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DOCUMENT NO 249 October 2014

A.P.A.C. Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATCHING BRIEF

REPORT

WB/MA/14

Land to the rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

Rhonda Cynon Taff County Borough Council

Planning Application No: 13/1024/10

Prepared for:
Mr K Thomas

By: Dr N Phillips.
A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Summary

This document comprises the report of an archaeological watching brief


undertaken during ground work at a site identified as having potential
archaeological resources that may be impacted by any development.

The development of concern is the construction of a Dormer bungalow and


Granny annex on land historically associated 18th & 19th century industrial
transportation.

A planning application was submitted to Rhondda Cynon Taff County Borough


Council (RTCBC) and as part of the planning process, Glamorgan Gwent
Archaeological Trust (GGAT) advised the planning department that the proposed
work at the site could likely impact on archaeological resources.

(RTCBC), in accordance with the guidance from GGAT imposed a condition


requiring a program of archaeological work in accordance with a design brief.

This document details an archaeological programme of work, specifically a


watching brief to be undertaken during any ground disturbing works.

The work had revealed a buried and intact section of the culvert originally running
from Lock 24 of the Glamorganshire Canal to a return just before the Star
Aqueduct over the River Taff.

Copyright Notice:
A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains
otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: DSC06939

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Contents

Summary .........................................................................................................................................1
Contents...........................................................................................................................................2
Figures:............................................................................................................................................2
Plates: ..............................................................................................................................................3
Appendices ......................................................................................................................................4
Introduction .....................................................................................................................................5
Site Location and Description .........................................................................................................5
Geology and Topography................................................................................................................5
Brief archaeological and historical background..............................................................................5
Aims and Objectives .......................................................................................................................7
Watching Brief ................................................................................................................................7
Watching Brief Results ...................................................................................................................8
Interpretation .................................................................................................................................11
Staff ...............................................................................................................................................12
Archive:.........................................................................................................................................12
Acknowledgements: ......................................................................................................................12
Bibliography and References: .......................................................................................................13

Figures:

Fig01 Site location map.

Fig02 1830 survey

Fig03 Map progression

Fig04 Trench plan

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Plates:

PL01 General view of site. Raised concrete floor [100]of building being removed.

PL02 View towards the railway bridge. Raised concrete floor with partial remains of base wall [101].

PL03 South end of raised building. Low breeze block wall and remains of concrete wall cover with impression
for corrugated wall cladding.

PL04 Trench 1, initial dig. Rubble fill [102] including a buried telegraph pole.

PL05 Trench 1 from 1a, overview. Slope of [104]. [102].

PL06 Partial clearance of culvert at point when GGAT were informed. [112] supporting [101].

PL07 Floor appears to be flat with blockage only at exposed entrance. Side walls [103], lintels [112].

PL08 Culvert with detail of the roof cover. Edge on railway lengths [112] with Pennant sandstone flags [113].

PL09 Curve of floor shown by ranging rod. Lintel upright rail [112], inner ceiling edge of rail up. Masonry
wall [101] above lintel [112] resting on side walls [103]. Silt [115].

PL10 Culvert with flash glancing of damp curved end wall lit by strong torch. [112] supporting [113].

PL11 Removal of part of the Culvert roof [101] [108] [113] [112], trench 1a. Trench 4 to left of the digger.

PL12 Removal of part of the Culvert roof, trench 1a. Wall [101] cut through revealing concrete floor
foundation of angular rubble in light brown sandy soil [108]. Sequence [101] [108] [113] [112].

PL13 Culvert trench 1a below. Detail of foundation [108] inside wall [101]. [101] is above the remaining roof
support [112] and [113].

PL14 North wall of culvert being demolished [102] [103] [106] [108] [112] [113].

PL15 Section of rail from roof of culvert 130mm x 70mm.

PL16 Surviving culvert, trench 1a to be left in situ. The channel to be cleared, lined with Terram with the
entrance blocked and the remains poured with concrete. [103] [108] [112] .

PL17 Overview of trenches


PL18 View along trench 2 to ‘T’ with trench 3 showing sequence [102], [103], [105], [106].

PL19 Full length of trench 3 showing an east/west taper to the landfill layer [102]. Rubble includes stone,
brick, ceramics, glass, and bits of electric cable.

PL20 Section of south wall of trench 3, mid point. Electric cable and fittings in the land fill. Associated with
the telegraph pole in 06975. [105] at 600mm.

PL21 Trench 3. Increased depth of [102] with absence of [105]. Brick foundation of [116] to 300mm over a
black sandy soil [109] cut [110] into [106].

PL22 Trench 5 & 5a, maximum depth 1.6 at ranging rod into [111] a soft red sandy clay, no stone.

PL23 Trench 5a at junction with trench 10. Sequence [102] 200mm, [105] 400mm, [106] 200mm, [111]
600mm extent not found.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

PL24 Trench 5 long view, Soft section to [107] shown at ranging rod. Trench 6 at legs.PL25 Trench 10,
Trench 11 right and trench 12 at the ranging rod with [102] depth 400mm over [105] ,[106].

PL26 Trench 14, [102] 1.2mm over [106]

Appendices

Appendix I Context sheet


Appendix II Digital Photograph list & contact sheet
Appendix III Finds Index & assemblage photographs

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Introduction

This document is the report produced from the watching brief undertaken by A.P.A.C. Ltd, on land to the rear of
Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon. CF45 4TE.

The watching brief was commissioned in response to a proposed programme of works, to build a Dormer bungalow
on a site of disused land formerly occupied by an Emergency Services building and yard.

The client, Mr K Thomas, having submitted a planning application; through his agent Mr W Scorey of Monarch
Architectural Services Ltd, to Rhondda Cynon Taff County Borough Council (RCTCBT) planning; (pl.app.no
13/1024/10); was granted Approval of Planning Permission, with conditions; one of which required that:

The developer shall ensure that a suitably qualified archaeologist is present during the
undertaking of any ground disturbing works in the development area, so that an archaeological
watching brief can be conducted. The archaeological watching brief shall be undertaken to the
standards of the Institute for Archaeologists. The Local Planning Authority shall be informed, in
writing, at least two weeks prior to the commencement of the development of the name of the said
archaeologist and no work shall begin until the Local Planning Authority has confirmed, in
writing, that the proposed archaeologist is suitable. A copy of the watching brief report shall be
submitted to the Local Planning Authority within two months of the fieldwork being completed by
the archaeologist.

(pl.app.no 13/1024/10)

Reason: To identify and record any features of archaeological interest discovered during the
works, in order to mitigate the impact of the works on the archaeological resource.

(GGAT: RCT0277/JBHD)

The program of archaeological work involved a watching brief during all ground disturbance work.

Site Location and Description

The location of the site NGR: 308397 194993 can be gained from the A470; when travelling north from Cardiff,
take the first slip road left after Pontyprydd onto the B4275, fig 01.

Continue along the B4275 across the River Taff and take the first left onto Gwendoline Terrace.

Geology and Topography

The town of Abercynon is situated at the confluence of the Afon Cynon and the River Taff; at the southern end of
one of the SE/SE valleys in this area that open to the Taff Vale.

The site is on top of a spur of land above the confluence of the rivers; hemmed in by the rail link to the south east,
the B4275 to the east and rows of terraced houses to the north and west.

The underlying solid geology of Abercynon is predominantly made up of the Brithdir Member Mudstone, Siltstone,
and sandstone overlain by River Terrace Deposits of sand and gravel:
(BGS 2014).

Brief archaeological and historical background

The site is of interest as it lies on the site of Lock Isaf; lock number 24 and the lowest of a flight of 14 locks on the
canal which opened in the 1790s, (GGAT : RCT0277/JBHD).

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
Early ordnance survey mapping suggests that the site may have been occupied by buildings within a loop of the
feeder brook, (ibid).

The Merthyr to Cardiff canal was constructed between 1790 and 1794; original engineers employed were Thomas
Dadford and sons, assisted by Thomas Sheasby, who were contracted for the work by the Merthyr Ironmasters
Richard Crawshay and Francis Homfrey, (Rowson & Wright, P13. 2001)..

Differences amongst the Ironmasters of Merthyr over control of the canal led to the construction of an alternative
means of transport in the form of the 1802 tram road from Merthyr to the Abercynon basin (ibid.).

The tram road would eventually evolve into the The Taff Vale Railway, 1836, a more reliable and preferred mode of
transport from Merthyr to Cardiff.

By the latter part of the 19th century, the canal was already in serious decline when deep mining forced closure of
the Merthyr section in 1898, Aberdare in 1900, and Abercynon in 1915, (ibid.).

The earliest survey of the area, readily available is that of Harrison’s 1830 survey of the Abercynon locks, fig 02,
(ibid, p155).

A description is added on page 257 which gives details of the flight of 16 locks the last one being No 24 Lock Isaf
which used to abut the site to be developed.

The survey does not mention ‘Abercynon’ as the hamlet did not yet exist, the centre of focus being the Navigation
basin just over the aqueduct which also served as the transhipment basin for the 1802 tramroad.

On the survey inset, the present site would occupy the dark area above the word ‘Cynnon’ but beneath the curve of
the canal and turnpike road, which both share the aqueduct to the right.

It is noticeable that no buildings are marked but they may have been outside the interest of the survey.

The first series Ordnance Survey Map three years later shows the area of the site, identifiable from the confluence of
the two rivers and the nearby Navigation House fig 2a.

Apart from that, there is little else of interest with the possible exception of a single building, roughly in the area of
the site.

Just over half a century later, the 1884 1st edition ordnance survey map, fig 3b, depicts the position of the
development site in more detail and confirms the lack of any buildings in the vicinity; although it does show the
position of the lock and Lock Isaf Bridge (Rowson & Wright, p264. 2001).

The position of the development site is approximately demarcated by the small loop of the lock sluice with its 90º
return to the canal; (centre of fig).

The western side of the sluice loop is edged with the towpath for the canal, which is shown going over the sluice in
the southern corner of the loop.

The surrounding area is marked as fields with wooded areas north and west.

The map of the same location in 1898, fig 03c, shows an increase in building work in the area indicating that the
fields and the woods to the west had been cleared.

North of the sluice is a single block building with a further row to the north, (the area between would become
Gwendoline Terrace).

Towards the east, across the canal further buildings have been erected the first shown as an Inn and the second listed
later in 1914 as a chapel.

The sluice is still present but appears to have a building at the Lock Isaf Bridge and the towpath seems to stop at the
sluice edge rather than bridge it.

The next map in the sequence fig 03d shows further encroachment of buildings on the site, with terraces to the north

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
and west.

The scarp to the west is well formed and a ‘V’ shaped building has been erected. Apparently, this was a bakery and
the owner’s daughter was called Gwendoline and gave her name to Gwendoline Terrace, (Mr K Thomas, pers
comm.).

The significant change to the site however is the new building which has been built across the southern edge of the
sluice.

Lock Isaf Bridge is also clearly depicted rising from the south east and turning west over the canal and towpath.

The building recorded in 1898 abutting the Lock Isaf Bridge has gone and the area has reverted to two parallel
rectangular structures.

The final map in the sequence records the location in 1948 Fig 03 e and shows that the sluice and possibly lock has
been removed (filled in possibly).

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the watching brief was to preserve by record, within the resources available, any archaeological deposits
uncovered during groundwork.

The watching brief also ensured that: in the event of archaeological resources of significance, being discovered and
requiring treatment beyond the remit of the watching brief, that steps would be implemented to ensure that their
treatment would be undertaken within the standards recommended by the IFA.

Watching Brief

The watching brief was undertaken over three days 15th, 18th & 19th of September 2014.

All excavation was undertaken by mechanical digger with the exception of some clearance work to the sluice culvert
in trench 1, which was cleared by hand digging.

The ground over most of the excavated portion of the site was a little unstable, consisting mostly of rubble backfill
made up ground.

The extent of the instability can be seen in the trench survey which was taken at the end of excavation.

It also dictated a modification to the trench design with some of the narrower internal spaces reduced to wider
trenches.

The general the sequence of excavation is shown in fig 04; however, trenches 1 and 5 had later extensions 1a & 5a
respectively, due to archaeology in trench 1 and logistics of access in trench 5.

Initial recording

A record of the stratigraphy of each trench was made during excavation.

The work was recorded digitally throughout using a Sony DSC F828 Camera set to 8mp, Jpeg & RAW format.

All finds recovered were recorded to context and sealed in bags numbered with finds sequence and context.

The trench positions were recorded with a GPT3007, reflectorless EDM.

Post Ex

Following the watching brief, the field notes and photographs were digitised to produce the context record of the
stratigraphy, Appendix 1, and an annotated list of the photographs, Appendix II.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
All finds were individually processed; (washed, dried, catalogued and re-bagged), and then recorded in Appendix
III.

The three appendices; I Context, II Photographs and III Finds were cross referenced ready for inclusion in the
report.

All data recorded with the EDM was downloaded into CivilCad 6.7 for initial processing and exported to AutoCad
for detail work and overlaying to national grid before final production in Illustrator.

A basic search was undertaken into the readily available history and back ground of the site as required for a
watching brief.

This report was produced for the client, RCTCBC Planning and GGAT as well as archive copies for Glamorgan
Archive.

Watching Brief Results

Presentation Notes:
All contexts are denoted [#] in the text, listed in Appendix I, cross referenced in Appendix II, to the plates section
Photographs used in the text are listed Pl #, A complete list of photographs can be found in appendix II.
All finds denoted {#} in the text and are listed in Appendix III.

The trench positions are shown in Fig 04 the assigned TR numbers related to the digging sequence.

The raised concrete platform [100], PL 01, and its foundation wall [101], PL02, were removed in order to level the
ground prior to setting out.

Apart from the flooring, the only remains of the building that stood on [100] was the stub wall along the southern
boundary, which showed evidence of having had corrugated cladding, PL03.

Trench 1 & 1a

Excavation of trench 1 began at the extreme south west corner of the proposed foundation and continued east
through a very unstable fill of landfill [102], PL04.

The land fill was confused with a tumble of mortared rubble towards the western end, which as the trench
progressed, revealed itself as two walls of a possible culvert [103], PL05.

The culvert was first noticed as a small black void, which close inspection revealed had a metal lintel [112]
supporting the wall [101] and was producing a small draft of airflow.

At this point, the digger was removed from the area and GGAT were contacted.

It was agreed that the feature should be recorded as well as possible and so the entrance was cleared by hand, PL06.

The hole turned out to be walled channel of ash mortared masonry walls [103] over which was a supporting frame
made of lengths of old railway line, PL07.

The supports [103] in turn were covered with squared Pennant sandstone slabs [113] as can be seen in PL08.

Once the culvert entrance was cleared of the spoil from the digger, it was possible to get a clearer view of the inside,
allowing measurements to be taken with a Lecia Disto.

The culvert width was 1.4m wide with a surviving depth at the lintel of 700mm, PL09.

The lintel [112] which spanned from the two side walls [103] supported the foundation of the raised wall [101].

The floor of the culvert [104] was close fitted; very water worn, stone slabs that dished towards the centre of the
channel dropping by 40mm PL09.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
The covered floor of the culvert was covered by a thick layer of silt with an unpleasant, creosote type odour when
disturbed, [115].

The length of the culvert from the front lintel was found to be 11.3m with a possible curve to the south PL10; just
visible at the back from the shine of a torch on wet walls.

Once the culvert had been recorded, the mechanical digger returned in order to remove 3.5m of the culvert roof in
order to continue the foundation of the proposed building; trench 1a.

It was during this part of the work that it was realised that a few wooden stakes running out of the northern bank,
[114], PL11 and possibly the telegraph pole shown PL04, may have also been part of the cover for the backfilled
culvert.

Plate PL11 also shows the initial removal of wall [102] behind which was an infill of brown sandy soil and angular
rubble [108], PL112, the foundation for the concrete floor [100].

As the trench progressed, the structural construction/capping of the culvert was revealed, PL13 shows the slab
covering [113], PL14 the ash mortared walls, [103] and the differing gauge of rail [112] one of which is shown in
section in PL15.

Once the trench had reached the required length, the north wall [113] was breached to join trench 4, PL16.

Consultation with the engineer and the site manager, ascertained that it would be possible to block the culvert with a
wall at the point shown PL16 and cover the exposed base [104] in ‘Terram’ which could be filled with concrete to
form the foundation, thereby leaving the remains in situ.

The only in situ finds {3} from the site were collected from the silt [115] inside the entrance to the culvert.

Trench 2

Trench 2 can be seen under the prism and ranging rod, to the bottom left of PL17, which also shows the overall
layout of the trenches towards the end of the watching brief period.

Trench 2 was a short 4m length at 90° to trench 1 to meet trench 3 at a ‘T’ junction.

Plate PL18 shows trench 2 complete; to the left is some remnant of the north wall of [103] with the black infill [102]
in the foreground.

Beyond [103] which appears to form an edge, the stratigraphic sequence is different with the addition of contexts
[105] an orange sandy clay over [106] orange clay with rounded stones.

Wall [103] was cut into [105] [106] but there was no clear evidence discernable in the form of a cut or trench fill as
the wall had been removed at some point in the past becoming part of the general land fill.

Trench 3

The sequence in trench 3 is clearly seen from trench 2 in the photograph PL18; 600mm of [102] over 200mm of
[105] over [106] total depth 1.2m.

Another view of trench 3, this time looking west along its length can be seen in PL19 which provides a good
illustration of the trench contexts and friable nature.

An interesting detail of the infill can be seen in PL20, the remains of the top of a telegraph pole with insulators and
wire; possibly related to the pole in PL04.

There was a difference at the eastern end however, with the remains of a brick wall [116], Plate 21, which appeared
to be roughly aligned with [101], although the short available length made it difficult to confirm.

There is a suggestion that the wall may have been an internal automobile maintenance pit in which case the exposed
section would be the outer wall of the western side, pers comm. (Contractor).

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
The partial pit shape was picked up in the survey prior to the excavation of trenches 3 and 9.

Beneath the wall [101] was a localised layer of fine black silt [109] which had a definite edge, cut [110] into [106].

Trench 4

Trench 4 was parallel to trench 2 and shares the same stratigraphic sequence with the exception of an intact length
[103] at its southern edge; the removal of which is shown in PL14 above in the section of trench 1a.

Trench 5

Trench 5 was the narrowest and longest trench of the excavation, measuring just over 14m x 1m, it was excavated in
two phases; 5 and 5a, due to accessibility requirements for the mechanical digger.

The first 9m continued the stratigraphic sequence similar to that of trench 3 although the depth of fill [102]
decreased towards the north, PL22.

The sequence changed however, at the point where the ranging rod stands; the ground became soft with a shallow
pocket of rounded, water washed gravel [107] over a layer of soft orange/red sandy clay [111].

At this point; which happened to correspond with the end of trench 10, trench 5a was deepened to 1.4m in an
attempt to find solid ground, PL23.

The depths of stratigraphic contexts in both in 5a and 10 are illustrated in PL23:

a reduced [102] at 240mm,


an increased 350mm of [105],
200mm of [106]
100mm of [107]
A minimum of 400mm for [111] at limit of trench bottom.

Trench 6

Trench 6, just beyond the pair of legs, was excavated as a 4m return towards the east from trench 5 and had identical
stratigraphy PL24.

Trench 7

Trench 7 was excavated from the east end of trench 6 starting with a small southern turn of about 1.5m before
continuing east for 6 meters.

Again, the stratigraphy was the same but this time the instability of the ground meant that the sides around the turn
section gave way, which can be seen on the survey layout.

Trenches 8 & 9

Trenches 8 and 9 were two parallel trenches joining trench 7 to trench 3.

Both had identical sequences to 7 including the instability, although the wall [116] and silt [109] were included at
the junction of trench 3 and trench 9.

Trenches 10 & 11

The western end of trench 10; as discussed above with trench 5, included the contexts of [107] & [111].

The [107] & [111] anomaly was however confined to around the last meter or so at the western end whereas the
majority of the trench consisted of the standard site sequence [102] [105] [106], PL25; albeit with a slight increase
in the depth of [102].

The view in PL25 shows the ranging rod laying against trench 12 with the northern end of trench 11 to the right.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14
Under around 350mm of spoil, context [102] increased to approximately 1m in depth and included a greater
percentage of roots, the majority of which appeared to be infill rather than in situ growth.

The loose rooting served to increase the instability of the trenches resulting in their frequent tendency for collapse as
can be seen in PL26 a view along trench 14 during its excavation, junction of trench 13 to the left opposite the
ranging rod.

Trench 15 proved to be the same sequence with the increased depth of backfill.

Finds

The finds consisted of three assemblages, two of which were collected from surface spoil at the end of the second
and third day’s activity.

Assemblage {1} was mostly ceramic with a date typology from mid 18th to early 20th century and in keeping with
domestic/industrial period debitage.

Assemblage {2} ceramic & glass dated to late 19th century, again domestic/industrial.

Assemblage {3}, recovered from the silt inside the culvert was mostly machine parts; included was an automobile
coil and glass fluid filter cover.

Possible the most surprising thing about the finds were that they were so few.

Interpretation

The deep layer of fill [102] is testament to a large amount of groundwork that has gone on at the site in order to
provide a level; possibly associated with the building that was erected according to the map progression fig 03,
between 1898 and 1914, after the canal had gone into decline.

The pre 1914 building, represented by the remains [100] & [101] was constructed over the pre existing and at that
point in time, disused culvert which used to take the water from lock 24 and feed it back to the canal just before the
viaduct.

At the building, the culvert had been bridged with sections of railway line and capped with well cut stone slab to
provide a base for the building’s foundation.

Why the culvert was not filled in is not known but possibly, it still had some purpose at the time of the building’s
construction.

To the west of the covered section, the culvert seems to have been progressively demolished and back filled with
some attempt at covering with wooden poles and posts.

This different phase is probably later than the 1914 build and maybe associated with the removal of the canal lock
itself and thus its purpose, even if just for drainage.

There was no sigh of the culvert’s upper section, fig 03, from the lock nor indeed, the lock itself; however the
increase in depth of fill towards the north west of the site would tend to indicate that its position would not be far
beyond the edge of this site.

It is noted on the early maps that the road used to turn east up an incline to a bridge over the lock whereas now the
road carries straight on.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Staff

Dr. Neil Phillips, AIFA.

Post ex
Mr A. O. Phillips.

Specialist services: (Ceramics). Mr S Clarke

Archive:

The original archive for this project will remain with APAC Ltd.

A copy of the archive will be deposited with Glamorgan County Archive.

Acknowledgements:

Thanks to Mr Thomas for access to the site. My appreciation also to his site team for their expertise and
professionalism. Thanks also to Steve Clarke for his specialist ceramic advice and to Adam Phillips for processing
the finds.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Land to the Rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon WB/MA/14

Bibliography and References:

APAC Ltd. 2014. DB:WB/MA/14. Design Brief for an Archaeological Watching Brief, Rear of
Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon, Mountain Ash.
.
English Heritage 1991 Management of Archaeological Projects

GGAT 2013 RCT0227/JBHD Proposed Detached Bungalow, Land Rear of Gwendoline


Terrace, Abercynon. PL.App.No.:13/1024/10.

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

IFA . a: Standard and Guidance an Archaeological Watching Brief. 2013.

B: Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Excavation

c: Standard and Guidance for the Collection, Documentation, Conservation and


Research of Archaeological Materials. 2013.

Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for the regulation of
Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology. 2014.

Monarch Architectural
Services Ltd. Drawing: 13/09/01. Proposed Plans & Elevations. Proposed Dormer Bungalow
with Self Contained Granny Flat with Off Road Parking.

Drawing: 13/09/02. Existing & Proposed Site Layout and Sections. Proposed
Dormer Bungalow with Self Contained Granny Flat with Off Road Parking.

RCBCTC 13/1024/10. Planning Application.


13/1024/10. Planning Permission.
Ordnance Survey Location Map RCTCBC
Rowson, S &
Wright, I.L., 2001. The Glamorganshire and Aberdare Canals. Volume 1. Merthyr \Tydfil & Aberdare
to Pontypridd. Black Dwarf Publications.

Websites

Historic Environment Record: http://archwilio.org.uk

British Geological survey http://mapapps2.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex/home.html

The copyright for this report shall be retained by A.P.A.C. Ltd.

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny Monmouthshire NP7 7RG.


Tel: 07734962919. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19
Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. M. Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE. AIFA.

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The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

A.P.A.C. WB/MA/14
Fig 01: Location
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

adapted from Rowson and Wright

Fig 02: 1830 Survey of Abercynon Flight of locks (Harrison, W.)


A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

e
rrac
e Te
dolin
G wen
15

5a 14

cab
B4275

le
10

cable
11 12

il
Ra
5 13
6
7

[101]
0 20 8
9

] 6
Pit [11
3

2 4

[103]
1
STN 1a

[101]
[103]

0 5 10 20
m

Fig 04: Trench layout


A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
Detail poor but possible building at
the edge of the site

a 1833 OS Glamorgan XIX 1 : 63360

The canal shows two rectangular end


channels over which the road passes;
labelled Lock Isaf.
The upper channel forms a loop back
towards the viaduct.
The surrounding land is vacant. with
trees above the Afon Cynon

b 1884 OS Glamorgan XIX 6”: mile

The canal has had some buildings


erected on its sout east bank, one is
an Inn the other is a chapel (Black infill)
A row of houses have been built to the
north west with a single building in front.
The loop channel remains.

c 1898 OS Glamorgan XIX.SE 6”: mile

The canal is less well marked whilst to


the north, and west, building work has
increased creating (Gwendoline Terrace).
Lock Isaf still remains as does the
loop channel but a building has been
erected over its south east end.

d 1914 OSGlamorgan XIX.SE 6”: mile

Neither Lock Isaf nor the loop channel


are recorded.
The building errected before 1914 is the
only structure within the site.

e 1948 OS Glamorgan XIX.SE 6”: mile

Fig 03: Map progression A.P.A.C. WB/MA/14


Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC06939

DSC06942
Plate 01: General view of site. Raised concrete floor [100]of building
being removed

DSC06941

Plate 02: View towards the railway bridge. Raised concrete floor with Plate 03: South end of raised building. Low breeze A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
partial remains of base wall [101] block wall and remains of concrete wall cover with
impression for corrugated wall cladding
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC06975

DSC07010
Plate 05: Trench 1 from 1a, overview. Slope of A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Plate 04: Trench 1, initial dig. Rubble fill [102] including a buried telegraph pole
[104]. [102]
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC06981
DSC06979
Plate 06: Partial clearance of culvert at point when GGAT were informed. Plate 07: Floor appears to be flat with blockage only at exposed entrance.
[112] supporting [101] Side walls [103], lintels [112]

DSC06987
DSC06996

Plate 08: Culvert with detail of the roof cover. Edge on railway lengths Plate 09: Curve of floor shown by ranging
[112] with Pennant sandstone flags [113]. rod. Lintel upright rail [112], inner ceiling A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
edge of rail up. Masonry wall [101] above lintel [112] resting on side walls
[103]. Silt [115]
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC06997
DSC06995
Plate 10: Culvert with flash glancing of damp curved end wall lit by Plate 11: Removal of part of the Culvert roof [101] [108] [113] [112],
strong torch. [112] supporting [113] trench 1a. Trench 4 to left of the digger

DSC07001
DSC06998

Plate 12: Removal of part of the Culvert roof, trench 1a. Wall [101] cut Plate 13: Culvert trench 1a below. Detail of
through revealing concrete floor foundation of angular rubble in light foundation [108] inside wall [101]. [101] is A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
brown sandy soil [108]. Sequence [101] [108] [113] [112] above the remaining roof support [112] and [113]
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC07005
DSC07004
Plate 14: North wall of culvert being demolished [102] [103] [106] Plate 15: Section of rail from roof of culvert 130mm x 70mm.
[108] [112] [113]

DSC07021
DSC07006

Plate 16: Surviving culvert, trench 1a to be left in situ. The channel to Plate 17: Overview of trenches
be cleared, lined with Terram with the entrance blocked and the remains A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
poured with concrete. {103] [108] [112]
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC07011

DSC06990
Plate 19: Full length of trench 3 showing an east/west taper to the landfill
layer [102]. Rubble includes stone, brick, ceramics, glass, and bits of electric
cable.

DSC06991
Plate 18: View along trench 2 to ‘T’ with trench 3 showing sequence [102], [103], Plate 20: Section of south wall of trench 3, A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
[105], [106] mid point. Electric cable and fittings in the l
and fill. Associated with the telegraph pole in 06975. [105] at 600mm
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC07013

DSC07015
Plate 22: Trench 5 & 5a, maximum depth 1.6 at A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Plate 21: Trench 3. Increased depth of [102] with absence of [105]. Brick
foundation of [116] to 300mm over a black sandy soil [109] cut [110] into [106] ranging rod into [111] a soft red sandy clay, no
stone
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC07016

DSC06994
Plate 24: Trench 5, long view, Soft section to [107] A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Plate 23: Trench 5a at junction with trench 10. Sequence [102] 200mm, [105]
400mm, [106] 200mm, [111] 600mm extent not found shown at ranging rod. Trench 6 at legs.
Land rear of Gwendoline Terrace, Abercynon

DSC07018

DSC07019
Plate 26: Trench 14, [102] 1.2mm over [106] A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14
Plate 25: Trench 10, Trench 11 right and trench 12 at the ranging rod with [102]
depth 400mm over [105] ,[106]
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix I Context Sheet Index 1

Site: Rear of Grid Ref: Site No: Alternate No: 1


Gwendoline Terrace, 308397 194993 WB/MA/14
Abercynon.
CONTEXT AREA FEATURE DESCRIPTION FINDS PHOTOGRAPHS
100 East Floor Raised concrete floor 06939, 06941,
101 East Wall Raised base wall for [100] 06939, 06941, 06979,
TRs1 & 7 07987, 06988, 06997,
06998, 07000, 07001,
07002, 07003, 07004,
102 Site Landfill D/brown sandy soil with building rubble etc 06939, 06940,06941,
06943, 06975, 06976,
06979, 06984, 06985,
06988, 06989, 06990,
06991, 06992, 06993,
06994, 06997, 06998,
06999, 07000, 07001,
07002, 07003, 07004,
07009, 07010, 07011,
07012,07013, 07014,
07015, 07016,07017,
07018, 07019, 07020,
07021, 07022
103 TR 1&1a Walls Sluice channel walls, masonry 06977, 06980, 06981,
06982, 06986, 06987,
06988, 06995, 06996,
06999, 07000, 07001,
07002, 07003, 07004,
07006, 07007, 07008,
104 TR 1&1a Floor Dished floor to sluice channel. Close fit masonry 06987
105 Site Deposit Orange sandy clay 06984, 06985, 06989,
06990, 06991, 06992,
06993, 06994, 07011,
07012,07013, 07014,
07015, 07016,07017,
07018, 07019, 07020,
07021, 07022
106 Site Deposit Orange clay with rounded stones 06984, 06985, 06989,
06990, 06991, 06992,
06993, 06994, 07011,
07012,07013, 07014,
07015, 07016,07017,
07018, 07019, 07020,
07021, 07022
107 TRs 5 & Deposit Localised deposit of small rounded water washed 06994
10 gravel
108 East Foundation Foundation fill for [101] D/Brown sandy soil, 06998, 06999, 07000,
angular rubble 07001, 07002, 07003,
07004,

109 7 Deposit Black sandy soil at base of [116] 07013


110 Site Cut Cut for 109 into [106]
111 TRs 5 & Deposit Localised soft red sandy clay 06994
10
112 1a Lintels Supports for [113] over [103] 06977, 06979, 06977,
06980, 06981, 06982,
06986, 06987, 06988,
06995, 06996, 06999,
07000, 07001, 07002,
07003, 07004, 07006,
113 1a Flagstones Covers over [112] under [101] & [108] 06982, 06983, 06986,
06995, 06996, 07000,
07001, 07002, 07003,
07004,
114 1 Supports Wooden supports over channel west of concrete 06975, 06988,
115 1a Silt Creosote smelling silt within culvert 06983, 06987
116 3&9 Wall Brick wall 07013
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix I Stratigraphic Matrix
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II Digital photograph list WB/MA/14

Photo no Date Camera Size View Description Plate


DSC06939 15/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 S General view of site. Raised concrete floor [100]of building being removed PL01
DSC06940 15/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NW Old manhole at the southern end of the site
DSC06941 15/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 SE View towards the railway bridge. Raised concrete floor with partial remains of base wall [101] PL02
DSC06942 15/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 E South end of raised building. Low breeze block wall and remains of concrete wall cover with impression for corrugated wall cladding PL03
DSC06943 15/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NW Rear of Gwendoline Terrace and outbuildings opening on to the site. Unknown use, post 1948 construction considering OS mapping fig 03d
DSC06975 18/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 SE Trench 1, initial dig. Rubble fill [102] including a buried telegraph pole PL04
DSC06976 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 V Close up of rubble fill [102]: brick, tile, gravel, chippings in a dark brown sandy soil blocking the entrance to the culvert
DSC06977 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Culvert, camera pushed through a hole to investigate. Support lintel [112]
DSC06979 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Partial clearance of culvert at point when GGAT were informed. [112] supporting [101] PL06
DSC06980 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Investigation of roof. Railway lines as beams [112]. Side walls [103] lime or ash mortar masonry.
DSC06981 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Floor appears to be flat with blockage only at exposed entrance. Side walls [103], lintels [112] PL07
DSC06982 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Flag stone cover [113] over lengths of railway for supports [112] resting on side walls [103].
DSC06983 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Turn to the left at the rear of the culvert, [103] [112] [113] and silt [115]
DSC06984 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Western end of trench 3 [102] narrowing towards the west revealing [105] orange clay/sand over orange sandy clay with rounded stone[106]
DSC06985 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W View along trench 2 to ‘T’ with trench 3 showing sequence [102], [105], [106]
DSC06986 18/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Culvert, over brightened to show right curve of rear wall some 11m distant.
DSC06987 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Curve of floor shown by ranging rod. Lintel upright rail [112], inner ceiling edge of rail up. Masonry wall [101] above lintel [112] resting on side walls PL09
[103]. Silt [115]
DSC06988 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E N wall of culvert [103]. Wooden roof supports [114] over this section, two still in place, the telegraph pole in 06975 was of similar purpose. [112]
supporting [101] to right
DSC06989 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 N Western end of trench 2 as in 06985. Plaster at bottom and left side shows position of robbed out wall [103]
DSC06990 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W Full length of trench 3 showing an east/west taper to the landfill layer [102]. Rubble includes stone, brick, ceramics, glass, and bits of electric cable. PL19
DSC06991 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W Section of south wall of trench 3, mid point. Electric cable and fittings in the land fill. Associated with the telegraph pole in 06975. [105] at 600mm PL20
DSC06992 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 S Western end of trench 1 depth 1.4m. [102] 1m, [105] 100mm, [106] to 300mm. Left wall has remnants of [103]
DSC06993 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W Northern end of trench 5 to junction with trench 10. Sequence [102] 150mm, [105] 450mm, [106] 200mm over [107] river gravels
DSC06994 18/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 N Trench 5 long view, Soft section to [107] shown at ranging rod. Trench 6 at legs. PL24
DSC06995 18/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Culvert with flash glancing of damp curved end wall lit by strong torch. [112] supporting [113] PL10
DSC06996 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Culvert with detail of the roof cover. Edge on railway lengths [112] with Pennant sandstone flags [113]. PL08
DSC06997 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Removal of part of the Culvert roof [101] [108] [113] [112], trench 1a. Trench 4 to left of the digger PL11
DSC06998 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Removal of part of the Culvert roof, trench 1a. Wall [101] cut through revealing concrete floor foundation of angular rubble in light brown sandy soil PL12
[108]. Sequence [101] [108] [113] [112]
DSC06999 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NE Removal of lintel [112]under [101] from over the Culvert trench 1a
DSC06700 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 V Lintel [112] in foreground, Pennant slabs [113] shown being removed
DSC07001 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NE Culvert trench 1a below. Detail of foundation [108] inside wall [101]. [101] is above the remaining roof support [112] and [113] PL13
DSC07002 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W Junction of culvert trench 1a with trench 4, left below bucket, [102] [103] [108] [112] [113]
DSC07003 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NW North wall of culvert before demolition. Width approximately 800mm. [102] [103] [108] [112] [113]
DSC07004 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NW North wall of culvert being demolished [102] [103] [106] [108] [112] [113] PL14
DSC07005 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 Section of rail from roof of culvert 130mm x 70mm. PL15
DSC07006 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 E Surviving culvert, trench 1a to be left in situ. The channel to be cleared, lined with Terram with the entrance blocked and the remains poured with PL16
concrete. {103] [108] [112]
DSC07007 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 N Internal northern wall of culvert [103], rendered with ash mortar prior to covering.
DSC07008 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 S Internal southern wall of culvert [103], rendered with ash mortar prior to covering.
DSC07009 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 SE Overview of trenches 3, 2, 1, 1a and 4. [102] [105] [106]
DSC07010 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 W Trench 1 from 1a, overview. Slope of [104]. [102] PL05
DSC07011 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N View along trench 2 to ‘T’ with trench 3 showing sequence [102], [103], [105], [106] PL18
DSC07012 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 W Overview trench 3, collapsing [102], [103], [105], [106]
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II Digital photograph list WB/MA/14

DSC07013 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 E Trench 3. Increased depth of [102] with absence of [105]. Brick foundation of [116] to 300mm over a black sandy soil [109] cut [110] into [106] PL21
DSC07014 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Trench 5, north end, [102], [105], [106], [107].
DSC07015 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Trench 5 & 5a, maximum depth 1.6 at ranging rod into [111] a soft red sandy clay, no stone PL22
DSC07016 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Trench 5a at junction with trench 10. Sequence [102] 200mm, [105] 400mm, [106] 200mm, [111] 600mm extent not found. PL23
DSC07017 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 S Trench 11 sequence [102], 600mm, [105] 200mm, [106] 400 +mm
DSC07018 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 E Trench 10, Trench 11 right and trench 12 at the ranging rod with [102] depth 400mm over [105] ,[106] PL25
DSC07019 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Trench 14, [102] 1.2mm over [106] PL26
DSC07020 19/09/2014 DSC F828 2448x3264 N Trench 12, Shallow layer of [102] over [105] and [106]
DSC07021 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 N Overview of trenches PL17
DSC07022 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 S Overview of trenches, 15 about to be excavated
DSC07023 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 W Site from position of canal, B 4275 in foreground
DSC07024 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 NE Position of locks 23 and 22, old canal to the right behind the hedge
DSC07025 19/09/2014 DSC F828 3264x2448 SE Canal to the left.
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix 3 WB/MA/14
Finds Index ABERCYNON

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


1 Spoil 1 sherd Cream ware ointment pot rim 1755 / 18/09/14
Tr s 1 sherd Pearl ware rim with hand painted black design 1779 /
1-6 1 sherd white china with blue willow pattern 18th /
1 faded blue and white china plate rim
1 sherd white china oval serving dish with light blue design
1 sherd white china light blue floral design, partial stamp underneath
1 sherd china cup rim, with blue design
1 sherd stone ware yellow glaze, internal white glaze
1 sherd china pot rim hand painted black design
1 Mocha ware tankard bottoms 18th /
2 sherd (Refit) Mocha ware tankard rims
1 sherd Mocha ware rim
3 sherds Mocha ware
3 sherd (refit) bone china Pierced ware with gold trim rim 1800 /
1 sherd bone china
1 clay pipe funnel 1820 – 1840
1 sherd white china octagonal bowl, with one partial leg, blue leaf
decoration
1 white china plate rim with blue floral design
1 sherd “Arkinstall” white china teacup base. Blue “ARCADIAN” stamp 1904 - 1924
underneath
2 Spoil 1 sherd local earthenware bowl with internal glaze 18th 19/09/14
1 large sherd local earthenware pancheon bottom with internal glaze
Tr s 1 sherd white china faded blue design
1 sherd white china plate rim with faded blue design
1a, 5a 1 china bowl, partial handle and rim, with slight blue design
- 15 1 partial clay pipe stem and funnel with “the royal Antediluvian order of 1850 -1930
the buffalo insignia
3 sherds stoneware Dundee marmalade jars, 1 rim, 1 base 19th /
1 shard “Codds” mineral water glass bottle. Aqua green, almost complete
with type “Abercynon” and “Davies & co” written on the sides
1 shard almost complete green glass beer bottle, type on sides reads 1903/
“Newbridge, Rhondda and Pontypridd brewery .co”
3 Sluice 1 clay pipe bowl partial stem 1820 – 1840 19/09/14
fill 1a 4 fragments metal machine parts 20th
[115] 1 fragment metal and glass machine part
ABERCYNON Appendix III FINDS

DSCO7211
1

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


1 Spoil 1 sherd Cream ware ointment pot rim 1755 / 18/09/14
1 sherd Pearl ware rim with hand painted black design 1779 /
1 sherd white china with blue willow pattern 18th /
1 faded blue and white china plate rim
1 sherd white china oval serving dish with light blue design
1 sherd white china light blue floral design, partial stamp underneath
1 sherd china cup rim, with blue design
1 sherd stone ware yellow glaze, internal white glaze
1 sherd china pot rim hand painted black design
1 Mocha ware tankard bottoms 18th /
2 sherd (Refit) Mocha ware tankard rims
1 sherd Mocha ware rim
3 sherds Mocha ware
3 sherd (refit) bone china Pierced ware with gold trim rim 1800 /
1 sherd bone china
1 clay pipe funnel 1820 – 1840
1 sherd white china octagonal bowl, with one partial leg, blue leaf
decoration
1 white china plate rim with blue floral design
1 sherd “Arkinstall” white china teacup base. Blue “ARCADIAN” stamp 1904 - 1924
underneath

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14


ABERCYNON Appendix III FINDS

DSCO7212
2

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


2 Spoil 1 sherd local earthenware bowl with internal glaze 18th 19/09/14
1 large sherd local earthenware pancheon bottom with internal glaze
1 sherd white china faded blue design
1 sherd white china plate rim with faded blue design
1 china bowl, partial handle and rim, with slight blue design
1 partial clay pipe stem and funnel with “the royal Antediluvian order of
the buffalo insignia 1850 -1930
3 sherds stoneware Dundee marmalade jars, 1 rim, 1 base 19th /
1 shard “Codds” mineral water glass bottle. Aqua green, almost complete
with type “Abercynon” and “Davies & co” written on the sides
1 shard almost complete green glass beer bottle, type on sides reads 1903/
“Newbridge, Rhondda and Pontypridd brewery .co”

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14


ABERCYNON Appendix III FINDS

DSCO7213
2

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


2 Spoil 1 sherd local earthenware bowl with internal glaze 18th 19/09/14
1 large sherd local earthenware pancheon bottom with internal glaze
1 sherd white china faded blue design
1 sherd white china plate rim with faded blue design
1 china bowl, partial handle and rim, with slight blue design
1 partial clay pipe stem and funnel with “the royal Antediluvian order of
the buffalo insignia 1850 -1930
3 sherds stoneware Dundee marmalade jars, 1 rim, 1 base 19th /
1 shard “Codds” mineral water glass bottle. Aqua green, almost complete
with type “Abercynon” and “Davies & co” written on the sides
1 shard almost complete green glass beer bottle, type on sides reads 1903/
“Newbridge, Rhondda and Pontypridd brewery .co”

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14


ABERCYNON Appendix III FINDS

DSCO7214
115

Find no Area Context Description Period Date


3 Sluice 1 clay pipe bowl partial stem 1820 – 1840 19/09/14
fill 4 fragments metal machine parts
1 fragment metal and glass machine part

A.P.A.C. Ltd WB/MA/14