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phy practical.half logic gates

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The signals are usually represented by discrete bands of analog levels in digital electronic circuits or digital

electronics instead of continuous ranges represented in analogue electronics. The simple electronic

representations of Boolean logic functions, large assemblies of logic gates are typically used to make digital

electronic circuits. In digital circuit theory, the circuits, thus formed from logic gates are used to generate

outputs based on the input logic. Hence, these circuits are called as logic circuits and are classified into two

types such as sequential logic and combinational logic circuits.

The logic gates can be defined as simple physical devices used to implement the Boolean function. Logic gates

are used to perform a logical operation with one or more inputs and generates a logical output. These logic

circuits are formed by connecting one or more logic gates together. These logic circuits are classified into two

types: sequential logic circuits and combinational logic circuits.

The combinational logic circuits or time-independent logic circuits in digital circuit theory can be defined as a

type of digital logic circuit implemented using Boolean circuits, where the output of logic circuit is a pure

function of the present inputs only. The combinational logic circuit operation is instantaneous and these circuits

do not have the memory or feedback loops.

This combinational logic is in contrast compared to the sequential logic circuit in which the output depends on

both present inputs and also on the previous inputs. Thus, we can say that combinational logic does not have

memory, whereas sequential logic stores previous input in its memory. Hence, if the input of combinational

logic circuit changes, then the output also changes.

These combinational logic circuits are designed to produce specific outputs from certain inputs. The

combinational logic design can be done using two methods such as a sum of products and a product of sums.

Combinational logic circuits are generally designed by connecting together or combining the basic logic gates

such as NAND, NOR, and NOT. Hence, these logic gates are termed as building blocks. These logic circuits

can be a very simple circuit or a very complex circuit or huge combinational circuit can be designed using only

universal logic gates such as NAND and NOR gates.

Functions of Combinational Logic Circuit

The function of combinational logic circuits can be specified in three main ways such as:

Truth Table

Boolean Algebra

Logic Diagram

Truth Table.

The logic gate function can be defined using its truth table which consists outputs for of all possible

combinations of inputs of the logic gate. An example combinational logic function truth table is shown

in the above figure.

Boolean Algebra.

The output of combinational logic function can be expressed in the form expression using Boolean

algebra and an example, Boolean expression for the above truth table is shown in the above figure.

Logic Diagram.

The graphical representation of combinational logic functions using logic gates is called as logic diagram. The

logic diagram for above discussed logic function truth table and Boolean expression can be realized as shown in

the above figure

The combinational logic circuits can be also be called as decision making circuits, as these are designed using

individual logic gates. The combinational logic is the process of combining logic gates to process the given two

or more inputs such that to generate at least one output signal based on the logic function of each logic gate.

Classification of Combinational Logic.

The combinational logic circuits can be classified into various types based on the purpose of usage, such as

arithmetic & logical functions, data transmission, and code converters. To solve the arithmetic and logical

functions we generally use adders, subtractors, and comparators which are generally realized by combining

various logic gates called as combinational logic circuits. Similarly, for data transmission, we use multiplexers,

demultiplexers, encoders, and decoders which are also realized using combinational logic. The code converters

such as binary, BCD, and 7-segment are designed using various logic circuits.

Material and Method.

Material:-

LED Red or Green – 3Pcs

Mini SPST or slide Switch – 5 Pcs

Diode 4007 – 2Pcs

Transistor BC548 – 3Pcs

Resistance 100 Ohms, 220 Ohms, 1K – 1 Pc each

Resistance 10 K – 3 Pcs

Battery Container 3V

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