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SADRŽAJ

1. UVOD ................................................................................................................................ 1

2. SENZORI ........................................................................................................................... 1

2.1. Klasifikacija senzora.................................................................................................... 2

2.2. Fizikalni principi rada senzora .................................................................................... 5

2.3. Vrste senzora ............................................................................................................... 6

2.3.1. Magnetnoelektrični senzori .................................................................................. 6

2.3.1.1. Elektrodinamički senzori .................................................................................. 6

2.3.1.2. Elektromagnetni senzori ................................................................................... 6

2.3.2. Piezoelektrični senzori ......................................................................................... 7

2.3.3. Fotoelektrični senzori ........................................................................................... 8

2.3.3.1. Fotoelementi ..................................................................................................... 8

2.3.4. Termoelektrični senzori........................................................................................ 9

2.3.5. Induktivni senzori ............................................................................................... 10

2.3.6. Kapacitivni senzori ............................................................................................. 11

2.3.6.1. Senzori sa promjenljivim rastojanjem kondenzatorskih ploča ....................... 11

2.3.6.2. Kapacitivni senzor sa ugaonim preklapanjem ................................................ 12

2.3.6.3. Kapacitivni senzori sa promjenom dielektrika ............................................... 12

2.3.7. Otpornički senzori .............................................................................................. 13

2.3.7.1. Mjerne trake .................................................................................................... 13

2.3.7.2. Ostali otpornički senzori za mjerenje mehaničkih i procesnih veličina ......... 14

2.4. Prijenos i registracija mjerenih veličina .................................................................... 16

2.4.1. Prijenos mjernih veličina .................................................................................... 16

2.4.2. Registracija mjerenih veličina ............................................................................ 16

3. MJERENJE SILE ............................................................................................................. 17

3.1. Metodi i principi određivanja sile .............................................................................. 18


3.1.1. Akcelometarski senzori sile. ............................................................................. 20

3.1.2. Mehanički dinamometri ..................................................................................... 20

3.1.2.1. Elastični mjerni pretvarači .............................................................................. 21

3.1.3. Električni dinamometri ....................................................................................... 22

3.1.3.1. Elektrootporni tenzometarski dinamometar ................................................... 22

3.1.3.2. Elektromagnetni dinamometri ........................................................................ 22

3.1.4. Kapacitivni dinamometri .................................................................................... 22

3.1.5. Hidraulički i pneumatski dinamometri ............................................................... 23

3.2. Kalibriranje dinamometara ........................................................................................ 23

3.2.1. Kalibriranje mehaničkih dinamometara ............................................................. 23

3.2.2. Kalibriranje električnih dinamometara ............................................................... 24

4. MJERENJE OBRTNOG MOMENTA ............................................................................ 25

4.1. Mjerenje obrtnog momenta pomoću mjernih traka ................................................... 25

4.2. Mjerenje obrtnog momenta pomoću induktivnog senzora ........................................ 26

4.3. Mjerenje obrtnog momenta mehaničkim torziometrom sa stroboskopskim


indikatorom .......................................................................................................................... 27

4.4. Mjerenje obrtnog momenta mehaničkim dinamometrima ........................................ 28

5. MJERENJE TEMPERATURE ........................................................................................ 29

5.1. Uslovi za mjerenje temperature ................................................................................. 30

5.2. Temperatura i temperaturne skale ............................................................................. 31

5.3. Uređaji za mjerenje temperature ................................................................................ 33

5.3.1. Stakleni termometri ............................................................................................ 34

5.3.2. Opružni termometar s cijevnom oprugom ......................................................... 34

5.3.3. Plinski termometri .............................................................................................. 35

5.3.4. Mehanički dodirni termometri ........................................................................... 36

5.3.4.1. Metalni termometri izduženja ......................................................................... 36

5.3.4.2. Bimetalni termometri ...................................................................................... 36


5.3.5. Električni dodirni termometri ............................................................................. 37

5.3.5.1. Otporni termometri ......................................................................................... 37

5.3.6. Termometri zračenja .......................................................................................... 38

5.3.6.1. Pirometri ukupnog zračenja ............................................................................ 39

5.3.6.2. Pirometri djelimičnog zračenja i spektralni pirometri .................................... 39

5.3.6.3. Fotoelektrični pirometar ................................................................................. 39

5.3.6.4. Pirometri boje ili pirometri odnosa ................................................................. 40

5.4. Specijalne metode mjerenja temperature ................................................................... 40

5.4.1. Segerovi stošci.................................................................................................... 40

5.4.2. Metalna tijela za topljenje .................................................................................. 40

5.5. Kontrola i kalibriranje termometara .......................................................................... 41

6. ZAKLJUČAK .................................................................................................................. 41

LITERATURA ......................................................................................................................... 42