You are on page 1of 11

Nathan Menk

November 13, 2017

G/T Independent Research

Annotated Source List

Abo-Zena, Mona M. "Faith from the Fringes: Religious Minorities in School." Phi Delta
Kappan, vol. 93, no. 4, 01 Dec. 2011, pp. 15-19. EBSCOhost,

The article ​Faith from the fringes: Religious minorities in schools​ by Mona M. Abo-Zena
gives direct examples of minority religions struggles and what teachers and students can do to
assist in helping them fit into create a comfortable school environment. It is hard to be a religious
minority because it is likely others don’t understand their practices in a school setting. A main
point of conflict are holidays because in the public school system some major holidays of
minority religions are not recognized as opposed to Christian holidays such as Christmas, Easter,
and Good Friday. This makes the public school system seem bias to Christians. Some minority
religions don’t celebrate these mainstream holidays and students feel left out when they are
asked “Do you have a Christmas tree?” or don’t dress up for Halloween, which can cause
bullying or isolation from peers. These actions may cause students to leave school on holidays
their religion practices or the religious holidays of others to avoid conflict, however religious
affiliation and practice correlates with academic achievement. In order to increase awareness and
familiarize the classroom with minority religions, teachers can: use diverse materials, consider
informative extracurricular activities, add minority religions to a class calendar, and promote
student expression. However, some students would rather just be left alone and not be singled
out unless necessary.
This source was very useful and filled in many gaps in the path of this classes research. It
is credible, as it comes from a database and references many reputable sources. This information
provides not only the issues in the school system but ways to help lessen or even prevent them.

Brown, Simon. "The Supreme Court Struck Down Coercive Forms of Public School Prayer 54
Years Ago, but some Coaches Are Playing by Their Own Rules." Church & State, vol.
69, no. 10, Nov. 2016, p. 6. EBSCOhost,

In the article, it seemed to be a common theme that coaches prayed with their football
teams at public high schools before and after games as a regular pre or post game ritual. That is,
until a parent stepped in and asked the coach to stop because it infringes on their sons right to not
have to listen to religion. This debate went on for months and the coach was suspended for
disorderly conduct. The debate was that while the coach praying is his First Amendment right,
students who are secular are excluded from the group while praying infringing on their rights.
Another issue would be where the coach forced students to go to church and pressured them into
Bible study. A young adult claims to have lost her scholarship because she did not attend church
service. Therefore, if coaches endorse their religion in schools it is an unconstitutional act in
most situations.
This source was a news report so it contains a degree of bias, but it was found on a
database so it is quality material. This source is relevant because it gives prime examples and
general knowledge of religion in schools. This leads one to believe that there are other
suppressions of religion in public schools with prime evidence and court cases as examples.

Butler, Jon. "FORUM: American Religion and the Great Depression." Church History, vol. 80,
no. 3, Sept. 2011, p. 575. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1017/S0009640711000631.

This article states the reasons why religion supposedly bloomed in the Great Depression.
A main reason that religion bloomed during the great depression would be because religion tends
to grow in the face of adversity and hardship. When the going gets rough then people turn
towards their God for help and pray for change in the situation. Then, a major shift away from
churches occurred when FDR's New Deal Program came out, a clear sign of adversity
diminishing. When looking at religion logically it should have diminished in the face of
adversity because some blamed God for the occurrences or churches were barely able to stay
open based on limited resources. Where religion should have failed it grew and adapted to the
This source was reliable but the amount of information is small. The article could have
been a little longer but has very reliable credentials and will be very helpful in developing the
topic. There was little bias and this source could lead the topic down the effect of religion on
history road.

Campbell, D. E., & Putnam, R. D. (2012). God and Caesar in America. Foreign Affairs, 91(2),

In the article the correlation between religion and politics was discussed and supported.
In the past, a major difference between Republicans and Democrats was church attendance.
While Democrats, other than African Americans, were more secular, Republicans were more
religious. This gap was prominent throughout the 1990s. However, in the 1960s the percent of
people who approved of premarital sex doubled mostly due to baby boomers. Another place
where there was a majority of moral conservatives banded together to fight gay rights and
abortion. In the last few decades many turn away from religion, also known as the none
population. A majority of these are millennials tied religion to the certain words: Republican,
homophobic, and intolerant. This led to a general dislike of religion and a major drop in church
This was a very informative source that gave much support to the claims they made. It is
a source that’s a part of the EBSCOhost database and seems to have minimal bias. This will help
the course of research in the future as a reference to other sources to determine bias.
“Creating a Safe Classroom Environment.” Creating a Safe Classroom Environment | Education

This source has an enormous amount of information designed for teachers about creating
a safe classroom environment, from physical to mental safety. Some strategies that are suggested
throughout the website would be to allow quiet conversation, encourage classroom discussion,
and not pressure students. A safe classroom environment has no drawbacks and will allow for
religious discussions to ensue.
This source seems reliable as there is lots of valuable information and seems to have a
professional templates and lesson plans for teachers. However there are no sources, making it
doubtful that it is the most scholarly source that is apart of this annotated bibliography.

Dardin, Edwin C. “Religion and Public Schools.” Center for Public Education, 5 Apr.

The Center of Public Education’s website contains specific examples and guidelines
for what both teachers and students are legally allowed to do pertaining to religion. Public
schools, unlike private schools, are bound to the constitution. As a result, many court cases have
reached the Supreme Court defining the line between endorsing and teaching religion in schools.
For example, it is not constitutional for a prayer over the loudspeaker at football games. Teachers
are kind of stuck in the middle of two parties who both aggressively argue and peruse the topic
of religion in public schools: Religion and Government. Religious organizations will sue and
petition schools who suppress the rights of students while the government will not
support teachers who endorse or even seem to endorse religion. Some things specifically allowed
would be silent prayer, students wearing religious symbols, and religious clubs such as the
Fellowship of Christian Athletes. However there is major controversy around outward religious
symbols provided by the school system and religion incorporated into school funded/sponsored
This source is extremely reliable and It will be used as a cross reference to many specific
examples that tend to be found throughout other sources frequently. The information provided
are literally the guidelines for public schools and are relevant because they are constantly being
updated due to the ever shifting court cases. There was little bias and references to all sources
used. This source is relevant to the topic and fills in many gaps of knowledge other sources could
not give.

DiIulio Jr., J. J. (2002). The three faith factors. Public Interest, (149), 50.
In the article The Three Faith Factors by John J DiIulio discusses 3 main types of
religions: Organic, Programmatic, and Ecological religion. Organic religion is where the
individual attends church constantly and actively participates within their place of worship. In a
study in the article is says that when comparing people with and without church attendance that
the churchgoers have less depression and substance abuse. Also, organic religion is a good model
for youth growing up in a confusing world and an escape and relief from their worldly mistakes.
Programmatic religion has well-known examples that even many of the secular population know
about such as the Salvation Army, which has a profound outreach especially to those who aren’t
religious. Some other organizations include Adult Rehabilitation Centers and Prison Fellowship
Ministries. Ecological Religion is basically if a person lives around a church, they are probably
affected by it. Those in poverty who are on a waiting list have little to no options except for local
soup kitchens, government help, or churches. There are long waiting lines for homeless shelters
and churches are the only available option to those who have a church in their community.
This source is extremely viable because it uses statistics from many sources, is a very
reputable author, on a database, and writes an unbiased opinion on the topic of how faith affects
the population. This source gives solid information that is usually hard to find on the internet. A
question this article raises would be: What does the local church do when it comes to outreach
programs? This could be answered with an interview of a local pastor who would be sure to
willingly oblige.

“Diversity, Race & Religion.”,

This source gives quality information on many types of bullying, such as cyber, religious,
and regular bullying. Religious bullying is bullying of another due to their religious beliefs.
Students are more likely to be bullied when they outwardly express their religion in ways such as
wearing a hijab, cross, or yamaka. Religious bullying can be reduced by reporting bullying and
treating others the way they want to be treated
The information provided in this source is reliable, as it comes from a non-profit website.
This information will be useful because religious bullying is a major point in the synthesis paper.

Dupper, David R., et al. "Experiences of Religious Minorities in Public School Settings:
Findings from Focus Groups Involving Muslim, Jewish, Catholic, and Unitarian
Universalist Youths." Children & Schools, vol. 37, no. 1, Jan. 2015, p. 37. EBSCOhost,

The article ​Experiences of Religious Minorities in Public School Settings: Findings from
Focus Groups Involving Muslim, Jewish, Catholic, and Unitarian Universalist Youths​ by David
R. Dupper, Shandra Forrest-Bank, and Autumn Lowry-Carusillo shares and discusses the
experience students with minority religions have in public schools. In American public schools
there is a dominance of heterosexual, white, male, Christians. In some cases, differences from
this status quo have caused religious bullying, were minority religion students are systematically
targeted. An entire study was conducted on muslim students a part of the public school system
and their interactions are shocking. These students faced much adversity from not only students
but teachers and the curriculum as well. Muslim students who didn't participate in Christian
celebrations were often moved to a quiet room to do homework while other students were
celebrating. When attending Christian clubs Islam was talked about in a derogatory manner
causing a feeling of being unwelcome in a hijab. Teachers wouldn't allow a change in exam dates
for Muslims because “the school system doesn't support religion”. But there were some instances
in which teachers and friends of the students have stopped the bullying and administrators punish
the perpetrators accordingly. Increased awareness of minority religions and support from the
school system will clear up many problems when it comes to religious bullying.
This article was slightly bias due to the fact only muslims were interviewed on their
experiences but as a whole gave valuable insight to guide one's research. The source was from a
database and used many sources to verify all claims made in the article.

Eastman, H. (1974). Should The Federal Constitution Be Amended To Authorize Prayer In

Public Schools? CON. Congressional Digest, 53(1), 11.

In the article, ​Should the Federal Constitution be Amended to Authorize Prayer in Public
Schools?​, the author discusses the pros and cons of an amendment to the constitution. Some pros
and supporting arguments of creating the amendment would be that the First Amendment’s
establishment clause states that Congress cannot make a law prohibiting the establishment of
religion, or prohibiting pubic exercise of religion. The author also asserts that a state required
prayer would boost morale and reduce delinquent crime. However, the derogatory side retorts by
stating that the change is a restraint to the Constitution’s establishment clause that allows
freedom of religion and speech could be more detrimental to the pro sides cause than a benefit.
Furthermore, religious leaders are against this change for two reasons: changing the First
Amendment could impact separation of church and state as well as forcing students to pray
would be useless and detrimental to their religion because one must make a voluntary effort to
truly use prayer as it should be uses. The court never prohibited a few main rights of religious
students and teachers such as silent prayer and the teaching about religion, regardless of a change
to the Constitution.
This source poses an interesting argument for both sides but gives one a vital pieces of
information that would be good to reference in one’s research. The source provided slightly
stronger evidence to con side of the argument, but the degree of bias was minor. This source is
relevant to the topic because it provides a good idea of arguments could be seen in other sources.

ENR/PAZ // University Communications: Web // University of Notre Dame. “Notre Dame

Magazine.” How Religion Impacts the U.S. // News // Notre Dame Magazine //
University of Notre Dame,

This article gives examples of some positive and negative impacts of religion on the
United States. The article provides the statistic half of marriages contain different religious
beliefs and one third of Americans changed religion. An option to relieve tensions between
religions would be exposure. For example, a Christian will likely be more open to Islamic
culture, and all other religions cultures overall, when they understand it. There was major
controversy over religion after the Twin Towers that led to the questioning of a mosque nearby.
There are two major impacts on religious voters: gay rights and abortion. While gay rights have
risen, abortion rates have plummeted. All in all, religion can be a positive or negative influence.
This article was informative but not the most reliable. It was written by a professor at
Notre Dame, a very religious organization. This makes one think bias could be incorporated into
the book used as a reference in the text. This is relevant because it gives ample impacts that are
negative and positive of religion. This knowledge can be used to guide the research into terrorist
attacks such as 9/11 that are caused by religion.

Goral, T. (2017). TEACHING, not PREACHING: Studying world religions can foster tolerance,
but public schools must also respect students' rights. District Administration, 53(11), 39.

In the article ​Teaching, Not Preaching​ it describes the delicate balance between teaching
about religion and teaching religion. While teaching about religion is an informative way to
spread knowledge of a belief, preaching is prohibited by law due to the fact it infringes on the
rights of the students beliefs. This is especially a problem when religion is taught in a way that
the students feel is meant to either convert or proselytize students. While it is constitutional and
lawful for religion to be taught in schools, it is unlawful for a teacher or public school
organization to force the generally accepted religion onto students in general. When this happens
as a result students who choose not to partake in the lessons feel excluded (because they are) and
are susceptible to bullying of students who took the lesson, also known as religiously motivated
harassment. When a school system is lawfully teaching about a religion then they should teach
about many religions, including some minority religions. Focusing on only one religion, such as
a catholic school, can develop stereotypes about other cultures and religions. Teaching about a
variety of religions reduces social stigmas towards other regions.
This source was reliable and gives the exact information needed on the topic of teaching
religion in schools. This source is up to date, is written by a reliable author, and contains a
degree of bias but makes a clear line between her opinions and the data she collected. It will
guide the topic into the direction of how diverse education leads to a reduce in tension. This
source is relevant because it gives solid data that will clearly help the course of the topic.

Horvat II, John. “The Impact That Religion Has on Education That Teachers Are
Ignoring.”TheBlaze, TheBlaze, 17 Apr. 2015,

The article states that religion being part of school systems would be beneficial. He
claims that assertions about religions negatively affecting the school system are false and that
religion includes many benefits that are widely ignored. For example, evidence shows that those
who have a religious foundation tend to succeed more in educational facilities overall than those
who do not practice faith. The author implies religion seems to only have positive impacts and
seems to wonder why it is so widely discouraged by schools.
This source contains some good information for the topic because school is major part of
society for children all across the world. The article itself does not give much strong evidence
from the book it references, except that it states those who have religion truly have a higher
success rate in schools. There is potential bias, making this source even less credible. This source
was helpful because it directed the reader to a book that could have valuable information on the

“Joint Statement of Current Law on Religion in the Public Schools.” American Civil Liberties
Union, 2018,

The article J​oint Statement Of Current Law On Religion In The Public Schools​ defines
particular actions and rights granted by the Constitution and state laws regarding religious
practice in public schools. Some of the knowledge presented in the document is common and
isn't surprising while some is quite surprising considering the attitudes of public school
administration towards religion in general. The Constitution permits private religion that is not
endorsed by the public school, meaning public schools aren't legally anti-religious. Some of
these private rights include: student prayer, protection from religious persecution, religious
holidays, and student garb. Public practices of student religion would include: official
participation or encouragement of religious activities, teaching about religion in the classroom,
equal access act,teaching religious values, and distribution of religious text as literature. These
rights enable students to a have some practice of undisruptive religion while feeling comfortable
in a religious environment.
This source is not from a database but is a “.org” website making is somewhat reliable. It
is convenient to have read a source that outlines exactly what is and is not allowed on the very
touchy subject of religion. This will be a valuable reference when asked “Can I… in the public
school system?” there will be a definite answer available through this source.

Lampman, Jane. "To Be Alone with One's God." ​Christian Science Monitor​, vol. 92, no. 16, 16
Dec. 1999, p. 11. EBSCOhost,

A Thousand Years of Religion​, written by Jane Lampman, is written to assert effects of

religion for the last millennium. Religion possesses a wide range of effects from respect of other
religions to wars over religious belief. Throughout history there are numerous prime examples of
leaders who have a religion and because of it respect the religions of others. However many who
value their religion fought for their right, leading to laws such as separation of church and state
and the Act of Toleration. While the world may change daily, the inalienable rights to man such
as the right of freedom of speech and religion will not change in America. A major problem,
especially recently, would be cases where extremism is the cause for the killing or mutilating or
other individuals. While it is a right to practice a religion, the right ends where the religious
practice infringes on others rights.
This source cites many examples of where religion has affected throughout history. The
examples of this text could certainly be further researched and prove to be strong points in the
future. The article could have some bias due to a Christian writer, but the majority of the
information was not about Christianity and more about how religion as a whole affects history.

Levinson, Meira L. “‘Getting Religion’: Religion, Diversity, and Community in Public and
Private Schools.” Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard, 1 Jan. 1970,

Throughout the article there is much knowledge about religious minorities within both
public and private school systems. It states that religious minorities must be protected because
religious bullying is on the rise. Also, it states that diversity is important and is necessary for a
productive school reflective of college and career readiness.
This source is very reliable and is a report on primary research conducted in schools. The
information of this source will guide the research path to inclusion of religious minorities and
will be referenced in the synthesis paper

Marks, Melissa J., et al. "Preservice Teachers and Religion: Serious Gaps in Religious
Knowledge and the First Amendment." Social Studies, vol. 105, no. 5, 01 Jan. 2014, pp.
245-256. EBSCOhost,

In the article ​Preservice Teachers and Religion: Serious Gaps in Religious Knowledge
and the First Amendment​ a survey is given to 3 different schools Preservice Teachers (PSTs) and
the results are compared. Religion is a very important aspect to look at when analyzing history
because it has had major impacts on societies laws and culture. Many conflicts have arisen
because of religion that would be hard to explain without looking through a religious man or
woman's eyes. Ignorance of religion or religious diversity in the classroom can be detrimental to
their work environment. Therefore, it is important to see the knowledge of PSTs and how their
knowledge (or lack of) can influence the classroom. The survey had approximately 30 questions
and all data was posted in the document for the reader to see. It was obvious the school teachers
had much more knowledge of Christianity than Hinduism, Islam, or Judaism. Even the
fundamentals of minority religions were hard to identify in a multiple choice question. While
every participant knew that open prayer at the beginning of class is forbidden in public schools,
the PSTs knew little of what the First Amendment had to do with it.
This source had all sources for background information posted and had percentages of
each answer given as well as all questions on the survey. The survey was small and the data
came from 3 different schools yielding similar data leaving one to consider the information valid.
Statistics are always good to add to resources because the reader can draw separate conclusions
from the data than the writer of an article. This article may lead the research path to teachers
knowledge of religion in public schools as opposed to how religions affect on public school.

“Published by the Church of Scientology International.” Religious Influence In Society |

Freedom Magazine,
In the article, Religion's Influence in Society by Likon Hubbard religions various
influences are analyzed, such as the role of religion in society. When taking the reason one has to
live for it takes away their motivation and peace of mind as well. While reinforcing spiritual
being will allow the affected individual to live life to the fullest. There is a strong correlation
between crime rates and religious practice: as religious practice decreases the crimes rates go up
significantly. Participating in worship can help with criminal activity because it gives man a
conscience. Overall there are only positive effects of religion and you should become a volunteer
minister today.
This article had major bias because it was essentially trying to recruit people to volunteer
to be a pastor. The information is proven valid through numerous other sources but if it were
down to this source the information was purely to promote an agenda.

Reihl, Nicole. “Teens Who Attend Religious Services Do Better in School, Study Shows.”Teens
Who Attend Religious Services Do Better in School, Study Shows, 18 Aug. 2008,

In the article ​Teens who attend religious service do better in schools​, there is a strong
correlation between students who attend religious services and their GPAs in comparison to
secular students. This correlation was similar to students who had parents with a four-year
college versus a high school education. Both religious and four-year college parents had a grade
point average of over an entire point more. The reasoning behind weekly religious church going
having a major impact on GPA was not due to religion itself but the environment that students
are immersed in during and after church. If a secular parent were to put their children in a similar
and secular environment of correlating social structure, the author implies, the effect would be
the same. Another reason why attendance in church has an impact on education would be making
friends with similar grade level peers. If students have friends who are learning the same
curriculum then they can aid each other in studies of subjects they have or are currently learning.
Also, religious students are more likely to participate in extracurricular activities that have a
similar effect in the fact that it encourages friendship with peers. Some information gathered
from statistics insinuate that religious students have a lower dropout rate and are more satisfied
with the school. Secular students have a dropout rate higher than religious by about 60%. All in
all, a religious environment can be very beneficial for students in many ways.
This source seems reliable because it is an “.org” website with valid source and contact
information. It seemed to have little bias and took both secular and religious perspectives into
account as well as statistics supporting their claims. This source was a good source to start with
down the research path of religious effect on education systems, but raises an important question:
are there many non-secular environments with social structure of churches?

Tarico / AlterNet, Valerie. “6 Ways Religion Does More Bad Than Good.” AlterNet, AlterNet,
14 Nov. 2004,

In the article there are various reasons why different religions are very bad for society.
These reasons consist of terrorism, political discrimination, and psychological harm due to the
constant practice or support of a religion. A statistic in the article shows that less religious
societies tend to be more peaceful. Religion promotes tribalism, where people are loyal to their
own and discriminate against others groups. When Christians meet other Christians, or anyone
with a religion for that matter, they are more likely to harbor good intentions instead of someone
who is not religious. Some believe that religion is outdated and science will justify for what is
happening around us instead of God. Religion makes a virtue of faith, which the article says can
be dangerous. Faith involves lack of action, the practice of self-deception, the shutting out clear
evidence, and trusting in others. Religions seek power. They do this by taking money on behalf
of world crisis.
This source was extremely reliable and has all source information. It is relevant to the
topic because it depicts the bad impacts on society while using other sources to report. Readers
are able to look into where this author got their information to lead to other negative, yet viable,


Religion on Society - Other Arguments for Atheism - Arguments for Atheism,

This source gives examples of the many failures of religion throughout history. When
there is a majority of poor people due to a higher class, then the higher class instills religion in
order to make the lower levels of society feel as though there is something after death. Religion
is a major critic of scientific progress. A prime example of this would be the church attempting
to stifle Galileo’s scientific discoveries. Religion is sometimes created by dictators in order to
put themselves into power, such as making themselves Gods. The article implies religion is
entirely a device to control the lower class and hinder scientific success.
This source is not very reliable but is a good source to gain general knowledge on the
topic of religious oppression through history. It gives a few vital examples that are relevant to the
topic such as hindrance in the development of science, freedom to express one's sexuality, and
abuse of power. This source gives good reasoning and historical evidence of ways that religion
has been used to suppress the masses and will be a good cross reference source with others that
have been found in developing the topic. There is clear bias and therefore a lack of credibility of
information given.

“The Negative Effects of Religion on Society.” The Unbounded Spirit, 11 Sept. 2017,

In the article there are various reasons why religion has derogatory impacts of society and
individuals. Religion creates fear of making decisions the wrong way and fear of going to hell. If
someone is scared to make decisions, it is hard to be open minded and learn about a variety of
topics that could be seen as sacrilegious. When one feels that God is against them they harbor
self-resentment. Also, religions set the standard for perfection, while they also claim that all fall
short of the glory of God. These contradictions are hard to understand and are detrimental to
mental health. Finally, ignorance of the truth leads to lack of exploration, a major hindrance to
This article provided little relevant information and a bias point of view for many
reasons: There was no author, No source list, it is a .com website, and gave no citations of other
articles. The article still contains the viewpoint of a secular person who believes religion is
detrimental to one's life.

Wells, C. Retrieved October 12, 17, from

Religion asserted a profound impact on America's Civil War stretching from a reason for
the South’s rebellion of the North to the reason that women and African Americans have the
opportunity to be equal today. Before the Civil war started there was a dispute over slavery as
Abraham Lincoln became president. When Abraham Lincoln was anti-slavery the southern states
rebelled because their way of life was built around slave labor and trade. In the bible there are
references to slavery, so southerners saw themselves as defending their religion against the
oppressive north. Religion affected the front lines because through hardships soldiers used their
faith in God to combat depression. Also, religion gave them a reason to live or die and live
happily in their religious afterlife, heaven. While the men were at war the wives and African
Americans filled in for rolls of the white males who went off to war, giving them an opportunity
to show they could work just as hard as a man/white. The Bible talks of equality which spurs
women’s and African Americans rights movements. All in all, religion had a profound impact on
American History and WWI.
This source isn’t reputable because it is written by a student, but the sources are primary
and will be very helpful for narrowing the topic. There is a degree of bias because the author
references things that are not in the sources.