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Degree research plan at structural civil engingeering department


o Student name : Eng. Sherzad Ismail .

o Degree : Bachelor of structural engineering 2009 B.E

Master of structural engineering 2015 M.E

o Title of Master thesis :

“ Increase the efficiency of concrete mixture by using glass powder ”

o College : Civil Engineering .

o Deparmtment : Structural Engineering .

o Title of Ph. Degree research :

“ Increase performance of RC beam by using powder glass ”

Research Plan

“ Increase performance of RC beam by using powder glass ”


o Abstract :

Concrete is one of the most used and the most important material in construction , because it is easy
formation , has high compressive strength resistance, low cost compared to other structural materials
, and concrete has durability and fire resistance when considering the necessary actions and
recommendations during execution .

concrete structures and because of their different forms and loads , tension stresses occur . As
concrete functions mainly on compressive , reinforced steel which has high tensile strength has been
added to concrete structures to handle bearing stresses in areas of their evolution , in addition
reinforcement can increase ductility of concrete sections. since concrete has brittle failure .

concrete elements in concrete structures are classified according to their type and function to slabs ,
beams , columns, walls, arches and shell .

beams are defined as linear elements that resist load and transfer it to columns or bearing wall then to
foundations. The European code (Eurocode2, 2004) defines beams as elements that length is not less
than three times than section thickness otherwise they are considered as deep beams .

As concrete is poor tensile material and often suffers from cracking in its plastic and hardened
condition, and shrinkage at hardening , these cracks evolve over time to penetrate concrete , decrease
water resistance properties and expose internal part of it to destructive materials, such as moisture
and acid sulphate, which case corrosion and rusted rebard due to that it has recently increased interest
in improving the properties of concrete especially on tensile, one of that suggestions to improve
properties is to use various types of replacement , one of those replacements is powder glass .

Since Powder glass was determined as low cost of concrete production , and considered as friendly
environmental material , powder glass can increase concrete compressive strength , the replacement
of powder glass decrease the unit weight and water absorption .

o Problem and importance

replacements are important and necessary elements that can be used in concrete, for its importancy in
improving concrete properties , resistance , and strength , it is important to study the effect of local
replacement on RC beams behavior .

o Main aim and objective

The aim of this research is to study the effect of powder glass as local replacement on concrete
strength , and to study the effect of powder glass on the behavior of RC beam experimental and
analytical .

o Methodogy of research

This is research will be divided into the following stage :

1 - Experimental study ( at concrete and biulding material laboartory ) included :

- The preparatory tests , including specification of concrete and its components , as well as the
replacement used in the research.

- prepare concrete mix design ( replace cement with powder glass 0% , 10% , 20% , 30% , 40% ) .

- Test concrete mechnical properties both of compressive strenght and tensile strength .

- Test the behavior of normal RC beam using local replacement .

- Test the behavior of deep RC beam using local replacement .

2 - Analytical study using Finite Element Method FEM by :

Using Structural Program ( ABAQUS ), which consider the nonlinearity of Material ( Materially
Nonlinear Analysis (MNA) ) , in modeling for the normal RC beam and deep RC beam , And study
their behavior under vertical loads , and compare it with the experimental study.

o Literature review

- Rakesh Sakale , Sourabh Jain and Seema Singh , IJSTE Volume 2 Issue 08 Feb 2016 .
In experimental work , the effect of partially replacing of glass powder in concrete is studied. The
cement in concrete is replaced by waste glass powder in steps of 10% 20%, 30%&
40% respectively by volume of cement and its effects on compressive strength, split tensile strength,
workability and flexural strength are determined. It is found that the compressive, flexural and split
tensile strengths of concrete increase initially as the replacement percentage of cement by glass
powder increases become maximum at about 20% and later decrease. The workability of concrete
reduces monotonically as the replacement percentage of cement by glass powder increases. The
replacement of cement up to about 20% by glass powder can be done without sacrificing the
compressive strength .

- Ana Maflda Matos , Joana Sousa-Coutinho , Elsevier Volume 36 2012

It is well known that Portland cement production is an energy-intensive industry, being responsible
for about 5% of the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. An important
contribution to sustainability of concrete and cement industries consists of using pozzolanic
additions, especially if obtained from waste such as waste glass.Crushed waste glass was ground
(WGP) and used in mortar as a partial cement replacement (0%, 10% and 20%) material to ascertain
applicability in concrete.An extensive experimental program was carried out including pozzolanic
activity, setting time, soundness, specific gravity, chemical analyses, laser particle size distribution,

X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on WGP and resistance to alkali silica
reaction (ASR), chloride ion penetration resistance, absorption by capillarity, accelerated carbonation
and external sulphate resistance on mortar containing WGP.Glass particles well encapsulated into
dense and mature gel observed by SEM, may help explaining enhanced durability results and thus
confirming that waste glass powder can further contribute to sustainability in construction.

- G. Vijayakumar , H. Vishaliny , D.Govindarjuku , IJETAE , Volume 3 Issue 2 Feb 2013

Cement manufacturing industry is one of the carbon dioxide emitting sources besides deforestation
and burning of fossil fuels. The global warming is caused by the emission of green house gases,
such as CO2, to the atmosphere. Among the greenhouse gases,CO2 contributes about 65% of
global warming. The global cement industry contributes about 7% of greenhouse gas emission to
the earth’s atmosphere. In order to address environmental effects associated with cement
manufacturing , there is a need to develop alternative binders to make concrete.Consequently
extensive research is on going into the use of cement replacements, using many waste materials
and industrial by products.Efforts have been made in the concrete industry to use waste glass as
partial replacement of coarse or fine aggregates and cement.In this study,finely powdered waste
glasses are used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete and compared it with conventional
concrete. This work examines the possibility of using Glass powder as a partial replacement of
cement for new concrete. Glass powder was partially replaced as 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%
and tested for its compressive, Tensile and flexural strength up to 60 days of age and were
compared with those of conventional concrete; from the results obtained ,it is found that glass
powder can be used as cement replacement material upto particle size less than 75µm to prevent
alkali silica reaction.

- Ahmad Shayan , Aimin Xu , ELSEVIER Volume 36 2006 .

Earlier laboratory work by the authors indicated satisfactory performance of glass powder (GLP)
in concrete as a pozzolanic material. The powder was manufactured from mixed colour waste
packaging glass comprising soda-lime glass. In order to investigate the performance of GLP in
concrete under field conditions, a field trial was conducted using a 40 MPa concrete mixture,
incorporating various proportions of GLP (0%, 20%, and 30%) as cement replacement. Ten
mixture formulations, some of which also included sand-size crushed glass aggregate particles,
were used to cast ten concrete slabs (1.5 × 2.5 × 0.25 m). Cylinders and prisms were also
manufactured from the same batches at the time of casting for the measurement of compressive
and splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, shrinkage, expansion, ultrasonic pulse velocity,
volume of permeable voids, and chloride permeability. Core samples were drilled from the slabs at
various ages for the same tests (except tensile and flexural), as well as for microstructural
examination. Results showed that strength gain was slower in GLP-bearing concrete up to 28 days,
but at the age of 404 days all the mixtures exceeded the 40 MPa target and achieved about 55 MPa

Mixtures containing GLP also performed satisfactorily with respect to drying shrinkage and alkali
reactivity, and there were indications that GLP reduces the chloride ion penetrability of the
concrete, thereby reducing the risk of chloride induced corrosion of the steel reinforcement in
concrete. The results demonstrated that GLP can be incorporated into 40 MPa concrete at dosage
rates of 20–30% to replace cement without harmful effects. The use of GLP provides for
considerable value-added utilisation of waste glass in concrete and significant reductions in the
production of green house gases by the cement industry.

- Afif Rahma , Nabil El Naber and Sherzad Ismail , Cogent engineering Volume 4 2017 .
significant reductions

Several studies have been made to examine the potential mineralogical and mechanical properties
of glass aiming to improve the characteristic properties of concrete where glass has been used in
various forms, powder form or fine and coarse aggregate form, taken as part of aggregate or
replacement of cement. However, the results presented in these studies were sometimes very
different, even contradictory, due to the way in which the glass was used in these experiments,
leading to a difficulty in distinguishing between the effect of Glass and the role of cement. To
overcome this confusion the present research aimed to study the effects of glass powder on the
properties of concrete by series of test for two constant quantities of cement, 350 and 400 kg per
cubic meter. To reach the target of this research, two campaigns were done. In the first campaign
the glass powder is gradually increased from trial to another by an increment of 2.5% of the
cement’s weight, from a rate of 2.5 up to 15%, without any chemical additive. This methodology
made it possible to show the effect of the glass powder on the characteristic properties of concrete
and defined its real contribution without being confused with the role of the cement. In the second
campaign the study is extended to add the glass powder by rate of 7.5% to the batches with the use
of super-plasticizer type F to investigate its potential mechanical properties. The slump test and
compression test showed modest results in the first campaign but very important results in the
second, when the glass powder was added with the plasticizer, which could be promoted to serve
the concrete industry, particularly the production of the self compacting concrete where high
performance concrete is required.

Research contents

“ Increase performance of RC beam by using powder glass ”


1. Chapter 1 : Introduction.

1.1. Abstract .
1.2. Problem and importance

1.3. Main aim and objective

1.4. Methodogy of research

1.5. Thesis contents

2. Chapter 2 : Concrete and its components .

2.1. Introduction

2.2. properties of concrete .

2.3. concrte components .

2.4. factors affecting concrete properties .

2.5. Mechnical compressive strength of concrete

2.6. Mechanical tensile strength of concrete .

2.7. properties of aggregate and its test.

2.8. properties of powder glass .

2.9. concrete mix design .

3. Chapter 3 : Concrete beam .

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Reinforced concrete beams

2.2.1. Flexural failure ( Crushing / tensile )

2.2.2. shear failure

2.3. Deep beams

2.4. Desgin deep beams .

4. Chapter 4 : Literature review .

5. Chapter 5 : Experimentation study .

5.1. Introduction .

5.2. specification of concrete components .

5.3. concrete mix design .

5.4. concrete strength tests :

5.4.1. compressive strength .

5.4.2. flexural tensile strength .

5.4.3. split tensile strength .

5.4.4. load – displacement ratio .

5.5. normal reinforced beams tests :

5.5.1. specimen details .

5.5.2. test description .

5.5.3. test results .

5.5.4. failure / collapse load .

5.5.5. cracks

5.5.6. load – displacement ratio .

5.5. deep reinforced beams tests :

5.5.1. specimen details .

5.5.2. test description .

5.5.3. test results .

5.5.4. failure / collapse load .

5.5.5. cracks

5.5.6. load – displacement ratio .

6. Chapter 6 : Analystical study using F.E.M .

6.1. Introduction .

6.2. Model Description .

6.3. Elements used in the model .

6.4. Model’s boundary condations .

6.5. Applied Load to the Model .

6.6. Type of used analysis .

6.7. Material used in modeling :

6.7.1. concrete compression strength

6.7.2. concrete tension strength .

6.7.3. steel tensile strength .

6.8. bond properties between concrete and reinforcement .

6.9. Mesh convergence .

6.10. applied specimen .

6.11. analytical results .

7. Chapter 7 : Conclusion & Recommendation .

7.1. Analysis results .

7.2. Research conclusion .

7.3. Recommendation for further research .


Prepared by :

Eng. Sherzad Ismail