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Ruaumoko2D manual

RESEARCH · MAY 2015


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1347.9841

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Athol Carr
University of Canterbury
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Retrieved on: 12 November 2015
Civil Engineering

Induction Book

Ruaumoko Manual

Volume 2:
User Manual for the 2:Dimensional Version
Ruaumoko2D

Author:
Athol J. Carr
Department of Civil Engineering COMPUTER PROGRAM LIBRARY

Program nam e:– Program type:– Program code:–


RUAUM OKO2D Inelastic Dynam ic Analysis ANSI Fortran77

Author:– Date:–
Athol J Carr 27 Novem ber 2008

RUAUMOKO

The Maori God of Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Volume 2: User Manual for the 2-Dimensional Version, Ruaumoko2D

Copyright \ Athol J. Carr, University of Canterbury, 1981-2007. All Rights reserved.


Running the program RUAUM OKO-2D.

The program is designed to run in an interactive m ode or in a batch m ode with an input data file that m ay be
prepared using a word-processor, a spreadsheet or a text editor. If a word-processor or spreadsheet is used
to prepare a data file then the data M UST be saved as a plain ASCII text file. In the default form the program
will prom pt the user for the input data. The input data supplied m ay be logged so that it can be used for later
analyses and prepared data files m ay be used for all or part of the input data. For further details on the use of
the com m and processor used in the program type $HELP at any prom pt. Com plete all responses by pressing
the RETURN/ENTER key.

To run the program call the program by the m ethod appropriate to your operating system . On a personal
com puter just type RUAUM OKO2D assum ing that the file RUAUM OKO2D.EXE and FQW IN.HLP are in your
current directory or path.

In Microsoft W indows operating system s another option is to create a shortcut on the desktop and for this
purpose a suitable icon for RUAUMOKO, Ruaumoko2D.ico, is supplied with the program .

The program prom pts for responses to a series of questions. Default responses, where appropriate, are
enclosed in square brackets, [ ]. File nam es m ust m atch the conventions of your operating system but file
nam es, with paths where necessary, m ust not exceed 60 characters in length and m ust not contain blanks.

The first question asks for the nam e of the output file. The default is the com puter console or term inal screen.

The next two questions are for nam es of the files containing the earthquake accelerogram s or the excitation
histories. The default value assum es that the excitations are appended to the rest of the input data. If there
are less than three inputs records just hit the RETURN key for the subsequent requests. If the file nam es are
included in the excitation part of the data file then just hit the RETURN key at each prom pt.

The next question asks for the nam e of the DYNAPLOT post-processor file. This file will only be opened if
requested by a greater than zero value of the variable KPA later in the data. This file is autom atically given
the extension .RES or .RAS if required, or if the nam e shown, which uses the filenam e of the output file, is
acceptable, just hit the RETURN key.

The next question asks for the selection of on-screen graphics. Any answer not of the form Y, YE or YES
(upper or lower case) will suppress the graphics. If the answer was YES and the screen supports colour
graphics you will later be asked if you want COLOUR graphics or not. Note; if on-screen graphics is enabled
the screen cursor is invisible at the end of all future prom pts.

The next question asks if this is a data check run only. If so type Y, YE or YES. In the case of the data check
run the analysis is term inated at the com pletion of the m odal analysis and just before the start of the tim e-
history analysis. The total storage requirem ents for the tim e-history analysis is checked.
The program then displays inform ation on logging or adding data files

The next prom pt is for the title nam e of your analysis which is the first line of the data described in the
following sections of this m anual. If the user already has a data file ready then type $ADD filenam e, where
filename is the nam e and path if necessary of the data file, followed by RETURN. If the user is going to key
the data in as prom pted, it is suggested that the all of the data be logged in a file for later use and to save re-
supplying this data in the event of a data error by giving the com m and $LOG filenam e, where filenam e is the
nam e of the file where data is to be logged, followed by RETURN. Note that all responses prior to this one will
not be logged even if logging had been enabled at an earlier prom pt.

At the com pletion of reading and checking of all of the input data for the analysis, the program , if it is running
in an interactive m ode and the on-screen graphics is enabled, the user will be prom pted as to whether colour
graphics is wanted.

The on-screen graphics draws a picture of the structure with all m em bers num bered and the analysis pauses
until the RETURN key is pressed. If you want a hard copy use the pull-down m enu at the top left of the
window to print the picture or to save it as a The program will next plot the accelerogram s or excitation
histories scaled to the m agnitudes used in the analysis. These are cleared by pressing the RETURN key.

2
After the m odal analysis is com plete the user is asked if the m ode shapes are to be displayed in an anim ated
display. Respond by typing the m ode num ber followed by RETURN. Five and a quarter cycles of vibration
are displayed unless a different num ber of cycles is specified. The default response END term inates the
plotting of m ode shapes and starts the tim e-history analysis.

During the tim e-history, on-screen pictures of the deform ed shape of the structure showing the locations of
inelastic behaviour are presented but require no user action because the pictures are replaced autom atically
as soon as a new picture is ready. Excessive use of the screen capture during the tim e-history m ay cause the
system to crash.

Running the program RUAUM OKO-2D in Batch M ode.

The program RUAUMOKO-2D m ay be run in a batch mode as well as the interactive m ode described above.
In the batch m ode the graphics is disabled and the test data option is also disabled.

The .BAT file has the com m and line as follows:

START/w RUAUM OKO2D outputfile inputfile quake1file quake2file

The START/w is only required for W indows95 or W indows98 operating system s to prevent the system from
attem pting to m ulti-task following com m and lines. For W indowsNT, W indows2000 or W indowsXP this item
should be rem oved.

If the RUAUMOKO-2D executable file RUAUM OKO2D.EXE is not in your path then the path should be part of
the com m and.

The outputfile is the nam e (including the path) of the output file. This file m ust NOT exist. If the file does
exist the analysis will term inate im m ediately. The post-processor file, if requested in the input data, will have
the sam e file nam e (and path) but with the extension .RES or .RAS .

The inputfile is the nam e (including path) of the input data file (in the form required in the following part of this
m anual) and the file M UST exist. If the file cannot be found, because the nam e or path is incorrect then the
analysis will term inate.

The files quake1file and quake2file are the nam es (including paths) of the excitation files. These file nam es
are optional, if they are m issing or the word INPUT (in upper case) is supplied instead than they are assum ed
to be part of the inputfile above. If files nam es are supplied then the files MUST exist or the analysis will be
term inated.

If there are less than two argum ents following the com m and RUAUM OKO2D then the program s will run in the
norm al interactive m ode.

As m any such com m and lines m ay be arranged in a .bat file, the best exam ple was a visitor to the
departm ent who set up 475 runs in a batch file and went away for days skiing. The only real lim itation is the
am ount of disk required for the output files, especially if the post-processing file is also output.

Envirom ent Settings.

RUAUMOKO-2D m akes great use of a local random access scratch file during th analysis. At each tim e-step
and in each iteration a read and a write operation is carried out for each m em ber in the structure. The default
location for this file RUAUM OKO.SCR is in the users current working directory. W hen the analysis is
com pleted this file is deleted by the program , however, if the program is term inated prem aturely by the user
this file m ay be left in the directory. This will not cause any difficulties as it will over-written the next tim e the
program runs. However, if the program is being run over a network and the users working directory is on a
server, then a very large penalty will be paid for the network traffic and the program m ay appear to run at
about 40% of its norm al speed. The tm p and tem p environm ent variable should be set to a local hard disk on
the com puter where the analysis will actually take place. O n all of the W indows workstations in the School of
Engineering, University of Canterbury, com puter laboratories these variables are set to C:\TEM P which is a

3
local scratch directory on each workstation. If the program s are being run on a single personal com puter
there is no necessity to set the environm ent variables.

On the latest personal com puter version of RUAUMO KO-2D m ost of the scratch file is em ulated in m em ory
which has increased the execution speed of the program by factors of up to 8. However, should the num ber
of sectors required for the scratch file exceed the m em ory allocated the rem ainder of the disk sectors will be
written to the hard disk file m entioned above. In all cases, even if it is not used, the file RUAUM OKO.SCR will
be created at the start of the program execution and deleted at the end of the analysis. (This disk in m em ory
approach has been successfully used in VMS and unix workstations since 1989).

Do not attem pt to carry out sim ultaneous executions of the program unless they are run from different
directories and the environm ent variable are not set as the scratch file would be accessed by the different
analyses with great confusion as the result.

Note: In the following user guide, each line of required data is indicated by a box containing the data item s.
Below each box is a description of the data item s. The data item s on each line m ay be separated by com m as
or blank spaces. The form at for the item s are indicated by the letter at the end of each descriptive line with A
indicating a character string, I indicating an integer value and F indicating a floating point num ber. A floating
point num ber m ay or m ay not have a decim al point and m ay also take a scientific or exponent form such as
1.5E6 which could also be expressed as 1500000.0. Character strings will be upper-cased unless enclosed in
double or single quotes and will term inate at the first blank space unless the string is enclosed in quotes.

4
OVERVIEW OF THE DATA FOR "RUAUM OKO-2D"

The analysis data for the structure is described by the following sequence of input lines or card im ages. Each
data set consists of the following item s of data.

1 Title for the Analysis - one line - see section 1

2 Analysis Control Param eters - one line - see section 2

3 Structural Param eters - one line - see section 3

4 Output and Plotting Param eters - one line - see section 4

5 Iteration and Travelling wave param eters - one line - see section 5

6 NODES - one line - see section 7


This is followed by one line for each nodal point giving the coordinates, the boundary condition flags,
displacem ent slaving flags and the output control flag. The nodes m ust be in ascending num erical
sequence. If lines are om itted their data will be interpolated.

7 DRIFT-one line - see section 7a


This is followed by a list of nodes, one per level starting at the base to be used to determ ine the inter-
storey drifts. If inter-storey drifts are requested the envelopes of inter-storey drifts are output in the
output file. If Residual displacem ents and forces are alos requested then the residual inter-storey drifts
are also output. If inter-storey drifts are requested and the excitation is an earthquake then the
envelopes of level total acceleration are also output

8 ELEMENTS - one line - see section 8


This is followed by one line for each m em ber in the structure giving the property-set num ber, the four
nodal point num bers that define the location, or connectivity, of the m em ber and the output control flag.
the m em bers m ust be in ascending num erical order. Lines m ay be om itted with interpolation giving the
properties of the intervening m em bers.

9 PROPS - one line - see sections 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 23 and 24.
This is followed by lines for each of the sections in the properties table together with data on strength
and stiffness degradation covered in Appendices A and B.

10 W EIGHTS - one line - see section 30- Except for static analyses this section MUST be provided.
This is followed by one line for each node that has a specified point, or lum ped, weight for the m ass
m atrix. If there are no nodal weights supply a line for the first and last nodes with only the node num bers
on each of the lines.

11 LOADS - one line - see section 31


This is followed by one line for each node that has a static load applied to it.

12 SHAPE - one line - see section 32


This section only applies to dynam ic load histories and not to earthquake analyses.
This is followed by one line for each node that has a contribution to the dynam ic forcing function that will
act on the structure. The m agnitudes of the loads are m ultiplied by the dynam ic loading history which is
described in the following section. One set is required for each loading pattern, i.e. if there is a second
loading pattern repeat all of this section for the second loading pattern.

13 EQUAKE - one line - see section 33. This is only required if dynam ic excitation is applied.
This is followed by a line with the param eters for the accelerogram or the loading history.
This then m ay be followed by the accelerogram or loading history though in m ost cases the
accelerogram is read from a separate file.

5
14 EQUAKE - one line - see section 33. This is only required if there are two com ponents of the
accelerogram or loading history.
This is followed by a line with the param eters for the accelerogram or the loading history.
This then m ay be followed by the accelerogram or loading history though in m ost cases the
accelerogram is read from a separate file.

15 EQUAKE - one line - see section 34. This data is only required for a Cyclic Adaptive Pushover Analysis.
This is followed by a line with the param eters for the application of the displacem ent history.
This then m ay be followed by the displacem ent history though in m any cases the history m ay be read
from a separate file.

16 SPECTRA - one line - see section 35. This is only required if the analysis is for a Response Spectra
Analysis.
This is followed by a line with the param eters for the Acceleration Response Spectra.
This then m ay be followed by the data for the response spectra though the spectra could be read from a
separate file.

6
THE DATA FILE FOR "RUAUM OKO-2D"

The analysis data for the structure is described by the following sequence of input lines or card im ages.

1 Description of the Analysis

Description of the structure (up to 79 alphanum eric characters)

2 Principal Analysis Options

IPANAL IFM T IPLAS IPCONM ICTYPE IPVERT INLGEO IPNF IZERO ORTHO IM ODE

IPANAL = 0 ; Static Analysis (with iteration for in-elastic behaviour) I


= 1 ; Static (with iteration for in-elastic behaviour) and Modal Analyses
= 2 ; Dynam ic Tim e-history using Newm ark constant average acceleration
= 3 ; Dynam ic Tim e-history using Central Difference explicit m ethod
= 4 ; As for IPANAL=2 above but see note below.
= 5 ; As for IPANAL=3 above but see note below.
= 6 ; Adaptive Push-Over
= 7 ; Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over
= 8 ; Multiple Input Ground Displacem ent Histories.
= 9 ; As for IPANAL=8 above but see note below.
=10 ; Response Spectrum Analysis
IFM T = 0 ; Binary post-processor file with extension .RES I
= 1 ; ASCII binary post-processor file with extension .RAS
IPLAS = 0 ; Elastic Tim e-history Analysis only I
= 1 ; In-elastic Tim e-history Analysis
IPCONM = 0 ; Lum ped m ass m atrix used in Tim e-history I
= 1 ; Diagonal m ass m atrix used in Tim e-history
= 2 ; Consistent m ass m atrix used in Tim e-history
ICTYPE = 0 ; Initial Stiffness Rayleigh Dam ping I
= 1 ; Tangent Stiffness Rayleigh Dam ping
= 2 ; Linear variation of dam ping with elastic natural frequencies
= 3 ; Tri-linear variation of dam ping with elastic natural frequencies
= 4 ; User specified m odal dam ping
= 5 ; Material specific Rayleigh Dam ping
= 6 ; Rayleigh Dam ping with Tangent dam ping m atrix as Secant dam ping m atrix
= 7 ; Material Rayleigh with Tangent dam ping m atrix as Secant dam ping m atrix
IPVERT = 0 ; X-direction earthquake only I
= 1 ; Y-direction earthquake only
= 2 ; Both X and Y direction earthquakes
= -n ; Num ber of com ponents of dynam ic loading histories
= n ; Num ber of Displacem ent histories, IPANAL=8 or 9
INLGEO = 0 ; Sm all displacem ent analysis assum ed. I
= 1 ; Large displacem ent effects included
= 2 ; P-Delta effects included (after the static analysis the stiffnesses
are m odified and INLGEO is reset to 0)
IPNF = 0 ; Modal analysis is carried out after the static analysis (Norm al Case) I
= 1 ; Natural frequencies and Mode Shapes are NOT calculated
= 2 ; Modal analysis is carried out before the static analysis
IZERO = 0 ; All zero output is om itted (norm al case) If IZERO= 1 all ouput printed I
ORTHO = 0 ; Mode shape orthogonality check not carried out. I
= 1 ; Mode shape orthogonality check printed
IM ODE = 0 ; Householder QR eigenvalue algorithm used (Default) I
= 1 ; Jacobi eigenvalue algorithm used
= 2 ; Sub-space iteration eigenvalue algorithm used

7
Notes: If IPANAL is greater than 0, a static analysis is carried out if any static loads are specified and then
the m odal analysis is perform ed unless suppressed, or the order of the operations is reversed, by the
variable IPNF.

Lim its on valid ranges for variable IPVERT


If IPANAL = 1,2,3,4 or 5, IPVERT = 0,1 or 2, or >-100
If IPANAL = 6 or 7, IPVERT = -1
If IPANAL = 8 or 9, IPVERT < 100
If IPANAL = 10, IPVERT = 0,1 or 2

For IPANAL = 4 or 5. Degrees of Freedom flagged as for travelling wave input are treated as fixed for
the static and m odal analyses and are then released at the start of the relative displacem ent tim e
history integration.

For IPANAL = 9. Degrees of Freedom flagged as input nodal displacem ent degrees of freedom are
fixed for the static and m odal analyses and are then released at the start of the total displacem ent
tim e history integration.

IPANAL = 6 is for an Adaptive Push-Over Analysis where the input load pattern is adapted as the
structure deform s and the analysis will term inate when the lim it displacem ent is reached, the factored
elastic displacem ent is reached or the structure stiffness reduces to 0.1% of the initial stiffness.

IPANAL = 7 is for a Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over Analysis where the input load pattern is adapted as
the structure deform s and when the change points in the prescribed displacem ent history is reached
the loading again reverts to the initial loading pattern but in the opposite direction and the adaptive
loading again continues until the next reversal point in the displacem ent history is reach. The analysis
will term inate when the displacem ent history is com pleted or the structure stiffness reduces to 0.1% of
the initial stiffness.

IPANAL = 8 is for the case for sim ulating a laboratory excitation where a displacem ent is applied to
the structure at a particular degree of freedom or a set of degrees of freedom . In this case the
degrees of freedom where the displacem ents are to be applied are treated as free for the static and
m odal analyses, i.e. gravity and free-vibration cases and then the displacem ent histories are applied
to these degrees of freedom . The analysis is a Relative Displacem ent form ulation.

IPANAL = 9 is for the case for the analysis of a structure where the ground is to be subjected to a set
of specified ground displacem ent histories. This would be appropriate if the different m otions are to
be applied at different parts of the foundation or at different depths in the foundation. For the static
and m odal analyses these degrees of freedom need to be fixed to prevent rigid body displacem ents
of the structure. The analysis is a Total Displacem ent form ulation

IPANAL = 10 is for the case for the analysis of a structure where the ground m otion is based on an
acceleration response spectra. The data for a norm al dynam ic analysis is read but then the analysis
is reset to linear elastic, the dam ping m odel is reset to Rayleigh dam ping, the m ass m atrix is reset to
diagonal and the analysis is set to sm all displacem ent theory. There m ay be separate spectra for the
each earthquake direction or the sam e spectra m ay be use for all earthquake com ponent. The
analysis is a Relative Displacem ent form ulation.

ORTHO is a flag that enables the user to show the orthogonality of the m ode shapes com puted with
respect to the m ass m atrix. Ideally the diagonal term s of the orthogonality m atrix should be 1.0 and
the off-diagonal term s should be 0.0.. This check is norm ally only used if, for som e reason, there is a
suspicion that the m odes com puted are not orthogonal with respect to the m ass or stiffness m atrices.

IM ODE is used to select the eigenvalue algorithm used to com pute the natural frequencies and m ode
shapes of free-vibration. The default is the Householder and QR algorithm that has been used since
the m id-1960s. This is reliable but som e instances were reported where non-orthogonal m odes were
com puted The Jacobi algorithm is the m ost stable algorithm available but is slow, and if any m ode
shapes are required they all have to be found, recom m ended for sm all problem s only. The Sub-
space iteration m ethod is suitable for very large problem s but m ust be used with care if parts of the
structure have very sm all m asses with sm all stiffnesses to m atch as the iteration process m ay then
be unpredictable. The iteration uses a generalised Jacobi eigenvalue routine.

8
ICTYPE = 0 m eans that the dam ping m atrix is based on a Rayleigh dam ping m odel and uses the
stiffness of the structure at the beginning of the tim e-history. The com puted dam ping m atrix is
constant throughout the tim e-history analysis. The tangent, secant and elastic dam ping m atrices are
identical. This m eans that as the structure softens, by yielding etc., the effective dam ping increases
because the Rayleigh coefficients " and $ were com puted for the initial natural frequencies of free-
vibration and som e of the frequencies have now decreased. It m ust be noted that the Rayleigh
dam ping m odel shows that the level of dam ping in the higher m odes of free-vibration can be very
large.

ICTYPE = 1 m eans that the dam ping m atrix is based on a Rayleigh dam ping m odel and uses current
stiffness of the structure at any tim e step as the tangent dam ping m atrix. If the structure is inelastic
then the tangent dam ping m atrix changes together with the stiffness m atrix throughout the tim e
history. The dam ping forces in the structure are adjusted in the tim e step with the increm ent of the
dam ping forces being the product of the tangent dam ping m atrix m ultiplied by the increm ental
velocities in the structure. The increm ental dam ping forces are then added to the dam ping forces
existing in the structure at the beginning of the tim e step to give the dam ping forces at the end of the
tim e-step.

ICTYPE = 2 m eans that the dam ping m atrix is based on the W ilson-Penzien dam ping m odel and is
based on the frequencies and m odes of free-vibration at the beginning of the tim e-history analysis.
The levels of dam ping associated with each m ode varies linearly with frequency. The com puted
dam ping m atrix is constant throughout the tim e-history analysis. The tangent, secant and elastic
dam ping m atrices are identical. This m eans that as the structure softens, by yielding etc., the effective
dam ping will increase. However, as the dam ping in the higher m odes of free-vibration is m uch less
than that im plied in the Rayleigh dam ping m odel this does not appear to have significant
consequences.

ICTYPE = 3 is a variation of the W ilson-Penzien dam ping m odel where the levels of dam ping
associated with each m ode varies in a tri-linear m anner with frequency. This m odel was initially used
to com pare the results with the Rayleigh dam ping model where the dam ping in the highest m odes
was set to be the sam e as those found in the Rayleigh dam ping m odel. It can also be used to set
high, low (or zero) levels of dam ping in the high m odes of free-vibration.

ICTYPE = 4 is a variation of the W ilson-Penzien dam ping m odel where there is a little m ore control of
the dam ping levels set for the different m odes of free-vibration.

ICTYPE = 5 is a variant of the Rayleigh dam ping m odel where the Rayleigh coefficients " and $ are
specified separately for every m em ber in the structural system . This enables different dam ping levels
to be specified in different parts of the structural system , i.e. a pounding study with buildings of
different types exhibiting different levels of dam ping or for a building on a soil foundation which
probably exhibits different dam ping to that shown by the building. The Rayleigh coefficients " and $
need to be com puted separately for each structural system and then specified in the section
properties for each m em ber type. If only initial stiffness dam ping $ is used then the analysis is sim ilar
to ICTYPE = 0 above and if tangent stiffness dam ping $ is specified than the effect id sim ilar to
ICTYPE = 1 above. If there are nodal m asses input as well as m em ber m ass then the contribution of
these nodal m asses to the dam ping m atrix can be achieved by specifying M ODE1 = M O DE2 = 0 and
by supplying C1 as " in the Fram e Control data line below. The dam ping m atrix com puted is the
tangent dam ping m atrix.

ICTYPE = 6 is a variation of the Rayleigh dam ping m odel where the the tangent stiffness m atrices are
used to form the secant dam ping m atrix. In this case the dam ping forces at a tim e-step are the
product of the secant dam ping m atrix tim es the current velocities of the structure. For the dynam ic
increm ental stiffness m atrix the tangent dam ping m atrix is assum ed to be the sam e as the secant
dam ping m atrix and the forces are then adjusted to match those from the secant dam ping m atrix.
This m odel m atches what som e users believe is the Rayleigh m odel with tangent stiffness dam ping
where others believe that ICTYPE = 1 fits that m odel. There is a potential problem with this dam ping
m odel for structures containing non-linear dash-pot m em bers.

ICTYPE = 7 is the equivalent of ICTYPE = 6 for structures using the ICTYPE = 5 m em ber specific
Rayleigh dam ping m odel and again assum es that the dam ping m atrix is the secant dam ping m atrix.

9
Rayleigh or Proportional Damping M odel ICTYPE=0 or 1

Linear or Tri-linear Damping M odel ICTYPE=2 or 3

User Specified M odal Dam ping ICTYPE=4

10
3 Frame Control Parameters

NNP NM EM NTYPE M M ODE1 MODE2 GRAV C1 C2 DT TIM E FACTOR

NNP Num ber of nodal points in the structure I


NM EM Num ber of m em bers in the structure I
NTYPE Num ber of different cross-section in the section table I
M Num ber of m ode-shapes required to be printed in the m odal analysis I
M ODE1 The m ode num ber at which the first dam ping ratio is applied. I
M ODE2 The m ode num ber at which the second dam ping ratio is applied I
GRAV The acceleration of gravity F
C1 The percentage of critical dam ping at m ode M ODE1 F
C2 The percentage of critical dam ping at m ode M ODE2 F
DT The tim e-step (Tim e units, usually seconds) F
TIM E The length of tim e-history to be run (Tim e units, usually seconds) F
FACTOR A scale factor applied to the tim e-history input (Default = 1.0) F

Note: If both M ODE1 and M ODE2 above are zero then the coefficients C1 and C2 are to be taken as the
constants " and $ of the Rayleigh dam ping m odel.
If there is only one dynam ic degree of freedom then if M O DE1=1 and M ODE2=0 then m ass
proportional dam ping is m odelled.
If there is only one dynam ic degree of freedom then if M ODE1=0 and M ODE2=1 then stiffness
proportional dam ping is m odelled.
If ICTYPE = 4, User specified Modal dam ping, then M ODE1 is the num ber of m odes for which
dam ping is specified, 1 # M ODE1 # 10. Note that M ODE2, C1 and C2 should be zero.

4 Output Intervals and Plotting Control Parameters

KP KPA KPLOT JOUT DSTORT DFACT XM AX YM AX NLEVEL NUP IRESID KDUM P

KP = 0; Tim e-history output suppressed I


= k; Tim e-history output every k tim e-steps
KPA = 0; Post-processor DYNAPLOT output suppressed I
= k; Post-processor DYNAPLOT output every k tim e-steps
KPLOT = 0; Plastic Hinges plotted at every status change I
= k; Plastic Hinges plotted every k tim e-steps
JOUT Not used any longer, supply 0 (zero) I
DSTORT Not used any longer, supply 1.0 (one) F
DFACT Displacem ent m ultiplying scale factor for on-screen graphics. $ 1.0 F
XM AX Maxim um X displacem ent for use in the on-screen graphics F
YM AX Maxim um Y displacem ent for use in the on-screen graphics F
NLEVEL Num ber of levels for com puted inter-storey drifts, i.e. num ber of storeys+1 I
If NLEVEL is less than 2 then inter-storey drifts are not output.
NUP Vertical axis for inter-storey drifts, 1=X axis or 2=Y axis. I
IRESID = 1, Residual displacem ents and forces output at end of tim e-history output. I
= 0, Residual displacem ents and forces not output.
KDUM P = 0; Mass and Stiffness m atrices output suppressed I
= k; Mass and Stiffness m atrices output every k tim e-steps

Note: The variables JOUT and D ST OR T are no longer used in Ruaum oko but are retained to m aintain
backwards com patibility of the data files.
If KP is zero for a response spectra analysis (IPANAL=10) then only the com bined m odal response
will be output whereas if KP is greater than zero each m odal response will also be output.

11
5 Iteration Control and W ave Velocities

M AXIT M AXCIT FTEST W AVEX W AVEY THETA DXM AX DYM AX D OM EGA F

M AXIT Maxim um num ber of cycles of Newton-Raphson iteration per Tim e-step I
If =0 : no iteration
If IPANAL = 3 (explicit integration) M AXIT is the num ber of sub-steps per
tim e-step DT in the integration of the equations of m otion i.e. the actual
integration tim e-step = DT/M AXIT
M AXCIT Maxim um num ber of cycles of iteration/solution step for dam ping m odels I
ICTYPE = 2, 3 or 4 that have coefficients outside the skyline of the stiffness
m atrix. In other values of ICTYPE use 0
FTEST Norm of the out-of-balance force vector relative to the increm ental force F
vector for the Newton-Raphson or damping iteration.
The value is the square of the iteration tolerance required.
i.e. 0.0001 im plies a tolerance of 1% in the residual vector.
W AVEX W ave velocity of propagation in the x-direction (if = 0.0 taken as infinite) F
W AVEY W ave velocity of propagation in the y-direction (if = 0.0 taken as infinite) F
THETA Angle of Earthquake X and Y direction to structure X and Y directions F
degrees (default =0.0)
DXM AX X displacem ent to term inate analysis F
DYM AX Y displacem ent to term inate analysis F
D Traveling W ave Dispersion Factor I
0.0 im plies no dispersion (D = infinity)
1.0 Maxim um dispersion.
100.0 Minim um dispersion
OM EGA Earthquake Characteristic Frequency (radians/second) used for dispersion. F
F Scale factor for dispersion (default = 0.10) F

Notes: 1. If IPVERT is negative then travelling wave m odels are not perm itted.
2. If the ground wave velocities W AVEX and/or W AVEY are input as zero they are treated as
infinite.
3. W hen the Central Difference m arching m ethod is being used for the tim e-history integration
then the actual tim e-step DT/M AXIT m ust be less than half the shortest natural period of the
structure if num erical instability is to be avoided in the tim e-history integration.
4 The Displacem ent lim its are absolute values in that only positive num bers are used.
5 The default value for FTEST used when either one or both of M AXIT and/or M AXCIT are
specified is 0.00001. Note that the squares of the vector norm s are used in the test so that
0.001 im plies a 3% tolerance and 0.0001 im plies a 1% tolerance.
6 If the variable M AXCIT is applicable the m axim um num ber should lie in the range of 1 to 3.
As a rule, experience has shown that very seldom is m ore than one cycle of iteration
required.
7 As a general observation not m ore than about 5 Newton Raphson iterations should be
needed in any tim e-step
8 If Dispersion is applied to the travelling wave, then the am ount of dispersion applied to the
accelerogram applied to nodes after the first node to receive the input depends on the wave
velocity, the distance between the nodes (i.e. the tim e delay) and the dispersion param eter D
and the characteristic earthquake frequency OM EGA. The dispersion is in the form of a
white noise which is designed not to significantly alter the response spectra of the input
ground m otion. The first node to receive the input m otion has no dispersion applied to its
input m otion. The dispersion is a strictly random process which m eans that the input at the
nodes is never able to be repeated m eaning that subsequent analyses with the sam e data
are not repeateable. If D is supplied as a negative num ber then a pseudo-random process is
used m eaning that a re-run with the sam e data will produce the sam e results. This m ay be
useful for param eter studies where one does not want the effects of the param eter variation
to be clouded by the default strictly random nature of the dispersion.
9. The dispersion am plitude m ay be scaled by the factor F.

12
5a User Specified M odal Damping Parameters (Only if ICTYPE = 4)

M ODE1 DAM P1 M ODE2 DAM P2 .. .. M ODEn DAM Pn

M ODEi Mode num ber. Must be in ascending num erical order, I


DAM Pi Percentage of Critical Dam ping for M ODEi F

Notes:
1. Num ber of Modes n specified m ust equal M ODE1 of line 2, Principal analysis options.
2. Dam ping for m odes less than the first m ode above is taken as DAM P1 and dam ping for m odes
greater than the last above is taken as DAM Pn. This m odel m ay be considered as a variation of the
trilinear dam ping m odel.
3. For m odes with num bers in-between the m odes specified, the Percentage of Critical dam ping is
interpolated with respect to the m odal frequencies of the m odes at the beginning and end of the gap
in the m ode num bers.

6 Time-History Output Control

Output control during the tim e-history integration is under the control of the param eters KP and KPA on the
Section 4 above. If the param eter KP is non-zero, = J, the results are written to the output file, or device, every
J tim e steps starting at step 0. Likewise, if KPA is non-zero, = I, then results go to the post-processing
DYNAPLOT disk file every I tim e steps starting at step zero.

The control of which nodes or m em bers have their results output is determ ined by the param eter IOUT
associated with each of the nodes or m em bers in the following data sections.

The value of IOUT lies in the range of 0 to 3;

IOUT = 0; if required, the results will be sent to both the output file and written to the DYNAPLOT file.
= 1; if required, will only be written to the DYNAPLOT file
= 2; if required, will only be sent to the output file.
= 3; will neither be printed or written to the DYNAPLOT file or to the output file.

Default values of IOUT are set on the lines with the words NODES or M EM BERS in Sections 7 or 8 below
and these values will apply for all nodes or m em bers unless over-ridden by new values on the data for that
node or m em ber. Interpolated nodes or m em bers take the value for the first node or m em ber in the
sequence.

At every tim e step the following inform ation m ay be written to the DYNAPLOT post-processing file.

1. The tim e, ground accelerations and the inertia, dam ping and elastic energies, the external work done
by the applied loads and the plastic work.

2. For every requested node, the nodal displacem ents, velocities, accelerations, dam ping forces, inertia
forces and applied forces.

3. For every requested m em ber, the m em ber forces, the m em ber deform ations, the m em ber action
stiffness flags as a percentage of the elastic stiffness. (axial, flexure at end 1, flexure at end 2) or
(longitudinal displacem ent, transverse displacem ent and m om ent). For the four-hinge beam m em bers
the m om ents, curvatures and stiffness flags for the internal hinges are also output. For Fram e and
W all m em bers the shear forces at each end are also output.

13
7 Nodal Point Input

One input line with the word NODES starting in colum n 1.

NODES IOUT

IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I

One input line required per nodal point, except that the presence of sequential nodal points with equally
spaced nodal point coordinates need only be im plied by the presence of the first and last nodal points of the
sequence. Boundary conditions will be taken (except for the last nodal point in the sequence) as being
identical to those of first nodal point in the sequence. Coupling nodes will also be interpolated between the
first and last nodal points in the sequence.

N X(N) Y(N) NF1 NF2 NF3 KUP1 KUP2 KUP3 IOUT

N Nodal point num ber I


X(N) X-coordinate of node N F
Y(N) Y-coordinate of node N F
NF1 = 0; x-displacem ent is unconstrained I
= 1; x-displacem ent is zero i.e. fixed
NF2 = 0; y-displacem ent is unconstrained I
= 1; y-displacem ent is zero i.e. fixed
NF3 = 0; Z-rotation is unconstrained I
= 1; Z-rotation is zero i.e. fixed
KUP1 = 0; no coupling of the X-displacem ent degree of freedom I
= J; X-displacem ent of this node is coupled to that of node J
= -1; Support node for travelling wave input for x com ponent of input.
(NF1 m ust = 0)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacem ent at this degree of
freedom
KUP2 = 0; no coupling of the Y-displacem ent degree of freedom I
= J; Y-displacem ent of this node is coupled to that of node J
= -1; Support node for travelling wave input for y com ponent of input.
(NF2 m ust = 0)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacem ent at this degree of
freedom
KUP3 = 0; no coupling of the Z-rotation degree of freedom I
= J; Z-rotation of this node is coupled to that of node J
(Caution m ust be exercised here as the rotational coupling couples
only the rotational degree of freedom and does not m ake any
allowance for the distance between the nodes)
= -k; Only if IPANAL = 8 or 9. Input k displacem ent at this degree of
freedom
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I

Note: There is no restriction of the ordering of m aster and slave nodes in the program and daisy chaining of
slaving has also been used. However, care must be exercised to ensure that circular chaining does
not occur, i.e. that the node is not effectively slaved back to itself. The unconstrained equations are
num bered and then the program works out the equation num bers of the slaved nodes. Once the
m em ber data has been input the equations are autom atically renum bered to m axim ise the execution
speed in the subsequent equation solving. This m eans that if one later wishes to apply foundation
com pliance to what was a fixed-base structure then the original node num bering does not have to be
changed, the new num bers for the foundation nodes are just appended to the existing node
sequence. Sim ilarly, adjoining fram es in a pounding study can be num bered sequentially rather than
num bering across floors of both structures to minim ise band-width. Dum m y nodes m ay be left in the
data set as long as they are fully fixed.

14
7a. Inter-storey Drift Input. (Only if NLEVEL on data line 5 is greater than 2)

One input line with the word DRIFT starting in colum n 1.

DRIFT ANGLE

The default case is that the inter-storey drifts are the differences in the storey displacem ents.
If the word DRIFT is followed by the word ANGLE (minim um of letter A) then the inter-storey drifts will be
com puted as the difference in the storey displacem ents divided by the inter-storey height as an angle
(radians). If the word ANGLE or the letter A is om itted then the inter-storey drifts are the differences in the
displacem ents over the level.

This is followed by a line or lines with a list of a list of NLEVEL nodal point num bers starting with a node point
at the ground level and then with a node point at each storey progressing upwards from the bottom of the
structure. If the nodes cannot be listed on one line then take as m any lines as is necessary. The program will
continue reading data lines until all NLEVEL num bers have been read.

N1 N2 N3 . . . Ntop

N1 Nodal point num ber at ground floor, or first level, of the structure. I
N2 Nodal point num ber at the second level of the structure. I
N3 Nodal point num ber at the third level of the structure. I
... Nodal point num bers at interm ediate levels I
Ntop Nodal point at the top level of the structure I

Notes: The total num ber of nodes must be NLEVEL where NLEVEL (see section 4 on page 11) is the
num ber of storeys+1

If inter-storey drifts are requested the envelopes of inter-storey drifts are listed in the output file.

If Residual displacem ents and forces are also requested then the Residual inter-storey drifts are also
listed in the output file.

If inter-storey drifts are requested and the excitation is an earthquake (IPVERT $ 1) then the
envelopes of the Total Acceleration at each level are also listed in the output file.

15
Four Node M ember

Quadrilateral Elem ents and Panel Elem ents

16
8 M ember Topology or Geometry

One input line with the word ELEM ENTS starting in colum n 1.

ELEM ENTS IOUT

IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I

One input line is required per m em ber in ascending order, except that sequential m em bers with a nodal point
num bering that uniform ly increm ents m ay be im plied by the provision of the first and last m em ber in the
sequence. The m em ber type for all interpolated m em bers will be taken as that for the first m em ber in the
sequence.

N MT NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 NODE4 IOUT

N Mem ber num ber I


MT Mem ber type num ber, refers to the m em ber properties that follows I
NODE1 Nodal point num ber at end 1 of the m em ber I
NODE2 Nodal point num ber at end 2 of the m em ber I
NODE3 Inner nodal point at end 1 of the mem ber I
(if NODE3 is zero or blank it is reset = NODE1)
NODE4 Inner nodal point at end 2 of the mem ber I
(if NODE4 is zero or blank it is reset = NODE2)
IOUT Output control flag (see section 6 above) I

Notes: The 4-node m em bers are connected to NODE1 and NODE2 only with no stiffness contributions to
nodes NODE3 and NODE4. These latter two nodes NODE3 and NODE4 are purely for a geom etric
definition (they are assum ed to be connected to nodes NODE1 and NODE2 respectively by rigid links
with the flexible section of the m em ber lying between the inner nodes). The boundary conditions for
the inner nodes NODE3 and NODE4 m ust be fully fixed.
In a large displacem ent analysis the coordinates of nodes NODE3 and NODE4 are updated from the
increm ental displacem ents and rotations of nodes NODE1 and NODE2.

All four nodal points are required and m ust be distinct for the quadrilateral finite elem ents and the
m asonry panel elem ents. The nodal points m ust be given in an anti-clockwise sequence around the
elem ent.

17
9 M ember Property Tables

One input line with the word PROPS starting in colum n 1.

PROPS

10 Section Property Information

One set of input for every different cross-section type (this m ay be due to the different initial load conditions
etc.). These m ust be arranged in ascending section num ber order and each m ust be one of the following
section types;

N M TYPE LABEL

N Section Num ber I


M TYPE = FRAM E => Beam or Beam -Colum n m em ber A
= SPRING => Translational and Rotational Spring m em ber
= W ALL => Taylor Structural-W all m em ber
= DAM PER => Viscous Dam ping m em ber
= TENDON => Active Tendon or Constant Force m em ber
= CONTACT => Contact or Im pact m em ber
= QUAD => Quadrilateral Finite Elem ent.
= PANEL => Masonry In-fill Panel
= GROUND => Foundation Elem ent
= M ULTISPRING => Multi-Spring Hinge Elem ent.
= COM POUND => Com pound Spring Hinge Elem ent
= LATTICE => Lattice Truss Elem ent
= RIENFORCED => Reinforced Concrete Hinge Elem ent
LABEL Maxim um 30 character label for section. If you wish to retain case or if the A
label contains blank characters enclose the label in single or double quotes.

The M TYPE m ay be supplied with just enough letters to be distinct , in m ost cases just the first letter is
sufficient.

The above line for each section shall be followed by the rem aining data for the appropriate m em ber types.
See the following sections.

SECTION 11 = FRAM E type m em bers


SECTION 12 = SPRING type m em bers
SECTION 13 = W ALL type m em bers
SECTION 14 = DAM PING type m em bers
SECTION 15 = TENDON type m em bers
SECTION 16 = CONTACT type m em bers
SECTION 17 = QUAD type elem ents.
SECTION 18 = PANEL type elem ents
SECTION 19 = GROUND type elem ents
SECTION 20 = M ULTI-SPRING elem ents
SECTION 21 = COM POUND-SPRING elem ents
SECTION 22 = LATTICE spring elem ents
SECTION 23 = REINFORCED concrete hinge elem ents
SECTION 24 = INERTIA (relative m ass) elem ents

18
11 FRAM E type member properties

Frame Member

Order of all of the com ponents required for Fram e Mem bers are:

1 Basic Section Properties see section 11a


2 Elastic properties see section 11b
3 Mem ber bi-linear factors and hinge lengths only is IHYST > 0, see section 11c
4 Material Specific Dam ping Param eters, (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on line 2) see section 11d
5 Mem ber initial conditions, or fixed end forces, only if ICOND > 0, see section 11e
6 Yield Forces and Mom ents Except when IHYST = 0, see sections 11f to 11i
7 Shear Yield data, only if IGA > 0, see sections 11j or 11k
8 Strength Degradation Param eters, only if ILOS > 0, see section 11l
9 Stiffness Degradation Param eters, only if IHYST > 0, see section 11m
10 Dam age Index data, only if IDAM G > 0, see section 11n

Beam Sign Convention

19
Giberson One Com ponent Beam M odel

Tw o Com ponent Beam M odel

Variable Flexibility Beam M ember

Four-Hinge Beam M odel

20
11a. Basic section properties

ITYPE IPIN ICOND IHYST ILOS IDAM G ICOL IGA IDUCT

ITYPE = 1; One Com ponent (Giberson) BEAM m em ber I


= 2; Concrete BEAM -COLUM N m em ber
= 3; Steel BEAM -COLUM N m em ber
= 4; General quadratic BEAM -COLUM N m em ber
= 5; Two-com ponent BEAM m em ber
= 6; Variable Flexibility BEAM m em ber
= 7; Four-Hinge BEAM m em ber
= 8; Asym m etric quadratic BEAM -COLUM N m em ber
IPIN = 0; Mem ber built-in to joint (Norm al case) I
= 1; End 1 pinned (internally) to the joint
= 2; End 2 pinned (internally) to the joint
= 3; Both ends pinned (internally) to the joint
ICOND = 0; No initial loads applied I
= 1; Initial Fixed-end forces or Prestress are applied. See section 11e.
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
ILOS = 0; No strength degradation. See Appendix A I
= 1; Strength reduction in each direction based on its ductility factor
= 2; Strength reduction based on num ber of cycles
= 3; Strength reduction based on m axim um ductility
= 4; Strength reduction as for ILOS=1 above but strength reduction also with
num ber of inelastic cycles.
= 5; Strength reduction as for ILOS=4 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultim ate ductility.
= 6; Strength reduction as for ILOS=3 above but strength reduction also with
num ber of inelastic cycles.
= 7; Strength reduction as for ILOS=6 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultim ate ductility.
IDAM G = 0; No dam age indices com puted I
= m; Dam age indices com puted (m integer > 0 used as weight)
ICOL = 0; Colum n ductilities com puted at balance point of axial force I
= 1; Colum n ductilities com puted at static axial force
= 2; Colum n ductilities com puted at zero axial force
= 3; Colum n ductilities com puted at each tim e-step using current axial force
IGA = 0; Shear deform ation is elastic (only option if ITYPE=7) I
= 1; In-elastic Shear deform ation with SINA hysteresis
= 2; In-elastic Flange Shear-Link m odel
IDUCT = 0; Flexural Stiffness rem ains constant as yield m om ent changes I
= 1; Flexural Stiffness varies so that yield curvature rem ains constant

Note:
1. If ITYPE above is 6 or 7 then IHYST m ay not be 1, 5, 18 or 19, IPIN m ust be 0 and the bi-linear factor
RF in section 11c m ust have a value greater than or equal to 0.01.
2. If the m em ber is linearly elastic then there is no effective distinction between m em bers ITYPE 1 to 6.
3. To represent truss m em bers either IPIN = 3 or I (in section 11b) is set equal to zero. The latter option
is preferred as then all beam hysteresis rules can be used for the truss behaviour. If the first option is
used then only the elasto-plastic and bi-linear rules m ay be used.
4. The value of IDAM G is used as a weight when com puting the weighted dam age index for the whole
structure. Only integer values are accepted. If all dam age index flags are 1 then the weighted dam age
index for the structure is the average dam age index.
5. If IDUCT=1 the stiffness EI is taken as the stiffness under pure flexure.

21
11b. Elastic section properties

E G A AS I W GT END1 END2 FJ1 FJ2

E Elastic (Young's) Modulus of m em ber m aterial F


G Shear Modulus of m em ber m aterial F
A Cross-sectional AREA of the m em ber section F
AS Effective SHEAR AREA of the m em ber section F
(if AS=0.0 then shear deform ations in the section are suppressed)
I M OM ENT of INERTIA (2nd Mom ent of Area) of section F
W GT W eight/(unit length) of the m em ber F
END1 Length of Rigid End-block at End 1 of m em ber F
END2 Length of Rigid End-block at End 2 of m em ber F
FJ1 Joint flexibility at End 1 (radians/unit mom ent) F
FJ2 Joint flexibility at End 2 (radians/unit mom ent) F

Note: The weight/unit length is used to com pute the m em ber m ass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the m em ber or the structure.
The end-block lengths END1 and END2 are within the beam between nodes NODE3 and NODE4.

11c. M ember Bi-linear Factors and Hinge Properties (only if IHYST above not equal 0)

RA RF H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7

RA Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg-Osgood r) (Axial) F


RF Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg-Osgood r) (Flexure) F
H1 Plastic Hinge Length at End 1 F
H2 Plastic Hinge Length at End 2 F
H3 Plastic Hinge Length at Hinge 3 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H4 Plastic Hinge Length at Hinge 4 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H5 Fraction of length Hinges 1 to 3 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H6 Fraction of length Hinges 4 to 2 (4-Hinge Beam only) F
H7 Fraction of Central EI to Section EI (4-Hinge Beam only) F

Notes:
1. For One-Com ponent and Four-Hinge Beam s and all Beam -Colum ns the plastic hinge lengths are reset
to 1.0 if 0.0 is specified m aking the plastic curvature the sam e as the plastic hinge rotation.
2. The plastic hinge lengths are not used for the Two-Com ponent Beam m em bers.
3. The plastic hinge lengths for Variable Flexibility Beam s should be between 0.1 and 0.5 of the m em ber's
clear span.
4. The Fractions of length to the interior plastic hinges of the Four-Hinge Beam m em ber should be between
0.1 and 0.4, the default is 0.3.
5. The Central Stiffness ratio is the fraction of the end stiffnesses that is used by the central region between
hinges 3 and 4. The m inim um is 0.1. All stiffness quantities, AE, EI and GA are adjusted by the sam e
scale factor.

22
11d. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

23
11e. M ember Initial Fixed End Forces (only if ICOND = 1)

M 1 M 2 V1 V2 AXIAL AXPS IOP

M1 Fixed-end m om ent at End 1 F


M2 Fixed-end m om ent at End 2 F
V1 Fixed-end shear force at End 1 F
V2 Fixed-end shear force at End 2 F
AXIAL Axial force applied to m em ber F
AXPS Axial prestress in the m em ber F
IOP = 0; Axial prestress has no effect of the structure (see note below) I
= 1; Axial prestress also im plies loads acting on the nodes at the ends
of the m em ber.

Note: The prestress force which is Tension positive affects only the internal m em ber axial force used in the
determ ination of yield states and has no effect on the static analysis of the structure.

The Axial force applied to the m em ber is positive if it acts in the direction NODE3 to NODE4 and one half
of this force is applied to each of the nodes at the ends of the m em ber.

Frame M ember Initial Fixed End Force Sign Convention

Positive m em ber m om ents cause tensile stresses on the bottom fibres and positive shear forces act in the local
y direction on the positive local x face of the beam section. Tensile axial forces are positive. As an exam ple if
a downward load is applied to the above m em ber M 1, M 2 and V1 are negative while V2 is positive.

24
11f. BEAM Yield Conditions

PYT PYC M Y1+ M Y1- M Y2+ M Y2- M Y3+ M Y3- M Y4+ M Y4-

PYT Axial force for tensile yield ( $ 0.0) F


PYC Axial force for com pression yield ( # 0.0) F
M Y1+ Positive yield m om ent (End 1) ( $ 0.0) F
M Y1- Negative yield m om ent (End 1) ( # 0.0) F
M Y2+ Positive yield m om ent (End 2) ( $ 0.0) F
M Y2- Negative yield m om ent (End 2) ( # 0.0) F
M Y3+ Positive yield m om ent (Hinge 3) ( $ 0.0) F
M Y3- Negative yield m om ent (Hinge 3) ( # 0.0) F
M Y4+ Positive yield m om ent (Hinge 4) ( $ 0.0) F
M Y4- Negative yield m om ent (Hinge 4) ( # 0.0) F

Note: Yield m om ents for hinges 3 and 4 are only required for the Four-hinge BEAM m em bers. If both yield
m om ents at a hinge are zero then the hinge rem ains elastic. If both PYC and PYT are zero then axial
yield is suppressed. If both positive and negative yield m om ents at a hinge are zero then yield at that
hinge is suppressed.
There is no interaction between axial forces and the yield m om ents.

25
11g. Concrete BEAM -COLUM N Yield Surface at End 1 of member

PYC PB M B M 1B M 2B M 0 PYT IEND

PYC Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) F


PB Axial com pression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield m om ent at B ( > 0.0) F
M 1B Yield m om ent at P=(2/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
M 2B Yield m om ent at P=(1/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield m om ent at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the m em ber has the sam e yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the param eters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the m em ber.

Note: If M 1B = M 2B = 0.0 then a straight line is used between the points (PB, M B) and (0.0, M O) and not the
cubic curve.
The interaction is sym m etric about the M = 0.0 axis.

Concrete Beam -Colum n Yield Interaction Surface

26
11h. Steel BEAM -COLUM N Yield Surface at End 1 of member

PYC PB M B M 0 PC M C PYT IEND

PYC Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) F


PB Axial com pression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield m om ent at B ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield m om ent at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial tension force at C ( > 0.0) F
MC Yield m om ent at C ( > 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the m em ber has the sam e yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the param eters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the m em ber.

Note: The interaction is sym m etric about the M =0.0 axis.

Steel Beam-Colum n Yield Interaction Surface

27
11i. Quadratic BEAM -COLUM N Yield Surface at End 1 of member

PYC PB MB PC M C PYT IEND

PYC Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) F


PB Axial force at B (PYT > PB > PYC) F
MB Yield m om ent at B ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial force at C (PYT > PC > PYC) F
MC Yield m om ent at C ( < 0.0) F
PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the m em ber has the sam e yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the param eters PYC to PYT
for End 2 of the m em ber.

Quadratic Beam -Colum n Yield Interaction Surface

28
11ii. Asymmetric Quadratic BEAM -COLUM N Yield Surface at End 1 of member

PYC+ PYC- PB MB PC MC PYT+ PYT- IEND

PYC+ Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) (Positive Mom ent case) F
PYC- Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) (Negative Mom ent case) F
PB Axial force at B (PYT > PB > PYC) F
MB Yield m om ent at B ( > 0.0) F
PC Axial force at C (PYT > PC > PYC) F
MC Yield m om ent at C ( < 0.0) F
PYT+ Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) (Positive Mom ent case) F
PYT- Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) (Negative Mom ent case) F
IEND = 0; End 2 of the m em ber has the sam e yield surface I
= 1; A further line will be required to supply the param eters PYC+ to PYT-
for End 2 of the m em ber.

Asymmetric Quadratic Colum n Interaction Diagram

29
11j. In-elastic Shear Param eters (Only if IGA on line 11a is 1)

One line for in-elastic shear for flexure about the local z-z axis.

Vy Vcr Vcc Alfa R Duct1 Duct2 Vres Phi1 Phi2 Pres Ido

Vy Shear yield strength ( > 0.0) F


Vcr Shear cracking strength ( > 0.0) F
Vcc Shear crack closing corce ( > 0.0) F
Alfa Bi-linear factor, cracking to yield ( R < Alfa < 0.0) F
R Tri-linear factor after yield ( > 0.01) F
Duct1 Shear ductility where strength degradation starts F
If less than 1.0 then no shear strength degradation
Duct2 Shear ductility where shear strength degradation stops ( > Duct1) F
Vres Residual shear strength as proportion of Vy (0.01 # Vres < 1.0) F
Phi1 Flexural ductility where shear strength degradation starts F
If less than 1.0 then no shear strength degradation
Phi2 Flexural ductility where shear strength degradation stops ( > Phi1) F
Pres Residual shear strength as proportion of Vy (0.01 # Pres < 1.0) F
(Note: Vres*Pres*Vy m ust be som ewhat greater than Vcr)
Ido = 0; In-elastic shear yield m ay occur (default) I
= 1; Retrofit assum ed, m essage printed, shear rem ains elastic.
= 2: Failure assum ed, m essage printed, analysis term inated.

Notes: The flexural ductility used for the strength degradation is based on the flexural ductilities at the hinges at
the ends of the m em ber.

The action taken on the reaching of the shear yield strength follows the rules of Satyarno in his study on
the behaviour of shear-flexure interaction in fram ed structures.

The in-elastic shear follows the SINA hysteresis rule. Please see the Appendices.
Beta = Alfa and the rule assum es sym m etry in both force and displacem ent axes.

If Vy, the shear area or the shear m odulus are less than or equal to 0.0 then in-elastic shear is disabled

SINA Hysteresis

30
11k. In-elastic Flange Shear-Link Parameters (Only if IGA on line 11a is 2)

One line for in-elastic shear for flexure about the local z-z axis.

Flex Bear V1 V2 V3

Flex Shear Link Initial Flexibility (Radians/unit m om ent) ( > 0.0) F


Bear Shear Link Flexibility after bolts bear ( < Flex) F
V1 Shear where flange splice first slips ( > 0.0) F
V2 Shear where bolt bearing begins ( > 1.1*V1) F
V3 Shear where splice slips in later cycles ( > 0.0) F

Notes: The joint flexibilities specified at the ends of the m em ber are com plem ented by the shear link flexibility
com puted for the shear link. The shear force at each end of the m em ber is used to adjust the joint
flexibility at that end of the m em ber.

Shear Link Behaviour

31
11l. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS is > 0) (See Appendix A)

11m. Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only is IHYST > 0) (See Appendix B)

For those rules which require sets of data such as SINA or Muto etc., then there are 2 sets of such data:
1: Flexure at End 1
2: Flexure at End 2

11n. Dam age Index data (Only if IDAM G > 0).

M UT M UC M U1+ M U1- M U2+ M U2- M U3+ M U3- M U4+ M U4- BETA1 BETA2

M UT Positive axial ultim ate ductility F


M UC Negative axial ultim ate ductility F
M U1+ Positive ultim ate ductility (End 1) F
M U1- Negative ultim ate ductility (End 1) F
M U2+ Positive ultim ate ductility (End 2) F
M U2- Negative ultim ate ductility (End 2) F
M U3+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Hinge 3) F
M U3- Negative ultim ate ductility (Hinge 3) F
M U4+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Hinge 4) F
M U4- Negative ultim ate ductility (Hinge 4) F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta Axial (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta Flexural (Default = 0.05) F

Notes: Ductility data for hinges 3 and 4 is to be provided only for the Four-hinge Beam m em bers.
All ultim ate ductilities m ust be greater than 1.0.
The ultim ate ductilities have no effect on the dynam ic analysis but are only used at the end of the analysis
to com pute the dam age indices.
See Appendix B for inform ation on which hysteresis rules can allow dam age indices to be com puted.

32
12 SPRING type member properties

Spring M ember

Order of all of the com ponents required for Spring Mem bers.

1 Basic Section Properties see section 12a


2 Material Specific Dam ping param eter (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in line 2) see section 12b
3 Yield Forces and Mom ents Except when IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37.
see sections 12c, 12d, 12e, 12f or 12g
4 Strength Degradation Param eters, only if ILOS > 0, see section 12h
5 Stiffness Degradation Param eters, only if IHYST > 0, see section 12i
6 Dam age Index data, only if IDAM G > 0, see section 12j

Spring M ember Sign Convention

33
12a. Basic Section properties

ITYPE IHYST ILOS IDAM G KX KY GJ W GT RF RT PSX PSY PSZ THETA ITRUSS IOP SL

ITYPE = 1; No interactions between X, Y or Theta Z com ponents I


= 2; Elliptic interaction between yield forces in the X and Y directions,
no interaction with rotation.
= 3; Interaction between Rotation and Y forces. (Flexure-Shear interaction)
(SINA hysteresis assum ed for Y com ponents)
= 4; Interaction between Axial Force and Yield Mom ents
= 5; Friction Interaction between Axial Force and Transverse Force
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
(If ITYPE=2 Hysteresis is tri-linear).
ILOS = 0; No strength degradation (If ITYPE=2 then ILOS=0) I
= 1; Strength reduction in each direction based on ductility in that direction.
= 2; Strength reduction based on num ber of cycles
= 3; Strength reduction based on m axim um ductility
= 4; Strength reduction as for ILOS=1 above but strength reduction also with
num ber of inelastic cycles.
= 5; Strength reduction as for ILOS=4 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultim ate ductility.
= 6; Strength reduction as for ILOS=3 above but strength reduction also with
num ber of inelastic cycles.
= 7; Strength reduction as for ILOS=6 above but strength reduces suddenly
at ultim ate ductility.
IDAM G = 0; No dam age indices com puted I
= m; Dam age indices com puted (If ITYPE=2 then IDAM G=0)
KX Spring Stiffness in the local X-direction F
KY Spring Stiffness in the local Y-direction F
GJ Rotational stiffness of the m em ber section F
W GT W eight/(unit length) of the m em ber F
RF Bi-linear Factor, or Ram berg-Osgood r, for spring forces F
(This is only used if ITYPE=1)
RT Bi-linear Factor, or Ram berg-Osgood r, rotation F
PSX Pre-load force in the local X-direction F
PSY Pre-load force in the local Y-direction F
PSZ Pre-load m om ent about the Z-axis F
THETA Angle from Global X axis to local x axis. (Degrees). (Over-rides Note 2 below) F
(This angle is only used if spring length is zero)
ITRUSS = 0; Stiffness coefficients used as input I
= 1: Stiffness coefficients divided by m em ber length (Default=1.0) (Truss action)
IOP = 0; Pre-load forces and m om ents are internal to the m em ber only. I
= 1; Pre-load forces and m om ents act as pre-loads that also affect the nodal
Forces acting on the nodes at the ends of the m em ber in the static analysis of the
structure.
SL Shift in Relative position of Shear spring along length of m em ber (-0.5 # SL # +0.5) F
(-0.5 m oves the shear spring to End 1 and +0.5 m oves the shear spring to End 2)
Default 0.0 im plies shear spring is at mid-length

Notes:
1. The weight/unit length is used to com pute the m em ber m ass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the m em ber or the structure.
2. If the length of the m em ber is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes.
3. The ITYPE=2 m odel m ay be used to m odel the horizontal x and y behaviour of say a bridge pier where
the bridge is m odelled in plan and the pier acts in flexure with the vertical axis in the z direction
perpendicular to the m odel of the structure. The behaviour of the pier represents the yield force
interaction in the x and y directions where the yield forces would be the yield m om ents about the y-y and
x-x axes at the base of the pier m ultiplied by the height of the pier.

34
4. The pre-load forces are internal to the m em ber and have no contribution to the forces acting on the
structure. They affect only the initial m em ber deform ation before any structure deform ations are im posed.
5. This m em ber m ay be used to represent truss mem bers where the local X-direction represents the truss
action. The stiffness KX should equal the AE/L of the truss m em ber.
6. If the Crisafulli hysteresis rule 33 is to be used to m odel in-fill panels then the AREAs asked for by the
rule, (see IHYST=33, Appendix B), are used to set up the stiffness of the spring at each tim e step.
However, the spring m em ber does not use the length of the strut in form ing the stiffness and so the
AREAs should be the strut cross-sectional areas divided by the strut length. Also, the stiffness KX is used
for the initial stiffness of the strut until the stiffness is checked to find its status in the hysteresis rule
behaviour, this is in the static analysis, where static loads are applied or at tim e = 0.0 if not. This m eans
that an initial estim ate of KX should be m ade. In general the Crisafulli m odel does not carry significant
tensile forces which m eans that norm ally two strut m em bers are required acting along opposite diagonals
and each would only act in the longitudinal, or X, direction.
7. IDAM G, m is used as a weight when adding m em ber damage indices to obtain structure dam age index,
see notes for Fram e m em bers , section 11a.
8. If ITYPE= 5 then the transverse yield force is a function of the axial force. The transverse hysteresis is
elasto-plastic representing the transverse friction. The other actions in the axial direction and rotation are
linearly elastic. There m ust be axial and transverse stiffness but the rotational stiffness m ay be zero.
9. The transverse dashpots will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length will
depend on the length of the m em ber and the param eter SL

12b. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This is
useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

35
12c. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 1 ) (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)

FX+ FX- FY+ FY- M Z+ M Z-

FX+ Positive spring yield force in the X direction F


FX- Negative spring yield force in the X direction F
FY+ Positive spring yield force in the Y direction F
FY- Negative spring yield force in the Y direction F
M Z+ Positive torsional yield F
M Z- Negative torsional yield F

Note: There is no interaction between torsion and spring yield and there is no interaction between the spring
yield in the rotation, x or y directions.

12d. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 2 ) (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)

FX1 FY1 FX2 FY2 M Z+ M Z- RX1 RY1 RX2 RY2

FX1 Cracking force in the X direction F


FY1 Cracking force in the Y direction F
FX2 Yield force in the X direction F
FY2 Yield force in the Y direction F
M Z+ Positive torsional yield m om ent F
M Z- Negative torsional yield m om ent F
RX1 Bi-linear factor in the X direction F
RY1 Bi-linear factor in the Y direction F
RX2 Tri-linear factor in the X direction F
RY2 Tri-linear factor in the Y direction F

Note: There is an elliptic interaction curve between x and y yield force in each quadrant of the diagram below.
The force-displacem ent curve in this case is tri-linear, it is m odelled by two elasto-plastic m em bers and
one elastic m em ber in parallel. The yield forces are sym m etric about the origin. There is no interaction
between yield in rotation and the x and y directions. The rotational com ponent follows a bi-linear
hysteresis rule.

Spring M ember Yield Interaction Surfaces

36
12e. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 3 ) Flexure-Shear interaction. (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)

FX+ FX- FY+ FY- M Z+ M Z- FCRY FCCY ALFA HINGE DUCT1 DUCT2 RES DUCT3 I

FX+ Positive Yield force in the X direction ($ 0) F


FX- Negative Yield force in the X direction (# 0) F
FY+ Positive Yield force in the Shear (or Y) direction ($ 0) F
FY- Negative Yield force in the Shear (or Y) direction (# 0) F
M Z+ Positive rotational yield m om ent ($ 0) F
M Z- Negative rotational yield m om ent (# 0) F
FCRY Cracking Shear Force in the Y direction (> 0) F
FCCY Crack Closing Shear Force in the Y direction (> 0) F
ALFA Bi-linear factor from cracking to yield in the Y direction (0.4#ALFA#0.8) F
HINGE Plastic Hinge Length (Default = 1.0) F
DUCT1 Flexural ductility at which Shear strength starts to degrade ($1) F
DUCT2 Flexural ductility at which Shear strength reaches residual strength F
(Minim um value is 1.5 DUCT1)
RES Residual Shear strength when flexural ductility is greater than DUCT2 F
DUCT3 Flexural Ductility when strength = 1% of original F
= 0; Strength = RES*FY
I = 0; No shear strength degradation. I
= 1; Shear strength degradation.
= 2; Shear strength degradation but Retrofit Assum ed, No shear yield occurs.
= 3: Shear strength degradation, Shear yield term inates analysis.

Notes:
1. The SINA hysteresis rule governs the Shear (or Y action). The cracking forces in the Y direction are
sym m etric about the origin. The strength loss in the Y direction is based on the absolute values of the
rotational com ponent ductility.
2. The Shear Stiffness KY = G AS / L where G is the shear m odulus, A S is the Shear Area and L is the plastic
hinge length. The Flexural Stiffness GJ = E I / L where E is the elastic m odulus and I is the second
m om ent of area of the equivalent beam section. To get curvatures from the rotations divide the rotations
by the plastic hinge length L.
3. If I above is non-zero then shear strength degradation will also occur with shear ductility. A line with the
degradation data as for Appendix A of this m anual m ust im m ediately follow this line. The norm al strength
degradation controlled by the variable ILOS will apply to the x and rotational actions in the spring m em ber.
The case of I above is 2 is for colum ns where retrofit is assum ed to have been applied and the sequence
of shear failure is to be shown. W hen I is 3 is the case where retrofit is assum e not to occur and shear
failure in a colum n im plies failure of the structure.
4. These last two cases of I = 2 or 3 are really applicable to colum ns, 2 inform s the user that shear yield has
occurred but im plies a retrofit has been applied so one can see where the next yield will occur. Option 3
covers the case for colum ns without retrofit where failure of a colum n im plies failure of the structure.

37
12f. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 4 ) Axial Force - Yield Mom ent interaction (Not if IHYST = 0, 18, 19, 33 or 37)

PYT PYC FY+ FY PB M B M 1B M 2B M 0

PYT Axial tension yield force ( > 0.0) F


PYC Axial com pression yield force ( < 0.0) F
FY+ Positive Yield Force in Shear ( > 0.0) F
FY- Negative Yield Force in Shear ( < 0.0) F
PB Axial com pression force at B ( < 0.0) F
MB Yield m om ent at B ( > 0.0) F
M 1B Yield m om ent at P=(2/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
M 2B Yield m om ent at P=(1/3)*PB ( > 0.0) F
MO Yield m om ent at P=0.0 ( > 0.0) F

Note: The interaction is sym m etric about the M = 0.0 axis.


The axial force is the local x com ponent action. A cubic curve describes the m om ent variation from PB
to the m om ent axis. A linear variation of m om ent occurs outside this region.

38
12g. Yield Surface ( ITYPE = 5 ) Axial Force - Transverse Force interaction (Not if IHYST = 0,18,19,33 or 37)

F0 M U IOP

F0 Constant Com ponent of Friction Force ( > 0.0) F


MU Coefficient of Friction ( > 0.0) F
IOP = 0; Friction Force lim it = F0 -M U*(Axial force) ( > 0.0) I
= 1; Friction Force lim it = F0+M U*Abs(Axial force)

Note: The axial force is the local x com ponent action. The friction force acts in the local y direction.

12h. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS > 0) (See Appendix A)

12i. Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYST > 0) (See Appendix B.)

For those rules which require sets of data, such as SINA or Muto, then there are 2 sets of such data.
ITYPE=1
1: Longitudinal or X direction action. (The sam e param eters are used for rotational action)
2: Transverse or Y direction action.
ITYPE=3
1: Longitudinal or X direction action.
2: Rotation or Theta-Z action.

For the W idodo hysteresis (IHYST = 19) a third set of data is used for the rotational action.

12j. Spring Dam age Index data (Only if IDAM G > 0).

M UX+ M UX- M UY+ M UY- M UR+ M UR- BETA1 BETA2

M UX+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F


M UX- Negative ultim ate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
M UY+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
M UY- Negative ultim ate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
M UR+ Positive rotational ultim ate ductility F
M UR- Negative rotational ultim ate ductility F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta X and Y (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta rotation (Default = 0.05) F

Notes: All Ultim ate Ductilities m ust be greater than 1.0.


The ultim ate ductilities have no effect on the dynam ic analysis but are only used at the end of the analysis
to com pute the dam age indices.
See Appendix B for inform ation on which hysteresis rules can allow dam age indices to be com puted.

39
13 STRUCTURAL-WALL type properties

W all M ember

13a. Basic section properties [Taylor 1977]

NSECT NIP ICOND IHYST W GT AM AX IM AX H1 H2

NSECT Num ber of Lobatto integration sections along the m em ber (3, 4, 5, 6 or 7) I
There is an exception for a special 2-hinge Beam -Colum n NSECT = 2
NIP Num ber of segm ents in section (3 # NIP # 20) I
For Standard W all sections m axim um num ber of segm ents is 18
ICOND = 0; Standard W all section input I
= 1; Num erical W all section input
IHYST = 0; Mem ber rem ains perfectly elastic I
= 1; Taylor m aterial properties, linear stress-strain to SIGA
= 2; Kent & Park m aterial properties, quadratic stress-strain to SIGA
W GT W eight/(unit length) of the m em ber F
AM AX Maxim um fraction of Gross Section Area used F
IM AX Maxim um fraction of Gross Second Mom ent of Area used F
H1 Hinge Length End 1 (only for special 2 hinge m em ber) F
H2 Hinge Length End 2 (only for special 2 hinge m em ber) F

Notes:
1. The weight/unit length is used to com pute the m em ber m ass and does not contribute to the static loads
on the m em ber or the structure.
2. W all m em bers usually require sm aller tim e-steps than m ost other structures, i.e. 0.001 to 0.0001 seconds
com pared with 0.01 seconds and Newton-Raphson iteration, say 3 cycles, should be provided. Changes
in the flexural stiffness also lead to large changes in the axial stiffness and the m ovem ent of the neutral
axis im plies coupling between the axial and flexural actions as well.
3. If the m em ber is in-elastic and Newton-Raphson iteration has not been enabled the variable M AXIT is
autom atically reset to a m axim um of 3 cycles of iteration and FTEST to 0.10. It has been found that a
sm aller value of FTEST would be m ore appropriate.
4. The original Taylor elem ent had a m id-length node with an hierarchical axial degree of freedom so that

40
the longitudinal strains due to the axial displacem ents had a quadratic variation with length as do the
longitudinal strains due to the beam -like cubic flexural displacem ent with length. It has been found that
the m id-length degree of freedom was never excited in the analyses and this seventh deform ation degree
of freedom has been deleted.
5. At each section along the length the centre-line axial strain is com puted, the curvature com puted as a
function of the end rotations and assum ing that the cross-section rem ains plane the longitudinal strain in
each segm ent of the section is com puted. For each segm ent in the cross-section the concrete and steel
stresses and tangent m odulii are com puted and then the m om ent and axial force on the section are
calculated and the new effective cross-sectional area, second m om ent of area and the location of the
neutral axis is com puted.
6. The section properties are integrated along the length using a Lobatto integration rule to get the m em ber
stiffnesses. Three point Lobatto integration is identical to a three point Sim pson’s rule.
7. Taylor som etim es used up to three elem ents to represent the wall over a single storey height.
8. IM AX < 1 is accounted for by intially cracking the section from both extrem e segm ents inwards so that
the effective I is less than or equal to IM AX*IGROSS. AM AX is no longer used but as the flexural stiffness
reduces with the pre-cracking of the section the effective cross-sectional area also reduces.
9. NSECT = 2 is for an Giberson type beam -colum n m odel with an elastic central region with the plastic
hinge zones m odelled by a Taylor-like segm ental section. This allows for the neutral axis to m ove within
the hinge zone.

W a ll M e m b e r S ig n C o n v e n tio n

41
13b. Concrete and Steel Properties

EM ODC EM ODS SIGA SIGB EPSB SIGCR SIGYS SBILIN ALFA

EM ODC Elastic Modulus of the Concrete ( > 0.0) F


EM ODS Elastic Modulus of the Steel ( > 0.0) F
SIGA Concrete Peak Stress f'c ( < 0.0) F
SIGB Concrete Ultim ate Stress ( < 0.0) F
EPSB Concrete Ultim ate Strain ( < 0.0) F
SIGCR Concrete Cracking Stress ( > 0.0) F
SIGYS Steel Yield Stress ( > 0.0) F
SBILIN Steel Bi-linear Factor ( > 0.0) F
ALFA Steel Bounding Surface Onset (Only if IHYST=2, see note 4 below) F

Notes:
1. The concrete is assum ed to carry no tensile stress once the m aterial has cracked and the concrete is
assum ed to carry no tensile stress once the com pressive strain has exceeded EPSB.
2. IHYST = 0, The uncracked section properties are used for all tim e-steps.
3. IHYST = 1, The concrete elastic m odulus is assum ed to be a constant EM ODC until the stress SIGA is
reached. The peak strain EPSA = SIGA/EM ODC. The steel assum es a bi-linear stress-strain hysteresis.
This follows the original Taylor Elem ent-A m odel
4. IHYST = 2, The concrete stress-strain law follows a quadratic rule until the stress SIGA is reached. The
peak strain EPSA = 2.0*(SIGA/EM ODC). The steel hysteresis rule has an elasto-plastic first yield
excursion but subsequent cycles follow the Al-Berm ani Bounding Surface rule with "=$=0.3 to m odel the
Bauschinger effect. This default value of ALFA m ay be overridden by specifying a different value in the
range 0.0 to 1.0 in the data above where ALFA = 1.0 im plies a bi-linear hysteresis. The steel bi-linear
factor SBILIN, used to define the in-elastic bounding surface, takes a m inim um of 0.0001 for the Bounding
Surface algorithm to work.

Taylor’s Concrete Stress-Strain Relationships

42
‘Kent and Park’ Concrete Stress-Strain Relationship

Bilinear Steel Hysteresis

Al Berm ani Steel Hysteresis

43
13c M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This is
useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, ie.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETA ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

44
13d. Input for Standard W all Section (ICOND = 0)

B D B1 B2 D1 D2 D3 D4 AS1 AS2 AS3

B Thickness of the W all F


D W idth (length) of the wall F
B1 W idth of the outstanding flange at flange 1 F
B2 W idth of the outstanding flange at flange 2 F
D1 Distance to the left face of flange 1 F
D2 Distance to the right face of flange F
D3 Distance to the left face of flange 2 F
D4 Distance to the right face of flange 2 F
AS1 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniform ly distributed in the m ain wall F
AS2 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniform ly distributed in flange 1 F
AS3 Cross-sectional Area of Steel uniform ly distributed in flange 2 F

Note: All distances D1, D2, D3 and D4 are m easured from the left side of the wall when the section is viewed
down the m em ber in the -X direction
The structural axis of the m em ber is assum ed to be at D/2

Geometry of the Standard W all Section

45
13e. Input for Numerical W all Section (ICOND = 1)

One line is required for each of the sub-areas in the section. NIP lines required.

I X(I) AS(I) AC(I)

I Sub-area num ber I


X(I) Location of centre of sub-area I F
AS(I) Area of steel in sub-area I F
AC(I) Area of concrete in sub-area I F

Note: The m em ber structural axis is assum ed to be at (X(1) + X(NIP))/2

Numerical Definition of W all Cross-Section

46
14 DAM PER (dash-pot) type m em ber properties

Dashpot M ember

ITYPE C1 C2 C3 GAP+ GAP- ALFA C4 C5 C6 ALFA- THETA LIM IT SL

ITYPE =0 Linear Dashpot I


=1 Non-Linear Dashpot
=2 Non-Linear Dashpot with different properties in Positive and Negative
directions.
=3 Different dam ping coefficients when increm ental velocity and velocity have
opposite signs than when they have the sam e sign
C1 Longitudinal coefficient F
C2 Transverse coefficient F
C3 Rotational coefficient F
GAP+ Positive Gap F
GAP- Negative Gap F
ALFA Velocity Power Factor (ALFA > 0.0) (Default=1.0) (ITYPE > 0) F
C4 Longitudinal coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
C5 Transverse coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
C6 Rotational coefficient (negative direction) (ITYPE > 1) F
ALFA- Velocity Power Factor ALFA in the negative direction. (ITYPE > 1) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
LIM IT =0 No lim its set on Dashpot Forces and Mom ent I
=1 Lim its set on Dashpot Forces and Mom ent
SL Shift of position of Transverse Dashpot. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 im plies that the Transverse dashpot is located m idway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 m oves dashpot to Node 4 and +0.5 m oves dashpot to Node 4)

Notes:
1. C1, C2 and C3 are the dash-pot coefficients (force / unit velocity) for the different actions in the m em ber.
These act in the positive direction only if ITYPE = 2.
2. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis if IPANAL = 2 or m ore when their
contributions are added to the dam ping m atrix of the structure.
4. Sign Conventions are the sam e as those for the SPRING m em ber types, see section 12.
5. If the length of a DAM PER type m em ber is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
6. If the m em ber deform ation is within the range of the gap then the dashpot has no resisting force.
7. If ITYPE = 3 then C1, C2 and C3 are used when the velocity and increm ental velocity have the sam e sign
and C4, C5 and C6 apply when the signs are not the sam e.

47
8. For Non-linear dash-pots all com ponents use the sam e ALFA. The dash-pots show no hysteresis in their
Force-Velocity relationship, it is a non-linear elastic force-velocity relationship. The dash-pot force for
com ponent i is related to the dash-pot velocity by the following equation

9. If ITYPE = 2 the dashpot has different properties in the positive and negative directions and the rules
for the data in the negative direction are the sam e as those for the positive direction com ponents.
10. If IPLAS = 0, Elastic tim e-history analyses only, (see section 2, Principal analysis options), then the initial
gaps are reset to zero and ITYPE is reset to 0 after all the input data has been read.
11. The transverse dashpot will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length will
depend on the length of the m em ber and the param eter SL

M ember Sign Convention


14a Dashpot Limit Actions

FXM AX FXM IN FYM AX FYM IN FZM AX FZM IN

FXM AX Maxim um local x direction Force (Axial) F


FXM IN Minim um local x direction Force (Axial) F
FYM AX Maxim um local y direction Force (Transverse) F
FYM IN Minim um local y direction Force (Transverse) F
FZM AX Maxim um local z direction Mom ent (Out-of-plane) F
FZM IN Minim um local z direction Mom ent (Out-of-plane) F

48
15 TENDON type member properties

Tendon M ember

Either Constant Force member

ITYPE FPP FPN FNN FNP GAP+ GAP- THETA

ITYPE = 0 ; Sim ple Constant Force Tendon Mem ber I


FPP Force, Positive Displacem ent and Displacem ent Increasing F
FPN Force, Positive Displacem ent and Displacem ent Decreasing F
FNN Force, Negative Displacem ent and Displacem ent Decreasing F
FNP Force, Negative Displacem ent and Displacem ent Increasing F
GAP+ Positive Gap, No Force if Displacem ent less than this ($ 0) F
GAP- Negative Gap, No Force if Displacem ent greater than this (# 0) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F

Notes:
1. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynam ic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: This is the sam e as for the SPRING m em bers. Tensile forces and m em ber elongations
are positive.
3. If the m em ber is of zero length then the TENDON local m em ber axis is assum ed to coincide with the
global x axis unless a non-zero has been specified for THETA above. THETA is only used for zero length
m em bers.

Constant Force M ember

49
Or Active Tendon Force member

ITYPE DELAY THETA FPP IH BETA

ITYPE = N ; Num ber of Contributions to Tendon Force (N>0) I


DELAY Tim e Delay on Response (seconds). (Maxim um of 100 tim e-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP if FPP > 0.0 F
IH = 0; Force given by com ponents described below, Norm al case I
= 1; Force follows Resettable Actuator Hysteresis (see IHYST = 43 in Appendix B)
= 2; Force follows Two-Four Dam per Hysteresis (see IHYST = 51 in Appendix B)
BETA Sticking Force (Only if IH = 2) F

Notes: The tim e delay is internally converted to an integer num ber of tim e-steps
If IH > 0 then the saturation force FPP must be supplied

Contribution of each com ponent - N lines required

NODE NDOF NTYPE FACTOR

NODE Node Num ber I


NDOF = 1 ; X com ponent at Node I
= 2 ; Y com ponent at Node
= 3 ; 2 Z com ponent at Node
NTYPE = 1 ; Nodal Acceleration I
= 2 ; Nodal Velocity
= 3 ; Nodal Displacem ent
FACTOR Multiplier of Action F

Notes:
1. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynam ic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and m em ber elongations are positive.
3. If the m em ber is of zero length then the local m em ber axis is assum ed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. THETA is only used for zero length
m em bers.
4. Care m ust be taken when setting out the m agnitude and sign of the m ultiplier as an inept choice m ay
lead to very large displacem ents and loss of precision and failure of the analysis. The deform ation and
force in the m em ber is tension positive. The tendon m em ber in tension pulls on both joints with equal and
opposite forces. It is worth noting that if the displacem ent of the structure has an equivalent circular
frequency T (radians/sec) then the m agnitude of the velocities are of the order of T tim es the m agnitude
of the displacem ents and the m agnitude of the accelerations is T 2 tim es the m agnitude of the
displacem ents.
5. If IH = 1 or 2 the equivalent stiffness used in the hysteresis rule is 1.0 and the force com puted by the
com ponents described above is used as the “displacem ent” in the loop. This differs from the behaviour
when ITYPE = -1 or -3 respectively for in those cases the controlling displacem ent is the elongation of
the tendon while in this case the controlling input is com puted from the contributions described above.

50
Or Sem i-Active Tendon, Resettable Actuator, member

ITYPE STIFF FPP DELAY THETA

ITYPE = -1 Mem ber follows Resettable Actuator Hysteresis I


STIFF Equivalent stiffness (Force per unit displacem ent) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP F
DELAY Tim e Delay on Response (seconds). (Maxim um of 100 tim e-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F

Notes:
1. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynam ic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and m em ber elongations are positive.
3. If the m em ber is of zero length then the local m em ber axis is assum ed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. Theta is only used for zero length
m em bers.
4. The force displacem ent relationship follows the Resettable Actuator Hysteresis rule IHYST = 43
5. The equivalent yield values are Fy+ = +FPP and Fy- = -FPP where FPP is the Saturation Force.
6. FPP m ust be greater than 0.0
7. The tim e-delay is internally converted to an integer num ber of tim e-steps

51
Or Variable Force member

ITYPE STIFF ALFA DAM P BETA FPP

ITYPE = -2 I
STIF Equivalent stiffness coefficient (Force per unit displacem ent) F
ALFA Power factor for elem ent displacem ent (ALFA > 0.0) F
DAM P Equivalent dam ping coefficient (Force per unit velocity) F
BETA Power factor for elem ent velocity (BETA > 0.0) F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP if FPP > 0.0 F
If FPP = 0.0 then the force is unbounded (equivalent of FPP = infinity)

Notes:
1. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynam ic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and m em ber elongations are positive.
3. The force in the mem ber is given by the following relationship. The displacem ent is the elongation of the
m em ber and the velocity is the rate of change of m em ber length.

Force = STIF*(displacem ent) A L F A + DAM P*(velocity) B E T A

4. This m em ber is very useful where a dam per or spring m em ber is required where the power factors ALFA
and BETA are less than 1.0. In these cases the equivalent tangent stiffness or dam ping coefficients tend
to infinity when the displacem ent or the velocity tend to zero leading to num erical difficulties in the
analyses. In these lim iting cases the forces are usually sm all and large stiffness or dam ping coefficients
are not a problem as the tendon m em ber has neither stiffness or dam ping coefficients

52
Or Sem i-Active Tendon, Tw o-Four Hysteretic Dam per, member

ITYPE STIFF BETA FPP DELAY THETA

ITYPE = -3 Mem ber follows Two-Four Dam per Hysteresis I


STIFF Equivalent stiffness (Force per unit displacem ent) F
BETA Sticking Force F
FPP Saturation Force (Tendon force lies between +FPP and -FPP F
DELAY Tim e Delay on Response (seconds). (Maxim um of 100 tim e-steps) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F

Notes:
1. These m em bers are only included in the tim e-history analysis IPANAL > 1 when they are considered in
the dynam ic equilibrium equations.
2. Sign Convention: Tensile forces and m em ber elongations are positive.
3. If the m em ber is of zero length then the local m em ber axis is assum ed to coincide with the global x axis
unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above. Theta is only used for zero length
m em bers.
4. The force displacem ent relationship follows the Two-Four Dam per Hysteresis rule IHYST = 51, please
see Appendix B.
5. The equivalent yield values are Fy+ = +FPP and Fy- = -FPP where FPP is the Saturation Force.
6. FPP m ust be greater than 0.0
7. The tim e-delay is internally converted to an integer num ber of tim e-steps

Tw o-Four Hysteretic Dam per

53
16 CONTACT type member properties

Contact M ember

16a. Basic section properties

ITYPE IHYST KX CX M U FL M 1 M 2 THETA INIT SL

ITYPE = 0; Dam ping Coefficient specified. I


= 1; Percentage Fraction of Critical Dam ping specified.
= 2; Coefficient of Restitution specified.
IHYST = n; Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B. (only IHYST = 5 or 19 allowed) I
KX Spring Stiffness in the local X-direction F
CX Dam ping Coefficient in the local X-direction (see ITYPE above) F
MU Coefficient of Friction (Transverse or Y-direction) F
FL Friction stiffness is FL*KX (Default FL = 1.0 if M U > 0 else FL = 0.0) F
M1 Mass at End 1 (Only if ITYPE is 1 or 2) F
M2 Mass at End 2 (Only if ITYPE is 1 or 2) F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
INIT =0; Mem ber does not act during the static analysis I
=1; Mem ber acts during static analysis. (Only the KX term is active)
SL Shift of position of Friction Spring. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 im plies that the Friction Spring is located m idway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 m oves spring to Node 4 and +0.5 m oves spring to Node 4)

Notes:
1. If the length of the m em ber is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global axes unless a
non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
2. These m em bers stiffness and dam ping m atrices are only included in the tim e-history part of the analysis
when IPANAL = 2 or 3.
3. The Coefficient of restitution r (supplied as CX above) is related to the Percentage of Critical dam ping
8 by the following form ula

4. The Effective End m asses are only required if ITYPE is 1 or 2 and are used to generate the equivalent
fraction of critical dam ping in the m em ber. The m asses are usually taken as the m ass in the fram e at
the floor at that end of the m em ber.
5. The transverse friction force is proportional to the transverse displacem ent since the onset of contact or
the reversal of transverse displacem ent and is lim ited to M U tim es the contact force.
6. The friction forces only exist if there is a non-zero contact force.
7. The friction spring will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length will depend
on the length of the m em ber and the param eter SL

54
8. The Fractions of Critical Dam ping (for ITYPE = 1, or 2 using 8 in note 3) are related to the Dam ping
Coefficient c in the axial deform ation m ode of the m em ber by the following expression where k is the
current m em ber tangent stiffness and the m asses m 1 and m 2 are the m asses at the ends of the m em ber
(W hen ITYPE is 0 the dam ping coefficient c is CX)

Contact M ember Sign Convention

16b. Yield Surface (only required if IHYST = 5)

PX+ PX- RTEN

PX+ Positive spring yield force in the X direction F


PX- Negative spring yield force in the X direction F
RTEN Bi-Linear Factor in Tension F

16c. Hysteresis data . See section 14 for the data required. This will com plete the data for this m em ber type.

55
17 QUADRILATERAL type member properties

Quadrilateral Finite Element

Quadrilateral Stress Sign Convention

Order of all of the com ponents required for Quadrilateral Mem bers.

1. Basic Section Properties see section 17a.

2. Material Specific Dam ping, see section 17b.

56
17a. Basic section properties

ITYPE E NU THICK W GT

ITYPE = 0; Plane Stress I


= 1; Plane Strain
E Elastic Modulus F
NU Poisson's Ratio F
THICK Thickness of the elem ent F
W GT W eight/(unit volum e) of the elem ent F

Notes:
1. The weight/(unit volum e) is used to com pute the m em ber m ass and does not contribute to the static
loads on the m em ber or the structure.
2. The elem ent is a Hybrid Stress Type 2 quadrilateral finite elem ent. All four nodes m ust be distinct (i.e.
no triangles). The stress distribution is assum ed to have a cubic variation in both the x and y directions
and the elem ent edge displacem ents are assum ed to vary linearly along the elem ent edge for the
tangential displacem ent and to have a cubic variation along the edge for the norm al displacem ent. The
elem ent actually assum es a linear variation of thickness between nodes but in the application within the
program a constant thickness is assum ed. Three point Guass quadrature is used in each direction to
integrate the flexibility m atrix and three point Guass quadrature is used for the integrals along the
elem ent edges. Any reduction of the order of integration gives inaccurate integrals and a higher order
gives no change in the integrals.
3. The elem ent is assum ed, at present, to be linearly elastic.

17b. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7on section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

57
18 M ASONRY PANEL ELEM ENTS

These elem ents are designed to represent the behaviour of an unreinforced m asonry panel infill in a reinforced
concrete fram e. The m odel assum es that the infill is such that there are no gaps between the fram e and the
panel. As generally constructed in South Am erica the fram e is often placed after the panel is erected (Crisafulli,
1997).

The panel is m odelled with two parallel struts in each diagonal to represent the thrust carried across the panel
in diagonal com pression. A fifth strut, which acts between the two opposite diagonal carriers on the diagonal
carrying com pression, transfers the shear force between the top and bottom of the panel.

In general, the panel elem ents are rectangular but other geom etries are perm itted .

Four or Three lines of data required. An extra line will be required if the Material Specific Dam ping m odel is being
used.

1. Geom etric Data


2. General Properties
3. Strut Data (2 lines or 1 line)
4. Material Specific Dam ping Data (if ICTYPE=5 or 7 only)

M asonry Panel Elem ents

58
18a. Geometric Data

Interior to Exterior Node Dimensions

IHYST HZ XO 1 YO 1 XO 2 YO 2 XO 3 YO 3 XO 4 YO 4

IHYST = 0 ; Mem ber is elastic only. I


= 1 ; Mem ber is inelastic (IHYST actually =33)
HZ Vertical separation between struts F
XO1 X distance from external node to internal node 1 F
YO1 Y distance from external node to internal node 1 F
XO2 X distance from external node to internal node 2 F
YO2 Y distance from external node to internal node 2 F
XO3 X distance from external node to internal node 3 F
YO3 Y distance from external node to internal node 3 F
XO4 X distance from external node to internal node 4 F
YO4 Y distance from external node to internal node 4 F

Diagonal Strut Area Displacement Relationship

59
18b. Properties 18a

TO M U TMAX SSF KTF TH W GT

TO Bond shear strength F


MU Coefficient of friction F
TM AX Maxim um shear stress $ TO F
SSF Shear stress factor " s F
KTF Shear stiffness factor ( s F
TH Panel thickness t F
W GT W eight/unit volum e F

Notes:
The input data required for the application of the panel elem ent includes the param eters described in for defining
the cyclic axial behaviour of m asonry and the properties of the equivalent strut. In addition, the following variables
need to be defined in relation to the shear behaviour of the m asonry panel:

Vertical separation betw een struts, h z : values of h z between z/3 and z/2 seem s to lead to adequate results,
where z is the contact length between the panel and the fram e.

Horizontal and vertical offset, x o i and y o i: these param eters define the horizontal and vertical distance,
respectively, m easured from the external nodes to the internal nodes. This is intended to represent the reduction
of the dim ensions of the panel due to the depth of the fram e m em bers.

Bond shear strength, and coefficient of friction, :: these param eters are usually obtained from direct shear
tests or following design specifications. It is recom m ended, however, the use of the reduced values resulting from
the m odified shear theory proposed by Crisafulli. This theory takes into account the com plex stress state in the
panel due to the com posite nature of m asonry.

M aximum shear stress, : this is the m axim um shear stress perm issible in the m asonry panel, whose value
can be selected from the shear failure envelope of m asonry. This is to avoid a large shear strength due to high
axial forces in the struts.

Shear stress factor, " s : this param eter defines the ratio of the m axim um shear stress to the average stress in
the m asonry panel. It norm ally varies from 1.40 to 1.65.

Shear stiffness factor, ( s : this factor represents the fraction of the total stiffness assigned to the shear spring,
usually ranging from 0.5 to 0.75 but should not exceed 0.85 to 0.90. The rem aining part, , is assigned to
the struts. The total stiffness of the panel elem ent is controlled by the strut area and the elastic m odulus.

Thickness of the panel, t: this is assum ed to be constant over the panel.

W eight per unit volum e: this is used to calculate the m ass of the panel and is used only to form the structure
m ass m atrix. It does not contribute to loads on the structure.

60
18c. Either Strut Hysteresis (see also A ppendix B IHYST=33)

FC FT UC UUL UCL EM O GUN ARE

FC Com pressive strength (stress units) (FC < 0.0) F


FT Tensile strength (stress units) (FT > 0.0) F
UC Strain at FC (UC < 0.0) F
UUL Ultim ate strain (UUL < 0.0) (UUL # 1.5 UC) F
UCL Closing strain F
EM O Initial m asonry m odulus (EM O $ 2 FC/UC) F
GUN Stiffness unloading factor (GUN $ 1.0) F
ARE Strain reloading factor (ARE > 0.0) F

18.d Strut areas

AREA1 AREA2 R1 R2 IENV

AREA1 Initial strut cross-sectional area (AREA1 > 0.0) F


AREA2 Final strut cross-sectional area (AREA2 # AREA1) F
R1 Displacem ent at 1 (R1 < 0.0) F
R2 Displacem ent at 2 (R2 # R1) F
IENV = 0 ; Sargin stress-strain envelope descending branch I
= 1 ; Parabolic stress-strain envelope descending branch

or Elastic Properties

EM O AREA1

EM O Elastic m odulus F
AREA1 Initial area of strut F

61
Notes:
FC The com pressive strength f 'm 2 is the m ain param eter controlling the resistance of the strut. It m ust be
noted that FC does not represent the standard com pressive stress of m asonry but should be adopted
taking into account the inclination of the com pressive principal stresses and the m ode of failure expected
in the m asonry panel. See Crisafulli 1997.

FT Tensile strength f't represents the tensile strength of the m asonry or the bond strength of the panel-fram e
interface, whichever is sm allest. The consideration of the tensile strength has been introduced in the
m odel in order to gain generality. However, results obtained from different examples indicate that the
tensile strength, which is generally m uch sm aller than the com pressive strength, has no significant
influence on the overall response. Therefore, in the absence of m ore detailed inform ation, the tensile
strength can be assum ed to be zero.

UC The strain at m axim um stress g'm usually varies between -0.002 and -0.005 and its m ain effect on the
overall response of the infilled fram e is the m odification of the secant stiffness of the ascending branch
of the stress-strain curve.

UUL The ultim ate strain g u is used to control the descending branch of the stress-strain relationship. W hen
a large value is adopted for, exam ple g u = 20 g'm , a sm ooth decrease of the com pressive stress is
obtained.

UCL The closing strain g cl defines the lim it strain at which the cracks partially close and com pressive stresses
can be developed. Values of the closing strain ranging between 0 and 0.003 lead to results which agree
adequately with experim ental data. If a large negative value is adopted, for exam ple g cl = g u , this effect
is not considered in the analysis.

EM O The elastic m odulus E m o represents the initial slope of the stress-strain curve and its value can exhibit
a large variation. Various expressions have been proposed for the evaluation of the elastic m odulus of
m asonry. It is worth noting, however, that these expressions usually define the secant m odulus at a
stress level between 1/3 and 2/3 of the m axim um com pressive stress. In order to obtain an adequate
ascending branch of the strength envelope it is assum ed that E m o $ 2 f' m 2 / g'm .

GUN The unloading stiffness factor ( u n controls the slope of the unloading branch. It is assum ed to be greater
than or equal to 1.0 and usually ranges from 1.5 to 2.5.

ARE The reloading strain factor " re defines the point where the reloading curves reach the strength envelope.
The calibration of the hysteretic m odel for the axial behaviour of m asonry showed that good results are
obtained using values ranging between 0.2 and 0.4. However, higher values, for exam ple 1.5, are
required to m odel adequately the cyclic response of the infilled fram es. This is because other sources
of nonlinear behaviour, such as sliding shear, need to be indirectly considered in the response of the
m asonry struts.

Four param eters are required to represent the cross-sectional area of the m asonry strut. These are the initial area
A m s1 = AREA1 and final area A m s2 = AREA2 and the axial displacem ents at which the cross-sectional area
changes, ) R 1 = R1 and ) R 2 = R2. In a sim plified m odel, it can be assum ed that AREA1 and AREA2 are the
sam e using a low value of the strut area to avoid an excessive increase in the axial strength. In a m ore refined
analysis, a higher value of the initial area can be adopted, whereas the final area can be reduced by about 10%
to 30%. The displacem ent R1 and R2 can be estim ated as g'm d m /5 and g'm d m (where d m is the length of the
m asonry strut) respectively, at least until m ore precise inform ation becom es available. Several em pirical
expressions, which are described in section 6.2.1.3 of the reference, have been proposed for the evaluation of
the equivalent width of the m asonry strut, whose value norm ally ranges from 0.1 to 0.25 of the diagonal length
of the infill panel.

IENV The descending branch of the stress-strain curve is usually m odelled with a parabola instead of the curve
associated with Sargin's equation in order to obtain a better control of the response of the strut after the
m axim um stress has been reached.

62
18e. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, ie.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

63
19 GROUND type member properties

Foundation M ember Sign Convention

Beam Sign Convention

Foundation Mem bers

These m em bers can be regarded as a form of beam m em ber and m ay be used to represent the flexibility of the
soil continuum beneath foundation beam s and footings. The elem ents have a cubic variation of norm al thrust
and a linear variation of axial shear along their lengths so their edge displacem ents are fully com patible with
beam m em bers. Three possible representations of the soil are included:
Vlazov Foundation
General Two-Param eter Foundation (Pasternak m odel)
Vogt Foundation

The norm al force-deflection relationship of both the Vlazov and the General Two-Param eter Foundation m em bers
are governed by the following equation (Selvadurai,1979):

q(x) = k.w (x) – G(d 2 w /dx 2 )

In the Vlazov soil m odel, the param eters k and G are derived from the elastic properties of the soil and specified
constraints to the variation of norm al displacem ent of the soil with depth.

In the General Two-Param eter soil m odel, k and G are input directly by the user.

The Vogt foundation m odel was derived using Boussinesq’s form ulas and has been used in the past for m odelling
arch dam s (Holand, 1968; Clough,1973). In two-dim ensional analyses, the norm al force-deflection relationship
for the Vogt m odel is sim ilar to that of the Vlazov and General Two-Param eter soil m odels, but does not contain
a shear term . This m odel is analogous to a distributed W inkler spring.
The m odels can be regarded as ‘Pseudo-Dynam ic’ foundation com pliance m odels. They do not autom atically
account for the frequency dependence of the dynam ic stiffness of the soil. Such effects can be included by
appropriately scaling the input param eters to account for the fundam ental period of the com bined soil-structure
system .

The effects of radiation dam ping are incorporated into the Vlazov m odel by way of dashpots, placed in parallel
with the soil springs. Radiation dam ping is highly dependent on frequency and should only be included if the
fundam ental period of the com bined soil-structure system is below the fundam ental period of the site.
Appropriate scale factors for radiation dam ping and the elastic stiffness of the soil, as a function of the
fundam ental frequency of the soil-structure system , can be obtained from W olf (W olf, 1994)

64
Foundation m em bers should be placed beneath foundation beam s and footings and additional m em bers should
be provided to m odel the soil surface adjacent to the structure being m odelled. These m em bers should extend
either side of the structure at least two to three tim es the width of the structure.

References:

Clough, Ray W et al,. ADAP – a computer program for static and dynamic analysis of arch dams. University of
California, Berkeley, California, 1973

Holand, Ivar and Aldstedt, Erik, Arch Dam Analysis by Finite Element Analysis, Institute for Structural Mechanics,
University of Trondheim , Norway, January 1968

Selvadurai, A. P. S., Elastic Analysis of Soil-Foundation Interaction. Developm ents in Geotechnical Engineering
Vol. 17, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Com pany, The Netherlands, 1979.

W olf, John P., Foundation Vibration Analysis Using Simple Physical Models. Prentice Hall , Englewood Cliffs,
NJ, 1994.

Order of all data components required for Ground M embers is:

General Data for Foundation Mem ber see section 19a.


Data for Soil Model
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 1, see section 19b.
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 2, see section 19c.
Vlazov Soil Model, ITYPE = 3, see section 19d.
Two-Param eter Soil Model, ITYPE = 4, see section 19e.
Vogt Foundation Model, ITYPE = 5, see section 19f.
Data for Non-linear foundation behavior,
Only if IHYSTA, IHYSTK or IHYSTG > 0, see section 19g.
Data for soil elem ent consistent m ass m atrix,
Only if ISTF = 1, see section 19h.
Data for soil elem ent radiation dam ping m atrix,
Only if IRAD = 1, see section 19i.
Data for Longitudinal Strength Degradation Param eters, see section 19j.
Data for Longitudinal Stiffness Degradation Param eters, see section 19k.
Data for Norm al Strength Degradation Param eters, see section 19l.
Data for Norm al Stiffness Degradation Param eters, see section 19m .
Data for Shear Strength Degradation Param eters, see section 19n.
Data for Shear Stiffness Degradation Param eters, see section 19o.
Data for Material Specific Dam ping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7), see section 19p.

65
19a. General Data for Foundation M ember

ITYPE ISHEAR IHYSTA IHYSTK IHYSTG ILOSA ILOSK ILOSG ISTF IRAD

ITYPE = 1; Vlazov Soil Model (Linear – shallow soils) I


= 2; Vlazov Soil Model (Hyperbolic – deep soils)
= 3; Vlazov Soil Model (Exponential – very deep soils)
= 4; General Two-Param eter Soil Model (Pasternak)
= 5; Vogt Soil Model
ISHEAR = 0; Shear term G(d 2 w/dx 2 ) included I
= 1; Shear term ignored (this is autom atic with the Vogt m odel)
IHYSTA = n; Longitudinal Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
IHYSTK = n; Norm al Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
IHYSTG = n; Shear Spring Hysteresis rule. See Appendix B I
ILOSA = 0; No Longitudinal spring strength degradation I
= 1; Longitudinal spring strength degradation varying with ductility
= 2; Longitudinal spring strength degradation with varying cycle num ber
= 3; Longitudinal spring strength degradation varying with absolute ductility
ILOSK Norm al Spring strength degradation param eter (as for ILOSA) I
ILOSG Shear Spring strength degradation param eter (as for ILOSA) I
ISTFS = 0; No scale factors for stiffness term s I
= 1; Scale factors for stiffness term s
IRAD = 0; No radiation dam ping included I
= 1; Radiation dam ping included

Note:
IHYSTA, IHYSTK and IHYSTG can take on values of 0,1,2,3,4,8,10,11,12,13,14,20,21,23,26 and 28 see
Appendix B.

19b. Data for Vlazov Soil M odel. Only if ITYPE = 1


(Linear Variation of Displacem ent with Depth – shallow soils)

EM M U DEPTH W EFF DENS

EM Elastic Modulus of soil F


MU Poisson’s Ratio of soil F
DEPTH Depth of soil layer above bedrock F
W EFF Effective W idth of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F

Notes:
A linear variation of displacem ent with depth is only appropriate for shallow soil layers
The m odel is form ulated assum ing that Plane Strain conditions apply.

66
19c. Data for Vlazov Soil M odel. Only if ITYPE = 2
(Hyberbolic Variation of Displacem ent with Depth – deep soils)

EM M U DEPTH GAM A LENGTH W EFF DENS

EM Elastic Modulus of soil F


MU Poisson’s Ratio of soil F
DEPTH Depth of soil layer above bedrock F
GAM M A Effective Constant Defining Exponential Variation (0.001 # GAM M A # 1) F
LENGTH Characteristic Length F
W EFF Effective W idth of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F

19d. Data for Vlazov Soil M odel. Only if ITYPE = 3


(Exponential Variation of Displacem ent with Depth – very deep soils)

EM M U M UB W EFF DENS

EM Elastic Modulus of soil F


MU Poisson’s Ratio of soil F
M UB Exponential Variation Param eter (1 < M UB*W EFF < 2) F
(M UB*W EFF = 1.06 for infinitely long beam s)
W EFF Effective W idth of Foundation F
DENS Mass density of soil F

19e. Data for Pasternak General Tw o-Parameter Soil M odel. Only if ITYPE = 4.

AS KS GS W EFF

AS Axial Stiffness of Soil Spring F


KS Modulus of Subgrade Reaction of soil F
GS Shear Modulus of soil F
W EFF Effective W idth of Foundation F

Note: KS has units of force-per-length-cubed and GS has units of force

19f. Data for Vogt Soil M odel. Only if ITYPE = 5

EM F PR KFACT W EFF

EM F Effective Elastic Modulus of soil layer F


PR Poisson’s Ratio of soil layer F
KFACT Vogt ‘k’ Factor (2 <= k <= 2.5) F
W EFF Effective W idth of Foundation F

67
19g. Data for Non-linear Foundation Behaviour (only if IHYSTA, IHYSTK or IHYSTG > 0)

PYTA PYCA PYT PYC TY BFA BFP BFT

PYTA Tensile Strength of Longitudinal Soil Spring F


PYCA Com pressive Strength of Longitudinal Soil Spring F
PYT Tensile Strength of Norm al Soil Spring F
PYC Com pressive Strength of Norm al Soil Spring F
TY Shear strength of Shear Soil Spring F
BFA Bilinear Factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) for Longitudinal Spring F
BFP Bilinear Factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) for Norm al Spring F
BFT Bilinear Factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) for Shear Spring F

Note: PYTA, PYCA, PYT, PYC and TY are in units of force per unit area

19h. Soil M ass Stiffness Scaling Parameters (Only if ISTF = 1)

AM ASS KM ASS GM ASS

AM ASS Scale factor for m ass associated with Longitudinal springs F


KM ASS Scale factor for m ass associated with Norm al springs F
GM ASS Scale factor for m ass associated with Shear springs F

Note: AM ASS, KM ASS and GM ASS can take values between 0.0 and 1.0

19i. Radiation Damping Input Parameters (Only if IRAD = 1)

ADAM P KDAM P GDAM P

ADAM P Scale factor for dam ping associated with Longitudinal springs F
KDAM P Scale factor for dam ping associated with Norm al springs F
GDAM P Scale factor for dam ping associated with Shear springs F

Notes:
ADAM P, KDAM P and GDAM P can take values between 0.0 and 1.0
Radiation dam ping is highly frequency dependent and scale factors should be evaluated according to
fundam ental frequency of the soil structure system .

68
19j. Longitudinal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSA > 0), see Appendix A.

19k. Longitudinal Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTA > 0), see Appendix B.

19l. Normal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSK > 0) see Appendix A.

19m. Normal Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTK > 0), see Appendix B.

19n. Shear Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOSG > 0), see Appendix A.

19o. Shear Stiffness Degradation Parameters (only if IHYSTG > 0), see Appendix B.

19p. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

69
20 M ULTI-SPRING type member properties

M ulti-Spring Element

If the Bi-Linear with Slackness hysteresis rule is used, then this elem ent will becom e unstable if the whole
elem ent goes into tension. This is because the elem ent has no stiffness if all the m ulti-springs have positive
(tensile) displacem ents. To prevent this instability a com pressive force should be im posed across the m em ber
either by loads applied to the structure or by other prestressed m em bers acting across the m em ber.

M ulti-Spring M ember Sign Convention

The individual springs m aking up the m ulti-spring m em ber have a sign convention where tensile deform ations
and forces are positive.

In all available hysteresis m odels for this elem ent there is no further hysteresis data that is required. If the Bi-
linear with Gap hysteresis is used then the initial tension gap is set to 10 tim es the height (width) HS of the
elem ent and the com pression gap is zero.

If the Bi-linear with Gap hysteresis is used with the Lift-off option then if all axial springs lift off then all the shear
and rotational springs also disconnect so that their actions and stiffness go to zero.

70
20a. Control Parameters.

IHYST ILOS KLOS IDAM G HS W GT THETA SL

IHYST =0 Linear Elem ent I


=1 Bi-linear with Gap Hysteresis (see IHYST = 5)
=2 Bi-linear Hysteresis (see IHYST = 2)
=3 Ram berg-Osgood Hysteresis (Original) (see IHYST = 3)
=4 Ram berg-Osgood Hysteresis (Bounded) (see IHYST = 40)
=5 Ram berg-Osgood Hysteresis (Pyke) (see IHYST = 41)
=6 Origin Centered Hysteresis (see IHYST = 38)
=7 Bi-linear Elastic Hysteresis (see IHYST = 15)
=8 Bi-linear with gap lift-off disconnects shear (see IHYST = 5)
=9 Bi-linear Elastic with Gap (see IHYST = 63)
ILOS =0 No Longitudinal Strength Degradation I
= 1 to 7 Longitudinal Strength Degradation
KLOS =0 No Shear Strength Degradation I
= 1 to 7 Shear Strength Degradation
IDAM G =0 No Dam age Indices calculated I
=m Dam age Indices com puted with weight m (note: m =1 gives average)
HS Height of Multi-Spring m em ber F
W GT W eight of Multi-Spring m em ber F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
SL Shift of position of Transverse Spring(-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 im plies that the Transverse Spring is located m idway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 m oves spring to Node 4 and +0.5 m oves spring to Node 4)

Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length mem bers. In all other cases the local axial or longitudinal
axis is defined as being along the m em ber length.
The IHYST in the notes above refers to the Appendices A and B covering the hysteresis m odels
The transverse spring will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length will
depend on the length of the m em ber and the param eter SL
If the m odel has gap, tension gap=HS, com pression gap=0.0

20b. Section Properties.

NS ITYPE SA SV YT YC YP YN RA RV

NS Num ber of springs (NS = 2,4,6,8 or 10) I


ITYPE =1 Lobatto Quadrature (i.e. spacing and weighting of springs) I
=2 Gaussian Quadrature
=3 Trapezoidal Rule Integration
=4 Uniform distribution and stiffness of springs
SA Axial Stiffness of Multi-spring unit (i.e. sum of all springs stiffnesses) F
SV Shear Stiffness F
YT Axial Yield in Tension for Multi-spring unit (YT= 0.0 for IHYST = 1) F
YC Axial Yield in Com pression for Multi-spring unit F
YP Shear Yield Force (Positive) F
YN Shear Yield Force (Negative) F
RA Bi-linear factor for Axial Stiffness Multi-spring unit F
RV Bi-linear factor for Shear Stiffness F

Note: If IHYST > 0 and YP > 0.0 or YN < 0.0 then a Bi-linear Hysteresis is used for the Shear Spring.

71
20c. Longitudinal Strength Degradation Parameters (only if ILOS > 0), see Appendix A.

20d. Shear Strength Degradation Parameters (only if KLOS > 0) see Appendix A.

20e. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

20f. M ulti-Spring Dam age Index data (Only if IDAM G > 0).

M UX+ M UX- M UY+ M UY- M UR+ M UR- BETA1 BETA2

M UX+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F


M UX- Negative ultim ate ductility (Longitudinal or X direction) F
M UY+ Positive ultim ate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
M UY- Negative ultim ate ductility (Transverse or Y direction) F
M UR+ Positive rotational ultim ate ductility F
M UR- Negative rotational ultim ate ductility F
BETA1 Park and Ang Beta X and Y (Default = 0.05) F
BETA2 Park and Ang Beta rotation (Default = 0.05) F

Notes: All Ultim ate Ductilities m ust be greater than 1.0.


The ultim ate ductilities have no effect on the dynam ic analysis but are only used at the end of the
analysis to com pute the dam age indices.
See Appendix B for inform ation on which hysteresis rules can allow dam age indices to be com puted.

72
21 COM POUND-SPRING type member properties

Com pound Spring M ember

To prevent this instability a forces m ay be im posed across the m em ber either by loads applied to the structure
or by other prestressed m em bers acting across the m em ber.

Compound Component Sign Convention

The individual springs, dashpots or tendons m aking up the com pound-spring m em ber have a sign convention
where tensile deform ations and forces are positive.

If the Interaction option is used for a com ponent then if the longitudinal (local x stiffness goes to zero) the
com ponent will disconnect until the axial stiffness again takes a non-zero value. This is sim ilar to the lift-off
option with the Multi-spring elem ent.

73
21a. Control Parameters.

NS JPLAS SL W GT THETA

NS Num ber of com ponents in m em ber (0 < NS # 8) I


JPLAS =0 Mem ber linear I
=1 Mem ber non-linear
SL Shift of position of Transverse Springs. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 im plies that the Transverse springs are located m idway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 m oves springs to Node 4 and +0.5 m oves springss to Node 4)
W GT W eight of Com pound-Spring m em ber F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F

Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length mem bers. In all other cases the local axial or longitudinal
axis is defined as being along the m em ber length.
The transverse dashpot will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length will
depend on the length of the m em ber and the param eter SL
JPLAS is usually going to be 1 but this gives the ability for the m em ber data for a non-linear m em ber
to be input but then the action is reset to linear.

Note sections 21b, 21c and 21d are required for each of the NS com ponents. Sections 21c and 21d, if required
m ust follow 21b for each com ponent in turn.

21b. Section Properties.

ITYPE IM ODE IHYST ILOS INTER Y ST RA YP YN

ITYPE =1 Longitudinal action (local x direction) I


=2 Transverse action (local y direction)
=3 Rotational action (local theta z axis)
IM ODE =1 Spring com ponent I
=2 Dashpot com ponent
=3 Tendon com ponent with force depending on sign of displacem ent
=4 Tendon com ponent with force depending on sign of velocity
IHYST Hysteresis rule. (For spring com ponents see appendix B) I
(for other com ponents = 0 )
ILOS Strength Degradation rule. (For spring com ponents see appendix A ) I
(for other com ponents = 0 )
INTER =0 No interaction between longitudinal and transvere/rotational action I
=1 If axial contribution is zero all com ponents disconnect
Y Distance of com ponent from centre-line of m em ber (line of Nodes 3 and 4) F
(For transverse and rotational com ponents ITYPE = 2 or 3, reset to 0.0)
ST Stiffness or dam ping coefficient of Com ponent (For IM ODE = 3 or 4 use 0.0) F
RA Bi-linear factor for Spring com ponent (for other com ponent types use 0.0) F
YP For Spring m em bers (IM ODE = 1) = Yield Force (Positive) F
For Dashpots (IM ODE = 2) = Lim it Force in positive direction
For Tendons (IM ODE = 3) = Force if displacem ent is positive
For Tendons (IM ODE = 4) = Force if velocity is positive
YN For Spring m em bers (IM ODE = 1) = Yield Force (Negative) F
For Dashpots (IM ODE = 2) = Lim it Force in negative direction
For Tendons (IM ODE = 3) = Force if displacem ent is negative
For Tendons (IM ODE = 4) = Force if velocity is negative

74
Note: For IM ODE = 3 or IM ODE = 4 if the displacem ent and the velocity are 0.0 the force in the tendon
com ponent is zero. These com ponents have no stiffness.
The dashpot com ponents IM ODE = 2 have no stiffness.
If IHYST > 0 and YP # 0.0 and YN $ 0.0 then the com ponent is elastic.
The choice of hysteresis rule for the spring com ponents are the sam e as that for SPRING m em bers.

21c. Strength Degradation Parameters (only if IM ODE = 1 and ILOS > 0), see Appendix A.

21d. Hysteresis Rule Data (only if IM ODE = 1 and IHYST > 0 and the rule required m ore data)
see Appendix B.

21e. M aterial Specific Damping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

75
22 LATTICE TRUSS element properties

Lattice Truss Quadrilateral Element

Order of all of the com ponents required for Lattice Truss Elem ents.

1. Basic Section Param eters, see section 21a.


2. Truss Elastic Properties, see section 21b.
3. Truss Yield Properties, (as required) see section 21c.
4. Diagonal Truss Degradation Properties. (as required) see section 21d.
5. Truss Hysteretic Properties (as required) see section 21e.
6. Material Specific Dam ping, (as required) see section 21f.

22a. Basic element parameters

IH1 IH2 IH3 IDIAG IL1 IL2 IL3 W GT

IH1 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-3 and 2-4 I
IH2 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-2 and 4-3 I
IH3 = Hysteresis Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-4 and 2-3 I
IDIAG = 0; Norm al truss com ponents I
= 1; Diagonal trusses have a strength reduction based on the
tensile strain norm al to the direction of the truss com ponent
IL1 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-3 and 2-4 I
IL2 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-2 and 4-3 I
IL3 = Strength Degradation Rule for Truss Com ponents 1-4 and 2-3 I
W GT = W eight of the elem ent (25% to each of the four nodes) F
EM OD = Elastic Modulus (option, see note below) F

Notes:
1. IHi = 0 im plies elastic action
2. Any of the hysteresis rules for SPRING elem ents are able to be used for this elem ent
3. Any of the Strength Degradation rules allow for the hysteresis m odel m ay be used for the Truss
com ponents, except in Note 3 above.
4. The weight is used to com pute the m em ber m ass and does not contribute to the static loads on the
m em ber or the structure.
5. These truss com ponents do not contribute to the rotational stiffness of the nodes and therefore care m ust
be given to the boundary conditions to avoid a singular stiffness of the structure. All four nodes m ust be
distinct (i.e. no triangles).
6. If Elastic m odulus EM OD is non-zero then K1-K6 on next line are taken as the truss cross-sectional
areas and the length of the struts used to com pute truss stiffness are com puted from elem ent geom etry.

76
22b. Basic Truss properties

K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

K1 = Stiffness of Truss 1 (1-3) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F


K2 = Stiffness of Truss 2 (2-4) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K3 = Stiffness of Truss 3 (1-2) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K4 = Stiffness of Truss 4 (4-3) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K5 = Stiffness of Truss 5 (1-4) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
K6 = Stiffness of Truss 6 (2-3) (if EM OD > 0.0) Cross-sectional area of Truss) F
R1 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 1 (1-3) F
R2 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 2 (2-4) F
R3 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 3 (1-2) F
R4 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 4 (4-3) F
R5 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 5 (1-4) F
R6 = Bi-linear factor (or Ram berg Osgood r) of Truss 6 (2-3) F

Notes:
1. Ki = 0 im plies truss not present. At least one truss m em ber m ust exist.
2. Bi-linear factors only used for inelastic m em bers.

22c. Truss Yield Properties (only required if IH1, IH2 or IH3 greater than 0)

YP1 YN1 YP2 YN2 YP3 YN3 YP4 YN4 YP5 YN5 YP6 YN6

YP1 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 1 (1-3) F


YN1 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 1 (1-3) F
YP2 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 2 (2-4) F
YN2 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 2 (2-4) F
YP3 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 3 (1-2) F
YN3 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 3 (1-2) F
YP4 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 4 (4-3) F
YN4 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 4 (4-3) F
YP5 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 5 (1-4) F
YN5 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 5 (1-4) F
YP6 = Positive Yield Force of Truss 6 (2-3) F
YN6 = Negative Yield Force of Truss 6 (2-3) F

Notes:
1. If Ypi = 0.0 and Yni = 0.0 im plies truss i rem ains elastic.
2. If the truss m em ber does not exist supply 0.0 for both yield forces.

77
22d. Diagonal Truss Interaction (only required if IDIAG greater than 0)

P11 P21 P31 P41 P51 P12 P22 P32 P42 P52

P11 = Strength Change of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.40] F


P21 = Residual Strength of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.05] F
P31 = Strain at start reduction Truss 1 (1-3) [0.10] F
P41 = Strain at Change of Truss 1 (1-3) [0.50] F
P51 = Strain at Residual for Truss 1 (1-3) [1.00] F
P12 = Strength Change of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.40] F
P22 = Residual Strength of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.05] F
P32 = Strain at start reduction Truss 2 (2-4) [0.10] F
P42 = Strain at Change of Truss 2 (2-4) [0.50] F
P52 = Strain at Residual for Truss 2 (2-4) [1.00] F

Notes:
1. The values in the square brackets are the default values, obtained by supplying 0.0.
2. The sm allest value for the residual strength ratio is 0.01.
3. A blank line cannot be supplied for this data to get the default values, at least a line with one 0.0 is
required. Note, in Ruaum oko a blank line is ignored by the com m and processor.

22e. Strength Degradation and Stiffness Degradation data.


Up to 6 sets of data in order for truss com ponents 1 to 6
(Only required if the truss com ponent stiffness Ki > 0.0 and the IH or IL associated with the truss
com ponent is greater than 0 and if the hysteresis rule for that com ponent requires data. Note, even if IH
im plies no extra hysteresis data, if IL for that com ponent is >0 then the strength degradation data will be
required for the com ponent.)

78
22f. M aterial Specific Dam ping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 on section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping. This
is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have different
dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping characteristics, i.e. in soil-
structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

Note: These elem ents m ay be considered as a form of Lattice Analogy as described by Hrennikoff in his 1941
paper. The elem ents m ay be arranged to provide an analogy to a problem in plane stress or plane strain.
Assum ing that the elem ent is square of side a in plan and that the m aterial has a thickness of t then
Hrennikoff would suggest that that

If the forces in the m em bers are F i then the equivalent stresses, assum ing that the local x axis is
parallel to m em bers 3 and 4, m ay be obtained from

Referece: Hrennikoff, A. “Solution of Problem s of Elasticity by the Fram ework Method”


Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 8, No.4, 1941, pp169-175

79
23 Reinforced Concrete PLASTIC-HINGE spring type member properties

Reinforced Concrete Plastic Hinge Spring M ember

To prevent this instability a forces m ay be im posed across the m em ber either by loads applied to the
structure or by other prestressed m em bers acting across the m em ber.

Plastic Hinge member Sign Convention

The individual springs, m aking up the Plastic Hinge m em ber have a sign convention where tensile
deform ations and forces are positive.

80
23a. Control Parameters.

JPLAS B D C HL W GT THETA ISTEEL ICONC

JPLAS =0 Mem ber linear I


=1 Mem ber non-linear
B W idth of Cross-section F
D Depth (Height) of Cross-section F
C Cover to reinforcing steel centre-line from top or bottom of section F
HL Plastic Hinge Length F
W GT W eight of Reinforced Concrete Hinge m em ber F
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F
ISTEEL =0 Dhakal Steel hysteresis I
=1 Dodd-Restrepo Steel hysteresis
=2 Elasto-Plastic Steel hysteresis
ICONC =0 Brian Peng Concrete hysteresis I
=1 Crisafulli Concrete hysteresis

Note: The THETA term is only used for zero length mem bers. In all other cases the local axial or
longitudinal axis is defined as being along the mem ber length.
The transverse dashpot will generate m om ents at Nodes 3 and 4 by rigid lever arm s whose length is
half of the hinge length HL
JPLAS is usually going to be 1 but this gives the ability for the m em ber data for a non-linear m em ber
to be input but then the action is reset to linear.

23b. Concrete M aterial Properties.

EC FPC FT ECC FPCC FTC ECV FPCV FTV DB FLEXV

EC Initial Elastic Modulus of Confined Concrete F


FPC Com pressive Strength of Confined Concrete (stress units) F
FT Tensile Strength of Confined Concrete (stress units) F
ECC Initial Elastic Modulus of Cover Concrete F
FPCC Com pressive Strength of Cover Concrete (stress units) F
FTC Tensile Strength of Cover Concrete (stress units) F
ECV Initial Elastic Modulus of Shear Concrete F
FPCV Com pressive Strength of Shear Concrete (stress units) F
FTV Tensile Strength of Shear Concrete (stress units) F
DB Effective width of diagonal shear strut F
FLEXV Flexibility factor in Y transverse direction (1.0 # FLEXV # 3.0) F

Note: There are 10 m ulti-spring-like elem ents representing the concrete cross-section representing the
longitudinal stress-strain behaviour in the hinge..
Spring 1 represents the top cover concrete and spring 10 represents the bottom cover concrete.
Springs 13 and 14 represent the diagonal concrete struts carrying the shear in the section.

Flexibility factor m ultiplies the flexibility in that direction by the factor to allow extra shear deform ation.
The stiffness of the diagonal struts are un-affected and the deform ation in the diagonal struts is the
total shear deform ation divided by the flexibility factor. The extra flexibility is obtained by added an
additional spring in series with the diagonal m em ber stiffness.

81
23c. Steel M aterial Properties.

ES FSC FST Atop Abtm Slong

ES Initial Elastic Modulus of Reinforcing Steel F


FSC Com pressive Strength of Reinforcing Steel (stress units) F
FST Tensile Strength of Reinforcing Steel (stress units) F
Atop Cross-sectional area of top reinforcing steel F
Abtm Cross-sectional area of bottom reinforcing steel F
Slong Effective length of steel bars (default SL equals hinge length HL) F

Note: Spring 11 represents the top reinforcing steel and spring 12 represents the bottom reinforcing steel.

23d. M aterial Specific Dam ping (only if ICTYPE = 5 or 7 in section 2)

This option allows different sections to have their own values of ALPHA and BETA for Rayleigh Dam ping.
This is useful if one is m odelling a pounding study between two adjoining buildings where the buildings have
different dam ping characteristics or where different parts of the system have different dam ping
characteristics, i.e. in soil-structure interaction studies. Dam ping m atrix C is given by

where M = Mass, = Initial Elastic Stiffness, = Current Tangent Stiffness.

BETA0 BETAT ALPHA

BETA0 Multiplier associated with Initial Stiffness F


BETAT Multiplier associated with Tangent Stiffness F
ALPHA Multiplier associated with Mass F

23e. Hysteresis Rule Data for confined concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.

23f Hysteresis Rule Data for cover concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.

23g Hysteresis Rule Data for reinforcing steel (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.

23h Hysteresis Rule Data for shear concrete (only if the hysteresis rule requires more data)
see Appendix B.

82
24 INERTIA (Relative M ass) type member properties

Inertia Member

XM ASS YM ASS TM ASS SL THETA

XM ASS Longitudinal relative m ass F


YM ASS Transverse relative m ass F
TM ASS Rotational relative m ass F
SL Shift of position of Transverse Dashpot. (-0.5 # SL # 0.5)) F
(0.0 im plies that the Transverse dashpot is located m idway between Nodes 3 and 4
where SL = -0.5 m oves dashpot to Node 4 and +0.5 m oves dashpot to Node 4)
THETA Angle between Global X and Local x axes (Degrees) F

Notes:
1. Sign Conventions are the sam e as those for the SPRING m em ber types, see section 12.
2. If the length of a INERTIA type m em ber is zero then the local X and Y axes coincide with the global
axes unless a non-zero value has been specified for THETA above.
3. The m em ber only acts during a tim e-history analysis and the inertia force or m om ent is proportional
to the relative acceleration or relative rotational accelerations between the two ends, 3 and 4, of the
m em ber.

M ember Sign Convention

83
30 Lumped W eights at the nodes

Except for a static analysis, this section M UST be supplied. If all structural m ass (weight) is supplied as
m em ber weights then follow the W EIGHTS flag with two lines of data in which only the node num bers
supplied, that for Node 1 and that for the last node.

W EIGHTS INTERP

W EIGHTS W ord W EIGHTS A


INTERP = 0; Om itted Nodes have no point weight I
= 1; Om itted Nodes have weight of First Node in sequence repeated.

One input line is required for each nodal point. However, if any nodal points are om itted and INTERP above
is non-zero, the om itted nodes will be assum ed to have the sam e weights as those of the nodal point on the
previous input line. The inform ation for the last nodal point should be supplied. The nodal point num bers
m ust be provided in an ascending order. It m ust be noted that the nodal weights and that the self-weight
com puted from the m em ber weights are not added to the static load analysis.

N WX WY WM

N Nodal point num ber I


WX Lum ped nodal weight acting in the X direction F
WY Lum ped nodal weight acting in the Y direction F
WM Lum ped nodal weight acting in rotation at Node F

Note: If only a static analysis is to be carried out, then the nodal weights m ay be om itted. Sim ilarly the
weight m ay be provided by self-weight of the m em bers (see the section tables in part 10 of this
m anual). Note that these weights are converted to m asses internally within the program .

84
31 External (static) nodal loads

LOADS

One input line with the word LOADS starting in colum n 1

One input line is required for each nodal point. The inform ation for the last nodal point should be supplied
even if it is not loaded. The nodal point num bers m ust be provided in an ascending order. It m ust be noted
that the nodal forces are independent of the nodal weights and that a self weight will not be com puted from
the nodal m asses and added to the static analysis.

N FX FY FM

N Nodal point num ber I


FX Static load at node N in the X direction F
FY Static load at node N in the Y direction F
FM Static m om ent at node N about the Z axis F

85
32 Dynamic load factors (Only if IPVERT is less than 0).

One set of data if IPVERT = -1, two sets if IPVERT = -2, etc.

One input line with the word SHAPE starting in colum n 1

SHAPE ALPHA

ALPHA Multiplier of Shape Vector. (Only if IPANAL = 6) (ALPHA > 2.0) F

One input line is required for each loaded nodal point. The last nodal point should be provided even if no
loads are applied to it or a line with node num ber 0 will term inate the input.

The load com ponents will be m ultiplied by the loading, or excitation, history (see section 25). The first
com ponent is m ultiplied by the first excitation history and the second com ponent by the second excitation
history.

The units of these load shapes are force units.

This enables a m axim um of three com ponent loading, a constant static com ponent and two tim e-varying
com ponents

N FX FY FM

N Nodal point num ber I


FX Load Factor X direction F
FY Load Factor Y direction F
FM Load Factor 2 direction F

If there is m ore than a single loading pattern repeat all of the above SHAPE data for the second loading
pattern

86
33. Earthquake Accelerograms, Displacement Time-Histories or Dynam ic Load Time-Histories.
(Only for IPANAL = 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 or 9)

The following set of input lines is required for each earthquake or dynam ic loading com ponent.
There is 1 com ponent if IPVERT = -1, 0 or 1
There are n com ponents if IPVERT = -n or n

For Earthquake Accelerogram s the com ponents act in the directions specified in the Earthquake
Transform ation m atrix supplied in section 2b of this m anual.

For Dynam ic loading patterns each com ponent m ultiplies each of the load vectors described under the
SHAPE data sets.

For Input Displacem ent Histories (IPANAL = 8 or 9) the excitations act at the degrees of freedom specified in
the Nodal Point Boundary Condition data. The displacem ent m ust be scaled, via the divisor ASCALE to have
the displacem ent units chosen for the structure.

33a. Excitation Flag

One input line with the word EQUAKE starting in colum n 1

EQUAKE FILE

FILE Nam e of File where excitation is to be found (Maxim um of 60 characters) A


If less than 2 excitations this nam e is usually supplied in response to the
the prom pts when the program s starts, or in Batch m ode as argum ents
on the com m and line.
If a file nam e is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prom pts
or on the com m and line.
If no nam e is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user m ay use word INPUT.
This nam e MUST be supplied after the second excitation if abs(IPVERT) > 2
unless the excitations are part of the input data file.

87
33b. Control parameters for Accelerogram, Displacem ent Time-History or Loading Time-History

IBERG ISTART DELTAT ASCALE END VEL DIS TSCALE

IBERG = 0; Excitation in BERG Form at I


= 1; Excitation in CALTECH Form at
= 2; Excitation in NCEER Form at
= 3; Excitation in FREE Form at (One point per line)
= 4; Excitation in CSMIP Form at
= 5; Excitation in EXCEL Form at
= 6, Excitation in PEER Form at
= 7; Excitation in SAC Form at
ISTART The num ber of the first line of the excitation that is to be used. I
This is usually = 1 but by using greater values enables the start of the
record to be ignored. This line num ber is counted from the START line.
DELTAT Excitation data interval F
BERG Form at records = Tim e step at which the record will be digitized.
The default value is the tim e-step for the integration DT. This m ay
m ean large m em ory requirem ents for very sm all tim e-steps.
It is suggested that som ething of the order of 0.01 seconds be used
for m ost records is a larger interval is desired.
CALTECH Form at records the record tim e-interval
(usually 0.025, 0.02, 0.01 or 0.005 seconds)
NCEER Form at records the record tim e-interval
(usually 0.02 seconds)
FREE Form at records (see BERG Form at records)
CSMIP Form at records the record tim e-interval
(usually 0.02 seconds)
EXCEL Form at records (see BERG Form at records)
PEER Form at records the record tim e-interval
(usually 0.004 seconds)
SAC Form at records the record tim e-interval
(usually 0.020 seconds)
ASCALE 1/(Scale factor) for the record. F
BERG, FREE or EXCEL Form at records om it or set equal to 1.0
CALTECH records are usually in units of acceleration m ultiplied by a constant
as the F6.0 form at is usually an Integer I6 form at and the decim al point is
m issing with about 5 integer digits for the largest num bers. The values m ust
be converted units of the acceleration of gravity . If the record is in the units
of m m /sec/sec and if g = 9.81 m /sec/sec. then ASCALE = 9810.0.
NCEER and CSMIP records are usually in cm /sec/sec and ASCALE = 981.0
to bring the record to units of the acceleration of gravity.
END Determ ines action if End-of-File is found before spanning duration of F
excitation, DUR in line 3 of the data (Fram e Control Param eters).
=0 ; End of File im plies data error
= -1 ; Any m issing part of record is padded with zero values
= T ; After T seconds record is set to zero. Allows for a free vibration of
TIM E-T seconds at the end of the earthquake excitation.
VEL Initial Ground Velocity (Default = 0.0) F
Added to all degrees of freedom at beginning of Tim e-history analysis for
earthquake analysis only. Only im portant in travelling wave analyses or where
total instead of relative displacem ents are being used
DIS Initial Ground Displacem ent (Default = 0.0) F
Added to all degrees of freedom at beginning of Tim e-history analysis for
earthquake analysis only. (Not norm ally of any im portance to the analysis)
TSCALE Tim e scale for the record (Default = 1.0) F
The tim es im plied in the record are effectively divided by TSCALE. If
TSCALE = 2.0 then if the duration of the analysis is 10 seconds at least
20 seconds of excitation m ust be provided unless END = -1

88
The rest of the input for the accelerogram (sections 33c and 33d) is in the Accelerogram File, the
Displacem ent History File or the Force History File specified by the user in the initial file nam e prom pts at the
beginning of the program execution or on the line with the word EQUAKE. The default response is that the
accelerogram s, or excitation is appended to the above data file.

33c. Accelerogram , Displacem ent History or Load-History flag. This line is the start of the accelerogram etc.
for all but the PEER or SAC form at records.

The PEER form at records are preceded by 4 lines of header inform ation and this START line is not required.
The SAC form at records are preceded by 2 lines of header inform ation and this START line is not required

One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is m andatory) starting in colum n 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line m ay be preceded by as m any header lines as desired.

START

33d. Accelerogram , Displacem ent History or Load-History

The rem ainder of the input is the Acceleration, Displacem ent History or Load-history record itself. The record
is in the form of a series of lines each of which starts with a Line Sequence Number (which m ust be in an
ascending order) followed by either (i) a group of 4 or 1 successive tim e-acceleration points (BERG or FREE
or EXCEL Form ats), or (ii) a sequence of 10, 8, 5 or 6 uniform ly tim e spaced acceleration values at DELTAT
tim e intervals apart, the (CALTECH, NCEER or CSMIP Form ats).

Note that the NCEER, CSMIP, EXCEL or PEER records do not have a sequence num ber. The analysis
acceleration record, or forcing function, will begin at the first tim e on or im plied by the beginning of the
accelerogram line ISTART and there must be sufficient lines rem aining to span the analysis tim e-history
length TR.

If the input is a force history IPVERT < 0 then the so-called accelerations are the actual force m ultiplier values
which will m ultiply the input load shape patterns (see section 32 above).

If the input are Displacem ent Histories (IPANAL = 8) these histories are applied to the degrees of freedom
specified in the Nodal Point Boundary Conditions.

The record m ust be on one of the following form ats depending on the value of IBERG on section 33b. The
FORTRAN form at is provided in parentheses for each case.

The I3 form at im plies 3 characters for the num ber which is right justified, 6X im plies 6 blank characters. The
F8.4 im plies 8 characters for the num ber and if om itted the decim al point is located in front of the 4 th to last
character in the 8 character set which is assum e to be right justified, if the decim al point is provided the
num ber m ay be located anywhere in the 8 character space. A num ber preceding the form at, i.e. 10F8.4
m eans that there are 10 num bers each having an 8 character field. Each form at starts on a new line.

89
(1) BERG FORMAT (I3,4(F8.4,F9.6)) (Default filenam e extension is .eqb)

ISEQ T1 G1 T2 G2 T3 G3 T4 G4

ISEQ Line sequence num ber I3


Ti Tim e of point on accelerogram (seconds) F 8.4
Gi Acceleration (decim al fraction of gravity) F 9.6

If the line sequence num ber is greater than 999 it is not read or checked by the program .

(2) CALTECH FORMAT (I4,6X,10F6.0) or m ore precisely (I4,6X,10I6)(Default filenam e extension is


.eqc)

ISEQ G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10

ISEQ Line sequence num ber I4


Gi 10 Accelerations (m ultiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT I6

If the line sequence num ber is greater than 9999 it is not read or checked by the program .

(3) NCEER FORMAT (10F8.2) (Default filenam e extension is .eqn)

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10

Gi Acceleration (m ultiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT F 8.2

(4) FREE FORMAT (*) (Default filenam e extension is .eqf)

ISEQ T1 G1

ISEQ Line sequence num ber I


T1 Tim e of point on accelerogram (seconds) F
G1 Acceleration (decim al fraction of gravity) F

The three item s m ay be placed anywhere on the line and separated by at least one blank colum n or a
com m a. The lines m ust be in consecutive order with ISEQ starting at 1 and increasing line by line. This
form at is particularly useful where the excitation record has been generated on a spreadsheet. It is, however,
not as com pact a form at as the NCEER form at.

90
91
(5) CSM IP FORMAT (8F10.3) (Default filenam e extension is .eqs)

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8

Gi 8 Accelerations (m ultiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT F 10.3

(6) EXCEL FORMAT (*) (Default filenam e extension is .eqe)

T1 G1

T1 Tim e of point on accelerogram (seconds) F


G1 Acceleration (decim al fraction of gravity) F

The two item s m ay be placed anywhere on the line and separated by at least one blank colum n or a com m a.
The tim es MUST be in ascending order but do not have to be at equal intervals. This form at is particularly
useful where the excitation record has been generated on a spreadsheet. It is, however, not as com pact a
form at as the NCEER form at.

(7) PEER FORMAT (5E15.7) (Default filenam e extension is .eqp)

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5

Gi Acceleration (m ultiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT E 15.7

Note DELTAT is usually 0.004 seconds. The records are usually in the units of acceleration of gravity.

(8) SAC FORMAT (6E13.5) (Default filenam e extension is .eqk)

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

Gi Acceleration (m ultiplied by ASCALE) at intervals of DELTAT E 13.5

Note DELTAT is usually 0.020 seconds. The records are usually in the units of acceleration of gravity.

92
34. Cyclic Adaptive Push-Over Displacem ent Time-History. (Only if IPANAL = 7)

The following set of input lines is required for the required displacem ent history. This displacem ent history
acts as a control on the displacem ent at the node and direction specified on line 34b.

34a. Excitation Flag

One input line with the word EQUAKE starting in colum n 1

EQUAKE FILE

FILE Nam e of File where excitation is to be found (Maxim um of 60 characters) A


If less than 2 excitations this nam e is usually supplied in response to the
the prom pts when the program s starts, or in Batch m ode as argum ents
on the com m and line.
If a file nam e is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prom pts
or on the com m and line.
If no nam e is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user m ay use word INPUT.

34b. Control parameters for Displacement History.

NSTEP NODE NDOF SCALE IPRINT

NSTEP Num ber of Points in Displacem ent History. I


NODE Nodal Point where Displacem ent History is Measured. I
NDOF Direction in which Displacem ent History is Measured. A
If the displacem ent is m easured in the global X direction use X, x or 1
If the displacem ent is m easured in the global Y direction use Y, y or 2
SCALE Scale factor for the record. (Default value is 1.0) F
IPRINT = 0; Displacem ent History is not printed in output file. I
= 1; Displacem ent History is printed in output file.

93
The rest of the input for the accelerogram (sections 34c and 34d) is in the Displacem ent-History File the
nam e of which is specified by the user in the initial file nam e prom pts at the beginning of the program
execution. The default response is that the accelerogram s, or excitation is appended to the above data file.

34c. Displacem ent History flag

One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is m andatory) starting in colum n 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line m ay be preceded by as m any header lines as desired.

START

34d. Displacem ent History

The rem ainder of the input is the Displacem ent History record itself. The record is in the form of a series of
lines each of which contains a sequence of displacem ents at which the Adaptive Load Sequence reverses.
Each of these values is read under the FORTRAN Free Form at so that the num bers are separated by one or
m ore blanks or a com m a. All NSTEP points MUST be supplied. The initial 0.0 is im plied and should not be
supplied. The sequence of displacem ent values should have alternating signs. Use as m any lines as are
necessary to span all NSTEP points.

D1 D2 D3 .. ... Di ... .. Dnstep

Di The ith displacem ent in the Displacem ent History. *

94
35. Acceleration Response Spectra. (Only if IPANAL =10)

The following set of input lines is required for the acceleration response spectra. These spectral accelerations
are assum ed to apply to the base of the structure and will apply to all earthquake excitation directions as
specified by the param eter IPVERT in line 2 of the data set.

35a. Spectra Flag

One input line with the word SPECTRA starting in colum n 1

SPECTRA FILE

FILE Nam e of File where excitation is to be found (Maxim um of 60 characters) A


If less than 2 excitations this nam e is usually supplied in response to the
the prom pts when the program s starts, or in Batch m ode as argum ents
on the com m and line.
If a file nam e is supplied here it over-rides those supplied at the prom pts
or on the com m and line.
If no nam e is supplied then the excitation is assumed to follow this line in
the supplied data. In this user m ay use word INPUT.

35b. Control parameters for Displacement History.

NSTEP IPRINT ISAM E ICOM B SDAM P

NSTEP Num ber of Points in Acceleration Response Spectra. I


IPRINT = 0; Response Spectra is not printed in output file. I
= 1; Response Spectra is printed in output file.
ISAM E = 0; All IPVERT earthquake com ponents use the sam e response spectra. I
= 1; IPVERT response spectra are supplied.
ICOM B = 0; SRSS m odal com binations are used. I
= 1; CQC m odal com binations are used (Not available yet).
= 2; DSC m odal com binations are used (Not available yet).
= 3; Hum ar m odal com binations are used (Not available yet).
SDAM P % dam ping used in m odal com bination m ethod. (0.0 # SDAMP # 20.0) F
(Not required for SRSS m odal com binations)

Notes: The Acceleration Response Spectra are supplied in the units of Acceleration of Gravity (g). The
response spectra are then m ultiplied by the gravitational constant GRAV supplied in line 3 of the data
set.
The spectra are supplied in the following section with one line required for each natural period of free-
vibration. The first line m ust be for the zero natural period of free-vibration. The total num ber of lines
is NSTEP.
In the response spectra calculations if the natural period of a m ode is greater than the value of the
NSTEPth natural period the spectral acceleration is assum ed to rem ain constant for all greater
natural periods.

95
The rest of the input for the response spectra (sections 35c and 35d) is in the Response Spectra File the
nam e of which is specified by the user in the first excitation file nam e prom pt at the beginning of the program
execution. The default response is that the spectra is appended to the data file following lines 26a and 26b
above.

35c. Response Spectra file flag

One input line with the word STAR, START or DATA: (the colon is m andatory) starting in colum n 1 and the
word must be in upper case. This line m ay be preceded by as m any header lines as desired.

START

35d. Spectral Accelerations.

The rem ainder of the input is the Response Spectra.. The record is in the form of a series of lines each of
which contains the natural period of free-vibration and the necessary spectral values. Each of these values is
read under the FORTRAN Free Form at so that the num bers are separated by one or m ore blanks or a
com m a. All NSTEP lines MUST be supplied. The num ber of spectral accelerations required on each line
depends on the values of IPVERT in line 2 of the data set and on the value of ISAM E in line 35b above. If
IPVERT = 0 or 1, or ISAM E = 0 then there m ust be only one spectral acceleration on each line. If IPVERT >
1 and ISAM E = 1then there m ust be IPVERT spectral accelerations on each line. Use as m any lines as are
necessary to span all NSTEP points.

T(I) SA(i,1) SA(i,2)

T(i) The ith natural period of free-vibration. *


SA(i,1) The ith spectral acceleration for the first earthquake com ponent. *
SA(i,2) The ith spectral acceleration for the second earthquake com ponent (if required). *

End

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97