You are on page 1of 9

Mitosis and Meiosis

Jan 2015/pp2/1(b)
(b) Mitosis and meiosis occur at different points in the life cycle of a
typical flowering plant. Describe TWO differences between the
outcomes of cell division by mitosis and cell division by meiosis. (4
marks)

 1st difference – In mitosis, the outcome of the cells is identical


while in meiosis, the cells are different from each other.
 2nd difference – In meiosis, there are four cells formed, each
with haploid number of chromosomes, while in mitosis, two
cells are formed, each with the same number of chromosomes.
Jan 2013/pp2/ 2(bii), (ci) & (cii)
(bii) Explain why plants produced from the seeds of the tomato plant
are NOT identical to the parent plant. (2 marks)
 The type of reproduction occurring here, is, sexual propagation.
Sexual propagation involves the production of an offspring that
may have a genetic variation from its parents.
 When meiosis occurs in tomato plants, the cells formed have a
haploid number of chromosomes, 23, from each parent plant,
when these combine, the cells in the offspring (the seed), is not
identical since the cells that formed it, are each different. This
is the reason they may not be identical to the parent plant.
(ci) Suggest TWO advantages that may be gained by propagating this
plant asexually, for example, by tissue culture. (2 marks)
 Large number of plants can be produced relatively quickly from
‘superior’ individuals. This can make them much cheaper.
 Helps to develop plants which do not develop naturally through
sexually reproduction easily. E.g. orchids.
(cii) Suggest TWO characteristics that a farmer may want to keep in
his crop of tomato plants. (2 marks)
 Variation between the tomatoes because if one type becomes
susceptible to a disease, not all the plants will die.
 Genetic engineering of tomato plants to make them resistant to
diseases.
Jan/pp2/ 3(bi), (bii), (biii) & (c)

(bi) Label the parts in Figure 3 where sex cell/gametes are found. (2
marks)
Male gametes

Anther

Female gamete

Ovary

(bii) Outline the process by which gametes are formed. (2 marks)


 The male gametes produced by the anther, enter the stigma,
and goes along the tube of the style, into the ovary, where the
female gametes are located, and fertilization occurs.
(biii) If a plant has a diploid chromosome number of 8, how many
chromosomes would be found in its gametes? (1 mark)
 Since the diploid chromosome number is the total number of
chromosomes in a plant, then the chromosomes found in the
gamete, will be its haploid number, that is 4 chromosomes.
 4 chromosomes will be found in its gametes.
(c) Suggest two ways in which the process of meiosis may be useful
to plants. (2marks)
 If the two parents are of ‘inferior’ quality, the offspring may be
of ‘superior’ quality.
 Causes variation to occur to keep the continuation of the
species, in the situation of a change in climate or disease.
Jan 2009/pp2/ 6(b), (c)
(b) Asexual reproduction is common in many flowering plants
(i) Explain TWO ways in which humans make use of the plants’ ability
to reproduce asexually. (3 marks)
 Tissue culture and grafting are two ways humans make use of
the plants’ ability to reproduce asexually.
 Tissue culture – made from very small pieces cut from the
parent plant. This depends on whether or not each plant cell
has the potential to form a whole plant.
 Grafting – A scion, which is to be propagated, is inserted into a
slit in the stem of another plant (the stock), and the joint is
bound up to seal. It then grows into a new plant since it already
has a root system.
(ii) Give TWO advantages to humans of asexual reproduction in
plants. (3 marks)
 Production is continuous and quickly so large amount of that
variety of plant is produced. This creates more income for
farmers.
 Less plants are required for reproduction and if a species is of
good quality this is passed down to its offspring, this ensures
that the crops have certain resistance to diseases, etc.; for a
commercial farmer.
(ci) Although many of the same plant species grow in different
Caribbean territories, a CARICOM citizen is not allowed to transport
living plant material between islands without permission.
Suggest two likely risks involved in transporting living plant material
from on territory to another.
 Since it is asexual reproduction, the plants will reproduce
quickly and continuously, the time taken to go from one island
to another may result in these plant material, forming a whole
plant system and reproducing vastly.
 Since this plant will be producing rapidly, there won’t be
enough space or resources to support these new plants
produced, resulting in competition between plants for survival.
(cii) Agricultural produce is imported from territory to another.
Suggest one way in which the risks in this activity can be reduced.
 If conditions for the plant to reproduce asexually are reduced
or eliminated, this may prevent rapid production of the of the
plant materials transported.
(3 marks)
June 2008/pp2/ 3(a)
3(a) Figure 6 is a diagram of dividing cell of an organism which has a
diploid chromosome number of 4.
(i) On the diagram in Figure 6. Write the name of the structures
labelled I and II. (2 marks)

I centromere

II Homologous
chromosomes

(ii) What type of cell division is illustrated in Figure 6? (1 mark)


Meiosis
(iii) Give TWO reasons for your response in (a) (ii) above. (2
marks)
 Chromosomes are moving towards opposite sides and bivalents
separate.
(iv) How many chromosomes would there be in the daughter
cells produced in cell division illustrated in Figure 6? (1 mark)
 2
(v) Give TWO advantages to an organism of this type of cell
division. (2 marks)
 If the parents are of poor quality, this organism may be of good
quality.
 The survival of this species is more guaranteed, if the
environment is not constant.
Jan 2008/pp2/ 4(a) & (b)
4. Figure 4 below shows two cells undergoing cell division

(a) (i) Name EACH type of cell division illustrated in Figure 4. (2


marks)
 Cell division I: Mitosis
 Cell division II: Meiosis
(ii) Identify TWO differences between the processes observed in the
illustrations in Figure 4. (2 marks)
 In cell division I, the offspring is identical to the parent; while in
cell division II, the offspring varies from the parent.
 In cell division I, the offspring is produced rapidly and
continuously, while in cell division II, the offspring isn’t
produced continuously and rapidly.
(iii) Name two specific locations in a plant where EACH type of cell
division illustrated in Figure 4 occurs. (2 marks)
 Cell division I: tissues of a plant such as roots and stems.
 Cell division II: ovary
(iv) Give TWO reasons why BOTH types of cell divisions are important
in the life cycle of a plant. (4 marks)
 Cell division I: For growth and repair of the plant, enabling it to
grow healthy to reproduce.
 Cell division II: Maintenance of chromosome number and DNA
for continuation of the species.
(b) After egg cells from a female rabbit had undergoes one
form of cell division their nuclei were replaced with nuclei from
somatic (body cells) of the rabbit. These cells produced
offspring that were identical to the female rabbit.
(i) What is the name given to this process? (1 mark)
 Cloning
(ii) Suggest ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of this
process.
 Advantage: Superior traits can be passed on to the
offspring without the risk of losing them through
genetic exchange during meiosis.
 Disadvantage: An ‘old’ nucleus may cause problems in
the cloned individual.
June 2007/pp2/ 2(a)
2. (a) (i) With the aid of a diagram, describe how the process of
meiosis occurs.
 I really not feeling to draw this out so just learn the
stages miss gave us in our notebook on meiosis with
the diagrams for each stage.
(ii)Give two important differences between meiosis and mitosis.
 The offspring is identical to the parent in mitosis and in
mitosis the offspring varies from its parents.
 Meiosis has two phases while mitosis has one phase
causing it to occur faster than the meiosis process.
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellula
r-molecular-biology/meiosis/v/comparing-mitosis-and-
meiosis
(8 marks)
Jan 2006/pp2/ 2(a), (b) & (c)
2(a) (i) Describe mitosis and explain why this process is important to
living organisms. (6 marks)
 Learn process in textbook on page 224.
 It is important for growth and repair.
(ii)Identify TWO parts of a plant where mitosis takes place. (2 marks)
 Roots and stem
(b)Explain to a farmer TWO advantages of having a field of cloned
sugarcane.
 The superior quality is passed down to offspring and none is
lost in the process of meiosis.
 More superior offspring can be produced rather than just
carried by the genetic parent.
(ci) In the process of cloning in an animal, the nucleus from the egg is
replaced by a nucleus from a body or somatic cell of the same
organism. What is the significance of this process? (4 marks)
 To produce identical offspring of the same quality.
 To prevent loss of superior quality through meiosis and to
produce many offspring of the same quality rather than one
parent produce an offspring.
(ii)One of the goals of modern medicine is to replace the
malfunctioning organ of a patient with an organ cloned from the
patient’s own tissues. Suggest TWO reasons why this might be better
than using donor organs. (4 marks)
 More compatible with the person, so the transfer will have a
higher probability of being successful due to identical cells.
 Prevention of malfunctions since it has the same DNA and
make up of cells to form the tissues of the organ.