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QUARTER​ ​1​ ​HISTORY​ ​REVISION​ ​-​ ​TAASIA’S​ ​NOTES

Resources
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/​​ ​(GCSE
syllabus​ ​with​ ​some​ ​helpful​ ​stuff)
https://www.mrallsophistory.com/revision/category/gcse-and-igcse-hist
ory-revision​​ ​(Podcasts​ ​+​ ​Transcripts)
http://www.johndclare.net/​​ ​(IGCSE​ ​endorsed)
- Essays​ ​and​ ​Presentations​ ​from​ ​Class​ ​(Type​ ​B​ ​Questions,
Presentation​ ​on​ ​a​ ​Success/Failure​ ​of​ ​League​ ​of​ ​Nations)
- Study​ ​Materials​ ​on​ ​GC​ ​(under​ ​‘about’​ ​tab)
- Textbook​ ​and​ ​class​ ​notes​ ​-​ ​Google​ ​Classroom
Chapter​ ​1​ ​-​ ​Were​ ​the​ ​Peace​ ​Treaties​ ​of​ ​1919-1923​ ​Fair?

Describe​ ​the​ ​motives​ ​and​ ​aims​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Big​ T


​ hree​ (
​ Wilson,
Clemenceau,​ ​and​ ​Lloyd​ ​George)​ ​at​ ​the​ ​Paris​ ​Peace​ ​Conference.
France​ ​(Georges Woodrow​ ​Wilson ​ eorge​ ​(Great
Lloyd​ G
Clemenceau) (America/USA) Britain)

Main​ ​aim​ ​-​ ​To​ ​achieve Main​ ​aim​ ​-​ ​To​ ​earn​ ​a Main​ ​aim​ ​-​ ​To
a​ ​harsh​ ​peace place​ ​in​ ​history​ ​and maintain​ ​Britain’s
(​because​ ​napoleon​ ​is to​ ​achieve​ ​a​ ​just position​ ​as​ ​a​ ​key
real)​​ ​that​ ​would peace​ ​using​ ​his​ ​14 world​ ​power​ ​and​ ​avoid
ensure​ ​the​ ​future points. national​ ​German
security​ ​of​ ​France. grievance​ ​by
achieving​ ​a​ ​moderate
peace.

Why?​ ​-​ ​Germany​ ​had Why?​ ​-​ ​Since​ ​America Why?​ ​-​ ​Britain​ ​had
taken​ ​Alsace-Lorraine had​ ​entered​ ​the​ ​war been​ ​directly
in​ ​the towards​ ​the​ ​end,​ ​and attacked​ ​in​ ​Germany
Franco-Prussian​ ​War had​ ​no​ ​significant during​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​but
around​ ​50​ ​years​ ​ago damage,​ ​Wilson​ ​wanted she​ ​did​ ​not​ ​have​ ​as
and​ ​also​ ​killed​ ​many to​ ​earn​ ​a​ ​place​ ​in much​ ​damage​ ​as
French​ ​military​ ​and history​ ​as​ ​a​ ​hero​ ​and France.​ ​Britain​ ​had
civilians,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as to​ ​save​ ​the​ ​world​ ​(he its​ ​own​ ​massive
causing​ ​a​ ​great​ ​deal was​ ​quite​ ​the empire,​ ​land​ ​and​ ​in
of​ ​deliberate​ ​damage. idealist). the​ ​seas,​ ​and​ ​wanted
Germany​ ​also​ ​shared​ ​a to​ ​maintain​ ​and
border​ ​with​ ​France, expand​ ​that.
with​ ​no​ ​defined
natural​ ​frontier,​ ​and
therefore​ ​was​ ​most​ ​at
risk.

Demands Demands Demands


1. Permanent 1. Idealist​ ​- 1. Just​ ​yet​ ​harsh
Disarmament​ ​for wanted​ ​a​ ​just peace
Germany​ ​- and​ ​everlasting 2. Get​ ​more​ ​land
including​ ​its peace​ ​that​ ​would for​ ​British
army,​ ​navy​ ​and make​ ​him​ ​a​ ​hero Empire​ ​-​ ​a
air​ ​force (​>sitting​ ​in​ ​the sizable​ ​share​ ​of
2. High​ ​figure​ ​of hall​ ​of​ ​fameee<) British​ ​colonies
reparations​ ​with 2. Wanted​ ​to 3. To​ ​protect
a​ ​definite strengthen British​ ​property
figure​ ​in​ ​the democracy​ ​with -​ ​eg​ ​keep
Treaty his​ ​14​ ​points British​ ​navy
3. The​ ​return​ ​of and​ ​League​ ​of going​ ​strong
Alsace-Lorraine Nations​ ​(14th 4. Making​ ​sure​ ​that
to​ ​France point) British​ ​and
4. A​ ​high​ ​amount​ ​of 3. Prevent​ ​Germany European​ ​economy
Germany’s from​ ​being and​ ​trade​ ​would
colonies​ ​given aggressive​ ​in keep​ ​thriving
to​ ​France the​ ​future 5. To​ ​have​ ​a
5. An​ ​independent 4. Punish​ ​Germany moderate​ ​figure
Rhineland​ ​(land in​ ​a​ ​just of​ ​reparations
on​ ​West​ ​Coast​ ​of manner,​ ​but​ ​not 6. To​ ​prevent
Germany)​ ​so too​ ​harshly national
France​ ​no​ ​longer 5. The​ ​use​ ​of grievance​ ​in
had​ ​a​ ​common self-determinati Germany​ ​due​ ​to
border​ ​with on​ ​-​ ​wherein the​ ​Treaty
Germany countries​ ​can 7. To​ ​maintain
6. The​ ​Saar​ ​Basin decide​ ​its Britain’s​ ​power
given​ ​to​ ​France political​ ​future as​ ​a​ ​key
(which​ ​contained through​ ​voting European​ ​and
lots​ ​of​ ​coal) 6. No​ ​secret World​ ​Power.
7. To​ ​weaken treaties​ ​(​bc 8.
Germany’s gossiping​ ​is
industries bullying)
8. To​ ​prevent 7. Disarmament​ ​for
Germany​ ​from all​ ​countries.
being 8. To​ ​make​ ​sure
aggressive. that​ ​Germany
would​ ​keep​ ​the
Rhineland​ ​so
America​ ​could
keep​ ​doing
business​ ​with
them.

Understand​ ​why​ ​Lloyd​ ​George’s​ ​approach​ ​to​ ​Germany​ ​softened


between​ ​November​ ​1918​ ​and​ ​January​ ​1919.
Much​ ​like​ ​the​ ​British​ ​public,​ ​Lloyd​ ​George​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​make​ ​sure
that​ ​Germany​ ​would​ ​‘pay​ ​to​ ​the​ ​last​ ​penny’.​ ​Britain​ ​had​ ​been
directly​ ​attacked​ ​by​ ​Germany​ ​and​ ​had​ ​lost​ ​many​ ​young​ ​men​ ​in​ ​the
war.​ ​He​ ​also​ ​wanted​ ​land​ ​from​ ​Germany​ ​and​ ​a​ ​harsh​ ​peace,​ ​much
like​ ​France.

However,​ ​in​ ​1919,​ ​he​ ​realized​ ​that​ ​Germany​ ​was​ ​important​ ​not
only​ ​for​ ​Britain’s​ ​trade​ ​and​ ​economy​ ​but​ ​also​ ​for​ ​the​ ​general
economic​ ​revival​ ​of​ ​Europe.​ ​Germany​ ​was​ ​also​ ​Britain’s​ ​most
important​ ​European​ ​customer​ ​prior​ ​to​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​and​ ​if​ G ​ ermany​ ​was
derived​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Rhineland​ ​and​ ​of​ ​too​ ​much​ ​as​ ​a​ ​whole,​ i​ t​ ​would​ ​be
unable​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​British​ ​goods.

Explain​ ​why​ ​there​ ​were​ ​differences​ ​between​ ​the​ ​aims​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Big
Three.
Each​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Big​ ​Three​ ​ultimately​ ​had​ ​each​ ​of​ ​their​ ​country’s​ ​and
people’s​ ​interest​ ​at​ ​heart.​​ ​A​ ​strong​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​this​ ​was​ ​their
wartime​ ​experiences.​​ ​France​ ​had​ ​suffered​ ​the​ ​most​ ​damage
throughout​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​with​ ​French​ ​territory​ ​being​ ​destroyed​ ​and
many​ ​French​ ​lives​ ​taken.​ ​France​ ​also​ ​had​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​bad​ ​blood​ ​with
Germany​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Franco-Prussian​ ​War​ ​and​ ​the​ ​loss​ ​of
Alsace-Lorraine.​ ​The​ ​USA,​ ​however,​ ​had​ ​managed​ ​to​ ​stay​ ​out​ ​of
the​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war​ ​and​ ​only​ ​entered​ ​the​ ​war​ ​at​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of
the​ ​war,​ ​and​ ​had​ ​no​ ​national​ ​grievance,​ ​meaning​ ​that​ ​France​ ​and
the​ ​USA​ ​had​ ​completely​ ​different​ ​aims.​ ​While​ ​Britain​ ​had​ ​some
national​ ​grievance,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​in​ ​no​ ​way​ ​as​ ​fierce​ ​as​ ​France’s​ ​was
and​ ​their​ ​main​ ​aim​ ​was​ ​to​ ​just​ ​maintain​ ​Britain’s​ ​power.​ ​This
meant​ ​that​ ​Clemenceau​ ​and​ ​Lloyd​ ​George​ ​wanted​ ​land​ ​and​ ​power,
while​ ​Wilson​ ​thought​ ​they​ ​were​ ​being​ ​selfish.​ ​Through​ ​these
reasons,​ ​it’s​ ​obvious​ ​why​ ​the​ ​Big​ ​Three’s​ ​aims​ ​were​ ​so
different.

Describe​ ​the​ ​main​ ​features​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles.


(To​ ​remember​ ​the​ ​Treaty,​ ​we​ ​can​ ​use​ ​the​ ​GARGLE​ ​acronym.​ ​There
were​ ​440​ ​articles​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Treaty)
G​ ​(Guilt/Article​ ​231)​ ​-​ ​Germany​ ​was​ ​appointed​ ​total​ ​blame​ ​for
the​ ​war.
A​ ​(Arms​ ​Restriction)​ ​-​ ​Germany’s​ ​army​ ​was​ ​stripped​ ​down​ ​to​ ​100
000​ ​soldiers,​ ​had​ ​a​ ​reduced​ ​navy,​ ​and​ ​were​ ​forbidden​ ​their​ ​own
air​ ​force.​ ​The​ ​Rhineland​ ​was​ ​demilitarized,​ ​with​ ​Germany​ ​not
allowed​ ​to​ ​go​ ​there​ ​and​ ​had​ ​a​ ​conscription​ ​ban​ ​(no​ ​men​ ​were
allowed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​conscripted​ ​into​ ​the​ ​army).
R​ ​(Reparations)​ ​-​ ​Though​ ​there​ ​was​ ​no​ ​definite​ ​figure​ ​in​ ​the
Treaty,​ ​the​ ​final​ ​amount​ ​was​ ​6.6​ ​billion​ ​pounds​ ​or​ ​132​ ​billion
gold​ ​marks.
G​ ​(​G​erman​ ​Territory)​ ​-​ ​Alsace-Lorraine​ ​was​ ​given​ ​back​ ​to​ ​France,
Danzig​ ​was​ ​to​ ​be​ ​a​ ​free​ ​city​ ​under​ ​the​ ​League​ ​of​ ​Nations
control,​ ​West​ ​Prussia​ ​and​ ​Posen​ ​were​ ​given​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Polish
corridor​ ​with​ c ​ olonies​ ​given​ ​to​ ​the​ ​victors​ ​(Britain,​ F ​ rance​ ​and
Japan).
LE​ ​(League​ ​of​ N​ ations)​ ​-​ ​The​ ​League​ ​of​ ​Nations​ ​was​ ​to​ b​ e
established​ ​-​ G ​ ermany​ ​was​ ​barred​ ​from​ ​joining.

Describe​ ​the​ ​main​ ​features​ ​of​ ​the​ ​treaties​ ​that​ ​dealt​ ​with
Germany’s​ ​former​ ​allies—​ ​Austria,​ ​Hungary,​ ​Bulgaria,​ ​and​ ​Turkey.
Treaty​ ​of​ ​St.​ ​Germain​ ​with​ ​Austria​ ​(1919)
- Anschluss​ ​Ban​ ​-​ ​no​ ​alliances​ ​with​ ​Germany
- Imposed​ ​reparations​ ​(Austria​ ​went​ ​bankrupt​ ​before​ ​payments
were​ ​settled)
- The​ ​army​ ​was​ ​to​ ​be​ ​reduced​ ​to​ ​30,000​ ​men
- Must​ ​accept​ ​that​ ​dual​ ​monarchy​ ​with​ ​Hungary​ ​was​ ​over
- Austrian​ ​territory​ ​was​ ​to​ ​be​ ​taken​ ​away​ ​-​ ​Galicia​ ​was​ ​given
to​ ​Poland,​ ​Bohemia​ ​and​ ​Moravia​ ​to​ ​Czechoslovakia,​ ​and
Herzegovina​ ​to​ ​Yugoslavia
- Displacement​ ​of​ ​people
- Recognition​ ​of​ ​Hungary,​ ​Czechoslovakia,​ ​Poland,​ ​Yugoslavia,
Italy​ ​and​ ​Romania​ ​as​ ​independent​ ​countries​ ​-​ ​now​ ​a​ ​small,
landlocked​ ​country

Treaty​ ​of​ ​Trianon​ ​with​ ​Hungary​ ​(1920)


- Had​ ​to​ ​accept​ ​the​ ​breakup​ ​of​ ​dual​ ​monarchy​ ​with​ ​Austria
- Austro-Hungarian​ ​army​ ​was​ ​dismantled
- Had​ ​to​ ​recognize​ ​the​ ​independence​ ​of​ ​Yugoslavia​ ​and
Czechoslovakia
- Transylvania​ ​to​ ​Romania,​ ​Slovakia​ ​and​ ​Ruthenia​ ​to
Czechoslovakia,​ ​Slovenia​ ​and​ ​Croatia​ ​to​ ​Yugoslavia
- 70%​ ​of​ ​land​ ​and​ ​⅓​ ​of​ ​people​ ​lost​ ​-​ ​their​ ​seaports
taken​ ​away,​ ​meaning​ ​they​ ​were​ ​now​ ​a​ ​landlocked​ ​country
- 3​ ​million​ ​Hungarians​ ​displaced/replaced
- Hungary​ ​-​ ​dismayed​ ​by​ ​Treaty

​ reaty​ ​of​ ​Neuilly​ ​with​ ​Bulgaria​ (


The​ T ​ 1919)
- Bulgaria​ ​-​ ​minor​ ​player​ ​in​ ​the​ ​war
- The​ ​military​ ​was​ ​to​ ​be​ ​reduced​ ​to​ 2​ 0,000​ ​volunteers,​ ​4
torpedo​ ​boats​ ​and​ ​no​ ​air​ ​force
- 2.25​ ​million​ ​Francs​ ​were​ ​paid
- Land​ ​given​ ​to​ ​Yugoslavia,​ ​Romania​ ​and​ ​Greece
- Must​ r​ ecognize​ ​independence​ ​of​ ​Yugoslavia
- Bulgarians​ ​thought​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​a​ ​national​ ​catastrophe
and​ ​was​ ​a​ ​blow​ ​to​ ​its​ ​national​ ​pride

​ reaty​ ​of​ ​Sèvres​ ​with​ ​Turkey/Ottoman​ ​Empire​ ​(1920)


The​ T
- Considered​ ​very​ ​harsh
- Military​ ​reduced​ ​to​ ​50,000​ ​soldiers,​ ​7​ ​sailboats​ ​and​ ​6
torpedo​ ​boats
- Smyra​ ​and​ ​East​ ​Thrace​ ​was​ ​given​ ​to​ ​Greece,​ ​Rhodes​ ​was​ ​given
to​ ​Italy
- Britain​ ​took​ ​control​ ​of​ ​Palestine
- Turkey​ ​lost​ ​its​ ​provinces​ ​in​ ​Middle​ ​East​ ​to​ ​Britain​ ​and
France,​ ​and​ ​lost​ ​territory​ ​to​ ​Greece​ ​and​ ​Italy
- Dardanelle​ ​Strait​ ​was​ ​to​ ​become​ ​an​ ​international​ ​waterway

The​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​not​ ​well​ ​received​ ​and​ c ​ aused​ ​a​ ​national​ ​uprising
led​ ​by​ ​Mustapha​ ​Kemal.​ ​This​ ​led​ ​to​ ​a​ r​ enegotiated​ ​treaty,​ ​the
Treaty​ ​of​ ​Lausanne.

The​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Lausanne​ ​with​ ​Turkey​ ​(24​ ​July​ ​1923)


- Turkey​ ​confirmed​ ​loss​ ​of​ ​provinces​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Middle​ ​East
- Turkey​ ​received​ ​back​ ​most​ ​of​ ​its​ ​European​ ​territory
- The​ ​Dardanelles​ ​Strait​ ​was​ ​to​ ​return​ ​to​ ​Turkish​ ​sovereignty
- Restrictions​ ​on​ ​armed​ ​forces​ ​were​ ​removed
- No​ ​longer​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​reparations

Explain​ ​why​ ​the​ ​victorious​ ​powers​ ​did​ ​not​ ​get​ ​everything​ ​they
wanted​ ​from​ ​the​ ​peace​ ​settlement.
The​ ​Big​ ​Three​ ​wanted​ ​such​ ​different​ ​things​ ​-​ ​Clemenceau​ ​wanted​ ​a
harsh​ ​peace,​ ​Wilson​ ​a​ ​lenient​ ​peace​ ​and​ ​Lloyd​ ​George​ ​a
relatively​ ​moderate​ ​peace​ ​-​ ​it​ ​was​ ​basically​ ​impossible​ ​for
everyone​ ​to​ ​get​ ​everything​ ​they​ ​wanted​ ​and​ ​to​ ​please​ ​everyone.
However,​ ​there​ ​was​ ​always​ ​at​ ​least​ ​one​ ​aspects​ ​that​ ​satisfied
each​ ​leader.

Identify​ ​which​ ​aspects​ ​of​ ​the​ ​peace​ ​settlement​ ​satisfied​ ​each​ ​of
the​ ​Big​ ​Three.
Anglo-American​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Guarantee​ ​-​ ​Grew​ ​out​ ​of​ ​France’s​ ​fear
of​ ​security,​ ​but​ ​didn’t​ ​become​ ​official​ ​because​ ​the​ ​American
Congress​ ​didn’t​ ​approve​ ​and​ ​Britain​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​protect​ ​France​ ​on
its​ ​own.
France USA Britain

What​ ​aspects​ ​pleased What​ ​aspects What​ ​aspects​ ​pleased


them: pleased​ ​them: them:
- Got​ ​back - League​ ​of - Most​ ​satisfied
Alsace-Lorraine Nations​ ​was​ ​to of​ ​Big​ ​Three
- Transfer​ ​of​ ​some be​ ​introduced - Got​ ​moderate
of​ ​Germany’s to​ ​ALL​ ​peace peace​ ​that
former​ ​colonies treaties would​ ​help
- Likely​ ​to​ ​be - Defeated revive​ ​Europe’s
receiving​ ​the powers​ ​to​ ​be economy
majority​ ​of​ ​the disarmed - Successfully
reparations (objective​ ​was persuaded
- Demilitarization to​ ​disarm​ ​all Clemenceau​ ​to
of​ ​Rhineland countries) have​ ​a​ ​more
- Some​ ​security​ ​on - Relieved moderate​ ​peace
eastern​ ​frontier Rhineland​ ​was - Extended
- Taking​ ​away still​ ​a​ ​part colonies​ ​for
Germany’s​ ​land, of​ ​Germany​ ​- Britain
population​ ​and so​ ​then - Germans​ ​decided
resources Germany​ ​could to​ ​scuttle
do​ ​business their​ ​fleet​ ​-
with​ ​the​ ​US eliminating
- Because​ ​of German​ ​naval
that​ ​he​ ​was threats
satisfied​ ​that - Happy​ ​that
the​ ​figure​ ​of Germany​ ​had
reparations enough​ ​money​ ​to
wouldn’t​ ​be trade​ ​with​ ​them
high - Returned​ ​as​ ​a
- Delighted​ ​at hero​ ​and​ ​House
independent of​ ​Commons
Poland,​ ​and voted​ ​for​ ​the
creation​ ​of Treaty
new​ ​states
Yugoslavia​ ​and
Czechoslovakia
from
Austro-Hungari
an​ ​land
- National
self-determina
tion​ ​widely
implemented

What​ ​parts​ ​displeased What​ ​parts What​ ​parts


them: displeased​ ​them: displeased​ ​them:
- Not​ ​enough - Thought​ ​peace - Thought​ ​Treaty
security​ ​on settlement​ ​was was​ ​too​ ​harsh
eastern​ ​frontier too​ ​harsh and​ ​would​ ​bring
- Feared​ ​that - Free about​ ​another
Germany​ ​would navigations​ ​of way​ ​in​ ​20​ ​years
regain​ ​her the​ ​seas time
strength​ ​in​ ​time abandoned - Definitely​ ​most
- Thought​ ​the​ ​final
- The​ ​rewarding satisfied
treaty​ ​was​ ​too
of​ ​colonies​ ​to
lenient
- Didn’t​ ​want​ ​the
GB,​ ​France​ ​and
League Japan​ ​-​ ​wanted
- Least​ ​satisfied​ ​- colonies​ ​to​ ​be
didn’t​ ​get​ ​enough managed​ ​by​ ​the
revenge​ ​for League​ ​of
France​ ​and​ ​led​ ​to Nations
his​ ​eventual - Most​ ​upset
defeat​ ​in​ ​office. over​ ​the​ ​fact
that​ ​Congress
refused​ ​to
sign​ ​the
Treaty​ ​and
join​ ​the
League​ ​(he
couldn’t
persuade​ ​them
because​ ​he​ ​was
ill)

Understand​ ​the​ ​impact​ o ​ f​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles​ ​on​ G


​ ermany​ ​and
why​ ​it​ ​caused​ ​such​ s​ erious​ ​economic​ ​and​ ​political​ p ​ roblems
between​ ​1919​ ​and​ ​1923.
General​ ​Consensus
The​ ​general​ ​objection​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​that​ ​it​ ​was​ ​far​ ​too
harsh.​ ​Not​ ​only​ ​did​ ​Germany​ ​have​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​reparations,​ ​they​ ​had​ ​to
give​ ​up​ ​the​ ​resources​ ​they​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​make​ ​that​ ​money.​ ​However,
Germany​ ​had​ ​imposed​ ​an​ ​equally​ ​harsh​ ​treaty​ ​on​ ​Russia​ ​-​ ​the
Bresst-Litovsk​ ​Treaty,​ ​so​ ​it​ ​could​ ​be​ ​argued​ ​that​ ​they​ ​will​ ​get
a​ ​taste​ ​of​ ​their​ ​own​ ​medicine.​ ​Versailles,​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Germans,​ ​was
a​ ​dictated​ ​peace​ ​(​a​ ​dikat).​ ​Germany​ ​were​ ​given​ ​the​ ​terms​ ​and
forced​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​the​ ​Treaty,​ ​whether​ ​they​ ​like​ ​it​ ​or​ ​not,​ ​due​ ​to
threat​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Allies​ ​restarting​ ​the​ ​war.​ ​Germany​ ​was​ ​allowed​ ​to
express​ ​their​ ​opinions​ ​and​ ​criticisms​ ​by​ ​writing,​ ​and​ ​they​ ​were
allowed​ ​to​ ​change​ ​minor​ ​choices.​ ​The​ ​Germans​ ​hated​ ​the​ ​War​ ​Guilt
Clause,​ ​as​ ​they​ ​were​ ​convinced​ ​that​ ​they​ ​had​ ​not,​ ​along​ ​with
their​ ​allies,​ ​started​ ​the​ ​war​ ​-​ ​this​ ​was​ ​arguable​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Russian
mobilisation​ ​could’ve​ ​started​ ​the​ ​war.

Political​ ​Impact
- The​ ​new​ ​democratic​ ​government​ ​(the​ ​Kaiser​ ​had​ ​abdicated​ ​at
the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war)​ ​the​ ​Weimar​ ​Government,​ ​were​ ​basically
forced​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles,​ ​otherwise​ ​the
Allies​ ​would​ ​restart​ ​the​ ​war
- The​ ​government,​ ​however,​ ​instantly​ ​became​ ​unpopular​ ​for
signing​ ​the​ ​Treaty
- The​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​a​ ​sign​ ​of​ ​dishonour​ ​in​ ​many​ ​Germans’
eyes
- In​ ​retaliation,​ ​there​ ​were​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​political​ ​uprising
against​ ​the​ ​government
- Right-wing​ ​politicians​ ​and​ ​activists​ ​showed​ ​their
disapproval​ ​by​ ​supporting​ ​uprising​ ​to​ ​overthrow
government
- Extremists​ ​assassinated​ ​Walter​ ​Rathenau​ ​(foreign
minister)​ ​and​ ​Matthias​ ​Erzberger​ ​(finance​ ​minister)
- Left-wing​ ​extremist​ ​groups​ ​promoted​ ​rebellions​ ​(e.g
Ruhr​ ​of​ ​March​ ​1920)
- Angry​ ​with​ ​the​ ​disarmament​ ​portion​ ​of​ ​the​ ​treaty,​ ​many​ ​army
members​ ​joined​ ​the​ ​Freikcorps
- They​ ​staged​ ​a​ ​coup​ ​in​ ​Berlin,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​army​ ​refused​ ​to
help
- But​ ​the​ ​Weimar​ ​Government​ ​survived​ ​due​ ​to​ ​a​ ​general
workers’​ ​strike
- Overall,​ ​the​ ​signing​ ​of​ T
​ reaty​ ​derived​ ​of​ ​support​ ​and​ ​cause
from​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​their​ l​ eadership

Economic​ ​Impact
- Germans​ ​were​ ​signing​ ​a​ ​‘blank​ ​cheque’​ ​-​ ​no​ ​figure​ ​was
stated​ ​and​ ​was​ ​only​ ​finalized​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​released
- Was​ ​a​ ​very​ ​bitter​ ​topic
- The​ ​final​ ​amount​ ​(6.6​ ​billion​ ​pounds)​ ​was​ ​more​ ​than​ ​Germany
could​ ​afford​ ​to​ ​pay
- Treaty​ ​caused​ ​major​ ​economic​ ​problems
- Led​ ​to​ ​inflation,​ ​rising​ ​unemployment,​ ​poverty​ ​and
homelessness
- Which​ ​then​ ​led​ ​to​ ​economic​ ​crisis​ ​in​ ​1923
- Germany​ ​could​ ​pay​ ​the​ ​1921​ ​payments​ ​but​ ​not​ ​1922
payments
- Angry,​ ​France​ ​and​ ​Belgium​ ​occupied​ ​the​ ​Ruhr,​ ​a
valuable​ ​industrial​ ​area​ ​(which​ ​will​ ​be​ ​discussed​ ​in
more​ ​depth​ ​later)
- German​ ​government​ ​asked​ ​German​ ​Ruhr​ ​citizens​ ​to
offer​ ​passive​ ​resistance/peaceful​ ​strike​ ​action
- To​ ​make​ ​up​ ​for​ ​this​ ​lost​ ​revenue,​ ​Germany​ ​began​ ​to
print​ ​paper​ ​money,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​previous​ ​high​ ​inflation​ ​led
to​ ​hyperinflation,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​money​ ​became​ ​worthless
- Bartering​ ​became​ ​the​ ​new​ ​currency
- In​ ​August​ ​1923,​ ​Gustav​ ​Stresemann​ ​became​ ​Chancellor​ ​and
ended​ ​the​ ​passive​ ​resistance​ ​in​ ​Ruhr,​ ​and​ ​also​ ​introduced​ ​a
temporary​ ​currency​ ​-​ ​the​ ​Rentenmark
- This​ ​meant​ ​Germany​ ​could​ ​pay​ ​some​ ​of​ ​its​ ​outstanding​ ​fines
for​ ​a​ ​period​ ​of​ ​time
- 5​ ​years​ ​later,​ ​the​ ​Young​ ​Plan​​ ​reduced​ ​the​ ​outstanding
amount​ ​to​ ​1​ ​billion​ ​pounds.
- Germany​ ​received​ ​more​ ​in​ ​USA​ ​loans​ ​than​ ​it​ ​could​ ​afford​ ​to
pay​ ​back

Decide​ ​which​ ​aspects​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles​ ​(War​ ​Guilt
Clause,​ ​disarmament​ ​requirements,​ ​territorial​ ​changes,
reparations,​ ​etc.)​ ​were​ ​most​ ​objectionable​ ​to​ ​the​ ​German​ ​people.
War​ ​Guilt​ ​Clause
- The​ ​war​ ​guilt​ ​clause​ ​(aka​ ​Article​ ​231)​ ​was​ ​a​ ​very​ ​bitter
topic
- Germans​ ​felt​ ​like​ ​it​ ​rubbed​ ​salt​ ​into​ ​their​ ​wounds
- Not​ ​convinced​ ​that​ ​they​ ​started​ ​the​ ​war​ ​(along​ ​with​ ​their
allies)
Disarmament
- Was​ ​a​ ​blow​ ​to​ ​their​ ​privilege​ ​and​ ​status
- A​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​German​ ​dislike
- Claimed​ ​100​ ​000​ ​men​ ​was​ ​not​ ​sufficient​ ​for​ ​border
defence
- Made​ ​it​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​uprisings​ ​and​ ​revolts
The​ ​14​ ​Points
- Germany​ ​thought​ ​that​ ​the​ ​peace​ ​settlement​ ​would​ ​be​ ​based​ ​on
14​ ​points
- The​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​a​ ​betrayal​ ​of​ ​that​ ​promise
- There​ ​was​ ​no​ ​mention​ ​in​ ​the​ ​14​ ​points​ ​of​ ​war​ ​guilt​ ​or
reparations
- It​ ​also​ ​proposed​ ​disarmament​ ​for​ ​ALL​ ​nations,​ ​but​ ​only
Germany​ ​was​ ​required​ ​to​ ​disarm
- The​ ​14​ ​points​ ​emphasized​ ​self-determination​ ​for​ ​all​ ​nations
but​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​made​ ​it​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​that​ ​wasn’t​ ​happening​ ​for
Alsace-Lorraine,​ ​the​ ​Saar​ ​Basin​ ​(until​ ​some​ ​years​ ​had
passed)​ ​or​ ​Austria
- Self-determination​ ​was​ ​used​ ​in​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​East​ ​Prussia,
Upper​ ​Silesia​ ​and​ ​Schleswig
- However,​ ​the​ ​Allies​ ​never​ ​explicitly​ ​promised​ ​to​ ​follow
Wilson’s​ ​points​ ​to​ ​the​ ​core,​ ​rather,​ ​they​ ​said​ ​that​ ​they
would​ ​use​ ​it​ ​to​ ​guide​ ​the​ ​Treaty

Assess​ ​the​ ​general​ ​nature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Versailles​ ​Settlement,​ ​whether


it​ ​was​ ​justifiable​ ​and​ ​fair,​ ​too​ ​harsh​ ​and​ ​punishing,​ ​or​ ​too
lenient.
For​ ​a​ ​longer,​ ​more​ ​refined​ ​version:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/13JD3FSM66JSBwjIBrDoPbN8IBlYR
4jSyJhI_hx3IyOM/edit
There​ ​were​ ​3​ ​types​ ​of​ ​opinions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​-​ ​it​ ​was​ ​too​ ​harsh,
it​ ​was​ ​too​ ​lenient,​ ​or​ ​it​ ​was​ ​fair.​ ​Overall,​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​was​ ​just
in​ ​some​ ​areas,​ ​but​ ​did​ ​have​ ​some​ ​flaws.​ ​The​ ​Treaty​ ​had​ ​to​ ​be
able​ ​to​ ​satisfy​ ​as​ ​many​ ​people​ ​as​ ​possible,​ ​while​ ​being​ ​harsh
and​ ​simultaneously​ ​just.​ ​The​ ​disarmament​ ​clause​ ​was​ ​quite​ ​fair,
because​ ​Germany​ ​had​ ​to​ ​disarm​ ​to​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​extent​ ​to​ ​ensure​ ​they
would​ ​not​ ​be​ ​aggressive​ ​at​ ​any​ ​point​ ​in​ ​the​ ​(at​ ​least)​ ​near
future.​ ​The​ ​return​ ​of​ ​Alsace-Lorraine​ ​was​ ​fair,​ ​as​ ​they​ ​had
violently​ ​occupied​ ​it​ ​50​ ​years​ ​ago.

However,​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​had​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​flaws.​ ​The​ ​first​ ​of​ ​it​ ​was​ ​the
war​ ​guilt​ ​clause​ ​-​ ​it​ ​technically​ ​wasn’t​ ​Germany’s​ ​fault.​ ​Though
Germany​ ​had​ ​played​ ​a​ ​major​ ​part​ ​in​ ​stirring​ ​up​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​it​ ​only
got​ ​involved​ ​because​ ​it​ ​was​ ​allies​ ​with​ ​Austria-Hungary.​ ​The
reparations​ ​fee​ ​was​ ​quite​ ​unfair​ ​-​ ​not​ ​only​ ​was​ ​the​ ​fee
initially​ ​undecided,​ ​the​ ​final​ ​amount​ ​was​ ​so​ ​high,​ ​and​ ​they
never​ ​punished​ ​the​ ​other​ ​allies​ ​as​ ​harshly​ ​as​ ​Germany​ ​was
punished.​ ​The​ ​war​ ​had​ ​left​ ​Germany​ ​nearly​ ​bankrupt​ ​and​ ​the
Allies​ ​and​ ​League​ ​expected​ ​immediate​ ​payment,​ ​which​ ​was​ ​very
unfair​ ​on​ ​their​ ​part.

Though​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​did​ ​do​ ​its​ ​best​ ​considering​ ​its​ ​difficult
circumstances​ ​and​ ​had​ ​some​ ​fair​ ​aspects,​ ​it​ ​also​ ​had​ ​some​ ​major,
unfair​ ​flaws​ ​which​ ​should​ ​not​ ​be​ ​left​ ​unaddressed.

CHAPTER​ ​2​ ​-​ ​TO​ ​WHAT​ ​EXTENT​ ​WAS​ ​THE​ ​LEAGUE​ ​OF​ ​NATIONS​ ​A​ ​SUCCESS?
Describe​ ​the​ ​aims​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League.
LoN​ ​Class​ ​Presentation​ ​-
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1tZPhmHUNzcwXM8O6-rjs1SBf
peWBeVV4hUas2jgcAJk/edit#slide=id.g254d1f46c2_1_43
Use​ ​the​ ​acronym​ ​KEEP​ ​to​ ​remember​ ​the​ ​League’s​ ​aims.
K​​ ​-​ ​To​ ​K​eep​ ​world​ ​peace​ ​by​ ​discouraging​ ​aggression​ ​from​ ​any
nation
E​​ ​-​ ​To​ ​E​ncourage​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​cooperate​ ​to​ ​develop​ ​business​ ​and
trade
E​​ ​-​ ​To​ ​E​nhance​ ​the​ ​living​ ​and​ ​working​ ​conditions​ ​of​ ​people​ ​in
all​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world
P​​ ​-​ ​To​ ​P​ersuade​ ​Nations​ ​to​ ​Disarm

Describe​ ​the​ ​functions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​major​ ​organs​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League​ ​such​ ​as
the​ ​Assembly,​ ​Council​ ​and​ ​Permanent​ ​Court​ ​of​ ​Justice.

​ ecretariat
The​ S
- The​ ​civil​ ​service​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League
- Performed​ ​all​ ​administrative​ ​and​ ​financial​ ​work​ ​-
organizing​ ​conferences,​ ​distributing​ ​agendas,​ ​monitoring
budgets,​ ​publishing​ ​reports​ ​etc.

The​ ​Assembly
- Met​ ​once​ ​P.A​ ​(per​ ​annum)
- Every​ ​member​ ​state​ ​(i.e​ ​country)​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League​ ​had​ ​1​ ​vote
each
- It​ ​considered​ ​matters​ ​of​ ​general​ ​policy​ ​and​ ​controlled​ ​the
League’s​ ​budget
- Admitted​ ​new​ ​members
- It​ ​also​ ​elected​ ​non-permanent​ ​members​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Council

​ ouncil
The​ C
- The​ ​executive​ ​body​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League
- As​ m ​ eeting​ ​once​ ​P.A​ ​wasn’t​ ​enough,​ ​they​ ​met​ ​4-5​ ​times​ ​a
year​ ​and​ ​in​ ​times​ ​of​ ​crisis
- Had​ ​permanent​ ​and​ ​non-permanent​ ​members
- In​ ​1920​ ​-​ ​permanent​ ​members​ ​-​ ​Britain,​ ​France,​ ​Italy?​ ​and
Japan
- 1926​ ​-​ ​Germany​ ​became​ ​a​ ​permanent​ ​member
- Number​ ​of​ ​non-permanent​ ​members​ ​-​ ​from​ ​4​ ​to​ ​1920​ ​to​ ​11​ ​in
1936

International​ ​Court​ ​of​ ​Justice​ ​(ICJ)


- Based​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Hague​ ​(the​ ​Netherlands)
- Offered​ ​arbitration​ ​service​ ​to​ ​countries​ ​in​ ​disputes​ ​and
provided​ ​legal​ ​advice​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Council
- Staffed​ ​by​ ​11​ ​judges

Describe​ ​the​ ​ways​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​League​ ​could​ ​attempt​ ​to​ ​preserve
world​ ​peace.
1. They​ ​gave​ ​each​ ​nation​ ​a​ ​voice​ ​through​ ​the​ ​Assembly
2. Through​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​its​ ​different​ ​organs,​ ​it​ ​could
facilitate​ ​between​ ​countries​ ​during​ ​disagreements/discords
3. Collective​ ​security​ ​(3​ ​stage​ ​process​ ​to​ ​use​ ​to​ ​maintain
world​ ​peace​ ​in​ ​response​ ​to​ ​acts​ ​of​ ​aggression)
a. Moral​ ​Disapproval​ ​-
■ the​ ​Council​ ​would​ ​meet​ ​and​ ​vote​ ​to​ ​condemn​ ​the
action.
■ The​ ​aggressive​ ​country,​ ​knowing​ ​it​ ​had​ ​the​ ​weight
of​ ​world​ ​opinion​ ​against​ ​them,​ ​may​ ​drop
aggressive​ ​action.
b. Economic​ ​Sanctions
■ Was​ ​to​ ​be​ ​used​ ​if​ ​1st​ ​stage​ ​failed
■ Council​ ​could​ ​impose​ ​economic​ ​sanctions​ ​on
aggressor
1. Trade​ ​boycott​ ​and​ ​refusing​ ​boycotting
c. Military​ ​Sanctions
■ This​ ​was​ ​the​ ​last​ ​resort,​ ​only​ ​to​ ​be​ ​used​ ​if​ ​all
else​ ​failed
■ Might​ ​involve​ ​sending​ ​an​ ​army​ ​to​ ​assist​ ​the
victim​ ​of​ ​aggression
■ Seemed​ ​like​ ​a​ ​promising​ ​way​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​world
peace

Explain​ w ​ hy​ ​some​ ​major​ ​powers​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the​ ​USA​ ​and​ ​the​ ​USSR​ ​did
not​ ​join​ ​the​ ​League​ ​when​ ​it​ ​was​ ​set​ ​up​ ​in​ ​1920.
The​ ​USA
- League​ ​of​ ​Nations​ ​was​ ​Wilson’s​ ​idea
- However,​ ​the​ ​USA​ ​willingly​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​join
- The​ ​US​ ​Senate​ ​and​ ​Congress​ ​worried​ ​that​ ​the​ ​League​ ​would
drag​ ​them​ ​into​ ​European​ ​politics,​ ​wars​ ​and​ ​disputes
- Wilson​ ​had​ ​had​ ​a​ ​stroke,​ ​and​ ​therefore​ ​was​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​speak
to​ ​the​ ​parties​ ​about​ ​the​ ​League
- Was​ ​a​ ​major​ ​blow​ ​to​ ​the​ ​League,​ ​as​ ​the​ ​effect​ ​of​ ​its
actions​ ​would​ ​be​ ​greatly​ ​lessened​ ​and​ ​its​ ​reputation​ ​would
lack​ ​more​ ​prestige​ ​and​ ​general​ ​respect

Germany
- The​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Versailles​ ​barred​ ​them​ ​from​ ​joining​​ ​the
League​ ​until​ ​they​ ​were​ ​proven​ ​to​ ​be​ ​peaceful
- They​ ​were​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​accept​ ​all​ ​the​ ​League’s​ ​decisions
- This​ ​made​ ​the​ ​League​ ​look​ ​like​ ​a​ ​‘winner’s​ ​club’
- However,​ ​they​ ​were​ ​allowed​ ​to​ ​join​ ​the​ ​League​ ​in​ ​1926​ a ​ nd
became​ ​a​ ​permanent​ ​member
- But​ ​when​ ​Hitler​ ​took​ ​over​ ​Germany​ ​in​ ​1933,​ ​one​ ​of​ ​his​ f​ irst
acts​ ​was​ ​to​ ​take​ ​Germany​ ​out​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League

​ Soviet​ ​Russia)
USSR​ (
- They​ ​were​ ​not​ ​invited​ ​to​ j
​ oin​ ​League
- The​ ​USSR​ ​was​ ​a​ ​communist​ c​ ountry​ ​and​ ​was​ ​committed​ ​to​ ​the
overthrow​ ​of​ ​capitalism
- USSR​ ​didn’t​ ​want​ ​to​ ​too​ ​-​ ​the​ ​League’s​ ​main​ ​members​ ​had
assisted​ ​a​ ​counter-revolution​ ​in​ ​Russian​ ​civil​ ​war
(1918-1921)
- In​ ​the​ ​late​ ​1920s,​ ​both​ ​sides​ ​had​ ​more​ ​tolerance​ ​for​ ​the
other​ ​side​ ​and​ ​the​ ​USSR​ ​joined​ ​the​ ​League​ ​in​ ​1932
- After​ ​the​ ​invasion​ ​of​ ​Finland​ ​in​ ​December​ ​1939,​ ​it​ ​was
expelled
Identify​ ​the​ ​main​ ​weaknesses​ ​in​ ​the​ ​structure​ ​and​ ​organisation
of​ ​the​ ​League.
Membership
- The​ ​absence​ ​of​ ​USA​ ​and​ ​Germany​ ​(see​ ​previous​ ​section)

Unanimous​ ​Decisions
- All​ ​decisions​ ​had​ ​to​ ​have​ ​all​ ​positive​ ​votes
- Even​ ​1​ ​negative​ ​vote​ ​(excluding​ ​the​ ​aggressor)​ ​was
required​ ​for​ ​the​ ​motion​ ​to​ ​fail​ ​(i.e​ ​even​ ​an
overwhelming​ ​majority)
- This​ ​meant​ ​that​ ​League​ ​was​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​accomplish​ ​much
because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​so​ ​many​ ​conflicting​ ​opinions​ ​and
disagreements

​ ndependent​ ​army
No​ i
- Surprisingly,​ ​the​ ​League​ ​didn’t​ ​have​ ​its​ ​own​ ​army
- This​ ​meant​ ​the​ ​League​ ​had​ ​no​ ​military​ ​forces​ ​to​ ​back​ ​it​ ​up,
lessening​ ​its​ ​influence​ ​in​ ​that​ ​area​ ​(and​ ​no​ ​military
forces​ ​to​ ​call​ ​on​ ​for​ ​military​ ​sanctions)
- Therefore,​ ​member​ ​states​ ​had​ ​to​ ​contribute​ ​towards​ ​military
forces,​ ​and​ ​it​ ​took​ ​time​ ​and​ ​didn’t​ ​have​ ​as​ ​much​ ​as​ ​an
effect

Describe​ ​the​ ​work​ ​of​ ​the​ ​various​ ​League​ ​agencies​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the
Health​ ​Organisation​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Disarmament​ ​Commission.
High​ ​Refugee​ ​Commission/Refugee​ ​Organization
- Aim​ ​-​ ​to​ ​bring​ ​back​ ​prisoners​ ​of​ ​war​ ​from​ ​Soviet​ ​Russia,
Poland,​ ​France,​ ​Germany​ ​and​ ​Turkey​ ​to​ ​their​ ​home​ ​country
- 7​ ​million​ ​prisoners​ ​taken​ ​at​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war,
with​ ​2​ ​million​ ​left​ ​at​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war
- One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​major​ ​successes​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League
- Fridtjof​ ​Nansen​ ​appointed​ ​-​ ​Norwegian​ ​explorer​ ​and
scientist
- He​ ​created​ ​the​ ​Nansen​ ​Passport​ ​for​ ​Refugees​ ​and​ ​found​ ​work
for​ ​them
- Collaborated​ ​with​ ​Russian​ ​Famine​ ​Relief​ ​and​ ​managed​ ​to​ ​save
12​ ​million​ ​Russians​ ​and​ ​?5​ ​million​ ​refugees?
- Nansen​ ​was​ ​heralded​ ​as​ ​a​ ​hero

International​ ​Labour​ ​Organization


- Based​ ​in​ ​Geneva
- Led​ ​by​ ​French​ ​socialist​ ​Albert​ ​Thomas
- Included​ ​representatives​ ​of​ ​government,​ ​employers,​ ​and
workers​ ​among​ ​its​ ​various​ ​committees
- Central​ ​purpose​ ​-​ ​promotion​ ​of​ ​good​ ​working​ ​practices​ ​with
working​ ​hours,​ ​women’s​ ​rights,​ ​child​ ​labour,​ ​employers’
liability​ ​etc.
- Collected​ ​data​ ​on​ ​employment
- Was​ ​to​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​extent​ ​a​ ​success​ ​-​ ​gained​ ​more​ ​influence
- Tried​ ​to​ ​make​ ​the​ ​max.​ ​hours​ ​of​ ​work​ ​8​ ​hours​ ​and​ ​failed
- Min​ ​age​ ​of​ ​working​ ​-​Agriculture​ ​-​ ​5-7yrs​ ​old,​ ​industry
9-11yrs​ ​old

World​ ​Health​ ​Organization​ ​(WHO)


- Still​ ​around​ ​today
- One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​successful​ ​League​ ​of​ ​Nations​ ​agencies
- Symbol​ ​-​ ​staff​ ​and​ ​snake​ ​-​ ​symbol​ ​of​ ​medical​ ​profession
- Objective​ ​-​ ​the​ ​attainment​ ​by​ ​all​ ​peoples​ ​of​ ​the​ ​highest
possible​ ​level​ ​of​ ​health
- Main​ ​agency​ ​of​ ​international​ ​health​ ​and​ ​medical​ ​work
- Best​ ​known​ ​to​ ​control​ ​epidemics​ ​(e.g​ ​malaria,​ ​TB​ ​etc.)
- Star​ ​achievement​ ​-​ ​global​ ​eradication​ ​of​ ​smallpox
- Within​ ​10​ ​years,​ ​leprosy,​ ​river​ ​blindness,​ ​chugs​ ​disease
(​lol​ ​wat​ ​eez​ ​dis,​ ​chugga​ ​chugga​ ​choo​ ​choo​ ​train?​)​ ​and
filaris​ ​were​ ​removed​ ​as​ ​public​ ​health​ ​dangers
- Influence​ ​of​ ​public​ ​health

Economic​ ​and​ ​Financial​ ​Organization


- After​ ​World​ ​War​ ​I,​ ​many​ ​countries​ ​were​ ​in​ ​financial​ ​crises
- This​ ​organization​ ​created​ ​a​ ​successful​ ​rescue​ ​program​ ​for
Austria
- They​ ​stabilized​ ​money,​ ​controlling​ ​level​ ​of​ ​interest
rates,​ ​circulations​ ​of​ ​banknotes,​ ​issuing​ ​of​ ​credits
- Given​ ​substantial​ ​loan
- Implemented​ ​for​ ​Austria,​ ​and​ ​similar​ ​programs​ ​were
devised​ ​for​ ​Hungary,​ ​Greece​ ​and​ ​Bulgaria

Slavery​ ​Commission
- Aim​ ​-​ ​to​ ​stamp​ ​out​ ​slavery​ ​and​ ​slave​ ​dealing
- No​ ​women​ ​and​ ​children​ ​prostitution
- White​ ​slave​ ​traffic
- Freeing​ ​of​ ​200​ ​000​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​Sierra​ ​Leone
- Reduction​ ​of​ ​death​ ​rate​ ​of​ ​African​ ​workers​ ​on​ ​railway​ ​(50%
to​ ​4%)
- Abolishing​ ​of​ ​slavery​ ​in​ ​Iraq,​ ​Jordan​ ​and​ ​Nepal,​ ​but
ultimately​ ​not​ ​very​ ​successful

Disarmament​ ​Commission
- Least​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​progress​ ​among​ ​League’s​ ​agencies​ ​and
commissions
- League​ ​called​ ​on​ ​all​ ​nations​ ​to​ ​disarm​ ​‘to​ ​the​ ​lowest​ ​point
consistent​ ​with​ ​national​ ​safety’
- Only​ ​defeated​ ​powers​ ​were​ ​disarmed
- Minor​ ​success​ ​-​ ​Washington​ ​Naval​ ​Conference,​ ​1921
- Agreement​ ​of​ ​naval​ ​limitation​ ​-​ ​USA,​ ​Britain,​ ​France
and​ ​Japan
- But​ ​it​ ​was​ ​ultimately​ ​a​ ​failure​ ​and​ ​progress​ ​was​ ​more​ ​than
a​ ​lullabeed​ ​slow​ ​*ahem​ ​what​ ​am​ ​I​ ​doing*​ ​I​ ​mean​ ​very​ ​slow
- World​ ​Disarmament​ ​Conferences​ ​-​ ​basically​ ​impossible​ ​and
nothing​ ​got​ ​done
- It​ ​also​ ​did​ ​not​ ​control​ ​Germany​ ​(because​ ​hello​ ​Hitler)
- 6​ ​conferences​ ​(wherein​ ​a​ ​bunch​ ​of​ ​leaders​ ​squabbled​ ​and
yammered​ ​ ​away​ ​about​ ​a​ ​bunch​ ​of​ ​metal​ ​stuff​ ​and​ ​got​ ​like
hmmm​ ​...​ ​nothing​ ​done)
- Washington​ ​Naval​ ​Conference​ ​(1921)​ ​(would’ve​ ​been
nasal​ ​conference​ ​if​ ​one​ ​of​ ​them​ ​had​ ​a​ ​blocked​ ​nose)
- Mixed​ ​Commission​ ​on​ ​Armaments​ ​(1921)​ ​→​ ​Treaty​ ​of
Mutual​ ​Assistance
- The​ ​Preparatory​ ​Commission​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Disarmament
Conference​ ​(1926)
- Conference​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Reduction​ ​and​ ​Limitation​ ​of
Armaments​ ​(1926)
- Kellogg-Briand​ ​Pact​ ​(August​ ​1928)​ ​also​ ​known​ ​as
General​ ​Treaty​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Renunciation​ ​of​ ​War.
- World​ ​Disarmament​ ​Conference​ ​(1932-37)​ ​-​ ​60​ ​countries
- Germany​ ​-​ ​salty​ ​over​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​they​ ​didn’t
get​ ​equal​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​weapons
- France​ ​-​ ​still​ ​mad​ ​over​ ​bad​ ​blood​ ​with​ ​Germany
and​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​them​ ​disarmed
- Britain​ ​and​ ​America​ ​-​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​provide​ ​support
for​ ​France
- Hitler​ ​used​ ​this​ ​as​ ​an​ ​excuse​ ​to​ ​leave​ ​the
Conference​ ​and​ ​the​ ​League​ ​(koff​ ​koff​ ​EXCusES
koff)
- Eventually​ ​ignored​ ​restrictions​ ​of​ ​Treaty

Describe​ ​the​ ​peacekeeping​ ​successes​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League​ ​during​ ​the


1920s.
Most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League’s​ ​successes​ ​were​ ​minor​ ​disputes​ ​-​ ​but​ ​were
still​ ​important.

Aaland​ ​Islands,​ ​1921


- Rival​ ​claims​ ​of​ ​Finland​ ​and​ ​Sweden​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Aaland​ ​Islands
(which​ ​were​ ​located​ ​in​ ​Baltic​ ​Sea)
- Most​ ​islanders​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​be​ ​ruled​ ​by​ ​Sweden
- But​ ​after​ ​League​ ​investigated​ ​into​ ​the​ ​matter,they​ ​awarded
the​ ​islands​ ​to​ ​Finland​ ​but​ ​Swedish​ ​people’s​ ​rights​ ​would​ ​be
protected
- Sweden​ ​accepted​ ​the​ ​judgement

Upper​ ​Silesia,​ ​1921


- Southeastern​ ​part​ ​of​ ​Silesia​ ​located​ ​mostly​ ​in​ ​Poland
- Contained​ ​valuable​ ​industrial​ ​area
- Was​ ​on​ ​the​ ​border​ ​of​ ​Poland​ ​and​ ​Germany
- ToV​ ​gave​ ​the​ ​land​ ​to​ ​Poland​ ​but​ ​Germany​ ​protested
- A​ ​plebiscite​ ​agreed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​held
- Overall​ ​results​ ​-​ ​mostly​ ​to​ ​Germany​ ​with​ ​a​ ​clear
majority​ ​to​ ​Poland​ ​in​ ​rural​ ​areas
- After​ ​riots​ ​and​ ​protests​ ​the​ ​League​ ​suggested​ ​a​ ​partition
- The​ ​Eastern​ ​Upper​ ​Silesia​ ​would​ ​be​ ​given​ ​to​ ​Poland,
with​ ​Western​ ​Upper​ ​Silesia​ ​given​ ​to​ ​Germany
- Decision​ ​was​ ​accepted​ ​by​ ​all​ ​involved​ ​parties

Mosul,​ ​1924
- Mosul​ ​~​ ​located​ ​north​ ​of​ ​Iraq
- Britain​ ​owned​ ​it,​ ​but​ ​Turkey​ ​wanted​ ​it
- There​ ​was​ ​lots​ ​of​ ​oil​ ​and​ ​trading​ a
​ reas
- League​ ​ultimately​ ​gave​ ​Mosul​ ​back​ t ​ o​ ​Iraq​ ​-
Turkey​ ​got​ ​10%​ ​royalty
- Was​ ​a​ ​success​ ​-​ ​prevented​ ​conflict​ ​and​ ​kept​ t ​ he​ ​peace

Bulgaria,​ ​1925
- Greece​ ​vs​ ​Bulgaria
- Greece​ ​invaded​ ​Bulgaria​ ​after​ ​Greek​ ​troops​ ​were​ ​killed​ ​in
border​ ​clashes
- Bulgaria​ ​appealed​ ​to​ ​the​ ​League​ ​following​ ​the​ ​invasion
- League​ ​investigating​ ​into​ ​the​ ​matter
- Investigation​ ​outcome​ ​-​ ​in​ ​favour​ ​of​ ​Bulgaria
- Greeks​ ​forced​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Bulgaria​ ​and​ ​forced​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​money
- Cooperated​ ​with​ ​League

Explain​ ​why​ ​the​ ​League​ ​was​ ​unsuccessful​ ​in​ ​resolving​ ​some


disputes​ ​during​ ​the​ ​1920s​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Corfu​ ​Incident​ ​of​ ​1923.
- The​ ​world​ ​had​ ​only​ ​a​ ​lullabeed​ ​of​ ​confidence​ ​in​ ​the​ ​League
-​ ​proven​ ​by​ ​agreements​ ​made​ ​outside​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League
- Lorcano​ ​Treaties​ ​-​ ​7​ ​agreements​ ​made​ ​between​ ​Germany,
Belgium,​ ​France​ ​and​ ​Great​ ​Britain
- Germany​ ​-​ ​use​ ​of​ ​force​ ​to​ ​change​ ​western​ ​barricades
for​ ​defence​ ​of​ ​eastern​ ​frontiers
- The​ ​League​ ​of​ ​Nations​ ​agreed​ ​to​ ​this
- Kellogg-Briand​ ​Pact
- Made​ ​by​ ​all​ ​62​ ​nations​ ​to​ ​try​ ​to​ ​end​ ​war
- …​ ​And​ ​was​ ​promptly​ ​ignored​ ​*inserts​ ​sarcastic​ ​clapping
emoji*​ ​(see​ ​the​ ​“try”)
- 27th​ ​August​ ​1928
- Created​ ​by​ ​Frank​ ​Kellogg​ ​(Secretary​ ​of​ ​State)​ ​and
Aristide​ ​Briand​ ​(French​ ​foreign​ ​minister)
- The​ ​agreements​ ​were​ ​like​ ​a​ ​safety​ ​net​ ​in​ ​case​ ​the​ ​League
failed

Vilna,​ ​1920
- Was​ ​made​ ​Lithuania’s​ ​capital​ ​-​ ​majority​ ​population​ ​-​ ​Polish
- Poland​ ​occupied​ ​Vilna​ ​in​ ​1920​ ​-​ ​Lithuania​ ​appealed​ ​to
League
- Poland​ ​was​ ​asked​ ​to​ ​withdraw​ ​troops​ ​but​ ​they​ ​refused
- Conference​ ​of​ ​Ambassadors​ ​-​ ​gave​ ​Vilna​ ​to​ ​Poland

Occupation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ruhr,​ ​1923


- Ruhr​ ​-​ ​important​ ​industrial​ ​area​ ​in​ ​Germany
- After​ ​Germany​ ​couldn’t​ ​pay​ ​1922​ ​payments​ ​in​ ​ToV​ ​(but​ ​did
pay​ ​1921​ ​payments),​ ​France​ ​and​ ​Belgium​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​invade
Ruhr​ ​and​ ​occupy​ ​it
- Occupied​ ​it​ ​for​ ​2​ ​years
- Also​ ​heaviest​ ​military​ ​in​ ​Germany
- Technically​ ​illegal​ ​to​ ​do​ ​that​ ​-​ ​League​ ​intervened
- Other​ ​countries​ ​were​ ​ignoring​ ​Germany’s​ ​authority​ ​as​ ​a
country

​ orfu​ ​Incident,​ ​1923


The​ C
- Invasion​ ​of​ ​Corfu​ ​(Greek​ ​Island)​ ​by​ ​Italy​ ​after​ ​the​ ​murder
of​ ​an​ ​Italian​ ​general​ ​on​ ​Greek​ ​soil
- Very​ ​similar​ ​circumstances​ ​as​ ​the​ ​murder​ ​of​ ​Archduke
Franz​ ​Ferdinand
- THE​ ​FAILURE​ ​that​ ​exposed​ ​the​ ​League’s​ ​weaknesses​ ​and
inability​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​major​ ​powers​ ​(such​ ​as​ ​Italy)
- Italy​ ​demanded​ ​reparations​ ​of​ ​50​ ​million​ ​lira​ ​and​ ​execution
of​ ​the​ ​assassins
- When​ ​Greece​ ​couldn’t​ ​find​ ​the​ ​assassins​ ​(bec​ ​they​ ​were​ ​a
lullabeed​ ​stewpeed)​,​ ​Italy​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​invade​ ​Corfu
- Greece​ ​appealed​ ​to​ ​League​ ​-​ ​who​ ​followed​ ​through​ ​with
collective​ ​security
- However,​ ​Italy​ ​requested​ ​and​ ​put​ ​pressure​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Conference
of​ ​Ambassadors​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Council​ ​to​ ​be​ ​the​ ​final​ ​judges​ ​of
the​ ​matter
- Final​ ​outcome​ ​-​ ​Italy​ ​to​ ​withdraw​ ​troops​ ​and​ ​Greece​ ​to
pay​ ​a​ ​heavy​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​compensation
- Seemed​ ​to​ ​public​ ​that​ ​Italy’s​ ​bullying​ ​strategies​ ​had
worked​ ​and​ ​League​ ​took​ ​the​ ​easy​ ​way​ ​out​ ​to​ ​avoid​ ​conflict​ ​-
and​ ​that​ ​the​ ​League​ ​would​ ​give​ ​in​ ​to​ ​major​ ​powers
- Exposed​ ​League’s​ ​flaws​ ​-​ ​collective​ ​security​ ​didn’t​ ​work
for​ ​a​ ​multitude​ ​of​ ​reasons​ ​(eg​ ​no​ ​independent​ ​army)
- Led​ ​to​ ​creation​ ​of​ ​Geneva​ ​Protocol(which​ ​was​ ​a​ ​plan​ ​of
rainbows​ ​and​ ​butterflies​ ​but​ ​didn’t​ ​get​ ​approved)​ ​woohoo

Explain​ ​how​ ​the​ ​Great​ ​Depression​ ​made​ ​the​ ​work​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League
more​ ​difficult​ ​after​ ​1929.
- America​ ​was​ ​the​ ​richest​ ​country​ ​because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​less
involved​ ​in​ ​the​ ​war
- Wall​ ​Street​ ​Crash​​ ​-​ ​affected​ ​all​ ​major​ ​capitalist​ ​countries
- October​ ​1929​ ​-​ ​greatest​ ​stock​ ​market​ ​crash​ ​in​ ​US
history
- Led​ ​to
- Unemployment​ ​(eg​ ​Germany)​ ​and​ ​poverty​ ​(eg​ ​Japan)
- Easier​ ​for​ ​people​ ​to​ ​be​ ​swayed​ ​-​ ​rise​ ​of
nationalism,​ ​militarism​ ​and​ ​imperialism
- 25​ ​countries​ ​became​ ​dictatorships​ ​between
1929-1939​ ​(why​ ​hello​ ​there,​ ​Kim​ ​Jong​ ​Un)
- America​ ​calling​ ​in​ ​her​ ​loans​ ​to​ ​Germany
- Collapse​ ​of​ ​German​ ​industry​ ​=​ ​rise​ ​of​ ​Hitler
- Change​ ​of​ ​politics
- Leaders​ ​turned​ ​attention​ ​and​ ​hatred​ ​towards​ ​other
countries​ ​and​ ​groups​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​divert​ ​attention
from​ ​bad​ ​things​ ​happening​ ​in​ ​their​ ​countries​ ​and
to​ ​stay​ ​in​ ​power
- Self-interest
- Since​ ​countries​ ​couldn’t​ ​afford​ ​to​ ​help​ ​the
League​ ​as​ ​their​ ​own​ ​countries​ ​were​ ​suffering,​ ​the
League​ ​was​ ​largely​ ​ignored​ ​(feelin​ ​so​ ​lonelyyy)
- Many​ ​countries​ ​left​ ​(eg​ ​Japan)
- Destroyed​ ​the​ ​international​ ​cooperative​ ​nature​ ​of
countries)
- Britain​ ​and​ ​France
- Also​ ​affected​ ​by​ ​the​ ​Depression
- Didn’t​ ​put​ ​in​ ​as​ ​much​ e
​ ffort​ ​-​ ​no​ ​sanctions​ ​or
armament​ ​was​ ​prepared​ a ​ gainst​ ​Hitler

Explain​ w​ hy​ ​the​ ​League​ ​was​ ​unable​ ​to​ ​stop​ ​both​ ​the​ ​Japanese
invasion​ ​of​ ​Manchuria​ ​(and​ ​the​ ​Italian​ ​invasion​ ​of​ ​Abyssinia​ ​-
not​ ​covering​ ​in​ ​test.)
Japanese​ ​Invasion​ ​of​ ​Manchuria
- The​ ​main​ ​export​ ​of​ ​Japan​ ​at​ ​the​ ​time​ ​was​ ​silk​ ​-​ ​as​ ​an
island​ ​country,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​find​ ​exports
- It​ ​was​ ​a​ ​very​ ​expensive​ ​product,​ ​and​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Wall​ ​Street
Cash,​ ​other​ ​countries​ ​couldn’t​ ​afford​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​silk
- Desperate,​ ​Japan​ ​began​ ​looking​ ​for​ ​other​ ​alternatives​ ​to
make​ ​money
- They​ ​decided​ ​to​ ​invade​ ​Manchuria​ ​to​ ​get​ ​their​ ​raw​ ​materials
and​ ​profits
- Manchuria​ ​is​ ​no​ ​longer​ ​a​ ​country​ ​now​ ​-​ ​parts​ ​of​ ​it
went​ ​to​ ​Mongolia​ ​and​ ​Russia​ ​but​ ​the​ ​majority​ ​of​ ​it
went​ ​to​ ​China
- Mukden​ ​Railway​ ​Incident
- The​ ​Japanese​ ​said​ ​that​ ​Chinese​ ​bandits​ ​were​ ​attacking
the​ ​railway​ ​and​ ​that​ ​they​ ​had​ ​to​ ​fight​ ​them​ ​in​ ​order
to​ ​invade
- China​ ​appealed​ ​to​ ​the​ ​League,​ ​and​ ​Japan​ ​said​ ​they
would​ ​withdraw​ ​their​ ​troops​ ​from​ ​Manchuria
- March​ ​1932​ ​-​ ​Japanese​ ​renamed​ ​Manchuria​ ​Manchukuo
- France​ ​and​ ​GB​ ​didn’t​ ​interfere​ ​due​ ​to​ ​self-interest​ ​and​ ​the
European​ ​powers​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​maintain​ ​trading​ ​relations​ ​with
East​ ​Asian​ ​countries

​ ommission
Lytton​ C
- 4​ ​man​ ​team​ ​that​ ​led​ ​a​ ​commission​ ​of​ ​enqiry

Assess​ ​the​ ​overall​ ​success​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League.


The​ ​quickest​ ​essay​ ​I’ve​ ​ever​ ​written​ ​-​ ​goes​ ​into​ ​more​ ​detail​ ​+
down​ ​below​ ​-​ ​a​ ​helpful​ ​table​ ​from​ ​BBC​ ​Bitesize​ ​on​ ​ ​the​ ​successes
and​ ​failures​ ​of​ ​the​ ​League​ ​-
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EbHVa18UiYp0wsVSnw1EcbwbVmKr
-E76ECCjbQSGn4U/edit
General
Though​ ​the​ ​League​ ​did​ ​have​ ​some​ ​impactful,​ ​some​ ​minor​ ​successes
throughout​ ​its​ ​short​ ​lived​ ​time​ ​and​ ​also​ ​laid​ ​the​ ​groundwork​ ​for
some​ ​key​ ​breakthroughs​ ​in​ ​humanity,​ ​it​ ​was​ ​ultimately​ ​a​ ​failure
in​ ​its​ ​time.​ ​Though​ ​it​ ​did​ ​hinder​ ​war,​ ​it​ ​also​ ​helped​ ​to​ ​bring
about​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Second​ ​World​ ​War,​ ​so​ ​in​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​ways
it​ ​failed​ ​its​ ​missions/aims,​ ​and​ ​in​ ​that​ ​sense​ ​can​ ​be​ ​considered
a​ ​failure.

Successes Failures

- Aaland​ ​Islands​ ​(1921) - Disarmament​ ​Commission


- Upper​ ​Silesia​ ​(1921) (little​ ​to​ ​no​ ​very​ ​slow
- Mosul​ (​ 1924) progress)
- Organizations - Structure
- Economic​ ​and - Membership
Financial - USA,​ ​USSR,
Organization Germany
- High​ ​Commission​ ​of - Unanimous
Refugee/Refugee Decisions
Organization - Collective
- World​ ​Health security
Organization - Vilna​ ​(1920)
- International​ ​Labour - Occupation​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Ruhr
Organization (1923)
(partial) - The​ ​Corfu​ ​Incident​ ​(1923)
- Slavery​ ​Commission - The​ ​Great​ ​Depression
- Drugs​ ​-​ ​signed (1929)
international - Manchuria​ ​(1930)
convention​ ​to​ ​defeat
drugs​ ​trade​ ​-​ ​a​ ​law
that​ ​is​ ​still​ ​in
force