when the
Where d kl′ is the standardized distance of d kl , fault occur and its duration can be determine. In power
m m system fault detection, module maxima is often used to find
d kl′ = d kl / ∑ ∑ d kl . The distance is the fault location and detect the fluctuation and twinkling,
k = l l =1
which are the main tasks in the energy quality analysis.
d kl =|| WTx (kT ) − WTx (lT ) ||, k , l = 1,2,⋅ ⋅ ⋅m (18) Additionally, module maxima is used to eliminate noise, it is
also used in data compression.
VI. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS In wavelet coefficient clustering analysis, through
The theory of module maxima pick-up and singularity clustering of wavelet coefficients in different frequency
detection are discussed in many papers, many simulation and section, current and voltage signal are classified. This
analysis have been carried out, as for wavelet entropy such a method can be used to analyze the harmonic component of
new task, the first four wavelet entropies (WEE, WTE, WSE signal, thus to analyze electrical energy quality and fault, etc.
and WTFE) are simulated in ref.[13], their practicability are As for wavelet coefficient statistical analysis, its
shown in ref.[13], so only Wavelet average entropy and calculation is quite simple, characteristic vector’s dimension
wavelet distance entropy will be taken as examples of is small, storage and computing amount are rather small, so
simulation analysis in this paper. Wavelet average entropy its calculation speed is fast. For example the referred main
indicates the average complexity of the whole signal, it does component analysis, the analyzed data diminished, so this
not change when the time or frequency changes. In actual method can be applied in electric power transmission and
analysis, wavelet distance entropy can choose a movable storage.

4
Energy distribution coefficient (Bj) and energy fluctuate analysis, data compression, fault diagnosis and classification,
coefficient (Ej) are defined in energy analysis, Bj can reflect state monitoring, load prediction, electrical energy analysis
the evolvement rule when striding characteristic subspace of and dynamic evaluation of system security.
transient signal’s wavelet result; while Ej can reflect local Wavelet entropy relates to the state of power system closely, it
can describe the uncertainty of power system. From above
dynamic. So energy analysis inspects energy and distribution
simulation and analysis of wavelet average entropy and wavelet
of transient signal at different scales. i.e., Faults can be distance entropy, we can see wavelet entropy can describe
detected and identified according to Bj and Ej, when in EHV quantitative fault characteristic, it open new thoughts for fault
transmission line of electric power system. classification.
Wavelet neural network analysis method can estimate
operation parameter on-line, and applied in transient signal

Fig 3. Zero-sequence Current, Fault Current and their WAE and WDE When Single Line-to-ground or Line-to-
line Short Circuit Occurs
SOCIETY FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, vol.17, No.6, pp.421-
424, Nov, 1997.
VI. CONCLUSION [5] FAN Chun-ju, ZHANG Zhao-ning, YU Wei-yong. APPLICATION OF
Wavelet post-analysis method play important role in WAVELET FUZZY NERUAL NETWORK TO FAULT LOCATION
electrical transient signal analysis, especially wavelet entropy OF SINGLE LINE GROUNDING IN DISTRIBUTION LINES,
POWER SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, Vol.26, No.9, pp.13-17, Sep. 2002.
is a novel research task, the simulation and analysis of [6] Mao Peng, Zhang Zhaoning, Lin Xiangning, Sun Yaming. WAVELET
wavelet average entropy and wavelet distance entropy NEURAL NETWORKS BASED RECOGNITION OF SWING AND
indicate that the new theory is feasible in fault detection, FAULT IN POWER SYSTEM, AUTOMATION OF ELECTRIC
furthermore study is needed in fault classification. POWER SYSTEMS, Vol.26, No11, pp.9-13, Jun.2002.
[7] Peilin L.Mao and Raj K. Aggarwal, A Novel Approach to the
Classification of the Transient Phenomena in Power Transformers Using
VII. REFERENCES Combined Wavelet Transform and Neural Network. IEEE Transactions
[1] Dong Xinzhou, He Jiali, Ge Yaozhong. APPLICATION OF WAVELET on Power Delivery, Vol.16,No.4, pp.654-660, Oct.2001
TRANSFORM IN DETECTION OF FAULT TRAVELLINGWAVES. [8] Xu Yonghai, Xiao Xiangning, Yang Yihan, Cheng Xueyun.
RELAY, vol.26, No5, pp. 1-4, Sep. 1998. APPLICATION OF WAVELET TRANSFORM IN POWER
[2] WANG Xianming,TAO Shiwei, TAO Ye, CAI Deli.THE FAULT QUAILTY ANALYSIS , AUTOMATION OF ELECTRIC POWER
LOCATION FOR POWER SYSTEM TRAVELING WAVE WITH SYSTEMS, Vol.23.No.23 pp.55-58, Dec.1999.
WAVELET TRANSFORM, JOURNAL OF GUIZHOU UNIVERSITY [9] WANG Jing, SHU Hongchun, CHEN Xueyun. A SURVEY OF
OF TECHNOLOGY, vol.30, No.3, pp. 50-53, Jun. 2001, WAVELETS TRANSFORM APPLYING TO POWER SYSTEM
[3] Xu Bingyin, YL Jing, Chen Ping, Chen Yu, Dong Xinzhou, Ge Y ENGINEERING, POWER SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY,
aozhong, P. F. Gale. MODERN FAULT LOCATION TECHNIQUES vol.27.No.pp.52-63, Jun.2003.
BASEDON FAULT GENERATED TRAVELL INGWAVES AND [10] HE Zhengyou, LIU Zhigang, QIAN Qingquan. STUDY ON WAVELET
THEIR APPL ICATIONS, AUTOMATION OF ELECTRIC POWER ENTROPY THEORY AND ADAPTABILITY OF ITS APPLICATION
SYSTEMS, pp.62-65, Dec. 2001 IN POWER SYSTEM,POWER SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, vol.
[4] Dong Xinzhou, Geng Zhong xing ,Ge Yaoz hong, Zhang Fusheng. THE 28,No.21, pp.16-18, Nov.2004.
APPLICATION OF WAVELET TRANSFORM TO POWER SYSTEM [11] DIAO Yanhua, WANFG Yutian, CHEN Guotong. SINGULARITY
FAULT SIGNAL ANALYSIS, PROCEEDINGS OF THE CHINESE DETECTION OF SIGNALS BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM

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MODULUS MAXINUM, HEBEI JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.21,No.1, pp.1-3,2004,
[12] Zhang Xiaowen, Yang Yupu, Xu Xiaoming. WAVELET BASED
FEATURE REPRESENTATION, COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND
APPLICATION, No.19, pp.25-28, 2003
[13] HE Zhengyou, QIAN Qingquan. DEFINITION OF WAVELET
ENTROPY MEASUREMENT AND THE APPLICATION STUDY OF
FAULT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND CLASSIFICATION IN
POWER SYSTEM. SCIENCE CHINA (E), ENGINEERING SCIENCE,
vol. 25,No.5, pp.38-43, 2005
[14] He Zhengyou Cai Yumei Qian Qingquan ,A STUDY OF WAVELET
ENTROPY THEORY AND ITS APPLICATION IN POWER
SYSTEM., IEEE,ROBOTIC AND AUTOMATION SOCIETY,IEEE,
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, PROCEEDING OF
ICIMA2004, pp.847-852,2004

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
Zhengyou He, received the PH.D. degree in school of
electrical engineering at Southwest Jiaotong University,
in Mar. 2001. B.S degree in school of computation
engineering from Chongqing University, P.R.China, in
1992. He received M.S. degree in same department from
Chongqing University in June 1995. His research
interests are in the area of wavelet transform and its
application in electrical power system.

Xiaoqin Chen, is a graduate student, who is studying


for a M.S degree in school of electrical engineering at
Southwest Jiaotong University. Her research interests
are in the area of comprehensive automation in
electrical power system.

Yumei Cai, received the B.S degree in school of


electrical engineering at Southwest Jiaotong University,
in July, 2002. Her research interests are in the area of
comprehensive automation in electrical power system.