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SONG

 ANALYSIS  CHECKLIST            
Name:  Andrew  Kennedy  
 
PLEASE  NOTE:  the  numbers  #1  and  #2  have  been  used  in  list  form  to  differentiate  the  two  
versions  of  the  song  in  this  analysis.  
 
CONTEXT  
• What  is  the  name  of  the  song  and  artist?    
1. Teardrop  by  Massive  Attack    
2. Teardrop  by  Jose  Gonzalez  
• What  year  was  the  song  released?  
1. Massive  attack  version  1998  
2. Jose  Gonzalez  version  2007  
• What  is  the  Genre?  
1. Trip  Hop  
2. Indie  Folk  
• Are  there  any  features  that  we  would  expect  to  see  in  this  genre?  
1. Trip  Hop  is  usually  slow  tempo,  electronic,  experimental  music  containing  influences  
of  soul,  funk  or  jazz.  
2. Indie  Folk  is  basically  the  same  as  folk  music  but  with  a  stronger  artistic  aesthetic  
and  a  “cooler”  mainstream  image.  
• What  other  music  was  around  at  the  time?    How  does  this  song  fit  in?  
1. Trip  Hop  originated  in  the  90’s  influenced  by  downtempo  electronic  music  such  as  
post-­‐acid-­‐house.      
2. Indie  folk  is  a  branch  of  the  “Indie-­‐Tree”  that  grew  in  the  90’s.    Indie  short  for  
Independent  music  which  sought  to  free  itself  from  mainstream  formulas  without  
influence  from  record  companies.    In  the  2000’s,  indie  folk  itself  has  become  
somewhat  mainstream  but  still  identifies  with  it’s  roots.  
• What  is  the  artist’s  background?    Did  their  influences  affect  the  sound?  
1. Massive  attack  are  a  duo  who  usually  use  guest  vocalists  and  instrumentalists.    
Generally,  their  music  is  experimental  and  artistic  rather  than  seeking  mainstream  
attention.    While  teardrop  was  one  of  their  most  commercially  successful  tracks,  it  
arguably  became  more  successful  in  hindsight  having  only  reached  #10  on  the  UK  
singles  chart  when  it  was  released.  
2. While  his  version  of  Teardrop  is  quite  different  from  Massive  Attack’s,  it  is  not  that  
different  from  the  rest  of  his  music.    This  song  appeared  on  his  2007  album  In  our  
nature  which  was  partially  influenced  by  atheism  and  several  books  Jose  Gonzalez  
had  been  reading  including  The  God  Delusion  by  Richard  Dawkins  and  Practical  
Ethics  by  Peter  Singer.    This  is  also  reflected  in  the  music  video  for  the  song.  
• What  else  do  you  know  about  the  context  of  the  song?  
1. Teardrop  has  been  covered  by  numerous  artists  and  is  often  used  on  TV  shows  
including  the  opening  credits  of  House.  
 
STRUCTURE  
• What  is  the  basic  structure  of  the  song?    (eg:  Intro,  Verse,  Chorus  etc..)  
1. Intro,  Piano  instrumental,  Verse  1,  Chorus  1,  Break  1,  Verse  2,  Chorus  2,  Break  2,  Verse  3,  
Chorus  3,  Tag,  Break  3,  Ending  
2. Intro,  Verse  1,  Instrumental,  Verse  2,  Instrumental,  Verse  3,  Instrumental,  Ending  
 
 
 
• What  is  the  advanced  structure  of  the  song?    (How  many  bars  exactly  for  each  section?)  
 
TEARDROP  –  Massive  Attack  
 
Intro  
Sound  effects  
|Drums     |Drums     |Drums     |Drums     |  
|Asus  (pedal)   |     |       |     |  
 
Piano  instrumental  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |  
 
Verse  1  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |A     |  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |A     |  
 
Chorus  1  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |A     |A     |  
 
Break  1  
|Asus  (pedal)   |     |     |  
 
Verse  2  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |A     |  
 
Chorus  2  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |A     |Fmaj7     |  
|Dm9     |Gadd9     |A     |A     |  
 
Break  2  
|Asus  (pedal)   |     |     |     |  
|       |     |     |     |  
 
Verse  3  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |A     |  
|A     |Gadd9     |Dadd9     |A     |  
 
Chorus  3  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |A     |  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |Fmaj7     |  
|A     |Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |  
|A     |Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |  
 
Tag  
|A  (stumbling)        |Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |  
|A  (stumbling)        |A     |  
 
Break  3  
|Drums  (NC)   |     |     |     |  
 
Ending  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |     |     |  
|Fmaj7     |Gadd9     |     |     |  
|Fmaj7       |  
 
TEARDROP    -­‐  JOSE  GONZALEZ  
 
Intro  
|D5     |D5     |D5     |D5     |  
 
Verse  1  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
 
Chorus  1  
|D5/F     |D5/G     |D     |D     |  
 
Break  1  
|D5     |D7(no  3rd)   |D7sus4   |D7sus4   |  
 
Verse  2  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
 
Chorus  2  
|D5/F     |D5/G     |D5     |D5     |  
 
Break  2  
|D5     |D7(no  3rd)   |D7sus4   |  
 
Verse  3  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
|D5     |D5     |D5/G     |D5     |  
 
Chorus  3  
|D5/F     |D5/F     |D5     |  
|D5/F     |D5/G     |D5/F     |  
 
Break  3  
|D5     |D7(no  3rd)   |Dsus4     |D5     |  
 
Ending  
|D5/Bb     |D5/C     |D5/Bb     |D5/C     |  
|D5add9     |  
 
• Are  all  the  instruments  playing  at  once  or  do  they  come  in  at  different  times?  
1. Each  instrument  is  introduced  one  at  a  time  in  a  staggered  entry.    Drums,  then  
harpsichord  pedal,  Piano  and  vocals.    Some  instruments  drop  out  during  the  Break  
sections.    There  are  also  some  extra  instruments  audible  in  the  background  such  as  
sustained  synth  notes  but  these  are  not  prominent  parts.  
2. This  version  is  primarily  just  acoustic  guitar  and  vocals.    The  guitar  is  constant  while  
the  vocal  drops  in  and  out  as  one  would  expect.    
• Can  you  hear  repetition,  variety,  contrast  or  development  of  ideas  within  the  structure?  
1. Trip  hop  is  generally  very  repetitive,  however,  there  are  numerous  subtle  touches  
that  have  been  used  to  create  variety  within  the  arrangement.    Probably  the  most  
repetitive  element  is  the  drums  and  harpsichord  pedal.    However,  the  harpsichord  
pedal  stops  in  Break  3.    Another  interesting  touch  that  wasn’t  immediately  apparent  
was  that  some  sections  have  uneven  numbers  of  bars  such  as  the  Piano  Instrumental  
and  Chorus  3.      
2. Jose  Gonzalez  version  also  features  sections  with  uneven  bars  such  as  Break  2  and  
Chorus  3.    
• Is  this  structure  typical  for  the  genre?  
1. I  don’t  think  uneven  numbers  of  bars  are  typical  in  Trip  Hop  or  electronic  music,  no.  
2. Uneven  numbers  of  bars  aren’t  common  in  Indie  folk  but  not  really  a  surprise  either.  
• Does  the  structure  fit  into  a  known  category?    (binary,  12  bar  blues,  through  composed)  
1. Verse/Chorus  structure  
2. Verse/Chorus  structure  
• Have  you  notice  anything  else  about  the  structure?  
No,  not  really.  
 
HARMONY  
• What  is  the  key?      
1. The  key  would  “appear”  to  be  D  major  apart  from  the  Fmaj7  chord.    However,  I  think  
it’s  really  in  A  mixolydian  based  on  the  melody  notes  and  the  constant  resolution  to  
A  major  chords.  
2. For  the  same  reasons,  I  would  say  this  song  is  in  the  key  of  D  mixolydian.  
• List  all  the  chords  used  in  the  song?  (Or  even  write  a  chart)  
See  charts  above.  
• Is  this  key  typical  of  certain  instruments?  
Both  A  mixolydian  and  D  mixolydian  would  suit  a  wide  variety  of  instruments  
• Has  the  composer  used  basic  chords  (triads)  or  advanced  chords?  (7ths,  9ths,  11ths  
13ths)  
1. The  chords  in  this  song  are  a  little  difficult  to  define.    No  one  instrument  seems  to  be  
playing  proper  chords,  the  “chord  sound”  comes  from  the  combined  sound  of  all  the  
instruments  and  melody.    The  piano  is  playing  root  notes  which  defines  the  chord  
names.    The  harpsichord  pedal  contains  the  notes  A,  D  and  E  which  combine  in  
different  ways  with  the  bass  notes.      For  instance,  when  these  notes  are  combined  
with  an  A  root  note,  they  form  an  Asus4  chord.    However,  I’ve  chosen  to  simply  
notate  this  chord  as  A  major  because  the  suspended  effect  is  not  prominent.    When  
combined  with  a  G  root  note,  the  effect  is  G6/9  with  no  third,  however  I’ve  chosen  to  
notate  it  as  Gadd9  as  the  6th  sound  is  not  prominent  to  my  ears  and  the  3rd  is  
contained  within  the  melody  notes.    When  combined  with  the  D  root  note  the  effect  
is  Dadd9  with  no  third.    However,  Dadd9  is  sufficient,  the  third  is  contained  in  the  
melody  notes.    When  combined  with  an  F  root  note,  the  effect  is  Fmaj7add6,  but  as  
the  6th  sound  is  not  prominent,  Fmaj7  is  sufficient.  
However,  this  analysis  is  based  only  on  the  combination  of  bass  notes,  melody  notes,  
and  harpsichord  notes.    There  “are”  other  notes  present  in  the  arrangements  in  
synth  parts,  but  these  are  too  subtle  to  really  be  referenced  in  the  chord  chart.    They  
are  more  colour  sounds  to  my  ears.  
2. The  predominant  sound  in  Jose  Gonzalez  version  of  Teardrop  is  that  of  a  perfect  5th  
drone.    With  his  guitar  tuned  DADABE  we  here  two  D’s  and  two  A’s  most  of  the  time  
but  with  no  third  to  imply  either  major  or  minor  tonality.    The  major  third  “is”,  
however,  present  in  the  vocal  melody  so  that  is  where  the  ear  is  eventually  pulled.    I  
chose  to  notate  all  the  chords  as  D5  with  various  bass  notes  beneath  because  I  think  
this  is  the  best  way  to  understand  and  hear  them.    I  also  think  that’s  probably  how  
the  composer  thought  of  them.    Each  time  a  new  bass  note  combines  with  the  D5  
chord  it  creates  a  different  effect.    For  instance,  D5/G  creates  a  Gadd9  effect,  D5/F  
creates  a  Dm/F  effect  (because  F  is  the  b3rd  of  Dm),  D5/Bb  creates  a  Bbmaj7  effect,  
and  as  D5/C  contains  no  third  it  creates  either  a  dominant  sounding  D7/C  effect  or  a  
minor  sounding  Dm7/C  effect  depending  on  how  you  hear  it.  There  are  some  more  
colourful  chords  in  the  breaks,  mostly  based  around  suspended  and  dominant  
sounds  in  order  to  build  tension.  
• Do  all  these  chords  belong  in  the  one  key  (diatonic)  or  are  there  unexpected  ones  too  
(non-­‐diatonic)?  
1. At  first  glance,  it  would  seem  that  most  of  the  chords  belong  in  the  key  of  D  major.    
However,  “D”  doesn’t  feel  like  home,  “A”  does.    This  is  also  reinforced  in  the  melody  
which  resolves  to  A  most  often.    Therefore  I’d  say  this  song  is  in  the  key  of  A  
mixolydian.      There  are  two  unexpected  chords:  Fmaj7  and  Dm  which  occur  mainly  
in  the  choruses.      
2. As  there  are  less  chords  in  Jose  Gonzalez  version,  there’s  less  evidence  to  point  
towards  D  mixolydian.      However,  as  the  melody  is  comprised  mainly  of  notes  from  
the  D  mixolydian  scale,  it’s  a  good  assumption  that  it’s  in  the  key  of  D  mixolydian.    If  
that’s  true,  then  the  chords  D/F,  D/Bb  and  D/C  don’t  really  fit.    Also  the  suspended  
chord  tones  in  the  breaks  aren’t  “diatonic”.  
• Can  you  explain  why  the  unexpected  chords  are  included  or  why  they  work?  
1. As  the  “unexpected  chords”  only  occur  briefly  and  always  resolve  back  to  A  
mixolydian  somehow,  I  would  regard  them  as  a  momentary  shift  in  tonality.    The  
thing  that  links  them  to  the  song  is  the  melody.  
2. The  unexpected  chords  in  this  version  work  for  the  same  reason,  because  they  fit  
with  the  melody  notes.  
• Is  there  tension  and  release  within  the  song’s  harmonic  structure?    
1. The  Fmaj7  chord  creates  some  tension  which  resolves  with  G  and  then  A.    These  
three  chords  are  not  uncommon  in  modern  rock/pop  music.    Similar  to  the  F,  G,  Am  
chord  progression  at  the  end  of  Stairway  to  Heaven.      
2. The  D5/F  chord  creates  tension  which  resolves  with  D5/G  and  then  D5.      In  the  same  
way,  the  D5/Bb  and  D5/C  chords  in  the  ending  resolve  to  Dadd9.  
• Are  there  any  known  harmonic  features  like  voice  leading,  cadence  or  four  part  
harmony?  
§ I  suppose  the  repetitive  riff  in  both  versions  could  be  considered  a  “Pedal”.  
§ Something  interesting  which  I  noticed  was  that  although  the  keys  of  the  two  
versions  were  different,  the  actual  notes  that  the  pedal  riffs  are  made  of  are  the  
same.    By  using  the  same  notes,  but  with  different  chords,  each  artist  has  made  
those  notes  have  a  different  effect  on  the  ear.  
MELODY  
• Is  there  a  melody?  What  is  it  played  or  sung  on?  
1. There  is  a  vocal  melody  and  a  pedal  riff  on  a  harpsichord.  
2. There  is  a  vocal  melody  and  a  pedal  riff  played  on  with  fingerstyle  guitar.  
• What  are  the  notes  of  the  melody?    (Write  them  down)  
 
1. Pedal Riff Notes (Massive Attack)

Notes - A D A E A D E
Beats - 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +

2. Pedal Riff Notes (Jose Gonzalez)


 
Notes - D D A D D D A D D D A D E D A D
Beats - 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 +
1. Vocal Melody notes (Massive Attack)

A A A E E G D D E D C A A
Love love love is a verb, love is a do-o-ing word.

G G E D D D D C# D E
Fe-e-earless on my, bre-e--e-eath.
 
 
2. Vocal Melody notes (Jose Gonzalez)

D D D A A C G G A G F D D
Love love love is a verb, love is a do-o-ing word.

C C A G G G G F# G A
Fe-e-earless on my, bre-e--e-eath.
 

*NOTE: The letters in bold underline above are “outside”


notes.
 
• Is  the  melody  constructed  from  a  known  scale?  (major,  minor,  pentatonic,  whole  tone)  
§ Both  melodies  basically  stick  to  the  mixolydian  scale;  A  mixolydian  for  Massive  
Attack  and  D  mixolydian  for  Jose  Gonzalez.    However,  both  melodies  play  a  
flattened  3rd  on  the  lyric  “doing”  (noted  above)  which  momentarily  gives  the  
sound  of  the  blues  scale.  
• Does  the  melody  stay  within  the  key  or  are  there  outside  notes?    Is  the  vocalist  perfectly  
in  tune?  
§ As  you  can  see  in  the  above  notes,  both  melodies  feature  an  outside  note  on  the  
word  “doing”.    This  is  a  flattened  3rd.  
• Does  the  melody  span  a  small  range  or  a  large  range?  
§ The  melody  in  both  songs  spans  about  an  octave.  
• Does  it  move  slowly  or  quickly?  
§ I  would  say  the  melody  moves  at  a  moderate  speed  with  both  long  notes  and  
faster  groups  of  notes.  
• Are  there  phrasing  features  like  pitch  bending,  sliding  or  vibrato?  
§ Both  vocalists  expressive  phrasing  but  nothing  that  really  stands  out  as  being  
worth  mentioning.  
• Is  the  melody  typical  of  this  genre?  
§ I’d  say  it  feels  about  right.  
 
TEXTURE  
• Are  there  a  lot  of  instruments  (dense  sound)  or  very  few  (thin  sound)?  
1. Massive  Attack’s  version  sounds  quite  full  and  thick  although  there  are  
not  actually  that  many  musical  parts.      The  prominent  parts  are  Drums,  
Harpsichord,  Piano  and  Vocals.    Extra  instruments  that  I  hear  are  bass  
guitar  and  many  background  synth  parts.  
2. Jose  Gonzalez  version  is  based  mainly  on  just  classical  guitar  and  voice  
though  there  are  extra  subtle  parts  such  as  vocal  doubling  and  
percussion.    Despite  the  small  number  of  instruments  it  never  sounds  
thin,  this  could  be  partly  due  to  the  way  he  plays  as  well  as  the  way  the  
song  was  recording.      
• How  do  the  instruments  combine  at  different  times  to  affect  texture?  
1. Massive  attack’s  version  has  nicely  blended  parts.    The  harpsichord,  piano  
and  voice  are  all  playing  different  parts  but  there  is  really  no  conflict.    
However,  I  wouldn’t  really  go  as  far  as  to  call  it  polyphony  as  the  vocal  is  
really  the  only  melody.    The  texture  becomes  sparser  during  the  breaks,  the  
harpsichord  and  piano  drop  out  leaving  drums,  bass  and  synth.    
2. The  texture  doesn’t  really  change  throughout  the  song,  however,  the  doubled  
vocals  do  help  thicken  and  support  his  voice.  
• Does  the  tone  of  certain  instruments  make  them  sound  deliberately  thicker  or  thinner?    
(Eg:  Distorted  guitars  =  dense,  Acoustic  DI  pickup  =  thin)  
1. I’d  say  the  most  obviously  affected  sound  is  the  drums  which  are  slightly  
distorted  and  have  a  vinyl  crackle  effect  added  on.    This  makes  them  sound  
smoother,  warmer  and  shifts  them  away  from  the  upper  frequencies  and  
helps  them  fill  out  the  bass  and  lower  mid  frequencies  in  the  mix.  
2. Despite  using  only  a  classical  guitar,  Jose  Gonzalez  manages  to  extract  a  wide  
range  of  tones  which,  in  turn,  affect  the  texture  of  the  song.    From  delicate  
arpeggios  on  the  top  3-­‐4  strings  to  percussive  slapping  on  the  deeper  strings.  
• Are  all  the  instruments  playing  the  same  thing?    Or  are  there  multiple  parts?  
1. Multiple  parts,  each  doing  something  different.  
2. One  instrument,  one  voice.    However,  you  could  argue  that  the  guitar  is  
actually  playing  multiple  parts  consisting  of  both  pedal  riff  and  bass  notes.  
• How  does  the  register  the  instruments  are  played  in  affect  the  texture?  
1. The  mix  is  carefully  spread  out  so  as  not  to  be  too  cluttered  in  any  one  
register.    From  lowest  to  highest:  Bass,  Drums,  Piano,  Vocal,  Harpsichord,  
Synth  Parts.  
2. Jose  uses  the  full  register  of  the  guitar  at  different  times,  from  the  detuned  
lowest  string  to  the  10th  fret  of  the  top  string.    He  uses  this  to  create  interest  
within  the  song.    
• How  does  the  way  the  parts  are  voiced  on  their  particular  instruments  affect  the  texture?    
(eg:  notes  close  together  or  far  apart?)  
1. As  mentioned,  the  arrangement  is  fairly  spread  out.    With  lower  notes  further  
apart  (piano)  and  higher  notes  closer  together  (synth,  harpsichord  pedal)  
2. For  the  most  part,  the  guitar  chords  and  arpeggios  stay  reasonably  close  
together  due  to  how  far  the  hand  can  stretch  across  the  fretboard.    However,  
during  the  breaks,  Jose  moves  higher  up  the  fretboard  while  keeping  the  deep  
bottom  D  string  ringing,  this  creates  a  wider  voicing.  
• Does  the  Texture  fit  into  a  known  category  (Monophony,  Homophony,  Polyphony?  
• Neither  song  really  fits  into  a  particular  texture  category.  
• How  has  the  way  the  song  was  recorded  or  mixed  affected  it’s  texture?  
1. Through  mixing  effects  like  equalisation  and  reverb,  all  parts  have  been  
“fattened”  with  the  combined  texture  appearing  denser  than  it  would  
normally  be.  
2. Jose’s  guitar  sounds  huge.    Recording  and  mixing  would  have  to  play  a  part  in  
that.    Perhaps  multiple  microphones,  subtle  room  reverb  and  EQ.  
 
TIMBRE  (Tone)  
• Describe  the  timbre  of  each  instrument  
1. Drums  –  warm,  lightly  distorted,  vinyl  crackle;    Piano  –  Deep,  clear,  wide.    Bass  
–  dull,  warm,  round;  Harpsichord  –  thin,  high  pitched,  sparkly;  Voice  –  
ethereal,  soft,  soaring;  Synths  –  Wide,  spacious,  ribbon-­‐like.  
2. Guitar  –  realistic,  lush,  articulate;  Vocal  –  soft,  mid-­‐rangy,    
• Is  there  variety/contrast  of  timbre  in  the  way  each  part  is  played  or  sung?  
1. Probably  the  only  part  that  varies  its  timbre  is  the  vocalist  (Elizabeth  Fraser)  
who  is  known  for  her  huge  expressive  range.  
2. Jose’s  voice  doesn’t  really  change  in  timbre,  though  the  guitar  does  display  a  
range  of  timbres.    
• Has  the  timbre  of  each  instrument  been  modified  either  by  electronic  means  or  by  being  
played  in  an  unconventional  way?  
1. Pretty  much  all  the  parts  have  been  modified  or  manipulated  in  some  way.    
Mainly  the  drums.  
2. The  guitar’s  timbre  is  being  manipulated  by  the  way  it’s  being  played  more  
than  mixing  techniques.    From  soft  harp-­‐like  tones  to  percussive  slapping.  
• How  has  the  timbre  of  the  instruments  affected  the  Texture  of  the  song?  
1. Yes,  I’d  say  that  the  combination  of  affected  sounds  makes  the  track  sound  
quite  affected  overall.  
2. Yes,  I’d  say  that  the  minimal  instrumentation  contributes  to  the  overall  
texture.    It  allows  the  listener  to  focus  more  easily  on  the  details.  
• Are  the  timbre’s  used  in  the  song  typical  of  this  genre?  
Yes,  although  I’d  say  that  Jose  Gonzalez  vocal  timbre  is  quite  unique  and  allows  
him  to  stand  out  among  indi-­‐folk  artists.  
• Has  the  register  the  instruments  are  played  in  affected  the  timbre?  
1. The  piano  tone  sounds  very  deep  and  expansive  by  playing  it  in  the  lower  
register.    The  vocal  seems  to  be  sitting  right  in  the  middle  of  it’s  register  
which  allows  the  vocalist  to  sound  relaxed  and  smooth.  
2. The  higher  up  the  guitar  that  Jose  plays  (in  the  breaks)  the  thinner  the  tone  
becomes  which  it  allows  the  Verse  which  follows  to  be  more  powerful.    
• Has  the  way  the  song  was  recorded  affected  it’s  overall  tone?  
1. Yes,  I’d  say  the  overall  tone  has  been  carefully  sculpted  with  music  
technology,  however,  as  far  as  electronic  music  goes,  this  sounds  very  
musical.    Warm,  mysterious,  dream  like.  
2. Yes,  it  sounds  very  natural.  
 
DURATION  (Rhythm)  
• What  tempo  is  the  song?  
1. 77bpm  
2. 76bpm  
• What  time  signature  is  the  song?  
1. 4/4  
2. 4/4  
• Does  the  song  have  a  repetitive  rhythm  or  does  the  rhythm  change?  
1. The  drum  beat  is  extremely  repetitive  as  are  most  of  the  elements  in  the  song.    
Each  repetitive  element  has  it’s  own  rhythm  eg:  drums,  harpsichord.  
2. While  the  notes  of  the  chords  may  change,  the  rhythm  of  the  right  hand  
fingerstyle  pattern  is  basically  the  same  throughout.  
• Is  there  an  instrument  that  seems  to  drive  the  rhythm  primarily?  
1. Harpsichord  and  Drums  
2. Guitar  and  percussion  
• Are  there  instruments  or  parts  that  are  non-­‐rhythmic?  
1. The  synth  parts  
2. Not  really  no.    All  parts  are  rhythmic.  
• Can  you  identify  rhythmic  accents  or  phrasing  within  the  song?  
1. Probably  the  most  important  observation  is  that  the  drum  beat  mimics  a  
heart  beat  pattern.  
2. Nothing  that  really  stands  out  as  being  significant  
• Is  the  rhythm  straight  or  swung?  
Both  songs  are  straight  
• Is  there  any  syncopation?  
1. Yes,  but  only  really  in  the  vocal  phrasing  
2. Same.  
• Is  there  any  use  of  silence  or  space?  
Both  songs  have  instruments  drop  out  in  the  breaks.  
• Does  the  rhythm  fit  into  a  particular  genre?  (8  beat,  rock,  jazz,  Latin)  
1. Trip  hop  or  slow  rock/funk  16  beat  
2. No  drum  beat  but  rhythmic  subdivisions  in  the  guitar  part  seem  to  be  16th  
notes.  
• Are  there  rhythmic  features  you  can  identify?    (polyrhythm,  triplets,  eighth  notes,  
paradiddles)  
o In  Jose  Gonzalez  version,  I  noticed  that  when  the  chords  change,  the  new  bass  notes  
don’t  fall  on  beat  one,  but  half  a  beat  later  on  1  “and”.  
 
DYNAMICS  (Volume)  
• How  would  you  describe  the  overall  volume  of  the  song?  
1. Medium  volume  
2. Spanning  low  to  high  volume.  
• Do  the  dynamics  change  much  throughout  the  song?  
1. Not  really  
2. Yes,  there  is  a  wide  range  of  dynamics  within  the  song  from  soft  to  loud  and  
back  to  soft.  
• Do  the  dynamics  of  individual  parts  change  in  relation  to  each  other?    Do  you  think  this  a  
result  of  performance  or  mixing?  
1. To  my  ears,  this  sounds  like  a  “set-­‐and-­‐forget”  mix.    The  balance  of  the  mix  
doesn’t  really  seem  to  change  much  from  start  to  end.  
2. While  the  overall  volume  of  the  song  changes,  the  balance  of  the  parts  don’t  
change  too  much  in  relation  to  eachother.  
• Is  volume  used  to  accent  certain  notes  or  phrases?  
1. Not  really  no  
2. Jose  slightly  emphasises  the  pedal  riff  notes  that  land  on  beats.    He  also  
emphasise  the  bottom  D  string  notes  by  slapping  them  fairly  hard  with  his  
thumb,  especially  in  the  first  break  and  2nd  verse.  
• Have  electronic  devices  been  used  to  alter  the  dynamics  (compression?)  
1. As  there  is  not  much  change  in  dynamics  through  the  song,  I  would  assume  
that  compression  has  been  used  on  every  track  as  well  as  in  the  Mastering  
stage  to  keep  the  levels  consistent.  
2. Jose’s  version  retains  much  more  dynamics  which  would  indicate  that  less  
compression  has  been  used.  
• Are  the  dynamics  of  the  song  typical  of  this  genre?  
Yes,  I’d  say  the  dynamics  are  typical  of  both  genres.