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transient signals

Partial discharge in transformers

Hitesh Suryavanshi Global R & D centre, IGATE Global Solutions

Electronics and telecommunication Crompton Greaves limited, Igate Knowledge Park

Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Kanjur Marg (E), Mumbai, India. Navi Mumbai, India.

Engg & Tech, jeyabalan27@gmail.com jayalakshmi.surendran@igate.com

Nanded, India jeyabalan.velandy@cgglobal.com

hitesh.suryavanshi@rediffmail.com

Abstract—Identification of partial discharge (PD) is an components like tank, core etc., [4, 5]. Identification of these

important diagnostic tool for reliable decision of transformer insulation failures is easier for testing engineer. In general, one

during impulse test. Since, transformer is not accessible directly of the insulation failures in transformer are due to the gradual

to investigate the pass or fail criteria of the transformer due to deterioration of insulation, which are mainly due to partial

PD or any other major faults. Only the measured high frequency discharge (PD). Hence, PD failure identification during the

nature of current signals (winding responses) due to different impulse test is one of the challenging tasks for testing

impulse test sequences can help to decide the fault through any engineers. A reliable method to identify PD source in

synchronization principles of whether two time domain or transformer would generally contribute to a better diagnostic

frequency domain responses are statistically independent or not.

tool for insulation failure. In this paper, wavelet transform

Extracting such actual information becomes difficult if the

transformer is nonlinear and non stationary. Hence, to study the

coherence analysis is performed through interval dependent

features of the measured non stationary nature of current signals denoising method. The signatures (magnitude and phase) of

due to PD, wavelet transform coherence analysis is performed. the measured high frequency nature of transient signals are

The spectrum of magnitude and phase are extracted from the extracted through wavelet transform coherence analysis.

measured current signals to identify the PD for showing the

efficacy. To prove the feasibility of the analysis, 22 kV interleaved II. PARTIAL DISCHARGE IN TRANSFORMERS

winding is utilized.

When the transformer insulations are highly stressed, the

Keywords—Transformer, Impulse testing, Partial discharge, voids present within the solid or liquid or gaseous insulation

Transient signals, Signal processing analysis, spectrum analysis. generate PD [5, 6]. PDs are small electrical sparks (discharge)

between two conducting materials resulting from the localized

I. INTRODUCTION dielectric breakdown of a small portion (void) in the

insulation. Once initiated, PD causes progressive deterioration

During manufacturing of transformers, great care has to be of insulating materials ultimately leading to electrical

exercised to guarantee that the transformer is not damaged due breakdown completely [6]. PD can occur in any electrical

to the transient over voltages at continuous operating voltage. equipment due to high electrical stress and it may occur

For a successful operation of transformer, the winding anywhere within the transformer winding where the insulation

insulation has to withstand the high electric stress during becomes weak.

operation at site without any major damage for expected life

When PD is initiated in a transformer, high frequency

time [1-4]. Hence, to assess the ability of the transformer

insulation for withstanding the lightning over voltage, transient pulses appear at a particular portion within the

winding insulation and persist for wide range of pulse

lightning impulse test is performed at High voltage test

durations (few ns-5µs). The main causes of PD in power

laboratory by using Marx’s generator. Impulse testing of

transformers after assembly is one of the accepted tests at transformers are overvoltage, over heating, chemical or

factory for assessment of their winding insulation strength to mechanical deterioration of the materials, particles in the oil,

static electrification, defect in the insulation, a loose

surge over-voltages. During impulse testing of transformer,

the winding insulation failure is the predominant part of faults connection and floating objects arcing under the oil etc. [4, 6-

and poses the highest risk for all types of transformer failures. 8]. Hence, PDs are considered to be harmful in insulation

Insulation failures result is two kinds of winding faults in a systems and it can be prevented through careful design, proper

transformer namely series fault (between the turns or sections) selection of materials and material process [9]. The PD signal

and shunt faults (between the winding) and earthed detection is one of the main challenges for power utilities and

equipment manufacturers during impulse test.

III. MEASUREMENT OF HIGH FREQUENCY NONSTATIONARY B. Noise removal from high frequency transient signals

TRANSIENT SIGNALS DURING IMPULSE TEST Generally, events such as PD or minor structural

deformations affect the winding response at high frequency

A. Assimilation of high frequency transient signals region [9]. A number of sophisticated methods have been

To analyze the efficacy of the proposed analysis, developed for PD measurement and data processing methods.

experimental studies are performed on 22kV transformer The often encountered difficulty in PD measurement is to

windings (interleaved winding) by creating a live discharge discriminate PD signals from various noises. The fundamental

across each winding section from section 1 to section 8 issues with various electrical methods are lesser Signal-to-

(tapping). A 120kV, 250kJ impulse voltage generator (MWB- Noise Ratio (SNR) at higher frequencies. Therefore,

make) is used for generating the standard lightning impulse sophisticated digital filtering method is required to fit the

voltage (LI). Figure 1 shows the experimental test setup for purpose of detecting PD signals correctly. Hence, it would be

generation of impulse voltage waveshape (front time 1.2µs useful to develop a method that can work under circumstances

and tail time 50µs). of improving the SNR. Amongst the various denoising

By applying standard LI across the entire winding of methods that have been developed for removing the noise,

transformer, live discharges are generated across different wavelet based denoising method have gained some acceptance

tappings of the winding. Tappings are provided to create a live [8, 10-12]. Hence, considering the signal dynamics interval

discharge across the sections. When a discharge is created dependent denoising method is effectively utilized in this

across any section (tapping), current passing through the study [11].

winding is in the form of a single spike (PD pulse) The wavelet transform is a multi-resolution analysis to

representing the discharge pulse across the section [9]. The analyze non-stationary nature of transient signals in both time

plane-needle electrode configuration is used to create a live domain and frequency domain. There are many wavelets

discharge across any section. The type of discharge across the utilized effectively to adopt for high frequency nature of

section is dependent on the dielectric medium between the transient signals [8,10]. Generally, the effectiveness of the

electrodes, gap between the electrode, magnitude of applied wavelet de-noising approach depends on the selection of the

voltage, temperature, moisture in the solid and liquid mother wavelet and an adequate thresholding of the detail

insulation etc.. The impulse PD responses are measured across wavelet coefficients. The thresholds values are calculated for

the current measuring of shunt resistor (RL). each level separately. In case of interval dependent de-noising,

The impulse voltage is increased till a discharge across the thresholds are calculated based on the levels and intervals.

electrodes occurs, thus generating PD pulse across a section of Therefore, noise is efficiently removed especially in the

the winding. The occurrence of PD is observed as high transient signals where constant thresholds do not perform

frequency oscillations in the winding response [4]. In practice, optimally.

the occurrence of PD is also input to the transformer winding. Figure 2 shows the applied impulse voltage waveshape

If the effect of PD with different durations is considered (positive wave shape). Figures 3(a) and 3(b) show the

during an input excitation, the transformer winding is denoised responses of the interleaved winding due to with

considered as Multiple-Input and Single-Output (MISO) discharge and without discharge across the winding section 7

system. During impulse fault condition, the transformer

respectively. Similarly, Figures 4(a) and 4(b) show the

winding is no longer a Single-Input and Single-Output (SISO)

system, but a MISO. denoised responses of the interleaved winding due to with

discharge and without discharge across the winding section 5

respectively. The enlarged view of high frequency oscillations

due to PD is shown in Figures 3(b) and 4(b). Similarly,

discharges are created across all the sections (1 to 8).

Amplitude

(kV)

time in µs

Figure 2. Applied impulse wave shape

From the winding responses, one can observe that there is a

definite difference in the winding responses due to injection of

live PD across the winding sections. In general, the measured

T – Transformer, 230V/100kV, D1, D2 – Diodes, 140kV, 20mA, CS – PD signals can be categorized into capacitive components,

Charging Capacitor, 2500pF, S – Sphere Gap, CD1, CD2 – Capacitive traveling wave component (propagation of pulses along the

divider, 1200pF. conductor) and oscillating component. These components are

strongly dependent on the design of the transformer and PD

Figure 1. Impulse voltage generation and live discharge defect location.

generation experimental test setup.

Amplitude (kV)

Amplitude (kV)

Amplitude (kV)

Amplitude kV)

Scale

Scale

Scale

Scale

Scale

Scale

Scale

Scale

time in µs

time in µs

Figure 4. Responses of the interleaved winding and wavelet

Figure 3. Responses of the interleaved winding and wavelet spectrum analysis due to with discharge R(t) and without discharge

spectrum analysis due to with discharge, R(t) and without discharge, S(t) across the winding section 5.

across the winding section 7.

IV. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FREQUENCY NONSTATIONARY Figures 3(c) and 3(d) show the continuous wavelet transform

TRANSIENT SIGNALS DURING IMPULSE TEST of the measured winding responses due to with discharge, R(t)

and without discharge, S(t) across the winding section 7

A several high frequency transient signals that are

respectively. Similarly, Figures 4(c) and 4(d) show continuous

encountered during impulse test fall into the type of non

wavelet transform of the measured winding responses due to

stationary signals whose statistical properties constantly

with discharge and without discharge across the winding

change with respect to time. Such non stationary signals make

section 5 respectively. From these Figures, it is found that

the Fourier based analysis limited when temporal interaction

CWT has expanded a time series into frequency space where

information of how the transient signal frequency components

high frequency oscillations can be seen in a highly intuitive

evolve with time is necessary to be looked at. In general, there

way due to PD at 15.45 µs (for section 7) and 15.75 µs

is a trade off between spectral and temporal resolution based

(section 5).

on the window length. Short window provides a poor spectral

resolution and good temporal resolution and vice versa for

long window. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) uses a B. Cross wavelet transform (XWT)

fixed window to the signal. Hence, it cannot provide good If the testing engineers are interested to understand and

resolution in both time and frequency domain [8]. Therefore, characterize the responses of the transformer, CWT may be

the utilization of Fourier based analysis is limited to stationary sufficient. One of the common ways of obtaining information

signals only and temporal interactions are missed [8, 10]. about the transformer insulation during impulse test is based

Alternatively, wavelet transform provides a useful approach in on comparison of the recorded voltage waveshapes and

investigating non-stationary signals which is usually regarded winding responses between RFW (Reduced Full wave) and

as an optimal solution to the time and frequency resolutions rated FW voltages or between successive measurements at FW

[8]. Advantages of the wavelet transform over the voltage. Therefore, to analyze the synchronization between the

conventional transfer function method are demonstrated and it signals due to different impulse sequences CWT analysis is no

appears that the wavelet transform is better suited for the

longer sufficient and testing engineer needs to depend on

detection of PD [13].

multivariate or at least bivariate analysis principles. To

In general, the time varying natures of the measured signals understand the functioning of transformer insulation due to

are divided into two components. One has high frequency impulse excitations, XWT is performed between the normal

oscillations and other has lower frequency signals. Based on winding response (Figure 3(a) or Figure 4(a)) and one with PD

type of the fault at various locations within the winding, the response (Figure 3(b) or Figure 4(b)).

nature of the transient signals may vary in higher frequency

In general, XWT shows regions with high common power

components or lower frequency components. Hence, an

and further reveals information about phase relationship

attempt has been made to utilize wavelet transform to adjust

between the signals of interest. In this study, for analysis of

the band of analysis so that the high frequency and low

the covariance of time series of S(t) and R(t), the wavelet

frequency components can be precisely detected for fault

spectrum WS(t) and WR(t) represented as

identifications [13, 14]. Wavelets can also provide higher

precision time resolution for short duration higher frequency *

signals as well higher precision frequency resolution for long WSR (s, m) = WS (s, m ) WR (s, m) (2)

duration low frequency signals [8]. To analyze the usefulness

of the wavelet transform for PD signal detection, the normal Here, * represents complex conjugation. The coscalogram

winding response due to reduced impulse voltage, S(t) and one plot through |Wxy(s,m)| provides the coincident events over

with PD response due to Full wave voltage, R(t) are utilized. the frequency for each time in the signals S(t) and R(t). The

phase angle of WSR describes the phase relationship between

A. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) the responses of S(t) and R(t) in time frequency space. Hence,

The wavelet transform can be used to analyze time series complex argument arg(WSR) can be interpreted as the local

that contain non stationary power at many different relative phase difference of the two time series (S(t) and R(t))

frequencies [14-17]. The CWT decomposes the time series [15,16].

into time-frequency space, enabling the identification of both The phase angle of coscalogram is a complex matrix and

the dominant modes of variability and how those modes vary then one can represent the phase angles as arrows to facilitate

with time. The CWT of the time series of the measured normal the interpretations. Phase arrows show the relative phase of

winding response S(t) with respect to wavelet (ψ) is defined as the signals S(t) and R(t). Figure 3(e) shows the XWT between

Wd ,ψ (s, m) = S(m) × ψ s ( m) (1) S(t) and R(t) due to injection of PD across the winding section

7. Similarly, Figure 4(e) shows the XWT between S(t) and

Where, m is the discrete sample. ψs is the Wavelet at the R(t) due to injection of PD across the winding section 5. The

scale s. S(m) is the bounded over the period of measured time extracted phase spectrum due to injection of PD signal is

interval. shown as arrows in the Figures 3(e) and 4(e). The horizontal

In general, the results of the wavelet analysis of a signal arrow pointing right side indicates signals are in phase, while

(S(t) or R(t)) are highly correlated to the choice of the wavelet horizontal arrows pointing left indicate anti phase. The

[16]. In this study, Morlet wavelet is used to provide a good weakest synchronization is found at 15.45 µs (for section 7)

balance between time and frequency localization [8, 15-17]. and 15.75 µs (section 5).

Figures 3(e) and 4(e) provide amplitude and phase Initially, to reduce the influence of noise in the winding

relationship between simultaneously measured signals of S(t) responses for fault identification based on similarity measure,

and R(t). From the Figures 3(e) and 4(e), XWT is able to measured responses are de-noised through interval dependent

detect correlation between strength of the signals as well as wavelet denoising techniques in order to improve the SNR

the phases with it’s direction. The limitation of XWT is to [18]. When there is a PD due to high stress level, the changes

differentiate the region of fault (here PD) from the common in the current signals will be short durations, low magnitude

power in the spectrum over the period of measured time. and fast decaying transient signals are detected through WTC.

Hence, testing engineer needs to depend on wavelet transform WTC is capable of clearly resolving even such minute

variations in the signals as a function of both time and

coherence (WTC) for proper identification of PD signals only.

frequency. The results of this study show that the present

WTC provides the correlation between the two wavelet

analysis can successfully detect the temporal and spectral

spectra preserving the phase information as that of XWT. interactions between the normal signal and one with PD

C. Wavelet transform coherence(WTC) signal. The proposed analysis of wavelet transform coherence

can be used to conclude if a transformer passes the impulse

The classical coherence should sometimes be preferred to

test or not through visual interpretation of WTC spectrum.

provide the new insights into scale dependent degree of

comparison between S(t) and R(t). However, if the signals WTC can successfully detect the PD pulse if the measured

include non stationary components the classical coherence PD signals are closer to noise magnitude through phase

spectrum and the method of amplitude and phase values can

becomes invalid. Hence, WTC is performed in this study and

be used to confirm the observations.

one can get bounded measure constrained with 0 to 1.

The proposed analysis is also useful for transformer

WTC is a function with zero mean that splits the data of

industry to detect the winding fault for any type and rating of

functions or operators into different frequency components transformer.

and then studies each frequency components with a good

resolution matched to its scale [16]. Therefore, WTC provides

the local correlation between two CWTs of the time series S(t) Acknowledgment

and R(t). WTC is measure of the intensity of the covariance

The second author express his thanks to Division of High

between S(t) and R(t) in time frequency space unlike XWT Voltage Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna

which is a measure of the common power and expressed as University, Chennai for providing experimental test setup to

H (s -1

W SR ( s , m )

2 carry out the research. The authors would like to express

2

R (s, m ) = (3) gratitude to Crompton Greaves limited, Global R & D centre,

-1 2 -1 2

H (s W S (s , m ) ) H (s W R (s, m ) ) Kanjur Marg (E), Mumbai, India for granting permission to

publish the paper.

Coherence is identically 1 at all the scale and time if there is

a common power between the signals. Here, H is a smoothing References

operator and it is achieved by a convolution in time and scale.

[1] IEC 60076-3, “Power transformers - Part 3: Insulation levels, dielectric

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simulation methods. Hence, significance level of WTC is [3] CIGRE JWG 12/13/23.2, “Electrical Environment of Transformers”,

determined using Monte Carlo method. The phase spectrum of Paris, 2002.

XWT between S(t) and R(t) is identical to that of WTC. [4] K.Karsai, D.Kerenyi and L.Kiss, “Large power transformer”, Elsevier

Science Publishers, New York., 1987.

Figure 3(f) shows the WTC between the time series of S(t)

and R(t) across the winding section 7. Similarly, Figure 4(f) [5] S. V. Kulkarni and S.A. Khaparde, “Transformer Engineering: design

and practice transformer engineering”, Marcel Dekker Inc.,

shows the WTC between S(t) and R(t) across the winding New York, 2004.

section 5. The similar analyses are performed for injection of [6] E. Gulski, “Digital analysis of partial discharge”, IEEE Transactions on

PD pulse across the remaining winding sections. From the Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol.2, No.5,

analyses, it is found that different magnitudes and phases are pp. 822-837, 1995.

appeared in the measured current response due to PD pulse [7] M.S.Naderi, G.B.Gharehpetian, M. Abedi and T.R.Blackburn,

with respect to normal winding response S(t). “Modelling and detection of transformer internal incipient fault during

impulse test”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical

Insulation, Vol. 15, No.1, pp. 284-291, 2008.

V. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS [8] L. Satish, “Short time Fourier and wavelet transformers for fault

The detection and extraction of PD signals (magnitude and detection in power transformers during impulse test”, IEE Pro. Sci. &

Technology, Vol. 145, No. 2, pp. 77-84, 1998.

phase information) through synchronization principles are one

[9] F.H.Kreuger, “Partial Discharge Detection in High-voltage Equipment”,

of the challenging tasks for testing engineers during impulse Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd,

test. In this study, for analysis of high frequency transient

[10] S. K. Pandey and L. Satish, “Multiresolution signal decompostion: a

signals due to PD in transformer during impulse test, wavelet new tool for fault detection in power transformers during impulse tests”,

transform coherence is used to provide the relationships IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 1194–1200, 1998.

between the normal winding response and one with PD. [11] Ramesh Kumar, Prabhat Patel, “Signal Denoising with Interval

Dependent Thresholding Using DWT and SWT”, International Journal

of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Vol.I,

Issue-6, pp.47-52, 2012.

[12] H.H. Sinaga, B.T.Phung and T.R.Blackburn,“Partial discharge

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[13] K. L. Butler and M. Bagriyanik, “Characterization of transients in

transformers using discrete wavelet transform”, IEEE Transactions on

Power Systems, Vol. 18, No.2, pp. 648-656, 2003

[14] P. Purkait, S. Chakravorti, “Pattern classificationof impulse faults in

transformers by wavelet analysis”, IEEE transaction on dielectrics and

electrical insulation, Vol. 9, No. 4, Aug. 2002.

[15] Z. Ge, “Significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and wavelet

linear coherence”, Ann. Geophys.,Vol. 26, pp. 3819-3829, 2008.

[16] A. Grinsted, J.C. Moore and S. Jevrejeva, “Application of cross wavelet

transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series”, Nonlinear

processes in geophysics, Vol.11, pp. 561-566, 2004.

[17] C. Torrence and Gilbert P. Compo, “A practical guide to wavelet

analysis”, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 61-78, 1998

[18] V. Jeyabalan, S. Jayalakshmi, “Interval dependent wavelet de-noising

technique for high frequency transient signals analysis during impulse

testing of transformers”, IEEE 9th International Conference on Industrial

and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2014.

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