You are on page 1of 33

Glossary of Fabric & Textile Terms

Absorbency The ability of a fabric to take in moisture.
Acetate is a synthetic fiber formed by compound of cellulose,
refined from cotton linters and/or wood pulp, and acedic acid
Acetate
that has been extruded through a spinneret and then
hardened.
Acrylic fiber is a synthetic polymer fiber that contains at least
Acrylic
85% acrylonitrile.
Aida cloth is a coarse open-weave fabric traditionally used
Aida cloth
for cross-stitch.
Alnage is the official supervision of the shape and quality of
Alnage
manufactured woolen cloth.
Alpaca is a name given to two distinct things: The wool of the
Alpaca Peruvian alpaca. A style of fabric originally made from alpaca
fiber but now frequently made from a similar type of fiber.
Angora refers to the hair of the Angora rabbit, or the fabric
Angora made from Angora rabbit fur. (Fabric made from angora goat
is mohair.)
A reversible satin-weave fabric with satin floats on the
technical face and surface slubs on the technical back
Antique Satin created by using slub-filling yarns. It is usually used with the
technical back as the right side for drapery fabrics and often
made of a blend of fibers.
Appliqué is a sewing technique in which fabric shapes, lace
Appliqué
or trim, are sewn onto a foundation fabric to create designs.
Aramid Aramid fiber is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber.
An argyle pattern is one containing diamonds in a sort of
Argyle
diagonal checkerboard pattern.
Backstrap looms, as the name implies, are tied around the
weaver’s waist on one end and around a stationary object
Backstrap
such as a tree, post, or door on the other. Tension can be
loom
adjusted simply by leaning back. Backstrap looms are very
portable since they can simply be rolled up and carried.
Baize is a coarse woolen or cotton cloth, often colored red or
Baize
green.
Ballistic nylon is a thick, tough synthetic fabric used for a
Ballistic nylon
variety of applications.
Bamboo fabric is a natural textile made from the pulp of the
bamboo grass. Bamboo fabric has been growing in
Bamboo popularity because it has many unique properties and is
Fabric more sustainable than most textile fibers. Bamboo fabric is
light and strong, has excellent wicking properties, and is to
some extent antibacterial.
Barathea is an indistinct twill or broken rib – usually a twilled
hopsack weave – with a fine textured, slightly pebbled
Barathea surface. Often of silk or silk blended with wool, used for
neckties, women’s fine suits and coats, men’s and women’s
evening wear.
A textured woven, usually printed cotton fabric that was
Barkcloth popular in the 30s-40s and 50s as an interiors fabric. The
prints were often large vines, leaves and florals.
A distinctive technique of weaving that creates a fabric
Basket Weave resembling basket work with interwoven fibers. Basketweave
fabric is most common in home décor fabrics.
Batik is an Indonesian traditional word and refers to a
Batik
generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on fabric.
A lightweight, plain weave fabric, semi-sheer and usually
Batiste made of cotton or cotton blends. Appropriate for heirloom
sewing, baby clothes and lingerie.
Bedford cord is a combination of two kinds of weave, namely
Bedford cord plain and drill. It is a durable fabric that is often used in
upholstery or outerwear.
Commonly used for lining suits and coats, bemberg is a type
Bemberg of rayon fabric often used as a cost-effective substitute to
silk.
A fabric with a crosswise rib made from textile fibers (as
Bengaline
rayon, nylon, cotton, or wool) often in combination.
The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred
to simply as “the bias”, is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft
Bias
threads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases,
perpendicular to each other.
In sewing, binding is used as both a noun and a verb to refer
Binding to finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or
pressing then stitching on an edging or trim.
A type of fabric that is commonly used for drapery, this fabric
has the distinctive quality of blocking light, and comes in two
Blackout
forms: 2-pass and 3-pass. Two-pass has two “passes” of
foam on a fabric, which means the black layer of foam will be
visible. 3-pass has two layers of white and one layer of black
foam. Three-pass can also be used as an upholstery fabric,
as the black layer is not visible. Blackout fabrics can also be
insulating and noise-dampening.
A blend is a fabric or yarn made up of more than one type of
Blend
fiber.
A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on
Bobbin
which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound.
Bobbin lace is a delicate lace that uses wound spools of
Bobbin lace thread (the bobbins) to weave together the shapes in the
lace.
Bobbinet is a tulle netting with hexagonal shaped holes,
Bobbinet
traditionally used as a base for embroidery and lingerie.
Felted knitted wool, it offers the flexibility of a knit with great
warmth. Create your own by washing double the needed
Boiled Wool amount of 100% wool jersey in hot water and drying in a hot
dryer. Expect 50% shrinkage. Appropriate for jackets, vests
and stuffed animals.
Bombazine is a fabric originally made of silk or silk and wool,
Bombazine and now also made of cotton and wool or of wool alone. It is
twilled or corded and used for dress-material.
A knit or woven fabric with small curls or loops that create a
Boucle nubby surface. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and
is often used in sweater looks, vests and coats.
To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate
Braid strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping
pattern.
Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth, historically made of
wool. The defining characteristic of Broadcloth is not its
finished width, but the fact that it was woven much wider
(typically 50 – 75% wider than its finished width) and then
heavily milled (traditionally the cloth was worked by heavy
wooden trip hammers in hot soapy water in order to shrink it)
Broadcloth in order to reduce it to the required width. The effect of the
milling process is to draw the yarns much closer together
than could be achieved in the loom and allow the individual
fibres of the wool to bind together in a felting process. This
results in a dense, blind face cloth with a stiff drape which is
highly weather-resistant, hard wearing and capable of taking
a cut edge without the need for being hemmed.
Brocade Forming patterns in cloth with a supplementary weft.
Buckram is a stiff cloth, made of cotton or linen, which is
used to cover, and protect, a book, and although more
Buckram expensive than its lookalike, Brella, is stronger and resistant
to cockroaches eating it. Buckram can also be used to stiffen
clothes.
Burlap is a North American term for a type of cloth often
Burlap used for sacks in the UK the equivalent nomecture is
Hessian.
Created from two different fibers, the velvet is removed with
Burn-out
chemicals in a pattern leaving the backing fabric intact.
Velvet
Appropriate for more unconstructed and loosely fit garments.
Calico is a type of fabric made from unbleached, and often
Calico
not fully processed, cotton. Also referred to a type of Printing.
Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace
Cambric
and needlework.
A natural fiber obtained from the under-hair of the camel. It is
Camel’s Hair relatively close to cashmere. Appropriate for coats and
jackets. Very soft hand.
Camel’s Hair is a natural fiber from the camel. Camel hair
Camel’s Hair can produce a variety of different coarseness of yarn. This
fiber is a novelty fiber spun by hand-spinners.
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making
Canvas sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness
is required. It is also popularly used on fashion handbags.
Canvas work Canvas work is embroidery on canvas.
Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers
Carding
to prepare them as textiles.
A carpet is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor
Carpet
covering.
Cashmere Cashmere is wool from the Cashmere goat.
Cellulose; this fiber processed to make cellophane and
Cellulose rayon, and more recently Modal, a textile derived from
beechwood cellulose.
A pliable fabric that can be used like a chalk board.
Commonly used for tablecloths, posters, and projects, prime
Chalk Cloth
the fabric with chalk before using. To remove the chalk, wipe
with a damp sponge.
A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed
Challis
surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern.
Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or
rayon.
A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or
manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It
Chambray
incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling
yarns.
This lace has a net background, and the pattern is created
by embroidering with thread and ribbon to create floral
Chantilly lace designs. The pattern has areas of design that are very
dense, and the pattern is often outlined with heavier cords or
threads.
A quilt made of many, many small patches (traditionally 2″ or
so) where each piece is a different fabric. The pattern is
Charm Quilt
usually a one-patch design and often involves swaps and
trades with friends to gather many fabrics.
A luxurious, supple silky fabric with a shiny satin face and a
Charmuese dull back. Generally either silk, rayon ,or polyester. Suitable
for blouses, fuller pants and lingerie.
A lightweight, sheer, plain-woven fabric with a very soft
texture. It may be natural colored, bleached, or dyed. It
Cheese Cloth
usually has a very low count. If dyed, it may be called
bunting and could be used for flags or banners.
Cheesecloth is a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in
Cheesecloth
pressing cheese curds.
The French word for caterpillar, this soft fabric is created by
placing short pieces of yarns between core yarns and
Chenille
twisting the yarn together to make a fabric. This fabric is
commonly used for baby items and in home décor fabrics.
Lightweight, extremely sheer and airy fabric, containing
Chevron highly twisted fibers. Suitable for full pants, loose tops or
dresses.
Chiffon Chiffon is a sheer fabric made of silk or rayon.
Chino cloth is a kind of twill fabric, usually made primarily
Chino cloth
from cotton.
Chintz is calico cloth printed with flowers and other devices
Chintz
in different colors. It was originally of Eastern manufacture.
Painted linens that originated in Chitta (India) in the 17th
Chite
century.
Coir is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of
Coir
a coconut.
Colors that will bleed or fade very easily from washing.
Colorfast
Specifically, a textile’s ability to maintain its color without
(Colourfast)
running or fading.
Cord is twisted fibre, usually intermediate between rope and
Cord
string. It is also used as a shortened form of corduroy.
A fabric, usually made of cotton or a cotton blend, utilizing a
Corduroy cut-pile weave construction. The ”wale” indicates the number
of cords in one inch. Suitable for jackets, pants and skirts.
Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the
cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical
Cotton regions of both the Old World and the New World. The fibre
is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft,
breathable textile.
Crash is a rough fabric made from yarns that are usually
undyed. The coarsest type is called Russian crash. Linen is
Crash
generally used for the warp yarn, while linen and jute are
used for the filler.
Crazy quilt Crazy quilting is the textile art of patchworking.
Crepe is a silk fabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar
Crepe
crisp or crimpy appearance.
A smooth, soft luster fabric of grenadine silk warp and filling,
Crepe
with latter given crepe twist. It has the body and drape of
Charmeuse
satin and is used for dresses and eveningwear.
Silk crepe de chine has a slightly crinkly surface create with
highly twisted fibers. It comes in three weights: 2 ply,
Crepe de
appropriate for blouses and lingerie; 3 ply, appropriate for
Chine
dresses, fuller pants and dresses; and 4 ply, most luxurious
and best for trousers and jackets.
A satin fabric in which highly twisted yarns are used in the
filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist
Crepe-back
and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is
Satin
the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin-back
crepe.
A true crewel fabric is embroidered with crewel yarn (a
loosely twisted, two-ply wool) on a plain weave fabric.
Traditional crewel fabrics are hand-woven and embroidered
in India. The design motif for crewel work is typically outlines
Crewel
of flowers, vines, and leaves, in one or many colors. Modern
weaving technology and inventive designers create
traditional “crewel” looks with weave effects alone, without
the use of embroidery.
Crinoline was originally a stiff fabric with a weft of horse-hair
Crinoline and a warp of cotton or linen thread. The fabric first
appeared around 1830.
The process of creating fabric from a length of cord, yarn, or
Crochet
thread with a hooked tool.
A crochet hook is a type of needle, usually with a hook at
Crochet hook
one end, used to draw thread through knotted loops.
Loose, open knit made by looping thread with a hooked
Crocheted
needle. Used for light, summer sweaters.
The cro-hook is a special double-ended crochet hook used to
make double-sided crochet. Because the hook has two ends,
Cro-hook
two colours of thread can be handled at once and freely
interchanged.
Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery
Cross-stitch
in which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture.
Damask is a fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic
fibers, with a pattern formed by weaving. Today, it generally
Damask denotes a linen texture richly figured in the weaving with
flowers, fruit, forms of animal life, and other types of
ornament.
A darning mushroom is a tool which can be used for darning
Darning clothes, particularly socks. The sock can be stretched over
mushroom the top of the (curved) mushroom, and gathered tightly
around the stalk.
A twill weave cotton fabric made with different colored yarns
in the warp and the weft. Due to the twill construction, one
Denim color predominates on the fabric surface. Suitable for pants,
jackets and skirts. Pre-wash and dry 100% cotton denim at
least twice to eliminate shrinkage and color bleeding.
Dimity is a lightweight, sheer cotton fabric having at least two
Dimity
warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords.
A decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually
Dobby
geometric, that are woven into the fabric structure.
Dobby loom is a loom in which each harness can be
manipulated individually. This is in contrast to a treadle loom,
Dobby loom
where the harnesses are attached to a number of different
treadles depending on the weave structure.
Generally applied to fabric with a low nap that is brushed in
Doeskin one direction to create a soft suede-like hand on the fabric
front. Great for tops, pants and fuller skirts.
A lightweight, sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small
dot flock-like pattern either printed on the surface of the
Dotted Swiss
fabric, or woven into the fabric. End-uses for this fabric
include blouses, dresses, baby clothes, and curtains.
A fabric construction, in which two fabrics are woven on the
loom at the same time, one on top of the other. In the
Double Cloth weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held
together using binder threads. The woven patterns in each
layer of fabric can be similar or completely different.
A weft knit fabric in which two layers of loops are formed that
Double Knit cannot be separated. A double knit machine, which has two
complete sets of needles, is required for this construction.
Double rubs measure a fabric’s abrasion resistance,
determined by the Wyzenbeek test. Each “rub” is one back
and forth pass over a stretched piece of fabric by a
Double Rub mechanical arm. The test is run until the fabric shows
noticeable wear. Consider the double rub count when
purchasing upholstery fabric for a high-traffic area in your
home.
A fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is
Double Sided placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place
Quilted Cotton by stitching or sealing in a regular, consistent, all-over
pattern on the goods.
Double weave is a type of advanced weave. It is done by
Double weave interlacing two or more sets of warps with two or more sets
of filling yarns.
Dowlas is the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting,
Dowlas
but usually coarser.
Strong, medium- to heavyweight, warp-faced, twill-weave
Drill
fabric. It is usually a 2/1 left-handed twill and piece dyed.
A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric
with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually made of
Duck
cotton, and is widely used in men’s and women’s slacks, and
children’s playclothes.
A crisp fabric with irregular slubs. It is perfect for tailored
slimmer silhouettes like flat-front trousers, jackets and fitted
Dupioni
blouses and dresses. Silk Dupioni can be machine washed
in the gentle cycle and drip-dried.
Durability how durable a fabric or yarn is.
Dye lot is a number that identifies yarns dyed in the same vat
Dye lot
at the same time. Subtle differences can appear between
different batches of the same color yarn from the same
manufacturer.
Dye is used to color fabric. There are two main types:
Dyes Natural dyes and synthetic dyes. The process is called
dyeing.
Eisengarn, meaning “iron yarn” in English, is a light-
reflecting, strong, waxed-cotton thread. It is made by soaking
cotton threads in a starch, paraffin wax solution. The threads
are then stretched and polished. The end result of the
Eisengarn process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely
hardwearing. Invented in the 19th Century, it was further
developed in 1927 by the textile designer Margaretha
Reichardt at the Bauhaus for use on Marcel Breuer’s tubular-
steel chairs.
The ability of a fiber or fabric to return to its original length,
Elasticity
shape, or size immediately after the removal of stress.
A calendering process in which fabrics are engraved with the
Embossing use of heated rollers under pressure to produce a raised
design on the fabric surface.
Embroidery is an ancient variety of decorative needlework in
which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands
Embroidery
of some material on to a layer of another material. See also:
Machine embroidery.
Ends per inch like Threads per inch is a measure of the
Ends per inch
coarseness or fineness of fabric, displaying the number of
(EPI)
(warp) threads per inch of woven fabric.
A type of velvet fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé loom.
The épinglé velvet is notable in that both a loop pile and a
cut pile can be integrated into the same fabric. The art of
épinglé weaving in Europe originated from Lucca (Italy) and
later came to Venice and Genua, which is where the term
Epinglé fabric
Genua velvet comes from. The technique of épinglé weaving
is still used today in the Flemish region of Kortrijk and
Waregem. The fabric finds it application mostly in upholstery,
although in medieval times it was used as apparel for princes
and kings as well as for bishops, cardinals, and the Pope.
A kind of weaving machine whereby steel rods are inserted
in a top shed which is formed over the bottom shed in which
the weft is inserted. The steel rods are inserted into the fabric
Epinglé loom
every second or third pick by a separate mechanism that is
synchronised with the weaving motion. The same
mechanism also extracts the rods from the fabric . If the rod
carries a cutting blade at the tip the warps that are woven
over the rods are cut, creating a cut pile effect. In case the
rod has no blade, then the warp ends from a loop pile.
Alternating cut and loop wires create cut and loop pile in the
fabric. This weaving technology is used for weaving velvets
for furnishing and apparel applications. These fabrics are
known as ‘moquette’ or “épinglé’ fabrics. This kind of
weaving machine is also used for weaving carpets where it is
known as a ‘Wilton loom’.
Even-weave or evenweave fabric is used in counted-thread
Even-weave embroidery and is characterized by Warp and weft threads of
the same size.
Grommets and eyelets are metal, plastic, or rubber rings that
are inserted into a hole made through another material. They
Eyelet
may be used to reinforce the hole, to shield something from
the sharp edges of the hole, or both.
A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed, silk-like woven fabric made from
Faille
cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers.
A cut piece of fabric which is made by cutting a half yard in
half again vertically. The piece is therefore approximately 18″
Fat Quarter
x 22″. This allows for cutting larger blocks than a standard
quarter yard which is 9″ x 44″.
Faux Fur Artificial fur made from synthetic material.
Faux Leather A Simulated leather.
Faux Suede Leather with a napped surface.
Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting,
Felt condensing and pressing fibers. The fibers form the structure
of the fabric.
Felting The process of making felt is called felting.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences) is a class of materials
that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated
pieces, similar to pieces of thread. Fibers are often used in
Fiber the manufacture of other materials. They can be spun into
filaments, thread, or rope. They can be used as a component
of composite materials. They can also be matted into sheets
to make products such as paper or felt.
Filament A filament is a fine, thinly spun thread, fiber, or wire.
Finishing refers to any process performed on yarn or fabric
Finishing after weaving to improve the look, performance, or “hand”
(feel) of the finished textile.
Fishnet Fishnet is a material with an open, diamond shaped knit.
Flannel is a cloth that is commonly used to make clothing
Flannel and bedsheets. It is usually made from either wool, wool and
cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric.
Flax fiber is soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than
cotton fiber but less elastic. The best grades are used for
linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser
Flax grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope.
Flex is a yarn which is the blend of mofre cotton & less linen .
it is alternate quality for linen with linen look at cheaper
price .
Synthetic knit fabric that stretches across the grain. Suitable
Fleece
for vests, jackets and tops.
A raised, often velveteen design added onto the surface of a
Flocked fabric. Flocking adds interest and texture to fabric, and is
most often featured on apparel and home décor fabrics.
A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns
Foulard like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over print pattern
on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men’s ties.
French Terry A thin piece of material put under another material to add
Knit color or brilliance.
Frieze is a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side, that
was raised by scrubbing it to raise curls of fibre (French:
Frieze
frisé). In the 19th century rough cheap frieze was made of
wool mixed with shoddy (see Shoddy).
A strong, durable, heavy-warp yarn pile fabric. The pile is
Friezé
made by the over-wire method to create a closed-loop pile.
Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing
Fulling of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other
impurities.
A type of heavy twilled woven cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared
for menswear. Usually dyed in a dark shade. Declined in
Fustian
popularity from 1813, being replaced by harder wearing and
better quality wool cloths.
Gabardine is a tough, tightly woven fabric often used to
make suits, overcoats and trousers. The fibre used to make
Gabardine the fabric is traditionally worsted (a woolen yarn), but may
also be cotton, synthetic or mixed. The fabric is smooth on
one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on the other.
Gante is a cloth made from cotton or tow warp and jute weft.
Gante It is largely used for bags for sugar and similar material, and
has the appearance of a fine hessian cloth.
A gauge is a set number of rows per inch (in knitting) or the
thread-count of a woven fabric that helps the knitter
Gauge
determine whether they have the right size knitting needles
or a weaver if the cloth is tight enough.
A sheer, open-weave fabric usually cotton or silk. It is
Gauze
suitable for blouses, dresses and curtains.
A type of velvet where in Jacquard patterns are woven into
the ground fabric and where the pile is made of a
combination of cut and uncut (loop) pile. This fabric is also
Genova velvet known as Venetian velvet, or more generally, as épinglé
velvet. In the actual terminology of furnishing fabrics it is
mostly named with its French name “velours de Gênes”.This
kind of fabric is made on a wire loom or épinglé loom.
A drapey woven fabric created from highly twisted yarns
Georgette creating a pebbly texture. It is semi-sheer and suitable for
blouses, full pants and flowing dresses.
Geotextile A geotextile is a synthetic permeable textile.
Gingham Gingham is a fabric made from dyed cotton yarn.
Fiberglass is material made from extremely fine fibers of
Glass fiber
glass. It is widely used in the manufacture of insulation and
(fibre)
textiles.
A gossamer is a very light, sheer, gauze-like fabric, popular
Gossamer
for white wedding dresses and decorations.
Grogram is a coarse fabric of silk mixed with wool or with
Grogram mohair and often stiffened with gum. It also is known as
Grosgrain.
A fabric which features large points of yarn on the surface of
Grois Point
the fabric.
A tightly woven, firm, warp-faced fabric with heavy, round
filling ribs created by a high-warp count and coarse filling
Grosgrain
yarns. Grosgrain can be woven as a narrow-ribbon or a
fullwidth fabric.
Habotai A soft, lightweight silk fabric, is heavier than China silk.
A lightweight sweater knit fabric that features a moderately
Hatchi loose weave and is most commonly used to create sweaters,
cardigans, and tops.
A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are
blended together to give a particular look. (For example,
Heather black and white may be blended together to create a grey
heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may also be used to
describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.
Common component of a loom used to separate warp
Heddle threads for passage of the weft. Commonly made of cord or
wire.
To hem a piece of cloth (in sewing), a garment worker folds
up a cut edge, folds it up again, and then sews it down. The
Hem process of hemming thus completely encloses the cut edge
in cloth, so that it cannot ravel. A hem is also the edge of
cloth hemmed in this manner.
The main uses of hemp fibre are rope, sacking, carpet, nets
and webbing. Hemp is also being used in increasing
Hemp
quantities in paper manufacturing. The cellulose content is
about 70%.
A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is
Herringbone reversed, or broken, at regular intervals, producing a zig-zag
effect.
Refers to a coarse, plain weave fabric with a hand-woven
Homespun
look.
A variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken
Houndstooth check effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of
interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns.
Huckaback is a type of coarse absorbent cotton or linen
Huckaback
fabric used for making towels.
Ikat is a style of weaving that uses a tie-dye process on
either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to
Ikat
create a pattern or design. A Double Ikat is when both the
warp and the weft are tie-dyed before weaving.
Imberline is a woven fabric with various colored stripes in the
Imberline warp, often separated by gold thread. The fabric is often
used in upholstery and drapery manufacture.
Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with
Intarsia
multiple colours.
A type of material used on the unseen or “wrong” side of
Interfacing
fabrics in sewing.
An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the
wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell
Interlining
fabric. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in
coats, jackets, and outerwear.
Also known as T-shirt knit. It usually has stretch across the
Interlock Knit
grain. Great for tops, skirts and lightweight pants.
There are two types of Irish poplin: (1) Originally a fabric
Irish Poplin
constructed with silk warp and wool filling in plain weave with
fine rib. (2) Fine linen or cotton shirting also made in Ireland.
Sometimes used for neckwear.
ITY stands for Interlock Twist Yarn and is a soft, lightweight,
slinky knit fabric often used to create tops, skirts, dresses,
ITY Knit
and dancewear. This fabric is tightly woven and does not
wrinkle easily.
A jacquard weave is created through a loom process, which
is programmed to raise each warp thread independently of
the other threads. The design of the jacquard fabric is
incorporated into the weave, instead of being printed or dyed
onto the fabric. The loom attachment allows a much more
versatile weaving process and a higher level of control. The
term “Jacquard” itself is after the inventor of the loom
attachment that creates this added control, Joseph Marie
Jacquard
Jacquard.This jacquard weave process is more time
consuming and labor intensive than a basic weave.
However, jacquard fabric is more stable and stretchy than
fabrics created through the basic weave technique. Jacquard
weaves can also be combined with various colors and types
of threads. This provides beautiful and soft gradations of
color tones and bold outlined patterns that are very complex,
such as landscapes, portraits, and unique designs.
The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punched
cards. It uses punched cards to control the pattern being
Jacquard loom
woven. It is a form of dobby loom, where individual
harnesses can be raised and lowered independently.
Jamdani Jamdani is a kind of fine cloth made in Bangladesh.
Usually thinner or lighter-weight than Interlock knit with less
Jersey Knit
stretch. It’s appropriate for tops and fuller dresses.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny plant fibre that can be spun into
coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the cheapest natural
Jute fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and
variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the
plant materials cellulose and lignin.
A short, lightweight, cotton-like, vegetable fiber found in the
seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Because of its brittle
Kapok quality, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and
moisture resistance makes it ideal for use in cushions,
mattresses, and life jackets.
A tan or dusty colored warp face twill, softer and finer than
Khaki
drill. Name derived from East India word meaning “earth
color.” Fabric made of cotton, linen, wool, worsted, or
manmade fibers and blends.
Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the
same direction. Some knits have their yarns running along
the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running
Knit Fabric across the width of the fabric. Knit fabrics are held together
by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates
ridges in the resulting fabric. Wales are the ridges that run
lengthwise in the fabric; courses run crosswise.
Knit fabrics are fabrics that were produced through the
Knit fabrics
process of knitting.
A type of yarn texturizing in which a crimped yarn is made by
knitting the yarn into a fabric, and then heat-setting the
Knit-de-knit
fabric. The yarn is then unraveled from the fabric and used in
this permanently crinkled form.
Knitting is the Process of inter-looping of yarns or inter-
Knitting
meshing of loops
A knitting needle gauge is used to determine the size of a
knitting needle. Some also double for crochet hooks. Most
needles come with the size written on the needle, but many
needles (like double-pointed needles) tend to not be labeled.
Knitting needle
Also, with wear and time the label often wears off. Needle
gauge
gauges can be made of any material, and are often made for
metal and plastic. They tend to be about 3 by 5 inches. They
contain holes of various sizes, and often have a ruler along
the edge for determining the gauge of a sample.
A medium weight, woven, polyester fabric known for being
Koshibo colorfast, koshibo is suited for different types of apparel
projects such as skirts, dresses, and blouses.
A double-knit fabric made with a combination of knit and tuck
La Coste stitches to create a mesh-like appearance. It is often a cotton
or cotton/polyester blend.
Lace-making is an ancient craft. A lace fabric is lightweight
openwork fabric, patterned, either by machine or by hand,
with open holes in the work. The holes can be formed via
Lace
removal of threads or cloth from a previously woven fabric,
but more often lace is built up from a single thread and the
open spaces are created as part of the lace fabric.
Lamé is a type of brocaded clothing fabric with inwoven
Lamé metal threads, typically of gold or silver, giving it a metallic
sheen.
This fabric is created by bonding a thin polymer film to cotton
Laminate fabric. Laminated fabric is perfect for creating rainwear,
linings, and table coverings.
A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed, linen or
cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish.
Lawn Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton
lawn is a similar type of fabric, which can be white, solid
colored, or printed.
Leather Animal skin dressed for use in clothing.
Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant.
Linen Linen produced in Ireland is called Irish linen. Linens are
fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels.
A material or substance that covers the inside surface of
Lining
something.
Loden is water-resistant material for clothing made from
Loden
sheep wool.
A heavily fulled or felted fabric originating in Austrian Tyrol.
Wool may be blended with camel hair or alpaca. Thick, soft,
Loden Cloth
waterproof without chemical treatment. Sometimes given fine
nap. Used for coats, sportswear.
Loom The Loom is a machine used for weaving fabric.
Lucet is a method of cordmaking or braiding which is
believed to date back to the Viking age. Lucet cord is square,
Lucet strong, and slightly springy. It closely resembles knitted I-
cord or the cord produced on a knitting spool. Lucet cord is
formed by a series of loops, and will therefore unravel if cut.
A fabric created from a yarn formed from synthetic film and
Lurex includes a metallic layer that adds metallic features to
fabrics.
A DuPont trademark for its spandex fiber. Any time you see
Lycra this fiber listed on a label, expect comfort, movement, and
shape retention that won’t wash away.
Macrame or macramé is a form of textile-making using
knotting rather than weaving or knitting. Its primary knots are
Macramé
the square knot and forms of hitching (full hitch and double
half hitches).
A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric with a striped, plaid,
or checked pattern. A true madras will bleed when washed.
Madras
This type of fabric is usually imported from India. End-uses
are men’s and women’s shirts and dresses.
A thrown silk usually dyed in the gum or a fabric made of this
Marabou
silk.
A medium to heavyweight luxury fabric made in a double
cloth construction to create a blistered or quilted surface.
Matelassé
Common end-uses are upholstery, draperies, and evening
dresses.
A heavyweight, dense, compacted, and tightly woven wool or
Melton
wool blend fabric used mainly for coats.
Mercerized Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread
cotton mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance.
Merino is the Spanish name for a breed of sheep, and hence
Merino
applied to a woolen fabric.
A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many
connected or weaved pieces. In clothing, a mesh is often
Mesh defined as fabric that has a large number of closely spaced
holes, such as is common practice for modern sports
jerseys.
Metallic fibers are fibers used in textiles which are either
Metallic fiber composed of metal, or fibers of other materials with a metal
(fibre) coating. Their uses include decoration and the reduction of
static electricity.
An extremely fine synthetic fiber that can be woven into
textiles with the texture and drape of natural-fiber cloth but
Microfibers
with enhanced washability, breathability, and water
repellancy.
Fibres with strands thinner than one denier. Fabrics made
Microfibre
with microfibres are exceptionally soft and hold their shape
(fiber)
well.
Millinery is women’s hats and other articles sold by a milliner,
Millinery or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling
hats for women.
A soft and fuzzy polyester fabric created to imitate the look of
mink, Minky fabric is available in a variety of colors and
Minky
prints, and is used for creating luxurious blankets and soft
baby accessories.
Mockado is a woollen pile fabric made in imitation of silk
Mocado
velvet.
Modal is a cellulose fiber made by spinning reconstituted
Modal
cellulose from beech trees.
Mohair is a silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora
Mohair goat. It is durable, light and warm, although some people find
it uncomfortably itchy.
A corded fabric, usually made from silk or one of the
Moiree manufactured fibers, which has a distinctive water-marked
wavy pattern on the face of the fabric.
It resists wrinkling and has a beautiful sueded look on the
face. The reverse has a satiny look and feel. Generally, will
Moleskin
contain 2-4% spandex. Great for pants, jackets and heavy
shirts.
A heavy weight cotton fabric utilizing the basket weave
variation of the plain weave. Used for draperies and slip
Monk’s Cloth
covers, monk’s cloth is an example of 4 x 4 basket weave. It
has poor dimensional stability and tends to snag.
Fibrous woollen material generated from waste fabric,
Mungo
particularly tightly woven cloths and rags. See also: shoddy.
Muslin is a type of finely woven cotton fabric, introduced to
Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. It was
Muslin
named for the city where it was first made, Mosul in what is
now Iraq.
Nainsook is a fine, soft muslin fabric, often used to make
Nainsook
babies clothing.
Nap Nap is the raised surface of certain cloth, such as flannel.
Napped fabric has a surface texture with an added visual
appeal, and is frequently featured in flannel, corduroy, velvet,
and satin. The napped texture creates soft, heavy, and warm
qualities, making it perfect for shirting, sleepwear, and baby
Napped blankets. Double napped fabrics are brushed on both sides,
while single-napped is only brushed on one side. When
sewing with fabrics with a distinct nap, be sure to allow for
extra fabric, and lay all of your pattern pieces going in the
same direction.
Needlepoint is a form of canvas work created on a mesh
canvas. The stitching threads used may be wool, silk, or
rarely cotton. Stitches may be plain, covering just one mesh
Needlepoint
intersection with a single orientation, or fancy, such as
Bargello. Plain stitches, known as Tent stitches, may be
worked as basketweave or half cross.
Needlework is another term for the handicraft of decorative
Needlework sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for
construction can be called needlework.
Net is a device made by fibers woven in a grid-like structure,
Net as in fishing net, a soccer goal, a butterfly net, or the court
divider in tennis
Refers to any open-construction fabric whether it is created
Netting
by weaving, knitting, knotting, or another method.
Noil is a short fiber that is left over when combing longer
fibers during textile production. Silk noil fabric is created from
taking the leftover noils from spinning silk to create an overall
Noil raw silk fabric that features a gentle drape, slightly nubby,
uneven texture, and dull surface. Noil fabric is perfect for
creating loose-fitting jackets, skirts, dresses, and home décor
accents.
Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor
Nonwoven knit, for example felt. Non-wovens are typically not strong
fabric (unless reinforced by a backing), and do not stretch. They
are cheap to manufacture.
Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with
unusual features, structure or fiber composition such as
slubs, inclusions, metallic or synthetic fibers, laddering and
varying thickness introduced during production. Some linens,
wools to be woven into tweed, and the uneven filaments of
Novelty yarn
some types of silk are allowed to retain their normal
irregularities, producing the characteristic uneven surface of
the finished fabric. Man-made fibres, which can be modified
during production, are especially adaptable for special
effects such as crimping and texturizing.
Nylon is a synthetic polymer, a plastic. Nylon fibres are used
Nylon
to make many synthetic fabrics and women’s stockings.
Oil cloth was, traditionally, heavy cotton or linen cloth with a
linseed oil coating: it was semi-waterproof. The most familiar
use was for brightly printed kitchen tablecloths.[12] Dull-
Oil cloth colored oilcloth was used for bedrolls, sou’westers, and
tents. By the late 1950s, oilcloth became a synonym for vinyl
(polyvinyl chloride) bonded to either a flanneled cloth or a
printed vinyl with a synthetic non-woven backing.
sheetings or printcloth that are printed, bleached, or dyed,
and given a special linseed oil and pigment preparation.
Oilcloth
Used for table coverings, waterproof outerwear; now largely
replaced by plastic-coated and vinyl materials.
A Cotton linen, silk, or manmade material treated with
Oilskin
linseed oil varnish for waterproofing. Used for rainwear.
A synthetic fiber made from polyolefin. This fabric is usually
Olefin strong and colorfast, with a resistance to staining, mildew,
abrasion, and sunlight.
A lightweight knit fabric that has a subtle pattern on the
Onion Skin
backing that resembles the appearance of an onion skin.
Organdy or organdie is the sheerest cotton cloth made.
Combed yarns contribute to its appearance. Its sheerness
Organdy and crispness are the result of an acid finish on greige
(unbleached) lawn goods. Because of its stiffness and fiber
content, it is very prone to wrinkling.
A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium
Organic
to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester.
Organza is a thin, plain weave, sheer fabric traditionally
made from silk, the continuous filament of silkworms.
Organza Nowadays, though many organzas are woven with synthetic
filament fibers such as polyester or nylon, the most luxurious
organzas are still woven in silk.
A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium
Osnaburg
to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester.
A heavy, plain weave fabric with wide, flat crosswise ribs that
are larger and higher than in faille. It sometimes comes with
alternating narrow and wide ribs. When made of narrow ribs
Ottoman
only, it is called soleil. Warp may be silk or manmade fiber;
filling may be cotton, silk, wool, or manmade fiber. Used for
dress coats, suits, and trimmings.
Outdoor fabric is used to recover cushions, pillows, create
awnings, and more for spaces exposed to nature’s elements
Outdoor like the sun and rain. Created with polyester or acrylic fibers,
outdoor fabric is durable, soil and stain resistant, and can be
cleaned by wiping with a damp rag.
A fine, soft, lightweight woven cotton or blended with
manufactured fibers in a 2 x 1 basket weave variation of the
Oxford
plain weave construction. The fabric is used primarily in
shirtings.
A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses,
Pack Cloth
blouses, and men’s ties.
Paisley is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif, similar to half of
the T’ai Chi symbol, the Indian bodhi tree leaf, or the mango
Paisley
tree. The design originated in India and spread to Scotland
when British soldiers brought home cashmere shawls.
A panel is a cotton print that can be used for anything from
quilt projects to aprons, doll clothes, or soft books. Most
commonly used in quilting, panels feature a large design that
Panel
is often featured in the center of a quilt, making it perfect for
themed projects. Some panels also feature instructions and
cut-outs for projects like an apron or book.
Lightweight silk or manmade fiber satin fabric with very high
Panné Satin luster achieved with aid of heavy roll pressure. Crushes
easily. Used for eveningwear.
A lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, in which the pile has
Panné Velvet been flattened in one direction. Has good stretch across the
grain. Appropriate for tops and dresses.
Pashmina”” is the fiber obtained from pasmina goats in
Pashmina””
kashmir region, used for winter clothes & shawls.
Patchwork is a form of needlework or craft that involves
sewing together small pieces of fabric and stitching them
together into a larger design, which is then usually quilted, or
Patchwork else tied together with pieces of yarn at regular intervals, a
practice known as tying. Patchwork is traditionally ‘pieced’ by
hand, but modern quiltmakers often use a sewing machine
instead.
A soft fabric with a brushed texture similar to the skin of a
peach on one side, with a good amount of drape. Peachskin
Peachskin
is often used to create blouses, skirts, and dresses with a
lining.
A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a
manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns and
eveningwear. Pima Cotton A type of cotton plant developed
in the Southwestern USA from a cross between Egyptian
Peau de Soie
and Uplands cotton which is longer in fiber length and more
lustrous than most American cottons. It is used to weave
some of the popular quilting fabrics which have a silk-like
hand.
Percale refers to a closely woven, high thread count, cotton
Percale
fabric often used for sheets and clothing.
Persian weave is a method of weave used in jewelry and
Persian weave
other art forms.
A fabric that is not sized or finished. PFD stand for “Prepared
PFD
for Dyeing,” and is perfect apparel and quilting projects.
A knit construction utilizing special yarn that is interloped into
Pile knit
a standard knit base. Most often used in the formation of
imitation fur fabrics, and special liners for cold weather
clothing like jackets and coats.
Pile weave is a form of textile created by weaving. Pile
fabrics used to be made on traditional hand weaving
machines. The warp ends that are used for the formation of
the pile are woven over metal rods or wires that are inserted
Pile weave in the shed (gap caused by raising alternate threads) during
weaving. The pile ends lie in loops over the inserted rods.
When a rod is extracted the pile ends remain as loops on top
of the base fabric. The pile ends lying over the rod may be
left as ‘loop pile’, or cut to form ‘cut pile’ or velvet.
A steel rod which is inserted in between the base fabric and
the pile ends in a pile fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé
loom. The height and thickness of the rod determine the size
of the loop. A pile wire can be a simple rod – in which case
Pile Wire
the pile yarns will form a ‘loop’ pile. If the pile wire is
equipped with a blade holder and cutting blade at the tip it
will cut the pile loops during extraction thus producing cut
pile.
A pill, colloquially known as a bobble, is a small ball of fibers
Pill that forms on a piece of cloth. ‘Pill’ is also a verb for the
formation of such balls.
A fabric similar in texture and appearance to corduroy with
Pincord very fine raised stripes. Pincord fabric is most common in
home décor and apparel projects.
A medium-weight cotton or cotton blend fabric with a pebbly
Piqué weave that looks almost like a check. Suitable for vests,
jackets and fitted blouses. Also used in children’s clothes.
From a Scots language word meaning blanket, plaid usually
Plaid referring to patterned woollen cloth otherwise known as
tartan.
Plain weave (also called tabby weave, linen weave or taffeta
weave) is the most basic of three fundamental types of textile
Plain weave
weaves (along with satin weave and twill). It is strong and
hard-wearing, used for fashion and furnishing fabrics.
Plied yarn is yarn that has been plied, with the process called
Plied yarn
plying.
A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon,
or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect,
Plissé usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created
through the application of a caustic soda solution, which
shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is
applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to seersucker. End-
uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.
Plush is a fabric having a cut nap or pile the same as fustian
Plush
or velvet.
Very feminine, delicate-looking, rib-knit fabric made with a
Pointelle
pattern of openings.
A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is
second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester has high
Polyester strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent
resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Low absorbency
allows the fiber to dry quickly.
Poplin is a heavy, durable fabric that has a ribbed
appearance. It is made with wool, cotton, silk, rayon, or any
Poplin mixture of these. The ribs run across the fabric from selvage
to selvage. They are formed by using coarse filling yarns in a
plain weave.
A type of fabric structure that gives different holes or figured
Punched
textures
Purl stitch A commonly used stitch in knitting.
Qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed textile,
Qalamkari
produced in various places in India.
Qiviut Qiviut is the wool of the musk ox.
A fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is
placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place
Quatrefoil
by stitching or sealing in a regular, consistent, all-over
pattern on the goods.
Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth
with a layer of insulating batting in between. A bed covering
Quilt
or similar large rectangular piece of quilting work is called a
quilt.
A bast fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant
Ramie
grown in China.
A warp knitted fabric in which the resulting knit fabric
resembles hand crocheted fabrics, lace fabrics, and nettings.
Raschel Knit
Raschel warp knits contain inlaid connecting yarns in
addition to columns of knit stitches.
Rayon is a transparent fibre made of processed cellulose.
Cellulose fibres from wood or cotton are dissolved in alkali to
Rayon
make a solution called viscose, which is then extruded
through a nozzle, or spinneret, into an acid bath to reconvert
the viscose into cellulose. A similar process, using a slit
instead of a hole, is used to make cellophane.
In knitting, ribbing is a pattern in which vertical stripes of
stockinette stitch alternate with vertical stripes of reverse
stockinette stitch. These two types of stripes may be
Rib knit
separated by other stripes in which knit and purl stitches
alternate vertically; such plissé stripes add width and depth
to ribbing but not more elasticity.
One of the plain weave variations, which is formed by using:
1) heavy yarns in the warp or filling direction, or 2) a
substantially higher number of yarns per inch in one direction
than in the other, or 3) several yarns grouped together as
Rib weave one. Rib fabrics are all characterized by having a slight ridge
effect in one direction, usually the filling. Such fabrics may
have problems with yarn slippage, abrasion resistance, and
tear strength. Examples of this construction include
broadcloth, poplin, taffeta, faille, shantung, and cord fabric.
A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant fabric.
Rip-Stop
Appropriate for outdoor wear and equipment as well as
Nylon
outdoor flags.
A rolag is a loose woolen roll of fibers that results from using
Rolag
handcards.
A roving is a long rope of fibers where all of the fibers are
Roving
going parallel to the roving.
A rug is a form of carpet. It is usually smaller than a carpet.
Rug
See also: rug making
Sailcloth encompasses a wide variety of materials that span
those from natural fibers, such as flax (linen), hemp or cotton
Sailcloth
in various forms including canvas, to synthetic fibers,
including nylon, polyester, aramids, and carbon fibers.
Sateen is a fabric formed with a satin weave where the floats
Sateen
are perpendicular to the selvage of the goods.
A Satin is a cloth that typically has a glossy surface and a
dull back. It is formed by a sequence of broken twill floats in
Satin
either the warp or weft system, which respectively identify
the goods as either a satin or a sateen.
A satin is a broken twill weaving technique that forms floats
on one side of the fabric. If a satin is woven with the floats
Satin weave parallel to the selvedge of the goods, the corresponding
fabric is termed a “satin.” If the floats are perpendicular to the
selvedge of the goods, the fabric is termed a ‘sateen.'”
A seam, in sewing, is the line where two pieces of fabric are
Seam
held together by thread.
Seam ripper A seam ripper is a small tool used for unpicking stitches.
A fabric with a woven pucker, this fabric is traditionally
Seersucker cotton, but can be polyester. Suitable for shirts, casual slacks
and children’s clothing.
Selvage or The woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp is
Selvedge called selvage.
Sequined Ornamented with a small plate of shining metal or plastic.
Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges
on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. The
worsted variety is used in making military uniforms, suits,
Serge
great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for
linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is
also used for a high quality woolen woven.
Serging Serging is the binding off of an edge of cloth.
Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth,
leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle
Sewing and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human
populations and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BC).
Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.
Shag (fabric) is typically used to make a deep-pile carpets.
This is the oldest use of the term. Shag carpet is sometimes
Shag
evoked as an example of the aesthetic from the culture of the
U.S. 1970s. Also used to make carpets for mariners.
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a
Shantung ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp
or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.
In weaving, the shed is the gap between yarns on a loom
Shed
when one or more, but not all, of the harnesses are raised.
Any very light-weight fabric (e.g., chiffon, georgette, voile,
Sheer sheer crepe). Usually has an open weave. Sheers mostly
feel cool.
Recycled or remanufactured wool. Historically generated
from loosely woven materials. Benjamin Law invented
shoddy and mungo, as such, in England in 1813. He was the
first to organise, on a larger scale, the activity of taking old
Shoddy
clothes and grinding them down into a fibrous state that
could be re-spun into yarn. The shoddy industry was centred
on the towns of Batley, Morley, Dewsbury and Ossett in
West Yorkshire, and concentrated on the recovery of wool
from rags. The importance of the industry can be gauged by
the fact that even in 1860 the town of Batley was producing
over 7,000 tonnes of shoddy. At the time there were 80 firms
employing a total of 550 people sorting the rags. These were
then sold to shoddy manufacturers of which there were about
130 in the West Riding. Shoddy is inferior to the original
wool; “shoddy” has come to mean “of poor quality” in general
(not related to clothing), and the original meaning is largely
obsolete.
The opal effect achieved on a fabric by dyeing the warp and
weft threads different colours. The yarns are dyed first and
Shot then woven. When looking at the fabric from various angles it
appears to alter in colour, this is more obvious in lustrous
fabrics and more so in certain types of weaves.
A shuttle in weaving is a device used with a loom that is
Shuttle thrown or passed back and forth between the threads of the
warp to weave in the weft.
Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles.
It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the
process known as sericulture, which kills the larvae. The
Silk
shimmering appearance for which it is prized comes from the
fibre’s triangular prism-like structure, which allows silk cloth
to refract incoming light at different angles.
Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a
stiff fiber used in making rope. (The term may refer either to
the plant or the fiber, depending on context.) It is not really a
Sisal
variety of hemp, but named so because hemp was for
centuries a major source for fiber, so other fibers were
sometimes named after it.
Skein is when a length of yarn is bundled in a loose roll
rather than put on a cone (as you would purchase from
Skein
store)- usually done if yarn is going to a dye vat or needs a
treatment in a manufacturing/knitting mill environment.
It drapes well, never wrinkles and washes beautifully. It’s the
Slinky Knit perfect travel fabric with four-way stretch for ultimate comfort.
Suitable for almost any wardrobe item.
It drapes well, never wrinkles and washes beautifully. It’s the
Slub perfect travel fabric with four-way stretch for ultimate comfort.
Suitable for almost any wardrobe item.
Solution dyeing is a technique used to add color to synthetic
Solution-dyed fiber. There are many different methods used to dye carpet
fibers, but essentially, they can be broken down into two
categories: solution dyeing, and all other methods. I say this
because solution dyeing is so different from all of the other
methods that it truly is in a class of its own.
A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly
Spandex stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to
its original length.
Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fibre known for its
exceptional elasticity (stretchability). It is stronger and more
Spandex fibre durable than rubber, its major plant competitor. It was
invented in 1959 by DuPont, and when first introduced it
revolutionised many areas of the clothing industry.
Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope,
Spinning
cable) from various raw fibre materials.
Spread Tow Fabrics is a type of lightweight fabric. Its
production involves the steps of spreading a tow of higher
Spread Tow
count, e.g. 12k, into thin-and-wide spread tow tape (STT)
Fabrics
and weaving them into a lightweight fabric by employing the
novel tape-weaving technique.
Staple is the raw material, or its length and quality, of fibre
Staple
from which textiles are made.
A stitch is a single turn or loop of the thread or yarn in
Stitch
sewing, knitting and embroidery.[13]
Stuff is a coarse cloth, sometimes made with a linen warp
Stuff
and worsted weft.
The Super grading system is used to grade the quality of
wool fabric. The higher the number, the more yarn is packed
Super
in per square inch, therefore all things being equal a super
120s yarn is better than super 100s.
A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a
Surah silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and
furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.
A fabric pattern that originated in Central Asia and often
features large, intricate medallions that were originally
Suzani
created through needlework. Fabrics that feature suzani
prints usually include round floral designs.
Tablet weaving is a process of weaving where tablets, also
Tablet called ‘cards’, are used to create the shed that the weft is
weaving passed through. It is generally used to make narrow work
such as belts or straps.
Tactel is the brand name of a man-made fibre made from
Tactel
nylon.
Taffeta Taffeta is a type of fabric, often used for fancy dresses.
Tapestry is a form of textile art. It is woven by hand on a
weaving-loom. The chain thread is the carrier in which the
coloured striking thread is woven. In this way, a colourful
Tapestry pattern or image is created. Most weavers use a naturally
based chain thread made out of linen or wool. The striking
threads can be made out of silk, wool, gold or silver, but can
also be made out of any form of textile.
Tarlatan (alt. sp. tarlaton) is a starched, open-weave fabric,
much like cheese cloth. It is used to wipe the ink off a plate
during the intaglio inking process. The open weave allows for
Tarlatan
the tarlatan to pick up a large quantity of ink. The stiffness
imparted by the starch helps prevent the fabric from taking
the ink out of the incised lines.
A waterproofed canvas sometimes made of nylon or other
Tarpaulin
manmade fiber.
A tassel is a ball-shaped bunch of plaited or otherwise
entangled threads from which at one end protrudes a cord on
Tassel
which the tassel is hung, and which may have loose,
dangling threads at the other end.
Tatting is a technique for handcrafting lace that can be
Tatting
documented approximately to the early 19th century.
Created from wood pulp, Tencel is very soft with great drape.
Tencel It’s usually a medium weight fabric that suitable for pants,
skirts and jackets.
Terry cloth is a type of cloth with loops sticking out. Most
Terry cloth
bath towels are examples of Terry cloth.
Thimble A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb.
The thread count is the number of warp threads per inch plus
Thread count
the number of weft threads.
Threads per inch is the measurement of the number of
Threads per
threads per inch of material, such as fabric, or metal in the
inch (TPI)
case of screws and bolts.
A variety of fabrics are known as “ticking.” The main weave
is a closely-woven, thick yarn twill. Spaced, colored, and
natural or white yarns repeated in the warp, and all natural or
Ticking white in the filling, forming a stripe. Several color
combinations used, as blue and white, brown and white, red
and white. Heavy warp-face sateens as well as heavy
sheetings are printed and sold as ticking. Jacquard damask
ticking woven in damask effects also sold for this purpose as
well as other fabrics, such as drills.
Tissue Tissue is a fine woven fabric or gauze.
A type of decorating pattern consisting of a white or off-white
background on which a repeated pattern depicting a fairly
complex scene, generally of a pastoral theme such as (for
Toile example) a couple having a picnic by a lake. The pattern
portion consists of a single colour, most often black, dark
red, or blue. Greens and magenta toile patterns are less
common but not unheard of.
Trim or trimming in clothing and home decorating is applied
Trim ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or,
as a verb, to apply such ornament.
Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various
fibers, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most
Tulle
commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding
gowns) and ballet tutus.
A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric
Tweed containing colored slubbed yarns. Common end-uses include
coats and suits.
A fabric that shows a distinct diagonal wale on the face (e.g.,
Twill
denim, gabardine, tricotine).
Twill tape is a flat twill-woven ribbon of cotton, linen,
Twill tape
polyester, or wool.
Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal
parallel ribs. It is made by passing the weft threads over one
Twill weave
warp thread and then under two or more warp threads.
Examples of twill fabric are gabardine, tweed and serge.
An imitation suede fabric composed of polyester microfibers
Ultrasuede combined with polyurethane foam in a non-woven structure.
Hand and appearance resemble sheep suede.
Velour is a textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet.It combines
Velour the stretchy properties of knits such as spandex with the rich
appearance and feel of velvet.
Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are
very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its
distinct feel. Velvet can be made from any fiber. It is woven
Velvet
on a special loom that weaves two piece of velvet at the
same time. The two pieces are then cut apart and the two
lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls.
Velveteen is a cotton cloth made in imitation of velvet. The
term is sometimes applied to a mixture of silk and cotton.
Some velveteens are a kind of fustian, having a rib of velvet
Velveteen
pile alternating with a plain depression. The velveteen, trade
varies a good deal with the fashions that control the
production of velvet.
This lace often has a high profile, and is made using a
needlepoint technique rather than embroidery. A heavier
Venice lace
weight lace, the patterns vary from geometric to floral. Each
pattern is attached to the others by bars made of thread.
Viscose is an artificial cellulose-based polymer, sometimes
Viscose
used as a synonym for Rayon
The most common type of rayon. It is produced in much
Visocse greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon, the other
commercial type.
A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, similar in
Voile appearance to organdy and organza. It is appropriate for
curtains as well as blouses and dresses.
Similar to piqué in texture. Waffle cloth has a honeycomb
Waffle Cloth
weave made on dobby loom. Usually of cotton.
The warp is the set of lengthwise threads attached to a loom
Warp
before weaving begins, and through which the weft is woven.
Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a
textile or fabric for use in many types of garments.Knitting
creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or
tube. Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at
Warp knit one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of consecutive
rows of intermeshing of loops. As each row progresses, a
newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from
the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops
from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle.
Some garments, and tents, are designed to give greater or
lesser protection against rain. For urban use raincoats and
jackets are used; for outdoor activities in rough weather there
is a range of hiking apparel. Typical descriptions are
Water “showerproof”, “water resistant”, and “waterproof”. These
repellent terms are not precisely defined. A showerproof garment will
usually be treated with a water-resisting coating, but is not
rated to resist a specific hydrostatic head. This is suitable for
protection against light rain, but after a short time water will
penetrate.
Waterproof fabrics are fabrics that are inherently, or have
been treated to become, resistant to penetration by water
and wetting. The term “waterproof” refers to conformance to
a governing specification and specific conditions of a
laboratory test method. They are usually natural or synthetic
fabrics that are laminated to or coated with a waterproofing
material such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC),
Waterproof
polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, fluoropolymers, and
wax. Treatment could be either of the fabric during
manufacture or of completed products after manufacture, for
instance by a waterproofing spray. Examples include the
rubberised fabric used in Mackintosh jackets, sauna suits
and inflatable boats. They are even used for footballs and
glasses.
Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves
placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fibre called the
warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. This
Weaving
cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can
be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including
tapestries.
The weft is the yarn that is woven back and forth through the
Weft
warp to make cloth.
Weft or filling knitting is a construction process in which the
fabric is made by yarn forming loops across the width of the
fabric or around a circle. Each yarn is fed at more or less a
right angle to the direction in which the fabric is built. The
term weft is taken from weaving terminology. In weaving the
term is used synonymously with filling or pick to refer to the
crosswise yams that are laid during the weaving operation.
Weft knit fabrics can be made by machines, weft knitting is
also the technique usually used in hand-knitting. A
Weft knit considerable amount of filling knit fabric is made on a circular
knitting machine, in which a series of needles is arranged
around the circumference of a circle. Fabric may be made in
the shape of a tube. If a fiat fabric is desired, the tube can be
cut open. Many fabrics, in fact, are made with a specific
location for slitting the fabric open. Such knits could not be
used in tube form. Other circular knits are designed so that
they may be used in the cylinder or tube form in which they
are made, adjustments are made for shaping to a figure or
form for end use.
Wilton carpet is produced on a specific type of weaving
Wilton Carpet
machine called wire loom. Wilton carpets are pile carpets
whereby the pile is formed by inserting steel rods in the pile
warps of the fabric. After extraction of the rods the pile is
looped (in case straight wires have been used) or cut (in
case cutting wires are used). Wilton carpet is generally
considered as high quality and is used for heavy duty
applications. It is named after Wilton, Wiltshire.
Weaving machine for pile fabrics or velvets whereby the pile
is made by weaving steel rods or wires into the fabrics.
When the wires are extracted the warp ends that have been
woven over the wires remain as loops on top of the fabric or
will form cut pile if the wire is equipped with a cutting blade.
Wire loom
This technique is also known as “épinglé weaving”. A wire
loom in a much wider version (up to 5 meters of width) and in
heavier construction is used for the manufacturing of carpets
is called a “WILTON” loom, and the carpets made on such a
loom are known as “Wilton Carpets”
Wool is naturally stain and wrinkle resistant. It can absorb up
to 40% of it’s weight in moisture without feeling damp. Wool
Wool
comes in many forms including crepe, challis, gabardine,
merino, melton, jersey and worsted wool suitings.
A lightweight worsted fabric with a more or less crinkly
appearance, obtained by using warp yarns that are tightly
Wool Crepe twisted in alternate directions. The term is often applied to
lightweight worsted fabrics for women’s wear that have little
or no crepe surface.
Woolen or woollen is the name of a yarn and cloth usually
Woolen
made from wool.
Worsted is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from
wool. The yarn is well twisted and spun of long staple wool
Worsted fabric
(though nowadays also medium and short fibres are used).
The wool is combed so that the fibres lie parallel.
A woven fabric is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches
in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions),
Woven fabric unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at
the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such
as the use of pinking shears or hemming.
A continuous strand of textile fibers created when a cluster of
Yarn individual fibers are twisted together. These long yarns are
used to create fabrics, either by knitting or weaving.
A continuous strand of textile fibers created when a cluster of
Yarn-Dyed individual fibers are twisted together. These long yarns are
used to create fabrics, either by knitting or weaving.
An even thread that is usually gold or silver, commonly found
Zari
in brocades that adds a metallic sheen to fabric.
A thin kind of cashmere made in Belgium. The term also
Zephyr
refers to a waterproof wool fabric.
A thick, soft fabric with a long nap. It is usually made of wool,
such as mohair or alpaca, but can also be made from the
hair of other animals, such as camels. Zibeline can also refer
Zibeline
to either the sable (Martes zibellina) or its pelt, which zibeline
was originally made from. Zibeline can also refer to a heavy
silk fabric with a twill weave, very similar to Mikado.

Source: https://www.pandasilk.com/fabric-glossary/