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     A.P.A.C.

 Ltd                  St John’s Well, St Athan St Athan-16/EX

                                                                A.P.A.C.  Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy

St John’s Well, St Athan

Interim Assessment Report

April 2017

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     A.P.A.C. Ltd                  St John’s Well, St Athan St Athan-16/EX

Title: St John’s Well, St Athan. Archaeological Interim Assessment


Report

A.P.A.C. Ltd
Site Code: St. Athan-16/ EX

Author: Simon Reames

Project Manager: Dr Neil Phillips (A.P.A.C. Ltd)

Derivation WSI

Draft Date: 06/04/2017

Version St Athan-16/EX D1

Status Draft revision 1

Summary of Changes Changes to format of document and some additions to the


information

Revisers: Dr Neil Phillips

Circulation: Simon Reames

Required action

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Summary

A.P.A.C. Ltd was commissioned by BDW Trading Ltd to carry out an archaeological watching brief
during a residential housing development on land adjacent to St John’s View, St Athan, Vale of
Glamorgan; centred on National Grid Reference (NGR): ST 01467 68143.

The development area consisted of three fields totalling an approximate area of 9.44 acres and the
working proposal was for a rolling phased development sequence, fields 1, 2 & 3.

The watching brief undertaken on field 1 recorded very little in the way of archaeological resources
allowing its construction phase to begin, whilst ground disturbance work moved to field 2. Early in this
phase of work, a number of distinctive features; interpreted as prehistoric human cremation burials, were
revealed during ground disturbance and a temporary halt was called to the operation whilst advice was
sought.

In consultation with Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT), the client and advisors from the
National Museum of Wales (NMW) the remit for the work was changed from watching brief to full
excavation and a new project design was commissioned, submitted and approved.

An exhumation license for human remains was obtained from the Ministry of Justice and facilities for
storage and processing were arranged of what would result in an enormous quantity of significant
archaeological material.

As the excavation moved from field 2 into field 3 it became obvious that both were within an
archaeologically rich landscape containing interrupted and uninterrupted ring-ditches, a designated
cremation burial area, a number of inhumations, a number of non-domestic or industrial features and a
later field system.

Initial spot dates indicate a predominantly prehistoric landscape that continues through to the early 20 th
century.

This assessment report presents the interim results of the archaeological excavation as required in the
WSI and addresses the assessment phase which precedes the post excavation.
.

Copyright Notice: A.P.A.C. Ltd retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100045677) to reproduce map information; Copyright
remains otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover photo: Aerial image of Barrow in Field 2 (© A.P.A.C. Ltd 2017)

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Contents

Summary..........................................................................................................................................2
Contents...........................................................................................................................................3
1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................4
1.1. Project Background...........................................................................................................4
1.2. Location, Topography and Geology.................................................................................5
1.3. Archaeological and Historical Background......................................................................5
2. Aims and Objectives................................................................................................................6
2.1. Watching Brief..................................................................................................................6
2.2. Excavation........................................................................................................................6
2.3. Post excavation Assessment..............................................................................................7
3. Methodology............................................................................................................................7
3.1. General..............................................................................................................................7
3.2. Health & Safety................................................................................................................8
4. Preliminary Results..................................................................................................................8
4.1. Preliminary Site Narrative................................................................................................8
5. Archive...................................................................................................................................11
5.1. Archive Quantification...................................................................................................11
5.2. Estimates for post excavation assessment......................................................................11
5.3. Interim Summary, Assessment and Further Recommendations.....................................12
6. Acknowledgements................................................................................................................12
7. Bibliography...........................................................................................................................13
Copyright.......................................................................................................................................13

Figures

01. Site Location Map.

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02. Pre-excavation plan with structure 104 from field 1 (inset)

1. Introduction
1.1. Project Background

This assessment report outlines the process and preliminary results of the archaeological excavation undertaken to
satisfy Vale of Glamorgan Council (VOGC) planning conditions associated with the planned development of 100
residential dwellings and associated works (Planning Application Number: 2013/01148/FUL).

A.P.A.C. Ltd was commissioned by BDW Trading Ltd (hereafter The Client) to carry out an archaeological
watching brief at Tathana’s Court; a proposed development on land adjacent to St John’s View, St Athan, Vale of
Glamorgan (hereafter The Site) centred on National Grid Reference (NGR): ST 01467 68143. The work was to be
undertaken prior to and concurrently during construction of a residential housing development.

The development was envisaged as a three phase, rolling project: once ground work was completed in field 1,
development construction would begin whilst groundwork moved to field 2 and so on to field 3. The archaeological
watching brief would synchronise with the sequence.

The watching brief for field 1 was completed with very little evidence of archaeological potential discovered,
although one small area was set aside for later investigation (104).

The groundworks (soil strip by mechanical tracked machines) moved to field 2 as planned but very early on a
number of distinctive features; interpreted as prehistoric human cremations, were revealed.

In accordance with ‘Procedures’ set out in Written Scheme of Investigation (WSI) WB/ASP/15, a temporary halt on
groundwork was put in place and an onsite meeting with The Client and Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust
(hereafter GGAT) was called in order to discuss best practice to deal with the archaeological resource.

Having assessed the evidence available, GGAT decided that a watching brief would not be sufficient for such a
potentially important site and a full archaeological excavation would be required. Following the site meeting,
A.P.A.C. Ltd was instructed to draw up a new project design for excavation. In addition, as The Site was expected to
produce human remains, an exhumation licence was applied for from the Ministry of Justice.

Contact was made with the National Museum of Wales (hereafter AC-NMW) who have provided expert advice
throughout the work and continue to support the project with access to storage and facilities for the assessment
process.

The Client arranged for the archaeological responsive areas to be fenced off, whilst the ground strip operation
continued under the original watching brief eventually localising the archaeologically sensitive area to southern
portion of the field.

BDW also arranged for onsite storage, bulk processing and drying facilities to be available on site, thereby, not only
greatly increasing the efficiency and accuracy of the work but also establishing a certain amount of ‘in real time’
assessment and feedback.

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Groundwork then moved to field 3 and the archaeological watching brief, during the ground strip, revealed further
extensive archaeological resources extending the archaeological work and greatly adding to the amount of material
collected for post excavation analysis.

The current interpretation is that fields 2 & 3 are part of an archaeologically rich landscape containing interrupted
and uninterrupted ring-ditches, a designated cremation burial area, a number of inhumations, a number of non-
domestic or industrial features and a later field system.

1.2. Location, Topography and Geology

The Site, situated in the north-western area of the village of St Athan, Vale of Glamorgan, comprised an area of open
fields bounded to the north by RAF St Athan, to the east by residential properties, to the south by St Johns View
road and to the west by residential properties and fields, (Figure 1).

The Site occupies three gently sloping irregular parcels of land which in total measure approximately 9.44 acres and
lie at approximately 40m above Ordnance Datum (aOD). Immediately south of the northernmost boundary with
RAF St Athan, the land drops steeply from approximately 36m aOD to 27m aOD.

The underlying natural geology of The Site lies on Porthkerry Member interbedded limestone and mudstone (British
Geological Survey, 2017).

1.3. Archaeological and Historical Background

The Vale of Glamorgan has seen human activity since prehistoric times; various habitation sites, land management
remains and an array of small finds attest to a presence from the lower Palaeolithic to modern times.

The known archaeological resources of the Vale of Glamorgan have presented past researchers with the view point
that the archaeological signature of this part of Wales is atypical of Wales as a whole likening it more closely to
Southern England, Brittany or Ireland (Wessex, p5, 2010). For example, sites such as the Neolithic causewayed
enclosure at Flemingston compare with similar types from south-eastern Britain; the late Bronze Age/Iron Age site
at Llanmaes (Gwilt et al, 2016) would have similarities on Salisbury Plain or Westbury whilst the Roman presence
is known by the highest concentration of villas and farmsteads in Wales (Entec, p6, 2009).

The similarities continue through the medieval period with a feudal land organisation comparable to that of adjacent
Gwent and the Marches rather than the less fertile upland Wales.

The fertility of the area is arguable a prime motivation for the continued human presence although access to the
coast may have been equally important. In brief, ‘a resource rich environment of low lying land, alongside an
extensive coastline’ which has been exploited by communities for thousands of years (Entec, p1, 2009).

Archaeological works in the immediate vicinity of The Site, ranging from geophysical surveys, evaluations and
excavations, have also produced an array of archaeological detail, as can be seen from the summaries below:

One-kilometre northwest of The Site, an excavation based on earlier geophysical survey identified:

… multi period archaeological deposits across the site. The earliest identifiable occupation
consisted of a mid to late Iron Age/Early Roman settlement, represented by two roundhouses,
two four-post structures, inhumation burials and other features, enclosed by a major bank and
ditch. Elements of a late Roman rectilinear field-system, together with ovens/driers, pits,
postholes, inhumation burials and other features were also noted. In addition, several later
ditched boundaries matched land divisions depicted on mid-19 th century maps and were thought
to be of post-medieval/early modern date.
Cotswold Archaeology, p3. 2004

60 meters north of The Site, two evaluation trenches identified:

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No artefacts or archaeological features pre-dating the modern period … suggesting any earlier
archaeological features, if ever present, many have been damaged or removed by modern
construction and landscaping works.
Cotswold Archaeology, p6.2008

700 meters west-southwest of The Site, 71 evaluation trenches identified:

The results of the evaluation at Batslays suggest that the majority of the features shown on the
geophysics plot are likely to be Late Iron Age or Romano British in date, but that the potential
for the discovery of small scale prehistoric activity.
Wessex Archaeology, p11. 2010

CgMs, 2009, Desk Based Assessment of The Site revealed that ‘No previous intrusive archaeological work has been
carried out within the study site’ and on the bases of data collected, concluded:

… that the study site has a low potential for archaeological activity for all periods. Although it
is likely that the local landscape was utilised during the late Prehistoric and Roman periods, no
evidence of such activity is present … continued agricultural use from post medieval to modern
times.
FP/HH/11066, p3. 2009

The results of a Geophysical Survey commissioned by CgMs concluded:

… that resulting data indicate a complex history of changing land division … likely to be of post-
medieval date, although an earlier origin for the principle boundaries cannot be excluded.

TERRADAT 2920v1, p11. 2010

It is worth noting that CgMs brought attention to the lack of previous archaeological work in the area as a possible
contributory factor to the paucity of evidence concluding with the suggestion of the possibility of further work.

The advisory letter to planning also pointed out the existence of small sub-circular, as yet, unexplained features,
which may relate to the adjacent airfield, which was of strategic importance during World War II; it would have
received enemy air attacks and subsequent bomb damage, VOG0915/JBHD.

A final report worth mentioning was the 2009 archaeological evaluation of The Site by Headland Archaeology Ltd
commissioned by RedRow Homes Ltd:

Excavation of the trial trenches has indicated that the site has been subject to minimal human
activity as suggested by the DBA, and historically may always have been pasture or woodland.
The area of development was formally divided into a series of small rectangular enclosures,
generally aligned with the existing boundaries, … likely to be of post-medieval date. The
evaluation has established that no significant or large-scale archaeological assets are present
within the development area, un-paginated.

Headland Archaeology (UK) Ltd SJSG12, p3. 2012

2. Aims and Objectives


2.1. Watching Brief

The aim of the watching brief was to preserve by record, within the resources available, any archaeological deposits
uncovered during groundwork.

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The watching brief also ensured that in the event of archaeological resources of significance being discovered and
requiring treatment beyond the remit of the watching brief, steps would be implemented to ensure that their
treatment would be undertaken within the standards recommended by the CIfA.

2.2. Excavation

The excavation aimed to: 

 Elucidate the character, distribution, extent and importance of the archaeological remains, extant in the
development area.

 Provide   an   information   base   from   which   to   formulate   mitigation   strategies,   in   the   event   of   further
significant archaeological resources being impacted upon within the development area and adjacent fields. 

 Provide a detailed record of the work to allow for a report to be produced to satisfy the planning condition.

 Production of an accurate measured record of the site at time of excavation to facilitate future analysis.

 Production of an accurate photographic record of the site at time of excavation in order to facilitate future
analysis.

 Production of an updated project design from which to proceed to the analysis stage.

 Provide a detail record of the work to allow for publication in a suitable academic journal.

 Provide a completed archive to Mapp II standard: Collection of all documentation and small finds into one
cross-referenced file to be archived by AC-NMW. (Transfer of title has been confirmed).

2.3. Post excavation Assessment

As part of the post excavation work, an assessment phase will examine the value of excavated materials to provide
meaningful information that will further our interpretation of the site. This will include an assessment of the
potential of features and phasing (environmental analysis, artefact analysis, stratigraphy, alignments, typological
analysis and radiocarbon dating). Finds will be subject to a preservation assessment and an evaluation of their
potential for dating purposes and function and setting of the site (environmental samples, artefacts of metal, stone
and ceramic).

3. Methodology

3.1. General

All land within the boundaries of The Site was subjected to archaeological monitoring. The areas were opened by
14 and 21 tonne tracked excavators fitted with toothless ditching buckets and excavated down to the level of
surviving archaeological deposits, or to the top of undisturbed natural geology, whichever was encountered first.
Spoil from the excavation was separated into topsoil and subsoil/superficial geology, with all spoil visually
examined for artefacts.

All potential features were investigated by hand. A 20% sampling strategy was employed for all linear features.
After consultation with GGAT, linear features that did not produce any datable material were 100% excavated with
regular environmental samples taken for charcoal retrieval. All discrete archaeological features were half-sectioned

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and then 100% excavated after recording. All cremation burials were quadranted with opposing quadrants recorded
and 100% sampled.

An environmental sampling strategy was formulated in consultation with GGAT, environmental and osteological
specialists, which was employed throughout the watching brief and excavation phases. Where appropriate, 40 litre
samples were taken for recovery of charred plant remains, small bone fragments, molluscs and small artefact
retrieval. Where substantial organic material was encountered, 100% of the deposit was sampled. Where
appropriate (as directed by Dr Davies), monoliths were taken to enable detailed geoarchaeological descriptions of
remnant soils to be made and, if deemed necessary, could be further analysed for soil formation processes. Bulk
environmental samples were processed on site to minimise transportation and storage costs. Subsequent to the
completion of fieldwork, a total of 38 additional samples have been received following the conservation of urns
containing cremated human remains which still require processing.

A.P.A.C. Ltd allocated a unique site code (St. Athan-16/WB and EX for the watching brief and excavation phases
respectively) for all aspects of the project archive. The recording was undertaken using A.P.A.C. Ltd’s pro forma
recording system. Sections were drawn at scales of 1:10 or 1:20 as necessary and plans drawn at scales of 1:10,
1:20 and 1:50 as necessary. A series of digital SLR photographs which illustrated the general nature of The Site and
the character of individual features uncovered were taken. Where appropriate, aerial photographs were taken
employing a pole camera elevated to a maximum height of 12 metres. The use of a drone was also employed to
record The Site from an elevated position as a whole at the time of excavation.

The outlines of all potential archaeological features, positions of each drawn section and planning point, the
locations of all small finds and positions of all geographically-referenced photographs were surveyed using a
GeoMax GPS unit and tied in with the Ordinance Survey National Grid.

3.2. Health & Safety

All work was carried out in accordance with the Health and Safety at Work act 1974 and the Management of Health 
and Safety Regulations 1992.  

Health and Safety considerations were of paramount importance in conducting all fieldwork. Safe working practises
overrode archaeological considerations at all times.

All archaeological responsive areas were fenced off with a physical boundary to separate the development
construction area from the archaeological excavation. Archaeological features that exceeded a depth of 1 metre or
were situated in areas of high activity were individually fenced off.

An area lying alongside the south-eastern boundary of The Site had been identified as containing asbestos. A three-
metre exclusion zone was fenced off and the area left until the asbestos had been removed in accordance with
current guidelines. Once completed, the area was excavated by mechanical excavator down to the archaeological
horizon.

4. Preliminary Results

4.1. Preliminary Site Narrative

As stated above, the site groundworks were initially monitored as part of a watching brief which began in the
easternmost field, field 1, on 23.09.2015. Preliminary results indicate the majority of field 1 contained a thin strip of
overburden overlying the natural limestone geology. A single archaeological intrusion was identified in the north-
eastern area of the field consisting a stone-built structure, as yet undated and primary purpose unknown.

The archaeological watching brief then focused on the groundworks in the northernmost field (field 2) commencing
14.03.2016 and initially revealing a small circular archaeological feature [2004] with evidence of burnt material
within the feature fill. This was immediately followed by 37 similar features extending to the north. The initial
feature was excavated to determine its nature and character, whereupon cremated human remains were uncovered.

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All excavation ceased immediately and contact was made with GGAT, Ministry of Justice and AC-NMW. Visual
inspection of the remaining features revealed cremated remains and ceramic components present.

At this stage, the limitations of the watching brief were surpassed and further excavation was halted until such a
time as an updated Written Scheme of Investigation (WSI) and Exhumation Licence could be obtained.

With agreement from GGAT, continued reduction of the overburden by mechanical digger commenced in field 2 to
facilitate BDW’s necessary works for a proposed roadway. This immediately revealed an east-west aligned linear
feature terminating before a series of three roughly north-south aligned linear features. As mechanical excavation
continued along the proposed roadway, a ring ditch with 13 discrete features were identified approximately 14
metres west of the cremation area. Further consultation with GGAT and Dr Neil Phillips resulted in the ring ditch
and internal features being identified as surpassing the scope of the watching brief and were to be included within

the WSI for the cremation area. Excavation of any non-funerary features was to continue as part of the original
watching brief WSI.

Excavation of one of the north-south aligned linears [2039] revealed its truncation by grave [2031] which contained
an apparent juvenile crouched burial SK (2032). Preliminary correspondence with AC-NMW and
Osteoarchaeologist Dr Genevieve Tellier indicate SK (2032) could possibly be an excarnated burial. Immediately
south of grave [2031], a further inhumation burial [2034] was encountered containing an adult crouched burial, SK
(2035).

On the 19.04.2016, with agreement from BDW, overburden reduction began in the southernmost field (field 3)
located at the extreme southern boundary of The Site and immediately adjacent to St Johns View.

This aspect of groundworks was to prepare for the establishment of a site compound area with access to the road.
The soil strip immediately revealed two intersecting linear features, one of which bisected a discontinuous ring-ditch
with north facing entrance and seven discrete features both within and around the ring-ditch.

Excavation of pits [3011] and [3023] west of the discontinuous ring-ditch revealed surviving organic material in the
form of burnt grains and burnt hazelnut respectively. Within the ring-ditch, four discrete features were identified
with [3074] containing a denticulated blade, possibly Neolithic in date. A third truncated feature [3083] contained
fragments of approximately two separate grooved ware vessels, potentially Neolithic in date, and potential tool
marks within the limestone base of the feature.

Excavation of the ring-ditch revealed two definite terminal ends facing north with the western terminus containing
organic remains and ceramic artefacts. The western terminus also contained a single piece of antler (small find 8).

The linear that truncated the discontinuous ring-ditch ran on a north-south alignment and, following the
recommendations of GGAT, was 100% excavated due to the paucity of datable artefacts however, lithic artefacts
were recovered which might indicate a prehistoric date. The intersecting linear ran on an east-northeast-west-
southwest alignment and was visible within the current landscape as a bank and ditch and potentially medieval in
date. Where available, sections incorporated the surviving bank and monolith samples were taken.

At this stage, the WSI concerning archaeological excavation came into effect allowing excavation of the funerary
features within field 2 with work commencing on the ring-ditch on 09.05.2016.

Excavation of the ring-ditch revealed a roughly circular rock cut ditch enclosing 14 discrete features. Of these, five
contained cremated remains (two of which were within ceramic vessels: [2093] containing small find 11 and [2090]
containing small find 10), a further five appeared to be pits or postholes and the remaining features were natural
undulations and bioturbation within the natural limestone geology. Posthole [2163] contained a charred timber post
indicating a potential alternate use for the ring-ditch area. Cremation burial [2108] also appeared to truncate an
earlier posthole, thereby reinforcing the possibility of the reuse of an earlier feature/structure as a funerary
monument.

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Because of the presence of surface features possibly related to burning activity, a magnetic susceptibility survey was
conducted on the recommendation of Dr Davies in three areas around the cremation area to establish the likelihood
of a designated pyre zone pertaining to the cremation burials. The first was approximately five metres north of the
cremation area, the second was within the cremation area proper and the third was located in an area of no
archaeological feature to act as a baseline. The results of the survey revealed discrete features in the region north of
the cremation area as well as within the cremation area proper; the latter tallied with the visible archaeological
features present. Anomalies encountered within the baseline area were excavated and revealed discrepancies within
the survey data could be accounted for by undulations within the limestone bedrock.

Excavation of the region highlighted by the magnetic susceptibility survey north of the cremation area revealed
variances in superficial geology possibly pertaining to surface vegetation within the area. Excavation of the discrete
features revealed a single cremation burial [2179] at the northernmost extent of the cremation area that contained
two ceramic vessels (small finds 18 and 19) with cremated remains. Visual inspection of the vessels revealed the
possibility of animal canine teeth within the cremated remains. Immediately east of [2179] was a shallow
depression [2454] containing evidence of in situ burning.

The cremation area can be divided into two distinct areas: a group of 29 circular features to the northeast separated
by a visible gap and 89 circular features to the southwest. Also present were two north-south linears and a tree-
throw. The tree-throw was truncated by five circular features and one crouched inhumation.

Excavation of the cremation area revealed 38 features containing cremated remains. The remainder of the features
contained pyrotechnical debris, some with ceramic and lithic archaeological components. The initial processing of
environmental samples has also recovered bone fragments within features that had not been identified as cremations.
The heavy residues from these features have not been examined as yet and may recover additional cremated
remains.

North-northwest of the ring-ditch, a continuation of the east-west linear was uncovered alongside 11 discrete
features and a further five cremation burials. Pit [2474] contained a probable burnt middle Neolithic scraper (small
find 25). A refit of this scraper was retrieved from a sealed context within the east-west linear potentially dating this
linear to the middle Neolithic and thereby creating a middle Neolithic landscape at St Athan. Cremation burial
[2504] contained an inverted ceramic vessel (small find 28).

The western side of field 2 also contained a curvilinear feature that appeared to mimic the current field boundary.
The existing field boundary between fields 2 and 3, which consisted of an overgrown bank and ditch on a north-
northwest-south-southeast alignment with a further linear extending to the east on an east-northeast-west-southwest
alignment, was removed and the ditch excavated as per the original sampling strategy. Segments of this ditch were
unable to be excavated due to modern destruction of the feature by the groundworks construction.

South of the field boundary were a further two pyrotechnical pits and four features that were interpreted as the result
of bioturbation.

At the southern boundary of field 3, the north-northwest/south-southeast linear became shallower revealing two
earlier linear features on the same alignment. The easternmost linear feature ([3202]) contained possible prehistoric
ceramics and therefore potentially represents a prehistoric land division that was utilised through to the present day.

Within the same area, a potential prehistoric grain/crop processing feature [3216] was excavated. Approximately
five metres to the east-northeast, the terminus of the bank and ditch feature was uncovered.

Located centrally within the central southern half of field 3, a larger circular depression was visible within the
landscape. This was excavated to reveal a potential medieval quarry pit.

Immediately south of the quarry pit were a series of six potentially linear bioturbation features of unknown purpose
or date. South of this was a semi-circular group of five postholes potentially Neolithic in date.

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Located approximately 45 metres east of the potential postholes was a group of four circular features all containing
pyrotechnical deposits. Excavation of the features revealed two bell-shaped pits with burnt remains present (one of
which also contained a posthole) with the remaining two being shallow depressions.

Immediately south of the four pits was a discrete oval shaped feature that contained a disarticulated animal burial
with further (potentially) avian bones interred as well.

To the extreme south of field 3, on an east-northeast/west-southwest alignment ran another linear feature. Its
excavation initially indicates multiple phases of use.

Along the western side of the site, three sub-rectangular modern features were discovered, all mechanically
excavated. Excavation of the northernmost feature ([2464]) revealed modern artefacts with an initial interpretation
of use relating to the RAF St Athan.

All dating stated are preliminary spot dates provided by AC-NMW and are subject to change.

5. Archive
5.1. Archive Quantification

Inventory of the site archive as created on site:

Sheet Description Quantity


Context Registers (Field 2 and 3) 23
Context Sheets (Field 2 and 3) 844
Drawing Register 12
Sample Register 25
Small Finds Register 1
Cremated Bone Register 1
Camera 1 Register 7
Camera 2 Register 47
Drawings (section and plan) 709
Camera 1 Photographs 430
Camera 2 Photographs 1802
Aerial Photographs 212
Survey Files 46
Drone Footage 1

5.2. Estimates for post excavation assessment

Itemised break down of the post-excavation assessment:

Process Estimated Duration Completed


Archive Checking and Cross-Referencing 60 Days
Group Number Creation 15 Days
Survey Checking 10 Days
Creation of a Pre-Excavation Site Wide Plan 2 Days ✓
Creation of a Post-Excavation Site Wide Plan 55 Days
Creation of a Site Wide Matrix 18 Days
Scanning Paper Archive 12 Days ✓
Digitising Drawings 110 Days
Creation of a Stratigraphic Narrative 35 Days
Creation of Assessment Report 4 Days ✓

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Digitising of site paper archive into a database 50 Days
Heavy residue sorting 150 Days
Finds Quantification and Assessment TBC AC-NMW
Archaeobotanical Quantification and Assessment TBC Dr Longford
Geoarchaeological Quantification and Assessment TBC Dr Davies
Mollusc Quantification and Assessment TBC Dr Rawson
Osteoarchaeological Quantification and Assessment TBC Dr Tellier
Zooarchaeological analysis TBC Dr Viner

5.3. Interim Summary, Assessment and Further Recommendations

The watching brief and excavation of Tathana’s Court was successful in determining the presence of archaeology
throughout The Site, its basic nature, and depth below current ground surface. Initial on-site assessments, verbal
communication with the AC-NMW, GGAT, Dr Davies and Dr Tellier indicate the nature of the archaeological
features present and initial visual assessment of the archaeological assemblage suggest a site of local and national
importance, particularly to Wales.

Given the nature of The Site and its significance, further specialist reports are essential to the basic understanding of
the nature of The Site as whole. These should contain (but are not be limited to):

 Archaeobotanical Analysis
 Ceramic Analysis
 Geoarchaeological Analysis
 Human Remains Analysis
 Lithic Analysis
 Metallurgy Analysis
 Mollusc analysis
 Zooarchaeological Analysis

Once the preliminary phasing and assessment reports have been undertaken, a radiocarbon dating programme should
be established targeting specific research questions.

6. Acknowledgements

A.P.A.C. Ltd would like to thank BDW for all its assistance in allowing the excavation of this extremely important
archaeological resource to progress so smoothly and for all their assistance with storage and services on site.
Without BDW’s commitment to the work, a very important insight into a little understood part of our past would
have been missed.

A.P.A.C. Ltd would also like to acknowledge the support and advice offered by the National Museum of Wales and
hope that we can work together to extract all the information this excavation has offered.

GGAT have also been invaluable in monitoring the work, ensuring that all parties have a good understanding of their
roles and commitment.

Lastly A.P.A.C. Ltd acknowledges that the success of this work has been a direct result of the diligent fieldwork of
the ground staff under site director Simon Reames, a commendable piece of work by any standards.

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     A.P.A.C. Ltd                  St John’s Well, St Athan St Athan-16/EX

7. Bibliography

Barber, A., Cox. S., Hancocks, A., 2004, DARA Hangar Site RAF St Athan Vale of Glamorgan, CA Report 04006,
Cotswold Archaeology

British Geological Survey, 2017, Geology of Britain Viewer,


http://mapapps.bgs.ac.uk/geologyofbritain/home.html (accessed 04.04.2017)

CgMs Consulting Ltd, 2009, Land at St John’s Well, St Athan: Archaeological Desk Based Assessment,
GP/HH/11066

Cooke, N., 2010, Defence Technical College and Aerospace Business Park, St Athan, Glamorgan, Wessex
Archaeology

Cotswold Archaeology, 2008, Unit 414, Beggars Pound, RAF St Athan, Vale of Glamorgan, CA Report 07188

Entec UK Limited, 2009, Ministry of Defence (MoD), Metrix Ltd. And Sodexo Lit./Welsh Assembly Government.
Defence Technical College and Aerospace Business Park – St Athan

GGAT, 2012, Re: Proposed Development of Land at St John’s Well for up to One Hundred Dwellings, Public Open
Space and Associated Access: PL.App.No.:2012/00066/RES, VOG0915/JBHD

GGAT, 2013, To Extend Time Periods for the Submission of Reserved Matters Details and for the Implementation of
the Permission: Land at St John’s Well, St Athan. PL.App.No.: 2013/01148/FUL, Vog0915/GP

Mayes, S., 2012, Land at St John’s Well, St Athan for Redrow Homes Ltd, 2012/000/66/RES, Headland Archaeology
Ltd

Phillips, N., 2016, Written Scheme of Investigation for an Archaeological Excavation (WSI: St ATH/16/EX) St
John’s Well, St Athan, A.P.A.C. Ltd

TerraData, 2010, Geophysical Survey Report. Archaeological Survey-Magnetic Gradiometer. St John’s Well; St
Athan, 2920

Vale of Glamorgan Council, 2015, Erection of 100 no. 2, 3 and 4 bedroom houses and associated works at Land at
St. johns Well, St Athan, 2015/00355/RES

Urbanillustrate, 2015, Site off St John’s View, St Athan, Vale of Glamorgan, STAT-15-04-01, accessed 17/03/2015

Copyright

A.P.A.C. Ltd will retain full copyright  of any reports and specialist reports, under the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act of 1988 with all rights reserved. 

A.P.A.C. Ltd hereby gives permission for the monitoring authority to use any documentation directly relating to the
project as described in this Project Design.

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny Monmouthshire NP7 7RG.
Tel: 07734962919. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19

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     A.P.A.C. Ltd                  St John’s Well, St Athan St Athan-16/EX
            Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil.BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE. MCIFA. 

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DOCUMENT NO 333                                                                                                                          October 2016 

Site Loc ation Plan 1:1250


SITEOFFSTJOHNSVIEW, STATHAN.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
RAFSTATHAN

EXISTING RESIDENTIAL
DEVELOPMENT

urbanillustrate
residential designconsultants
10Tulip Walk,AfonVillage,
Newport, Gwent.NP109LF
EXISTING RESIDENTIAL t - 01633894181 e - peter.taylor@urbanillustrate.com

DEVELOPMENT Development SITEOFFSTJOHN'SVIEW


Location
STATHAN,VALEOFGLAMORGAN.
Client
BARRATTHOMES
Drawing Title
SITELOCATION PLAN

EXISTING RESIDENTIAL Scale @A3


Drg. No.
1:1250
DEVELOPMENT STAT-15-04-01 Date Started
17/03/15
DoNOTscale offthis drawing.Checkdimensions before use and notify Urban Illustrate Ltd.
of any discrepancies immediately.Contractors, subcontractorsand suppliers must
Oak House, Village Way, verify all dimensions supplied on thedrawingsand onsite beforecommencing works.
Checkthe contents of this drawing and any tabularinformation before ordering materials.
Tongwynlais, Cardiff. CF15 7NE ©Urban Illustrate Ltd.

5km

Figure 1:   Site Location

14
DOCUMENT NO 333                                                                                                                          October 2016 

Figure 2:  Pre­Excavation Plan with Structure 104 from Field 1 (Inset)

15