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Dynamic Vocabulary

and Sentence Building


Strategies to Kick
Writing Up a Notch!

by Carolyn Hood
CTA 2010
©2009 Learningg Headquarters
q
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Website www.learningheadquarters.com
Illustrations by Heidi Tucker and Nancy Fetzer
Accessing Language Experience

High-Level “By the age of three, the


average American child in a
Vocabulary welfare family may have 10
million fewer words of
cumulative language
experience than the average
child in a working class
family ”
family.

Todd R. Risley & Betty Hart


University of Alaska
From conference materials for the
National Conference on Family Literacy and the California
Family Literacy Conference
March 16-18, 2002
© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters

Building on Vocabulary
Cumulative Vocabulary
“…the most powerful way to
teach new terms and phrases
is to use an instructional
sequence that allows for
tiny
multiple exposures to students
small in multiple ways.”
huge
big
red -24
24 times practice to reach
80% competency-
hot cold
salty Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., and Pollock, J. E. (2001).
sweet Classroom Instruction that Works: Research Based Strategies
for Increasing Student Achievement. Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development: Alexandria, VA.
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Sorting and Classification

Colors Shapes Food


red
d square apple

yellow circle grapes

green triangle
ham
blue

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Transitions

“Cohesive and coherent


writing requires a constant
attention
tt ti to t the
th maintenance
i t
of the topic which is
organized in a careful
sequence of ideas and the
smooth transitions between
sentences.”
t ”

Mather, N. & Roberts, R. (1995).


Informal Assessment and Instruction in Written
Language. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters


Fourth Grade
Transitional Phrases
Scoring Guide

1 2 3 4
Below Approaching
pp g At Above
Standard Standard Standard Standard

Not using Uses less Uses a Uses a


sequential than three variety of variety of
transitions grade level synonyms, three or
or signpost more grade
simplistic phrases, level
transitions and transitions
sequential
t nsiti ns
transitions

© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters

Fourth Grade
Transitional Phrases Data
Pretest Postest Total
Growth
1-2 3-4 1-2 3-4
Teacher
T h 85% 15% 54% 46% 15%-
1
46%
Teacher 88% 12% 48% 52% 12%-
2
52%
Teacher 92% 8% 40% 60% 8%-
3
60%
Teacher 88% 12% 52% 48% 12%-
4
48%
Teacher 96% 4% 42% 58% 4%-
5
58%

Total 90% 10% 47% 53% 10%-


53%

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Standards-Based
Vocabulary

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Promoting Student Ownership


of Vocabulary

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Gathering Descriptive Understanding Relations
Language of Words & Their Meaning
• Highlights Exposure To and
Targets New Vocabulary
• Anchors
A h V Vocabulary
b l ffrom Wid
Wide
and Extensive Independent
Reading Experiences
• Applies Vocabulary and Concept
Development to Reading, Writing,
g, and Speaking
Listening, p g
• Increases Vocabulary Acquisition

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Generating
Sensory Details
Tip: Using the Organizers
• Add to Class Bank when
Reading, Writing, or Discussing
• Demonstrate How to Utilize
Vocabulary Words when
Writing Aloud
• Promote Students to Keep
Own Banks in Writing Folders
• Add Non-Linguistic
Representation and Mnemonics
to Help Build Understanding

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Now, You Try It!

The weather changes


f
from day
d to d day and
d
across the seasons.
Describe the weather
on a rainy day.
© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters
Vocabulary: There are
recommended processes for
teaching new terms and phrases:
1. Present the students with a brief
explanation or description of the new term
or phrase
p
2. Present the students with a nonlinguistic
representation of the new term or phrase
3. Ask the students to generate their own
explanations or descriptions of the new
term or phrase
4. Ask the students to create their own
nonlinguistic representation of the new
term or phrase
5. Periodically ask the students to review the
accuracy of their explanations and
representations
Adapted from: Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J.
(2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research
Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement..
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.
© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters

Vocabulary Map K Vocabulary Map

“More getting up
-to walk or -staying put I enjoyed
early, traipsing up
wander -laying traipsing in
traipsing and down the
river, and trying the woods behavior how y
you act
roam
-roam around
to avoid crazy when we went
men in their union -meander -running
camping.
suits.” p. 100

Use
rule peace a law we allow
feet!

Cushman, K. (1996). The Ballad of Lucy Whipple. New York: Harper Trophy.

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First Vocabulary Map Vocabulary Map
-2nd Grade Student Sample-

“In the winter,


What the air
the weather
weather is cold.”
and temperature
are like
(p 2)
(p.
“Thermometers Tool that
measure how hot measures heat
thermometer or cold it is.” and cold
(p. 6) (temperature)

Hammonds, H. (2002). Weather Watching. Barrington, Illinois; Rigby.

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Vocabulary Map
-4th Grade Student Sample-

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Now You Try It!
Now,

“...she would have


welcomed a
quarrel as a
quarrel pleasant break in
the monotony of
sitting here...”
p. 15

“Its eyes,
mere
pinheads of
glistening glistening
black, stared
fiercely y at
her...” p. 89

Gates, D. (1940). Blue Willow. New York: Puffin Books.

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Vocabulary Tip:
• Use kinesthetic movement to
increase vocabulary
 Student-generated
 Used during transitions
 Attention grabbers

Now,, Let’s Try


y It!
–Glistening-

© 2002-2003 Musically Aligned: In Tune with Teaching Standards.


P.O. Box 473, Descanso, CA 91916
Fax: (619) 659-5087 Email: info@musicallyaligned.com
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© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters


Fourth Grade Two vocabulary strategies
Vocabulary Assessment from
Language Arts Adoption Theme I will try in my classroom:
Pretest Postest Total
Growth

1-2
1 2 3-4
3 4 1-2
1 2 3-4
3 4 •
Teacher 100% 0% 27% 73% 0%-
1

Teacher 92% 8% 16% 84%


73%
8%-
How I plan to implement
2
84% them:
Teacher 96% 4% 48% 52% 4%-
3
52%
Teacher 91% 9% 18% 82% 9%-
4
82%
Teacher 86% 14% 14% 86% 14%-
5
86%

Total 93% 7% 25% 75% 7%-


75%
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Building Who/What Chart

Powerful
Sentences

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Using the Who/What Using the Who/What
Chart to Make a Simple Chart to Make a Powerful
Sentence Sentence

• “Who
“Wh or what
h t are
we going to write
about?”
 My dad
• “Do we want to use a little word
like is or do we want to choose
• “What
“Wh t about
b t your a big and powerful verb? What
dad?” happened to your dad or what
 My dad is nice. does your dad do?”
 My dad loves to fish.
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Using the Who/What Using the Who/What Chart


to Make 3 Powerful
Chart to add Extenders
Sentences
and Travelers

• “Where does your dad love to


fish?”
 Myy dad loves to fish at
the river.
My dad is nice. He
• “Why does he love to fish?” loves to fish at the
 He likes to bring home river. He likes to bring
fish for us to eat. home fish for us to eat.
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Now You Try It!
Now You Try
y It!

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Build Powerful Sentences
Using the
Powerful Sentences Chart
Powerful
and Sentence Blueprint Cards Sentences

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© 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Learning Headquarters


Powerful Sentences
Subject: Predicate:
Who? or What? What About?

Starters Adjectives Nouns Verbs Where? When? Why? How?


& Stickers

Powerful Sentences Chart ©2002 Learning Headquarters


-Travelers- -Triple Deckers-

panned for
The desperate 49ers gold
The hopeful

using
i a i
in d i th
during the
rocker California Gold Rush.
panned through investigated the and searched at
dreamers riverbeds, Mother Lode, their land claim
The desperate 49ers panned for gold
during the Gold Rush in California.
every
waking hour.

Using a
the desperate 49ers
rocker,, The hopeful
p dreamers panned
p through
g riverbeds,,
investigated the Mother Lode, and searched at
their land claim every waking hour.
panned for in during the
gold California Gold Rush.
Using a rocker, the desperate 49ers panned for
gold during the Gold Rush in California.

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-Double the Who’s- Two sentence strategies I


will try in my classroom:

James a gold hunted for

Marshall, seeker, nuggets

How I plan to implement


to
in the Sierra
Nevada mountains
in 1849
prosper. them:
James Marshall, a gold seeker, hunted for
gg
nuggets in the Sierra Nevada mountains in 1849
to prosper.

-with Travelers-
To prosper, James Marshall, a gold seeker,
hunted for nuggets in the Sierra Nevada
mountains in 1849.
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5 Senses

Five Senses Organizer ©2002 Learning Headquarters


Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Name:
Date: Word Sort

Word Sort Organizer ©2002 Learning Headquarters


The Vocabular
Vocabular
ocabularyy Wall
Wall
STARTERS & TRANSITIONS ADJECTIVES NOUNS VERBS EXTENDERS
Articles Pronouns 5 Senses Living Things Actions W e Where?
A =
See
An The Sara = She
Taste See/Look

Hear/Sound Touch / Feel


Smell

above across
I you
beside under by
a he she it
through beneath
an we they both
around between
the nobody no one
in over behind
everybody
against toward
someone
within beyond
Synonyms Sequence Feelings Places Actions W e When?

123
Don’t See
=
Angry Happy
Candy = Sweets
Calm Nervous

first next finally before after until


lastly as soon as during throughout
once previously often yesterday
meanwhile today tomorrow
later to begin earlier recently
in conclusion while frequently
in summary simultaneously
Cause and Compare and Amounts Things Ho
Howw We Say Why?
Effect Contrast Tall
Things
Fast Short

Slow

also however
therefore if...then so since
in addition
consequently because
likewise similarly
since although to for
yet even though
subsequently in order to
on the other hand
as a result due to
in comparison
for this reason on account of
in contrast
Fact/ Opinion/ More More More How?
Reference P oint of V ie
ieww Adjectives Nouns Ve r b s

for example poorly suddenly


I believe
as stated in fact beautifully slowly
I suggest
according to gently skillfully
I think I wonder
the author explains well sideways
I feel I predict
the text shows clockwise hard
I recommend
to illustrate sly as a fox
this reminds me of
for instance brave like a lion

Vocabulary Wall Template ©2003 Learning Headquarters


My Vocabulary Words
Name:
Date:

Topic

Adjectives Nouns Verbs

My Vocabulary Words Organizer ©2002 Learning Headquarters


Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
My Descriptive Words
Name:
Date:

5 Senses Feelings Amounts

My Descriptive Words Organizer ©2002 Learning Headquarters


Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Name:
Hear Date:

Taste

Synonyms:

Touch
See

Smell

Descriptive Web Brainstorm Organizer ©2002 Learning Headquarters


Name:
Date: Vocabulary Map
Word Picture Description

K Vocabulary Map ©2008 Learning Headquarters


Name:
Vocabulary Map Date:

Word Context Picture Description

Vocabulary Map ©2007 Learning Headquarters


Name:
Vocabulary Map Date:

What it is:
Word Context Clue What it isn’t: Quick Draw Connection
Definition or
Antonym
Synonym

Vocabulary Map ©2003 Learning Headquarters


Who? or What? What About?
Subject Predicate
Things Little Words Big Words

am is
are were
was will
Nouns Verbs Powerful, Powerful Verbs

Why? How? Where? When?

Who/What Chart © 2001 Fisher & Fetzer Educational Systems


Illustrations by Nancy Fetzer
Living Things

Nouns

Places

Nouns

Who/What Flaps © 2001 Fisher & Fetzer Educational Systems


Illustrations by Nancy Fetzer
Powerful Sentences
Subject: Predicate:
Who? or What? What About?

Starters Adjectives Nouns Verbs Where? When? Why? How?


& Stickers

Powerful Sentences Chart ©2002 Learning Headquarters


Starter/Transition

Sentence Blueprints Card: Starter/Transition ©2004 Learning Headquarters - Illustrated by Heidi Tucker & Nancy Fetzer
Adjective

Sentence Blueprints Card: Adjective ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Noun

Sentence Blueprints Card: Noun ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Noun

Sentence Blueprints Card: Noun ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Verb

Sentence Blueprints Card: Verb ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Verb

Sentence Blueprints Card: Verb ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Verb

Sentence Blueprints Card: Verb ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Why?

Sentence Blueprints Card: Why? ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
How?

Sentence Blueprints Card: How? ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
Where?

Sentence Blueprints Card: Where? ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer
When?

Sentence Blueprints Card: When? ©2001 Fisher and Fetzer Educational Systems - Created and Illustrated by Nancy Fetzer