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Temperature Effects on Density

Engine Gas analyzer


Table 6.1. Detailed specifications of the engine test setup.

Engine Kirloskar TV1

General details Four stroke, CI, vertical, constant speed, water cooled,
single cylinder

Bore/stroke 87.5 mm/110 mm

Compression ratio 17.5

Capacity 661 cc

Rated output 5.2 kW at 1500 rpm

Piezo sensor Make PCB Piezotronics, Model HSM111A22

IVO/IVC 4.5o before TDC/35.5o after BDC

EVO/EVC 35.5o before BDC/4.5o after TDC

Injection advance 23o before TDC

Dynamo meter Eddy current, water cooled.

Gas analyzer AVL


experimental program
• In the experimental program, as baseline
measurement, performance test on 100
percent diesel was carried out and
observations were noted.
• The diesel fuel performance and emission
parameters at different loading conditions
were recorded.
• A similar procedure was repeated for biodiesel
(B100).
Video: engine performance and emission
17
0.55

0.50
Specific Fuel Consumption (kg/kWh)

D
0.45
B100

0.40

0.35

0.30

0.25

1 2 3 4 5 6
Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bar)
38

36

34
Brake Thermal Efficiency(%)

32

30

28
Diesel
26
B100
24

22

20

18
2 3 4 5 6

Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bar)


70
o
Diesel; 23 before TDC
o
B100; 23 before TDC
60

50
Cylinder pressure (bar)

40

30

20

10

320 340 360 380 400 420 440


Crank angle (degree)
40

35 o
Diesel; 23 before TDC
o
30 B100; 23 before TDC
Net heat release (J/CA)

25

20

15

10

-5
340 360 380 400 420 440 460
Crank angle (deg)
1600

1400
Mean Gas Temperature ( C)
0

1200

1000

800
o
Diesel; 23 before TDC
o
600 B100: 23 before TDC

400
300 350 400 450 500

Crank angle (degree)


2.0

1.6 Diesel
B100

1.2
CO (g/kWh)

0.8

0.4

0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6
BMEP (bar)
Problem: Convert ppm to gm per kWh (3 Marks)

constituents ppm
CO 6000
NOx 2000
HC 70
0.05 Diesel
B100

0.04
HC (g/kWh)

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6
BMEP (bar)
4.5

4.0

3.5 Diesel
B100
3.0
NOx (g/kWh)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6
BMEP (bar)
Engine Performance Combustion and Emissions
• The suitability of biodiesel and their blends were
investigated and documented by several researchers
worldwide.
• Generally an increase in fuel consumption and
decrease in power, torque and emission were
recorded for biodiesel fuelled engines.
• The experimental results showed that carbon
monoxide (CO), smoke and engine emissions were
lower with B100 (100% biodiesel) and its blends, while
oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emission were higher.
• Compared to diesel fuel, B100 reduced CO and smoke
emissions by 50% and 43%, respectively, while a 15%
increase in the NOX emission was experienced with the
same fuel.
spray characteristics
• Viscosity, surface tension and density are the
three main parameters, which influence fuel
spray characteristics.
• Higher viscosity and surface tension will
prohibit the atomisation and instability of fuel
droplets.
• Due to the different biodiesels properties from
diesel, studies on the spray characteristics are
necessary.
spray characteristics
• Normally, biodiesel shows a longer penetration and narrower spray
angle than fossil fuel due to the higher viscosity, surface tension
and density.
• The penetration length of biodiesel increases with the blend ratio,
higher biodiesel content requires longer breakup time.
• The difference between the two type fuels can be varied at
different conditions.
• The study showed that little difference can be observed at the
ambient pressure of 1.2 MPa while the penetration length
significantly increased in contrast to diesel spray at the ambient
pressure of 5.0 MPa.
• In addition, biodiesel may have a lower penetration velocity due to
the negative effect of fuel density on spray velocity.
10 cc biodiesel consumption time is 18.6 sec
Sp gr of biodiesel is 0.83
Heating value of biodiesel is 36 MJ/kg
All data same as previous problem:
Comments on calculated results
Nanoparticles as additive in biodiesel
Effect of Biodiesel Utilization of Wear
of Vital Parts
Ethanol Cook Stoves