2010

Leadership
Done By :Mahfooz Arian Roll No:22 Class: SY .BA

Some well known leaders of the world

solve complex problems. one must soon confront an important practical question.Concepts of Leadership According to Ann Marie E. Deferent type of Leadership Styles When developing your leadership skills. The Laissez Faire Leadership Style: The style is largely a "hands off" view that tends to minimize the amount of directi on and face time required. the autocratic style high control and the participative lies somewhere in between. . identifying problems. and initiating change that makes for substantive improvement rather than managing change. The Autocratic Leadership Style : The autocratic style has its advocates. perform as a team. Some people have argued that the style is popular with today's CEO's. and provide outstanding customer service. Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct reports. Assistant Professor at Lincoln University. McSwain. Three Classic Leadership Styles One dimension of has to do with control and one's perception of how much control one should give to people. The laissez faire style implies low control. to establish processes and transparency in decision -making. "What leadership styles work best for me and my organization?" To answer this question. improve quality. but it is falling out of favor in many countries. Leadership is about setting and not just reacting to agendas. you should consider developing as many leadership styles as possible. who have much in common with feudal lords in Medieval Europe. it's best to understand that there are many from which to choose and as part of your leadership development effort. to articulate their own values and visions clearly but not impose them. The Participative Leadership Style: It's hard to order and demand someone to be creative. The style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper. leadership is about capacity: the capacity of leaders to listen and observe. to use their expertise as a starting point to encourage dialogue between all levels of decision-making.

We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group. and Organizations Charisma is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. it is extremely hard to teach. almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. While extremely powerful. The Emergent Leadership Style : Contrary to the belief of many. management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a serie s of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. bureaucratic organizations. The Transactional Leadership Style : The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo. the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. and many large corporations. Others. groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. it's commonly seen in large. . It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. Surprisingly. Visionary Leadership. a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situation s. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition. The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it. US Air Force.Situational Leadership Situational Leadership. In the 1950s. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style. Strategic Leadership This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army. As such. The Transformational Leadership Style : The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in: y y y y Our Self. Groups.

"To Protect and Serve.Team Leadership : A few years ago." reflects this philosophy of service. As Collins says in his book. . a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were suddenly made "team leaders. does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward? Cross-Cultural Leadership: Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture." Today. Rather than being directive. Coaching : A great coach is definitely a leader who also possess a unique gift --the ability to teach and train. Level 5 Leadership: This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Company¶s Make the Leap and Other Don¶t. Facilitative Leadership : This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. For example. but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team. shocked really. "We were surprised. One suspects these leaders are rare in business. to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one. For example. whether that culture is organizational or national. companies have gotten smarter about teams. the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department." Servant Leadership: Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. Leadership Influence Styles Here one looks at the b ehaviors associated how one exercises influence. one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus." What he seems to have found is what The Economist calls "The Cult of the Faceless Boss.

According to this perspective. . which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior. evaluating the behavior of 'successful' leaders. central traits are basic to an individual's personality. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy and influence behavior. In his approach. differ among individuals e. Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits. Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits. traits are relatively stable over time. Hans Eysenck has suggested that personality is reducible to three major traits. however. determining a behavior taxonomy and identifying broad leadership style s. Behavioral and style theories: In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach.David McClelland." respectively. There is a nearly unlimited number of potential traits that could be used to describe personality.g. trait theorists have focused more on group statistics than on single individuals.Theories of leadership Trait theory: In psychology. which he sometimes referred to as dispositions. Allport called these two emphases "nomothetic" and "idiographic. thought. Since Allport's time. Other researchers argue that more factors are needed to adequately describe human personality. has demonstrated that particular clusters of traits reliably correlate together. and emotion. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized. theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors. Many psychologists currently believe that five factors are sufficient. The statistical technique of factor analysis. Common traits are those recognized within a culture and may vary between cultures. whereas secondary traits are more peripheral.

For example. Members are given choices and collectively decide the division of labor. . but a set of traits is crucia l. Bird. praise and criticism and the management of the group tasks ( project management) according to three styles: (1) authoritarian (2) democratic and (3) laissez-faire . Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies. Not so much as a pattern of motives. Ronald Lipitt..g. Authoritarian climates were characterized by leaders who make decisions alone. fact minded and given by a group member without necessarily having participated extensively in the actual work. however. and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. Democratic climates were characterized by collective decision processes. selfconfidence and a high self -esteem is useful. 1959 )prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature.The results seemed to confirm that the democratic climate was preferred The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from a leader. based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof from participation in work and commonly offers personal praise and criticism for the work done. Laissez faire climates gave freedom to the group for policy determination witho ut any participation from the leader. perhaps even essential. The Rise of Alternative Leadership Theories :- In the late 1940s and early 1950s. demand strict compliance to his orders. and very infrequently gives prais . To lead. In each. the overall evidence suggested that person s who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e. does not participate in the division of labor. assisted by the leader. 1940. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles. Kurt Lewin. the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making. future steps were uncertain to a large degree. The leader remains uninvolved in work decisions unless asked. 1948 [Mann. Praise and criticism in such an environment are objective. Before accomplishin g tasks. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven -year-old boys under different types of work climate. and dictate each step taken. Leadership takes a strong personality with a well developed positive ego. Stogdill.

in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait.Subsequently. as situational approaches (see alernative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations. during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses. For example. improvements in researchers¶ use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks ]. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Additionally. The Reemergence of the Trait Theory :- New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. leadership researchers revealed the following: Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tas ks Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as: y y y y y y intelligence adjustment extraversion conscientiousness openness to experience general self-efficacy . but not others. Equipped with new methods.

The Ma agerial Grid eadership performa e I t t. it i l t t t l l i i i t l & E li t . titi l i fl it t f l lt f i ti t t . t t t ti i 7. i ti l tt i ti .

or even leader emergence. entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied/research focus Leadership in organizations An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization . and leader emergence (Kaiser et al. Hogan. Kaiser. In prehistoric times. 1988. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. There is no consistent. protection. leader advancement. Campbell identified a number of specific types of performance dimensions. ma intenance. Her/His need to identify with a community that provides . performance of the group or organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit. Many distinct conceptualizations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance. and research supports the notion that leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Day & Lord. 2006). including outcomes such as leader effectiveness. overall definition of leadership performance (Yukl. Now humanity spends a major portion of waking hours working for organizations. and tasks make up this work structure. leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader.. Divisions. humanity was preoccupied with personal security. In order to facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and accurately measure leadership performance. departments. sections. The higher his position in the hierarchy.leadership is important. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. jobs. positions. Job performance generally refers to behavior that is expected to contribute to organizational success (Campbell. For instance. According to Weber's definition. & Craig. While these aspects may be related. a leader emerg es within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. 1990). The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life ² the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. and survival. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. leadership was one of the dimensions that he identified. the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. Each of these measures can be considered conceptu ally distinct. 2008). Thus. 2008). the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relatio nships with clients or with its members. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards her/him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients.

Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy. Leaders are recognized by their capacity for caring for others. creativity). with commensurate authority. Halpern & Lubar ). Leadership versus management Over the years the philosophical terminology of "management" and "leadership" have.security. and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (19 8) between "transactional" leadership (characterised by eg emphasis on procedures. clear communication. in the organisational context. personal relationships. However. An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his po sition. only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. contingent reward. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. leaders Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge her/his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. or unofficial. That those two adjectives are in fact used equally well with the noun "management" as with the noun "leadership" indicates that there is such a messy overlap between the two in academic practice that attempts to pontificate about their differences are largely a waste of time Leadership by a group: . Every organization needs leaders at every level. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. (elevos. because authority is only potentially available to him. the emerg ent leader wields influence or power. she or he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief. Bennis. protection. been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. the demands of the situation. and a commitment to persist. and Leadership Presence. or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. maintenance. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent. and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. In the absence of sufficient personal competence. management by exception) and "transformational" leadership (characteri sed by eg charisma. It is not dependent on title or formal authority. However. paraphrased from Leaders. Their personal qualities.

Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity. The member must have the ability to act toget her toward a common goal. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment.contrast to individual leadership. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success. Members must have a chance to contribute. Others may see the traditional leaders hip of a boss as costing too much in team performance. even unintentionally. reducing costs. but more commonly uses rotating leadership. more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. learn from and work with others. In this situation. .either by draining the resources of the group as a whole. some organizations have ad opted group leadership. the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive . Additionally. or by impeding the creativity within the team. it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues. Ten characteristics of well -functioning teams: y y Purpose: Members proudly share a sense of why the team exists and are invested in accomplishing its mission and goals. A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. In some situations. The team member(s) best able to handle any given phase of the project become(s) the temporary leader(s). by whom. determination and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups. or downsizing. tenacity. Characteristics of a Team y y y There must be an awareness of unity on the part of all its members. Leaders who demonstrate persistence. There must be interpersonal relationship. and by when to achieve team goals. Priorities: Members know what needs to be done next.

Strong convictions about vision . 5. A vision. unconventional.Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel.Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed. Norms: Group norms for working together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups.This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. incur high costs. these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. Decisions: Authority and decision-making lines are clearly understood. 4. Personal traits: members feel their unique personalities are appreciated and well utilized.They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. the more likely that followers will at tribute extraordinary vision to the leader. 2. . Behavior that is out of the ordinary. Ability to articulate the vision . 3. Perceived as being a change agent . and counter to norms. Self Confidence. . Effectiveness: Members find team meetings efficient and productive and look forward to this time together. Conflict: Conflict is dealt with openly and is considered important to decision making and personal growth. and engage in self -sacrifice to achieve their vision. Training: Opportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members. 6.These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo. hence acts as a motivating force. Charismatic Leadership Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders 1.They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. Environmental sensitivity. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers¶ needs and. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo. When successful . Success: Members know clearly when the team has met with success and share in this equally and proudly. and willing to take on high personal risk.y y y y y y y y Roles: Members know their roles in getting tasks done and when to allow a more skillful member to do a certain task.

Intellectual Stimulations : Promotes intelligence. advises. gains respect trust. avoids making decisions Transformational Leaders ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission. instills pride. treats each employee individually. takes corrective action. Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities. coaches. promises rewards for good performance. recognizes accomp lishment Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards. expresses important purposes in simple ways. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention. uses symbols to focus efforts. The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders . and careful problem solving.Transactional vs Transformational leaders Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders: Transactional Leaders ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations. rationality.

t i i i l i it l l f t i f i t ti i .E hi al eadership Et i l l t i t . ³A l l l i l i t t i i i i l t t iti f i t t i l .

Ideal leadership . values. Motivating involves engaging others in an intellectual and emotional commitment between leaders and followers that makes both parties equally responsible in the pursuit of a common goal. professional. which is a style component of transformational leadership . Ethical leadership in organizations In organizational communication. telling someone the "check is in the mail". which is important for followers to accept the vision of the leader These are critical and direct components to leading ethically. efficiency. actions they engage in and ways they influence others´ Leaders who are ethical demonstrate a l evel of integrity that is important for stimulating a sense of leader trustworthiness. and expect. Individual values and beliefs impact the ethical decisions of leaders Leaders who are ethical are people-oriented. ambition. honesty. ethical. Most organizations create an ethical code. and decisions. with the satisfaction of knowing you did the right thing. The best leaders make known their values and their ethics and preach them in their leadership style and actions. ethical leadership falls within the nexus of inspiring. where there is a personal. Such values can be. Business leaders must make decisions that will not only benefit them. When practicing ethics. stimulating. Inspirational motivation involves inspiring others to work towards the leader¶s vision for the group and to be committed to the group. Being unethical in the workplace can include anything from taking personal phone calls while at your desk. which is usually a list of rules that tells you what behaviors are right and what are wrong in the company.decisions they make. Motivating followers to put the needs or interests of the group ahead of their own is another quality of ethical l eaders. These characteristics of ethical leaders are similar to inspirational motivation. In ethical leadership it is important for the leader to consider how his or her decisions impact others. For your organization. It consists of communicating complete and accurate information. Similarly. but also th ey must think about how the other people will be effected (Stansbury 33). accomplishment. when in fact it hasn't even been written yet. quality. Ethical leaders assist followers in gaining a sense of personal competence that allows them to be self -sufficient by encouraging and empowering them. and even taki ng office supplies home for your personal use. and use their social power to serve the greater good instead of selfserving interests. you might want to let employees know your values right off the bat. or legal obligation to do so (McQueeney 165). you gain the respect and admiration of employees. ethics in leadership are very important. teamwork. and visionary leader behaviors that make up transformational and charismatic leadership. If you never make clear what you want. and also aware of how their decisions impact others. then it can cause mistrust. and dedication. The character and integrity of the leader provide the basis for personal characteristics that direct a leader¶s ethical beliefs.

It fully describes all the divergent elements that compose the leadership phenomenon. The theory po stulates that failure in leadership is related to unfavorable conditions.or IDEAL Leadership -. or inadequate capital (termed anti-leadership). Ideal Leadership defines a leader as one who moves his or her organization forward in a positive direction. combined with adequate capital. The scientific nature of the Ideal Leadership Model is reflected in that it that it is a descriptive. These activities have ranged from MBA style programs offered at university business schools to action learning . prescriptive. It prescribes adjustments to a leader's capital in relation to the theory in order to make a leader more effective. a professor at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (Latvia).is a scientific leadership theory developed in 2001 by Larry Stout. The model identifies six critical capabilities that are grouped under Leadership Capital and four capacities termed Leadership conditions. the wisdom and courage that compose the leader's personal composition. The six critical Leadership Capit al capacities are the vision and values that constitute the leader's philosophy. the result is favorable not only to the particular organization. based on a leadership assessment measured by leadershipmetrics. It also can accurately predict who would be effective in leadership and under what circumstances they would be effective. and the trust and voice that enable them to influence others.Inter-Disciplinary Leadership -. but also to the society at large. . The four vital Leadership Conditions n ecessary for these capacities to make a difference are a place where the leader can hold sway. a period that calls for his or her leadership. and predictive theory. high-ropes courses and executive retreats. Given the right conditions. Leadership development Leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization. a position that conveys leadership authority. and people who are ready for leadership.

business school style coursework. go to great lengths to only accept candidates who show the highest potential to lead well . everyone can develop their leadership effectiveness. Involve goal setting. play football like Zinedine Zidane or sing like Luciano Pavarotti. It is estimated that as little as 15% of learning from traditional classroom style training results in sustained behavioral change within the workplace . knowing what to do and doing what you know are two very different outcomes. a high achievement drive and personali ty traits such as openness to experience. management expert Henry Mintzberg is one person to highlight this dilemma. such as the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Different personal characteristics can help or hinder a person's leadership effectiveness and require formalized programs for developing leadership competencies. reflective journaling. and self -monitoring. Personal characteristics that associated with successful leadership development include leader motivation to learn. Development is also more likely to occur when the design of the development program: y y Integrates a range of developmental experiences over a set period of time (eg 6-12 months).Yet. However. y y y Individual learner characteristics The quality and nature of the leadership development program Genuine support for behavioural change from the leader's supervisor Military officer training academies.Developing Individual Leaders Traditionally. Achieving such development takes focus. mentoring and more. . These experiences may include 360 degree feedback . leadership development has focused on developing the leadership abilities and attitudes of individuals. say. The success of leadership development efforts has been linked to three variables . Just like people aren't all born with the ability to. people aren't all born with the ability to lead. experiential classroom style programs. following an assessment of key developmental needs and then evaluate the achievement of goals after a given time period. an internal focus of control. executive coaching. practice and persistence more akin to learning a musical instrument than reading a book Classroom-style training and associated reading is effective in helping leaders to know more about what is involved in leading well.

Leadership Studies . as Albert Bandura formulated: A person's belief about his capabilities to produce effects .. history and philosophy). as well as in professional and applied fields of study . Kolb: 1. sociology. and Organizational Leadership (although there are a number of leadership -oriented concentrations in other academic areas). Today.Visioning: Developing the ability to formulate a clear image of the aspired future o f an organization unit. going through the four stages of experiential learning as formulated by David A. psychology). but entire degree programs specifically devoted to the study of leadership.Self efficacy : The right training and coaching should bring about 'Self efficacy' in the trainee. undergraduate through doctoral.Among key concepts in leadership development one may find: . concrete experience 2. observation and reflection 3. . Leadership studies Leadership studies is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life. the study of leadership has been of interest to scholars from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds.Experiential learning : positioning the individual in the focus of the learning process. management and education). As an academic area of inquiry. testing in new situations. At all levels. an increasing number of colleges and universities have begun developing not only individual courses. anthropology. Leadership degree programs generally relate to: aspects of Leadership . Leadership in Higher Education Leadership has become one of the fastest growing academic fields in higher education . there are numerous academic programs (spanning several academic colleges and departments) related to the study of leadership. forming abstract concept 4. The field of leadership studies is closely linked to the field of organizational studies. . Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences . in humanities .

The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. Collectively. functions. and its place within the academy." These studies identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders: task oriented behavior.and indicated that leaders could be classi fied as either "employee centered. The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: "initiating structure. psychology." or "job centered. the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press.and multi. The discipline (which encompasses a host of sub -fields) is filled with definitions. theories. and historical examples of successful and diverse leaders. y . leadership has only become the focus of contemporary academic studies in the last 60 years.Even among some of the more established and traditional academic disciplines such as engineering. philosophy. but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding inter. Such an approach. These questionnaires are known a s the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ) and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SDBQ). By 1962. however. History of Leadership as a Field of Study The study of leadership can be dated back to Plato. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli. Some of the earliest studies on leadership include: y The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the 1940s and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs. and participative leadership. styles. and particularly more so in the last two decades. relationship oriented behavior. and management. the LDBQ was on version XII. Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work.disciplinary academic fields of study in general. Most of these academic programs have been designed to be multidisciplinary in nature²drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociology. specialization and concentration areas have been developed around the study of leadership. Rost (1991) has argued allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible from a unidisciplinary approach." These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. competencies. education. and medicine." and "consideration. The Michigan Leadership Studies which began in the 1950s .

y McGregors Theory X & Theory Y developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s at MIT Sloan School of Management . Transactional & Transformational theories of Leadership : The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation.The first undergraduate school of Leadership Studie s was established at the University of Richmond (The Jepson School) in 1992. Information-Processing Leadership theory: [Focuses on the role of social perception in identifying leadership abilities. y y y y y The first doctoral program in Leadership Studies was established at the University of San Diego in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences in 19 9. the two theories of management diverge. The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment. They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results (on the one axis) and concern for people (on the other axis). including people. Blake & McCanse Leadership Grid [ developed the orientation of "task orientation" and "people orientation" in leader behavior.The growth of transpersonal psychology means that this field has relevance to Transpersonal business studies. Beyond this point. Situational & Contingency theories of Leadership : Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior. Functional Leadership theory: Suggests that a leader¶s primary responsibility is to see that whatever is necessary in relation to group needs is taken care of. . from an academic perspective leadership has been studied from several theoretical lenses: y Trait & Behavioral theories of Leadership : Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership. Both theories begin with the premise that the role of manag ement is to assemble the factors of production. y In addition to these studies. the essence of self leadership theory is that behaviors are directed toward the attainment of super-ordinate goals. These theories described employee motivation in the workforce. Self Leadership theory:Although behaviorally oriented. for the economic benefit of the firm.

therefore. focused on identifying the qualities of a leader based on our personal experiences rather than treat leadership in an organizational contex t/contextual fashion affecting team performance. Future work should explore the degree to which team size. Our work. We also proposed the model that leadership in a small group environment evolves in the context of strength of intrapersonal relationships. aggregated team characteristics. and member homogeneity/heterogeneity affect leadership emergence .Conclusion Identifying how leaders emerge in a complex environment proved illusive primarily due to very different concepts of leadership. Leadership itself is a complex system.

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