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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

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Wind energy developments and policies in China: A short review MARK

Bikash Kumar Sahu
MI Solar India Pvt Ltd, Madhav House, Plot No. 4, Near Panchratna Tower, Subhanpura, Vadodara 390023, Gujarat, India


Keywords: Wind energy is the most prominent energy source among all the renewables. However, this technology was not
Wind energy covered in the worldwide before the last three decades. Currently, this energy has been most popularized in the
Wind energy developments worldwide and some of the countries are started their projections on this sector. The countries like China, USA,
Investments Germany, India and Spain have leaded by the installation capacities of wind energy in the global markets.
Wind energy curtailments
During the last decade, China shared the highest wind energy capacities in the world. Chinese government has
Wind energy policy
been providing the attractive policies for the local wind energy manufacturing companies with the developers.
Also, from the last 2–3 years’ scenario, it has been observed that the Chinese government has also emphasised
the policies especially for the outside wind energy manufacturing companies. This paper presents a compressive
overview on current developments of wind energy, potentials, contributions of wind manufacturers and
developers, wind energy curtailments, mismatching between the generating power and installed capacities,
investments, policies and its impacts and future prospectus of wind energy developments in China.

1. Introduction Paris, known as COP21 and 195 countries agreed to act for zero carbon
gas emissions by the second half of the century [5].
Human needs energy in their daily life for cooking, lighting, By the end of 2015, the total renewable energy capacity was
communications and other important works. Since nearly 1985, fossil exceeded by 1849 GW which was more 8.7% over 2014 and renewable
fuels have dominated the other energy sources but, it helps to grow up comprised more than 28.9% of total global generating power capacity
the carbon dioxides percentages in the atmosphere which causes for the which capable to generate 23.7% of the total global electricity. In 2015,
environmental pollutions. Again, the energy generation from fossil alone solar and wind energy added more than 77% of total renewable
fuels are also going to decrease in day to day because the shortage of energy capacities whereas hydro energy rose by 2.7% to an estimated
the sources as per the requirements. According to the estimations done 1064 GW, accounting for approximately 19% of additions. In 2015,
by International Energy Agency (IEA), the global energy demand will renewables accounted with 60% of net additions to global power
be raised by 1.6% annually, with nearly about 65% of increase from capacity and represented far higher shares of capacity added in several
developing countries [1]. As per the International Energy Agency's countries around the world. The growth of renewable energy shares
demand scenario, the total energy consumptions will be raised by 75% also pointed out in different countries and regions such as European
from the year 2008–2035 [2]. The electrical energy production of the Union, the renewable energy accounted that more than 77% added
world in 2004 was 17,450 TWh and estimated that the world energy during 2015. By end of the year 2015, China was the leading user
consumption will be 31,675 TWh by 2030 [3]. The global energy country for providing of the highest renewable energy (including
demand distribution changes more dramatically with essentially more power, heating and transport) followed by United States, Brazil,
use in Europe, Japan, Korea and North America. The rising of energy Germany and Canada respectively. In the new installed non hydro
consumptions concentrated in the rest of Asia (60% of the global total), renewable energy capacities, European Union shared 35.1% of total
Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. The deployment of RE capacities followed by BRICS countries of 33.3% [6].
technologies has been increasing very rapidly in the recent years, and As on Global Wind Statistics 2016 published by GWEC, the global
shares has been projected increase to substantially under most wind energy cumulative capacities reached 486.74 GW with the new
ambitious mitigation scenarios. However, the additional policies would installation of 54.6 GW at the end of 2016. Among the regional
be required to attract the necessary increasing of investments in the distributions, Asia Specific leaded with the total installed capacities
technologies and infrastructures of renewable energy [4]. In December by 203.6 GW followed by total EU 166.3 GW, North America 97.6 G,
2015, there was a conference among the nations on climate changes at Latin America and Caribbean 15.29 GW, Specific Region 4.9 GW and

E-mail address:
Received 18 January 2016; Received in revised form 4 April 2017; Accepted 21 May 2017
Available online 16 June 2017
1364-0321/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

Africa and Middle East 3.9 GW. Among the countries, the top ten new several numbers of solar photovoltaic plants going ahead.
installed countries were China 23.32 GW followed by USA 8.20 GW, Europe was invested USD 71.2 billion up by 3%, which helped to
Germany 5.44 GW, India 3.61 GW, Brazil 2 GW, France 1.56 GW, the developments of offshore and larger scale of onshore wind energy
Turkey 1.38 GW, Netherland 0.88 GW, UK0.73 GW, Canada 7 GW and projects ever financed one GW, USD1.3 billion Fosen complex in
rest of the world 6.72 GW respectively. Similarly, by cumulative Norway. In Europe, UK leaded by investments with his third con-
installed capacities, China 168.69 GW, USA 82.18 GW, Germany jugative successful years by $ USD 26 billion with increase of 2%
50 GW, India 28.7 GW, Spain 23 GW, UK 14.54 GW, France 12 GW, followed by Germany USD 15.3 billion down by 16%. France USD 3.6
Canada 11.9 GW, Brazil 10.74 GW, Italy 9.25 GW and rest of the world billion down by 5%, Belgium USD 3 billion up by 179%, Denmark USD
75.57 GW respectively [7]. 2.7 billion up by 102%, Sweden USD 2 billion up by 85% and Italy USD
In 2013, the new investments were less from 2012 and 2011 2.3 billion up by 11%.
scenarios, this was due to uncertainty of incentives in US and EU Among the developing countries, many quickly investments in the
countries, and cheapest of the technologies. Even the combined projects were not secured the finance in the won capacity of renewable
investments of EU countries are less than alone the investment by energy auctions in during 2016. Investment in South Africa was USD
China [67]. By the end of 2015, it accounted that the total global new 919 million down by 76%, Chile USD 826 million down by 80%, Mexico
investments in renewable energy sectors (not included hydro power < USD 1 billion down by 59%, Uruguay USD 433 million down by 74%
50 MW) were USD 285.9billion which was 5% more from 2014 [8]. In and Brazil USD 6.9 billion down by 4% respectively.
non-hydro capacities, the top countries were China, the United States Among the sectors and categories, the biggest seven financings were
and Germany followed by Japan, India, Italy and Spain. China made in all offshore wind energy sectors in Europe, but there were also large
the historical records by investing of USD 102.9 billion alone in 2015. deals in Chinese offshore wind (300 MW, USD 810 Million at Hebei
Even due to this large investment in China, was up 17% on the previous Laoting Putidao array), solar thermal (110 MW, USD 805 Million at
year and 36% of world's investments. In 2015, the developing countries Ashalim II Negev plant in Israel), solar PV (580 MW, USD 702 Million
like China, Brazil and India were invested with a total of $156 billion, at 31 Dominion SBL Portfolio in the US), biomass (299 MW, USD 841
which was 19% more than 2014 scenario. But, as on Bloomberg New Million at Tees project in UK) and geothermal (100 MW, USD 612
Energy Finance (BNEF) reports, in 2016 the total global investment on Million at Bolivia) respectively.
renewable energy sector was USD 287.1 billion which is fell by 18% as Among other categories, small scale projects like size less than
comparatively to 2015 scenario. This is due to fallen of prices of 1 MW including solar rooftop attracted by 28% less investment than
equipment particularly solar photovoltaic systems and less investments 2015 and the total investment of this category was $39.8 bn in 2016
of two countries China and Japan. In renewable energy investments, due to falling costs of solar systems rather than decline of interest from
China was invested USD 88.2 billion in 2016, down by 26% as buyers.
compared USD 119.1 billion in 2015, while Japan was invested USD The investments of Public markets quoted by renewable energy
22.8 billion, down by 43% from 2015 and this is due to cutting of new companies invested USD12.1 billion in 2016, down by 21%. Venture
large scale projects. China is struggling for slowing of power demand capital and private equity investment raised by 19% to USD 7.5 billion,
and growing of wind and solar curtailments. Now, Chinese Government with the largest investment coming from two Chinese electric vehicle
is given his interests on investments in grids and reforming the power businesses, Le Holdings and WM Motor Technology by USD 1.1 billion
market so that the renewables can able to replace other sources by and USD 1 Billion respectively. US solar developer Sunnova took the
100% with their full potential. In Japan, growth of utility scale projects third position by investment of USD 300 million.
was comparatively less but rooftop solar capacities installed were In taking of all categories of the investments, solar sector was again
attracted by consumers for increasingly favourable economics of self- dominated by USD 113.7 billion, but this was 34% down on 2015
consumption. Similarly, US invested USD 58.8 billion, but developers levels, due to large falling of costs of the solar projects per MW followed
took longer time to progress wind and solar projects eligible for the tax by wind USD112.5 billion down by 9%, energy smart technologies USD
credits that were extended by Congress in December 2015. Canada was 41.6 Billion up by 29%, biomass USD 6.8 billion, and biofuels USD 2.2
down by 46% at USD 2.4 billion. billion down by 37%, small hydro USD 3.5 billion same as previous
For the Investment in Asia-Pacific region including India and China year, low-carbon services USD 4.3 billion up by 5%, geothermal USD
down by 26% to USD 134.5 billion, some 47% of the world total. India 2.7 billion up by 17%, and marine energy USD 194 million, down by
was almost equivalent with 2015 investments, at USD 9.7 billion, with 7% [9]. The new investments of renewable energy in the regions from

The new investments of renewable energy by region basis (2004-2015)

350 USA Brazil
AMER (Excl. Brazil and US) Europe
Middle East and Africa China
300 India ASOC(Excl India& China)






2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Fig. 1. The new investments of renewable energy by region basis (2004–2015).

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

2004 to 2015 is shown in Fig. 1. 2030. China's energy choices will be a major influence on the world's
In the moderate scenario, the GWO, 2012 said that the total ability to curb climate change. In November 2014, President Xing
installation capacities of wind energy would be reached 143 GW, Jinping announced that China will be reduced the carbon dioxide
217 GW and 414 GW by 2016, 2020 and 2030 respectively. As the emissions and will increase the non-fossil fuel as primary energy
result the total investment for wind energy developments would be € consumptions by 20% in 2030 [32].
24 billion per year by 2020. These investments will create a huge job in As China is a fastest developing country, its historical low emission
industries and estimated that 319,000 jobs by 2020 and 376,000 jobs makes the challenges for future developments of renewable energy
by 2030. sectors. Already, Chinese Government has been extended the hands
China is the fastest growing economy and 1st populous county in with the local or foreign manufacturers and developers in all possible
the world, the energy demand is rapidly increasing, number of cities supports for the developments. China has massive potential for
have been facing the energy lacks and environmental pollutions. In harnessing the renewables to the power. Currently, nearly about 20%
current days, China has become the third economic system and the of the country's electricity is coming from renewables. Under the
largest developing country in the world. The energy and environmental business-as-usual scenario, this rises to 30% by 2030 and with RE map
issues in China have large effects on the world economic sustainable 2030 options, it approaches 40%. Hydroelectricity is the largest
development [10]. According to the Environmental Performance Index generation, as on today, but wind and solar PV would see the largest
(EPI) produced by Yale University and Columbia University in 2014, growth and would play an essential role. China's turbine market growth
China position was 118 in 178 countries worldwide for their environ- is supported by the internal market drivers such as government
mental performance. The poisonous gas which has appeared in many supportive through the various subsidies, increasing turbine demand
Chinese cities, harms the people's health and interferes with economic from existing and proposed wind farms and inexpensive raw materials
sustainable development. In the context of rapid economic develop- availability. China will also be the best place for turbine and component
ment, China's environmental pollution has been becoming more manufacturing with top 15 OEMs’ are expected to have presence in the
severe. As China will build a further 1000 GW of power generation country. However, policies and regulations in China are mainly
capacity in the next decades, therefore, the country sets installed supporting instruments for the domestic players. About 70% of turbine
doubling capacity of power plants and will become the world's largest components should be manufactured within china as per government
power generation capacity country [11]. The Chinese government has rule [11]. The IEA's World Energy Outlook 2016 estimated that China
been setting up a target to reduce the energy intensity (energy gives 3.5 million jobs in the renewable energy sectors out of 8.1 million
consumed per GDP) by 31% within the period of 2010–2020. renewable energy jobs globally.
During the last few years, it has been observed that wind energy is According to the China's 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020), energy
one of the most prominent energy source among all renewable energy consumptions and carbon emissions per unit of GDP (carbon intensity)
sources in the Chinese energy markets [8]. As per the Moderate will be cut by 15% and 18% respectively. Overall, the country will
scenario GWO 2010, the global wind power would be saved the reduce the dependence on coal and promote the clean energy devel-
emission of CO2 about 1.2 billion tons per year by 2020 and that opments, notably through this commitment nuclear energy capacity
would be raised to 2.6 billion tonnes per year by 2030. The installed will be 58 GW by 2020, with an additional 30 GW under construction
capacity of wind energy globally produces 340 TWh of clean electricity which needs in between six and eight nuclear reactors are to be
and save 204 million tons of carbon dioxide in every year [12]. The commissioned each year. The wind and solar capacity will be expanded
world's wind energy resource is larger than the needs by humanity. In to 250 GW and 150 GW by 2020 respectively [16]. Based on this target,
the IEA New Policies scenario, wind power contribution will be the new installation of wind energy would shift from the three
1500 TWh of electricity to the global energy mix in 2020 which is the Northern Provinces i.e. including of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu
twice of wind power produce by 2013 (~620 TWh) For surface winds and other northern provinces to Central, Eastern, and Southern China
over land globally, Archer and Jacobson estimated that the wind provinces.
resource is at 72 terawatt (TW), nearly five times the 13 TW world's In 2001, China began the focused on energy sectors, especially on
demand for all energy [13]. The capital investments of wind turbines clean energy developments, and set the targets for installations of wind
have been decreasing from day to day in the current situations. As per energy, solar energy, hydroelectric dams, and other renewable re-
GWO scenarios, the turbine costs were averaged €1252 per kW in 2013 sources. China initiated to employ wind energy from an early year. It
and projected that it will be €1241 per kW by the end of 2030. was in 1958 that some provinces and cities started for research and
Similarly, in moderate scenario, prices will be dropped about €1214/ manufacture of 5 kW small wind energy water pumping generators. In
kW in 2020 to €1203/kW by 2030. The projections in installed costs, 1978 saw that the introduction of 100 W and 250 W wind energy
investments and employments by IEA's New policies scenario, 450 machinery employed for pumping water and production of power [14].
scenario and GWEC's moderate scenario and advanced scenario are It has been observed that wind energy developments in China is
shown in the Fig. 2. The investments of wind energy with improve- growing very fastest in the last decade. In 2006, the program drove in
ments of technologies trends to increased towards using of offshore China double its wind power capacity, it doubled again the following
wind potential, it made the industries to grow with the compound year and again the year after that [17]. By the end of 2016, the net
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6% in per year installed and 17% in electricity consumption was 5919.8 billion kw h, an increase of 5.0%
cumulative installed capacity between 2010 and 2015. from 2015 scenario, out of which the first industry electricity con-
Under Business as Usual Scenario, both Chinese Renewable Energy sumption was 107.5 billion kw h, an increase of 5.3% from 2015
Centre and IRENA, have projected that the share of modern renew- scenario; secondary industry electricity was 4210.8 billion kw h, an
ables (excluding of traditional uses of biomass energy) will increase increase of 2.9% from 2015 scenario; tertiary industry electricity was
from about 7% in 2010 to 16% by 2030. In the Reference Case, IEA has 796.1 billion kw h, an increase of 11.2% from 2015 scenario; urban and
projected that total power generation will be reached 93 TW h/year by rural residents living electricity was 805.4 billion kw h, an increase of
2030 of which wind energy will be shared 650 TW h/year [15]. It is 10.8% from 2015 scenario respectively [18]. Similarly, by the end of
projected that China Wind energy installed capacities will be reached 2016, China achieved the wind energy generation capacities by 241
201.178 GW (33% of total global wind energy capacities) and billion kW h with increase of 30.1% from 2015 scenario and the solar
361.8 GW (31% of total global wind energy capacities) by 2020 and energy generation achieved by 66.2 billion kW h with increase of 72%
2030 respectively in IEA's New Policies Scenarios. from 2015 scenario respectively [19].
China is one of the world's leading energy consumer and expected The energy policy gives the addresses for developments of the wind
that energy consumptions will be increased by 60% of world's energy by energy through the industries, the growth rate of energy productions

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

Fig. 2. Projections for wind energy installed costs, investments and employments by 2020,2030,2040 and 2050.

and consumptions. The energy policy is included by countries’ legisla- in upper case, with the wind electricity calculated at 1243 TWh and
tions, international treaties, incentives for investments, the countries 2643 TWh correspondingly [23].
target for energy generation, guidelines of energy conservations, job The “The Northern Areas” (Northeast, North and Northwest China)
creations, rural energy developments, strategic simulation of the have huge wind energy potentials. These areas are the key regions for
energy industry, taxations, feed in tariffs and other important policies developments of wind energy in China. The region includes 14
respectively. So, the analysing of energy policies could be changed to provinces such as Hei Longjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Beijing, Tianjin,
the promotions of wind energy developments and also it can provide Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shannxi, Gansu, Qinghai,
the updates of wind energy in state or provincials, nationals and Ningxia, and Xinjiang. In western part of Inner Monglolia has also
international levels [17]. The additional wind energy policies support huge amounts of wind energy resources including the areas like
the investments and technologies in Chinese markets. China has Ulaanchab City, Xilin Gol League, Baotou City, Bayan Naoer City,
studied with a range of policy instruments to encourage renewable Hohhot City, Ordos City, Alxa League and Erlianhaote City. In these
energy deployment. Also, China will implement some important areas, the wind energy development programmes are already under the
policies such that major generators and grid companies, formulated planning and constructions. There are 12 large wind energy power
as the percentage of total generation will be coming from renewable plants will dominate by Jiqing, Dabanliang, Honggeer and Wulan in
energy [20]. This paper is presented on the successes and challenges of Ulanqab City, Zhurihe, Xianghuang Banner, Taibai, Duolan,
wind energy technologies in China, wind energy policy and its impacts, Huitengliang in Xilin Gol League, Wuchuan in Hohhot City and
investments, developments of wind energy by manufacturers, wind Guyang in Baotou City during the period 2016–2020. Similarly, in
energy curtailments, wind power transmissions by UHV transmission eastern part of Inner Mongolia has also rich wind energy resources.
lines, competitiveness of the local wind markets and power productions The areas like Ongniud Banner and Hexigten Banner of Chifeng City
in China. and Songshan District has flat terrain, high altitude and good wind
energy resources, with the average wind speed reaching 8.0–9.3 m/s at
2. Wind energy resources and developments in China a height of 70 m and the power density 700–1200 W/m2. The wind
energy resources in Tongliao and Xingan League are average.
China lies in the north-eastern part of East Asia between 4° and 53° Hulunbuir, located in the Greater Khingan area, has a large forest
North latitude and 73° to 135° East longitude with an area of 9.6 covered area, great unevenness in the ground and relatively poor wind
million km2. According to the results of the Third Nationwide Survey of energy resources [24]. In other areas, especially Southwest China like
Wind Energy Resources organized by the China Meteorological Yunnan and Guizhou provinces have achieved the wind power in the
Administration in 2004–2005, China's vast land areas and long coast- annual growth rate of 129%. The Inland areas have good wind energy
lines possess one of the world's largest wind resources. It has a total sources usually 100 W/m2 outside of two abundant regions. However,
exploitable wind energy resource of about 4350 GW, of which about there are two regions due to influences lakes and special terrain. The
1000 GW onshore and 200 GW offshore can be commercially devel- southeast coastal region has also sufficient wind energy potentials.
oped with currently existing technologies [21]. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau However, the coastal regions and its island areas are affected by cold air
have estimated that wind energy potentials in the height of 10 m is of winter and spring as well the typhoons of summer and autumn, too.
about 2548 GW [22]. Whereas according to the National Wind Energy This region covers with 10 kms wide strips including of Shandong,
Resources Census, the country has potential up to 700–1200 GW in Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan,
both onshore and offshore wind energy system. Davidson et al. (2016) and other provinces. The effective wind power density is higher than
studied the technical potential, economic potential, and grid-integrated 200 W/m2, and the available hours are 7000–8000 [25]. The Fig. 3
potential of China's wind energy has got that the technical potential of shows the total wind energy density distributions map in China.
onshore wind electricity is 22.5 PWh, and the economic potential is According to the projections by Green Peace, China's wind energy
17.8 PWh [70]. HE G and Kammen (2014) has found that the onshore capacity will be reached at least 150 GW or possibly up to 230 GW,
potential of wind power based on 200 wind stations from 2001 to 2010, which could cut the carbon dioxides by 410 million tons of CO2
in which they used a 2 MW wind turbine. The national total technical emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption in energy system in
availabilities of onshore wind are 832 GW in lower case and 1805 GW different scenarios by 2020. This positive projection of 230 GW of wind

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

Fig. 3. Wind energy map in China, Source: [66] (Permission is taken from author).

energy equal to 13 times the capacity of the Three Gorges Dam, with Inner Mongolia Hebei Gansu Shandong Xinjiang
the ability to replace power generated from 200 coal fire power plants 25,000.00
According to the survey by China Meteorological Administration
(CMA), using of 400 wind farms in different power densities grades at 15,000.00

different heights 70 m, 100 m and 120 m respectively. CMA has also 10,000.00
developed a wind energy numerical simulation and evaluation system
(WERAS/CWERA) to carry out the historical data filtering, numerical
simulation and geographical information system (GIS) analysis. 0.00
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Through the GIS analysis process found that, for grade 2 or higher
(wind power density is greater than or equal to 200 W/m2), grade 3 or Fig. 5. The cumulative of wind energy installed capacities of top five provinces in China
higher (wind power density is greater than or equal to 300 W/m2) and (2008–2015).
grade 4 or higher (wind power density is greater than or equal to
400 W/m2), the wind technical potentials for wind energy at the
heights of 50 m,70 m and 100 m are shown in Fig. 4. Global New Installed wind energy Capacity
500000 (MW)
China has huge potentials of wind energy resources estimated China New Installed wind energy Capacity
under grade 3 i.e nearly about 2.6 TW. But, currently China has 400000 Global Cumulative Installed wind energy
sufficient capacity to generate 1 TW of wind power from the resources Capcity (MW)
China Cumulative wind energy Capacity
[27]. On the other hand, from the numerical simulation shows that 300000 (MW)
Taiwan Strait has most abundant offshore areas in the wind grade 6
and above (Figs. 5 and 6). 200000
China is also one of the largest power systems in the world with
total installed capacity of 1060 GW and it generated electricity about 100000
4600 TWh which supplies 1.5% of the total capacity. Bloomberg New
Energy Finance has compiled about the top ten wind energy manu- 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
facturers that Vestas was installed 8.7 GW in year 2016 due to strong
installations in US, GE took second position by installed of 6.5 GW i.e. Fig. 6. Wind energy cumulative and new installed capacities in global and China (2001–
only more installed 0.6 GW from his 2015 capacities. This is affected 20016).

due to lead in the US markets for newly commissioned turbines of

Vestas, it managed by increasing of its global presence with 21
countries in 2016, from 14 in 2015. Similarly, Goldwind installed
6.4 GW took fourth position followed by Gemesa 3.7 GW, Enercon
3.5 GW, Nordex Group 2.7 GW, Godian 2.2 GW, Siemens 2.1 GW,
Ming Yang 1.96 GW and Envision 1.94 GW respectively [28]. In
offshore installed capacities, total installed capacities were 833 MW
out of 489 MW was installed by Sewind followed by Siemens 152 MW,
Goldwind 57 MW, Envision 50 MW, XEMC 40 MW, GE 30 MW,
Doosan 9 MW and CSIS 5 MW in year 2016.
In year 2015 scenarios point views, China was leaded the wind
energy sharing capacities by booming of 30.5 GW alone with total
numbers of 92,981 units of wind turbines up and running which was
nearly about 1.9 times over the figures of 2013 when China installed
16 GW of new capacity. In year 2016, the new wind energy installed
Fig. 4. Technically exploitable potential of onshore wind resources (GW); Source: capacities shared by northwest provinces 26%, followed by the North

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

China (Huabei) region (24%), East China (Huadong) region (20%) and installations in Gansu reached 10.73 GW, making it the second
Southwest accounted for the same proportion remain unchanged. In province after Inner Mongolia to pass the 10 GW milestone. At the
addition to these, total offshore wind power capacity increased by 64%, end of year 2016, Gansu contributed 5.6% and 8.6% of China's wind
with over 590 MW of new capacity installed in 2016, bringing the total power generation and grid-connected wind capacity respectively. In
offshore wind capacity to 1.6 GW. With compared of year 2015 and 2016, grid-curtailment of the province became high at 43% against
2016, the North Western Region proportion from 38% is dropped to 39% in 2015. Due to poor grid infrastructure with weak energy demand
26%. in Gansu, it's capacity is at the bottom of three rankings since 2014. In
In 2016, China installed new capacities of wind turbine with Gobi Desert, the Jiuquan Wind Power Base with more than 7000
average power of 1955 kW, compared with 1768 kW in 2015 with an turbines i.e. one of the world's largest wind farms has capable of supply
increase of 6.4% and cumulative installed wind turbine average power power a small country [30]. In 2016, power generation in Gansu
of 1608 kW with an increase of 2.9% from 2015. In 2016, the declined by 1%, which effected the descend of power exports to
cumulative installed capacity of 1.5 MW wind turbine units still neighbouring provinces ( as on DBS reports total exported power to
dominated by 50.4% of the total installed capacity, down about 5% Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Ningxia was around 10–15% of the province's
from 2015; 2 MW wind turbine market share rose to 32.2%, increased power generation), commodity output curtailment from supply glut
by 5%. industry such as steel and aluminium sectors effected to production fell
In 2016, Chinese new wind turbine capacity of 2 MW shared by by 26% and 1% respectively.
60.9% (with an increase of 11% compared from 2015), similarly, new In 2016, Xinjiang contributed 9.1% and 11.9% of total wind power
wind turbine with capacities of 1.5 MW shared by 17.8%; 1.5 MW and generation and grid connected wind power capacities of China respec-
2.0 MW unit total market shared of 78.7%, 2.1 MW to 2.9 MW unit tively and the grid power curtailment of the province was 38% in 2016
market shared of 15.2%, 3 MW to 3.9 MW units (3 MW and 3.6 MW) against 32% in 2015. This was due to utilisation pick-up in UHV
market shared of 2.6%, 4 MW and above units (including 4 MW, transmission line (Xinjiang Hami – Henan Zhengzhou) and rising
4.2 MW, 5 MW) market shared of 1.9% respectively. substitution trade of wind power with thermal power, which partly
In the last four years, it has been observed that wind power offset strong wind capacity installation in 2015. Based on UHV
machine manufacturing enterprises contributions are increased. In transmission lines developments, Inner Mongolia is likely to see the
China, the top five wind turbine manufacturers' market share raised fastest improvement, followed by Gansu and Xinjiang etc.
from 54.1% in 2013 to 60.1% in 2016, and the top ten wind power According to the National Energy Administration, that the wind
manufacturers raised from 77.8% in 2013 to 84.2% in 2016. power investment monitoring and monitoring results in 2017 shows
According to China Electricity Council (CEC), China's utilisation of that the provinces (autonomous regions) such as Inner Mongolia,
wind power industry in 2016 was 1742 h, which improved by 0.8% Heilongjiang, Jilin, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang (including Corps) are
from 2015. under red warning areas for wind power development and whereas
In year 2016, Inner Mongolia generated the wind power by 19% others provinces are under green areas. The red warning province
and 17% of the country's wind power generation and grid-connected (district) will not get the approve for the construction of new wind
capacity respectively. Also, in year 2016, grid-curtailment of the power projects, and to take effective measures to solve the problem of
province improved to 21%, following the worsening of curtailment to abandoning the wind. The National Energy Board has cleared that the
30% in 1H16, versus 18% in 2015. grid companies are not allowed to apply for new applications (including
China's grid has long been a challenge for wind power producers under construction, approved and planned projects) for the provincial
and other renewable energy developers [29]. According to the State and municipal wind power projects in red warning areas, and the
Corporations of China, two UHV transmission lines and three more dispatched agencies will no longer apply to red provinces (districts)
transmission lines are to be operations in year 2017. In December new wind power project to issue new power generation business
2016, the Inner Mongolia West (IM West) started operations of UHV license. At the same time, the construction of Xinjiang Zhundong,
lines in the Tianjin and also Inner Mongolia East (IM East), started Turpan Baili Feng, Jiuquan second batch of wind power projects, has
operations of UHV lines Ximeng, Shandong UHV line in July 2016. For been put into operation or construction of the transmission channel
Inner Mongolia, especially IM West, power exports are not in a new focused on the consumption of wind power projects. For increase of the
practice. According to DBS reports in 2016, the power exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region clean energy supply, the National
Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (North China) are estimated with around 18% of Energy Board also requested to Hebei Province Energy Bureau for
IM West's power sales. For IM West (Tianjin UHV line designed speed upping the construction of Chengde base two wind power project
capacity of 8 GW), DBS forecasted that the lines can exports 1000GWh, construction work to ensure that all projects at the end of 2017 all grid
4,000GWh, 6,000GWh, 12,000GWh in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 operation, Renewable energy demonstration area planning progress,
respectively with utilisation rate assumptions of 5%, 20%, 30% and orderly advance Zhangjiakou base three wind power project construc-
60% for respective years. For IM East, (Ximeng, Shandong UHV lines tion work. Zhangjiakou, Chengde area is no longer building scattered
designed capacity of 4 GW), DBS forecasted that the lines can exports wind power projects [31].
2000 GWh, 8000 GWh, 12,000 GWh and 24,000 GWh in 2017, 2018, The western part of Inner Mongolia has been projected to install
2019 and 2020 respectively with same utilisation assumptions as that 38.3 GW by 2020. There are some 10 GW based wind energy power
of IM West, Tianjin UHV line. In aggregate, DBS expected that the plants are under constructions in Xinjiang, Gansu, east of Inner
power exports to accounts for 0.6%, 2.6%, 3.9% and 7.8% of FY16 IM's Mongolia, Shandong and Jiangansu province and region.
power generation in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. Another three UHV In 2014, China installed 61 new offshore wind power station with
lines with aggregate designed capacity of 30 GW have been approved the total Capacity of 229.3 MW and an increase of 487.9%, which
for construction during 2014–16, DBS expect that the operations will Installed capacity in the intertidal zone between 130 MW. In 2014, the
inaugurate beyond 2017. vision of energy Offshore wind turbines supply source and Shanghai
Gansu, a province with exceptional wind resources, that has Electric was large, Other companies were only installed an experi-
suffered from grid constraints in the past few years. In 2014, Gansu mental prototype. By the end of 2014, China's inter-tidal zone reached
made the historical records for highest new installed capacity even as with cumulative wind power installed capacity was 434.48 MW.
compared to Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, due to expansion of the Currently, the largest single unit capacity of 6 MW wind turbines,
transmission lines and improved the management by the grid compa- electrically supplied by United Power and Mingyang Wind in offshore
nies allowing electricity generated by wind power to be transferred the sectors [33]. By the end of 2014, China took the fifth position in the
neighbouring provinces, as well as to the eastern provinces. Cumulative global for achievement of the cumulative capacity of offshore wind

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

energy 669 MW. The local governments, such as Jiangsu and Zhejiang 600 GW

province, have been vigorously building wind power industry parks to 500
2010 2020 2030
promote the development of industrial clusters and build an offshore
wind power industry chain. However, the problems in Chinese offshore
wind energy market is high project costs i.e. 16,000–20,000 yuan/kW, 300
which is more than double that of onshore projects.
In 2016, offshore wind development was the brightest spot in the
global clean energy investment picture i.e. $30bn in 2016 and which is 100
more than 41% of 2015 scenario. The developers were taken the steps
for improvement of economics, which resulting from bigger turbines Reference Scenario Moderate Scenario Advance Scenario
and better constructions. In scenario of 2016, UK leaded by total
Fig. 7. Different scenarios of wind energy, Source: GWEO, 2010.
installations of 5156 MW followed by Germany 4108 MW, China
1627 MW, Denmark 1271 MW, Netherland 1118 MW, Belgium MW
712 MW, Sweden 202 MW, Japan 60 MW, S Korea 35 MW, Finland 25,000.00

32 MW, US 30 MW, Ireland 25 MW, Spain 5 MW and Norway 2 MW

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
respectively. 20,000.00
The Chinese government has taken the projections for reaching the
wind energy capacities by 200 GW in 2020, 400 GW in 2030 and
1000 GW in 2050. Through the target by 2050, the country would
mitigate to the carbon dioxide by 1.5 billion and also will help to create
720,000 jobs in the Chinese wind markets. It is estimated that total 10,000.00

electricity generation will be 8.4% from wind power with 15% of

installed capacity by 2030 [34]. However, there are the two biggest 5,000.00
barriers for promotion to the targets and which have loosed at least 5
billion yuan ($788 million) of profits i.e. through the geographic
distribution of wind power resources and power consumption, and Goldwind Sinovel United Dongqi Ming Vestas XEMC Shanghai Gamesa Vision
Power Yang Electric Energy
curtailment problems [35]. As the electrical power has been increasing
in the middle and western part of the China, demand in eastern areas is Fig. 8. Top ten wind energy Manufacturer installed capacities in China (Note: Ming
increasing even more rapidly. However, electricity transmission from Yang has not available data in year 2011 and 2012).
north to south and from west to east will remain significant in the
coming 40 years. facturers in China including the natural environment, economic
China's coastline is more than 18,000 km long, and China has also environment, social environment and government role. The industries
more than 6000 islands. Offshore wind energy resources are mainly basically consist of wind energy component suppliers, wind energy
concentrated along the southeast coast and on its nearby islands, with manufacturers and power generating companies. These entities jointly
an average wind energy density of over 300 W/m2. The offshore wind promoted to the wind energy developments in China. There are four
power development potential at 5–25 m water depth and 50 m height types of manufacturers exists in China i.e. (i) state owned and state
is approximately 200 GW. The offshore wind power development holding enterprises (ii) private enterprises (iii) foreign owned enter-
potential at 5–50 m water depth and 70 m height is approximately prises and (iv) joint ventures. Chinese government also allowed the
500 GW. In addition to abundant offshore wind energy resources, foreign wind energy manufacturing companies such as Danish Vestas,
China's eastern coastal regions also feature a developed economy, a Spanish Gamesa and American GE for share the wind energy in the
high energy demand, a robust power grid structure, and good wind Chinese markets. Comparing with foreign wind manufacturers, the
power grid-connecting conditions. In China, the first offshore wind local Chinese manufacturers are also bear lower local production and
farm was built on Shanghai Coast in 2010, with 34 turbines of the total assembly cost. In the Chinese wind energy markets, the cost of the
capacity of 102 MW. The offshore wind power planning for Dalian in turbines is cheaper as compared with other leading countries.
Liaoning Province as well as provinces such as Fujian, Guangxi and Similarly, local manufacturers purchased or produced major parts
Hainan were under developments. The completed preliminary plans and accessories domestically for maintenance purpose, which further
identified an exploitable offshore wind potential of 43 GW. According cuts the component cost by 10–20% than imported components
to the 12th Five Year Plan, the country China projected to installed [35,36]. Before 2000, most installed wind turbines came from transfer
5 GW offshore wind energy by 2015 and 30 GW by 2020. However, the of property rights and purchased the foreign wind turbines. In the
country was not able to reached 5 GW by 2015, and again the country period 2000–2007, numbers of capable China's turbine manufacturers
modified the targets for installation of offshore capacities of 5 GW to began to emerge. But all of them only mastered the technology of
2020. 750 kW wind turbines, while have to rely completely on foreign
The Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) has published the wind technology with the 1.5 MW and 2 MW wind turbines. In this period,
energy projections for China in three different scenarios which is domestic manufacturers lacked by the capacity to research and design
shown in Fig. 7. independently. In terms of new and cumulative installed capacity, the
local manufacturers are first time surpassed foreign manufacturers in
3. Wind energy shares by the manufacturers in China 2007 and 2008 successively. At present, domestic manufacturers has
able for manufacturing 2 MW, 2.5 MW, 3 MW and even 5 MW scale
Lewis J et el. suggested that the reginal and national policies are wind turbines independently [37]. The cost of wind turbines is declined
very important for development of wind power and equipment very fastly in the last few years due to over capacity of wind turbine
manufacturing industry. During the period of year 2006–2010, the manufacturing and fierce competition among manufacturers. The year
wind energy policies attracted for developing wind energy capacities in 2010 was very important year for China that due to faster wind energy
GW scale and promoting the industrialization of wind turbine manu- developments in the country there was a contradiction in between
facturing. A clear signal is that in 2009 China surpassed the US and large-scale rapid development of wind power capacity and power
became the leading nation in terms of new installation [69] (Fig. 8). transmission and consumption [38].
There are numbers of factors interacting with wind energy manu- Again, Chinese insurance markets are also dominated by wind

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

energy sectors. Basically, the domestic insurance market is so strong Han Energy Technology and CLCP shared with 11% respectively.
due to the rapid rise of the wind energy. However, the barriers to Additionally, using of the Internet, big data, intelligent manufactur-
growth for wind energy cannot be resolved by the insurance industry ing and other policies, Goldwind launched the integrated digital
alone. Clear guidance by government is key factor for the develop- wisdom by intelligent systems for O & M management model in
ments, with the help of its insurance companies will provide the better 2016 to serve a number of wind farms around the world with
quality and service to the manufactures and developers. Wind energy operational services. United Power has built of remote data monitoring
companies have needed to develop a better understanding of risk centre based on the cloud platform in Beijing. Sharing, intelligence and
management and the positive contribution that insurance can make to concentration will be the main direction of the future wind farm O &
the industry [39]. In 2010, four leading manufacture companies like M [41].
Sinovel, Goldwind, Dongfang Electric and United Power expanded
their capacities. By the end of 2016, it analysed that Goldwind energy 4. Wind energy policy in China
installed highest wind energy capacities of 6.3 GW followed by United
Power 2 GW, Envision 2 GW, Mingyang 2 GW, CSIC 1.8 GW, Shanghai With the strong determination and vast input, China has made the
Electric 1.7 GW, XEMC 1.2 GW, Dongfang Electric 1.1 GW, Windey policy system for rapid developments of the energy sectors. In the
0.7 GW and others 4 GW respectively. recent years, it is seen that Chinese govt. is very serious about the
Since 2011, there are more than 50 manufacturers have offered renewable energy sectors. The vast wind energy potentials and
wind turbines of 1 MW or more, 10 major manufacturers emerged to supports of Chinese government's wind power development makes
supply the capacity of 2.0 MW to 3.6 MW advanced wind turbine construct large scale power. For consistent developments of renewable
systems. However, the Chinese manufacturers are moved into the energy in the country, Chinese govt. has formulating the host policies.
5 MW class especially for the first offshore wind farms, that China During his 11th planning (from 2005 to 2010), wind energy experi-
entered earlier than many other countries and with equipment of own enced a high growth rates i.e. from 1.3 GW in 2005–44.7 GW in 2010
origin. The offshore sector has seemed to be the driving factor for the which was eight times more than the original target of 5 GW. The
largest developments of wind energy sectors. In China, some manu- Chinese government has encouraged the 12th five-year plan (from
facturers and research institutes already have initiated R & D pro- 2011 to 2015) for the developments of national economics which w-
grammes for 10 MW systems, prototypes of which will be available +ould also provide to improve the wind energy developments. By end
around 2020. This indicates that China belongs to the wind energy of the year 2015, the government has projected that there would be
league with the will and ability to be among the absolute global leaders installed eight nos. of 10 GW wind power plants, the cumulative
in terms of size and technological innovation within a young field of capacity would be 100 GW and the power would be generated
technology. 190 TWh from the wind energy [39]. However, by end of the year
In 2013, most of wind turbine manufacturers were “out of 2015, it is found that total installed capacities of the country crossed
warranty”. According to the Chinese Wind Energy Association, 74% more than 129.34 GW where extra 87.07 GW under constructions. In
of the 62,000 units of grid connected wind turbines should be out of year 2015, China also faced the dropped of electricity by 33.9 TWh
warranty. However, there are still 34,000 units not able to be out of which made the historical records [42]. In the 12th plan, many
warranty, and the ‘warranty deductions’, totalling 20 billion RMB, will provinces have seen that they have installed more than their targets
be further retained. In some cases, whether or not the turbine can exit due to attractive policies. The Chinese government has decided that the
the warranty period and the manufacture can receive full payment for wind energy policy by itself will be at the fastest rate as compared to the
the turbine is arbitrarily determined by the developers. This issue was other countries like US and Europeans. This policy model has given the
by two main reasons i.e. (a) Manufacturers were not agreed to extend emphasis to develop the wind energy at the rapid growth rates. The
the warranty period due to more completions were among them (b) efficiency of the generating power from winds are comparatively low
turbine quality was a key issue in the early days from 2007 to 2010, because of the fastest growth rate of the wind energy construction as
with developers taking large risks by using some of the turbines with no compared to the supply of power to the grid. Some reports say that up
track record [68]. In 2014, it is seen that more than two-thirds of all to thirty percent of the electricity generated by wind farms is lost when
wind turbines operating in China were still under their original grid operators hold back access to their transmission systems. Many
manufacturer warranties. Again, Bloomberg New Energy Finance is turbines do not yet meet the low voltage ride through (LVRT) standard
expected that the number of wind turbines will be from out of warranty that makes it easier to integrate wind generated electricity into the grid
in China in the upcoming days, as quality improves and turbines age. It networks. These problems are being addressed as growth rates are
is projected that 26 GW and 30 GW per year of wind capacity will be adjusted to more manageable levels and the balance in emphasis shifts
out of warranty annually in between 2017 and 2018, respectively. By from quantity towards quality [24]. The State Grid Co-/*operation of
2022, a total of 187 GW of wind turbines in China will be out of China (SGCC) accelerated the constructions of strong and smart grids,
warranty [40]. and supporting the local economic and social developments with
In O & M markets, China is one of the world's largest markets with provincial governments. Promote the grid projects to be key objectives
USD 2.716 billion, which is about 25.3% of the total global in 2016. of the government which could provide from wind energy sectors to
Due to rising of warranty period expires of wind turbines, China's wind supply electricity from grid to local consumers [43]. In 2007, the
farm O & M market sizes is anticipated to keep with an AAGR of 13% Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in
during 2017–2021 and hit USD 5.021 billion by 2021. China clarified that to connect 30 GW of wind energy by grid connected
At present, Chinese wind farm O & M market shares on both systems. Rich wind energy resources in provinces such as Guangdong,
regular and breakdown maintenances are about more than 45%. With Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, and Jilin,
the recent trends of new technologies and products, state maintenance will be exploited in adjacent swaths, thus establishing a backbone of
will be the future wind farm O & M. major wind provinces, each with over 2 GW of capacity installed [44].
Basically, Chinese wind farm O & M market is mainly divided into The different policies of wind energy in the country is shown in Table 1.
three types: wind turbine manufacturers, wind farm developers and NDRC: National Development and Reform Commission; NEA:
third party O & M companies. In 2016, wind farm developers like National Energy Administration; AQSIQ: General Administration of
Concord New Energy and Longyuan Power shared 74%, followed by Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine; NPC: The National
wind turbine manufacturers such as Goldwind, Ming Yang Wind People's Congress of China; SCC: The State Council of China; MLR:
Power, United Power and Sinovel Wind Group shared with 15% and Ministry of Land and Resources; MHUD: Ministry of Housing and
third-party O & M companies (still a small scale) including Eulikind, Urban Rural Development of China; SERC: State Electricity Regulatory

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

Table 1 generations with a period of 20 years for four different regions from
Different wind energy policies in China. 0.51 RMB/kW h (0.08 USD) to 0.61 RMB/kW h (0.10 USD) as per the
availability of wind resources. In 2010, the important role of this law
Issued by Effective time Documents
was encourages to the renewable energy supply, improve the energy
NDRC July 2004 The decision of state council on reforming structure, guarantee energy safety, and protect the environments [50].
the investment system The law includes several important policies viz. (i) Wind power grid-
NEA August 2011 The provisional measures on administration
connected pricing and cost-sharing policies, (ii) Public finance policies
of wind power development and
construction (iii) Preferential tax policies, (iv) Grid-connected wind power policy, (v)
AQSIQ October 2002 The measures on anemometry in wind farms Preferential policies for foreign-investing enterprises, and (vi) Local
NDRC September 2003 The compilation regulation on pre-feasibility government policy for wind power industry.
reports of wind farms
NDRC June 2004 Examination code of construction on wind
4.1. Wind power grid-connected pricing and cost-sharing policies
power plant project
NPC October 1999 Construction law
NPC January 2000 Bidding law Renewable Energy Law and State council determined the wind
SCC February 2012 The implementing regulations of bidding law power grid connected pricing and cost sharing policies on the basis of
NPC October 2007 Urban and rural construction planning law
different characteristics and different types of renewable energy power
NPC August 1998 Land administration law
MLR December 2007 The measures on land registration generation conditions at different local conditions. According to the
MLR March 1999 The measures on the examination and determining principles of economic reasonableness and benefits for the
approval of land for construction use promotion of renewable energy development and utilisation; and on
MHUD/ March 2012 Indicators of land for construction of power the basis of timely adjustments for the development and utilisation of
MLR/ projects (wind farms)
renewable energy technology. The grid connected power from wind
NPC September 2000 The regulations on construction survey and energy projects is decided by government-guided pricing; power
design management pricing standards are determined by the pricing authorities of the
MHUD August 2004 The measures on administration of reviews State Council according to prices set through bidding [24]. The price of
of construction design drawings and
grid-connected power shall be publicly announced. Issues related with
documents for building and infrastructure
MHUD July 2001 The measures on administration of
the pricing, Chinese government implemented the fixed pricing policy
construction license in different region has promoted the wind energy developments with a
rapid expansions and now it crossed US and EU countries for sharing
of highest new wind energy installed capacity in the world. In 2007,
Commission. Source: [45] (Permission is taken from author). China got rid of the lowest price bidding and in exchange used an
The Chinese Govt. has taken the provisions of rebalance to the average price bidding, which allowed foreign investors to have a greater
renewable energy sectors. The most priority of rebalance is made chance of securing projects. In 2010, the revision of Energy
domestic deployment of solar power, improving grid connectivity of Conservation Law analysed that the grid companies should strengthen
wind farms, and reducing curtailment of renewable electricity by grid the power grid constructions such that wind energy can be connected
operators. China's installed wind energy capacity, many wind genera- with the grid. It should be supportive by NDRC for full purchasing
tors remain unconnected to the grid. According to the China Renewable system [47]. The pricing value of grid connected renewable energy
Energy Industries Association (CREIA), between 2010 and 2012, up to power generation projects shall be proceeded with successfully tenders
one-third of installed wind capacity in China was not grid-connected. which will be not more than cost of renewable energy. Pricing policy
However, the new installed wind energy was connected with the grid by plays an important role in non-rich wind resources and non-pricing
48% in 2013 [46]. The rate of grid curtailment decreased slightly in policy with rich wind resources. The pricing policies should be further
2014 (8% nationwide), down by about 4% from previous year, and is flexible as per the availability of wind resources and it can be reduced
the lowest in the past four years since curtailment became an issue. But the wastes of generations by wind energy resources. In other words, the
due to poor quality of turbines in China, its malfunctions are affected benchmark prices can’t be lowest by technological innovation to the
constantly. Other countries are also facing same problems, but the enterprises in reasonable profit margins [51]. In addition of this, non-
consequences are particularly severe for China's mega wind farms. The pricing policies should be supervision reform, power dispatch reform
Northwest Power Grid in the Gansu Jiuquan wind power base suffered or tax or financial reform in the rich wind areas [52].
a short circuit fault in February 2011 that led to a massive output loss
of 840 MW from 598 turbines [47]. 4.2. Public finance policies
In Chinese wind industry, has been divided into three stages i.e.
pilot phase (1985–1993; competitive tariff: cost issues were solved by It is a fund support to the grid-connected pricing and cost-sharing
supported of favourable loan and foreign financial assistance and state as well as technological development of R & D, testing and demonstra-
aid), industrial phase (1993–2003; approval tariff: regional govern- tion. The National public finance authorities introduce the Renewable
ment was regulated wind power prices on basis of the regional Energy Development fund for supports the national public financing
situations, and then submitted the approval to the central government) via the arrangement of project funds. The Chinese government has
and large scale commercial stage 2003–2009, bidding tariff: address introduced a policy “Interim Measures of Ministry of Finance on
the variance of regional economic development and wind energy Management of Special Fund for Wind Power Equipment
resource distribution) [48]. Industrialization” for Chinese companies, or companies. This policy
Chinese wind energy is encouraged by Renewable Energy Law promotes government investments in renewable energy, better intro-
(which passed in 2005 and amended in 2009) and the important role of ducing social investment and bank funds into the sector and develop-
this law is to develop the renewable energy supplies, improve the ments the wind energy. Chinese controlling shareholders that develop
energy structure, guarantee energy safety and protect the environ- and industrialize production of 1.5 MW and larger-capacity wind
ments, preferential pricing, power purchase mandates, and cost shar- turbines and components, will receive subsidy of CNY600/kW for the
ing arrangements [49]. This law will encourage to the renewable energy first 50 turbines in year 2008 [53]. This subsidy encourages for first
generations for achieving 15% of total energy by 2020 and large state fifty turbines in technological innovations. Access to the low-cost
owned power companies at least to be contributed by 5% in the same finance system from state owned banks has supported extraordinary
years. In 2009, China introduced a FIT for wind energy power levels of expansion of renewable energy deployment for balance sheets

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

but it may act as a barrier to new entrants and small companies as well large scale wind curtailment has occurred since 2009 [61]. On the other
as may be influenced by political considerations, so that finance is not hand, China's smart grid construction which is still in the initial stage
necessarily allocated to the most economically feasible projects [54]. restricts the development. Chinese Government should encourage to
This policy is further required for the rewarded turbines must be used the grid companies for purchasing and transmitting of the generating
the domestic manufactured components. power from wind farms to their industrial and residential customers.

4.3. Preferential tax policies 4.5. Preferential policies for foreign-investing enterprises

Preferential tax policies based on price and expense cost sharing According to the laws and regulations related to foreign investment,
and supporting the public finance system which gives the financial Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign contractual joint
incentives for the developments of wind powers in R & D, constructions ventures and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter collectively
and utilizations, reduction of costs with improvement of power quality called foreign-invested enterprises) that are established within the
and prepared by the State Council. The Enterprise Income Tax Law has territory of China and have obtained the related legal documents,
provision to reduce at the rate of 20% for small low profit enterprises including foreign-invested enterprise approval certificates and business
and 15% for large profit enterprises. However, VAT transition policies licenses, of which the invested projects comply with the encouraged
implemented as of 1 January 2009, allowed enterprises to deduct the projects in the Catalogue for Guidance of Foreign Investment
input tax included in newly purchased machines and equipment, which Industries or The Catalogue of Priority Industry for Foreign
reduced the local tax payments of wind farms remarkably. In order to Investments in Central and Western Areas, the imported self-use
benefit from the wind power development, some areas even require equipment and the supporting technology, fittings and spare parts
wind power development enterprises mandatorily to introduce wind (hereinafter referred to as self-use equipment), apart from the com-
turbine or spare parts manufacturers while developing wind farms modities listed in The Catalogue of Non Tax-Free Imported
locally [55]. Commodities of Foreign-Invested Projects, shall be exempted from
tariffs and import value-added tax. Example: Siemens entered a JV
4.4. Grid-connected wind power policy with Shanghai Electric for producing of 4 MW offshore turbines in
Jiangsu province [62].
China has increased the wind energy capacity by grid connection
systems by 87% in the last six years [56]. The National Energy
4.6. Local government policy for wind power industry
Administration has released his guidelines for distributed wind energy
power to grid connected systems. Henan, Anhui, Shanxi, Guizhou,
The National Energy Regulator referred to the local governments
along with some other province's are key issued for connections of wind
for measurements of the energy consumption from wind energy and
energy from distributed system into the grid connected system.
resolution to the problems. The company can’t get the subsidies from
According to the guidelines, distributed wind power projects, where
renewable energy development funds and grid connection systems of
installed capacity is not allowed to exceed 50 MW, can only connect to
wind powers, if the project is not under the government approvals. Due
the existing 110-kV or 66-kV power grid systems through multi-access
to this, many projects were approvals after 1st September 2011 which
points. For a large Chinese wind power farm expected that all existing
helps for high growth rates [63]. The local governments also introduced
wind turbines are designed to connect to higher-voltage power grid
the policies for development of the wind powers by 2020. Inner
systems, which means that all distributed wind turbines will need
Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, Jilin, Hebei and Jiangsu provinces have
further upgrade work before they can be connected to the power grid
all launched planning work for 10 GW-scale wind power bases under
[57]. On October 2012, The IEC released a white paper on renewable
the unified organisation of the National Energy Administration. The
energy for the grid connection system that "Grid Integration of Large-
Chinese government has reformed the proposal for the developments
capacity Renewable Energy Sources and Use of Large-capacity
of wind energy by their targets as well as development of the policies of
Electrical Energy Storage". The primary goal of this projection is to
the supportive incentives so that it will attract to the interested parties
enhance the renewable energy through the state of the art and future
as well as local benefits will come. For example: the increase of 3–5
directions for grid integration of large-capacity RE sources, such as
yens in the price of electricity through the economic developments and
wind power and solar power [58]. The constructions of any renewable
this policy is especially more attractive for the western part of the
energy followed to the rule and regulation of the State Council. The grid
China. Encourage the specific policies to the grid connected companies
connected wind energy enterprises should strengthen to the construc-
through the economic policies under the rules so that they will accept
tions, developments, technology, transmission lines and grid-connec-
to it. Again, the better management is very much essential for the
tion services. The power grid enterprises purchase the power within the
renewable energy funds. Improve the various incentives and penalties
coverage area from the renewable energy projects [59]. However, grid
as per the requirements for the generating of electricity by non-hydro
curtailment and integration is a prominent issue for China's wind
power plants [64].
industry. On the grid integration side, the state grid has tracked the
progress of wind power projects and adjusted their requirements on the
construction of transmission lines. By the end of 2013, State Grid had 5. National supportive policies
invested 71.6 billion Yuan in constructing wind power substation of
24.77 million kVA and operating a 34,000 km long wind power The Chinese government has made the supportive policies with the
transmission for wind integration. help of industrial policy, standards setting, information administration
The electricity infrastructure plays an important roles for increase and grid connected systems which would give the attractive to the large
in the penetration of renewable energy into power grid has a large scale of wind firms.
impact on the future need for the upgrades of electricity infrastructure
[60]. However, the weak grid infrastructure are caused of transfer 5.1. Industrial policy
electricity over the long distances from China's three wind-rich north-
ern regions (Northern China, Northeastern China and North- western The industrial policy gives the clear return investment values for the
China) to the load centres in the south and east, and the weak peak investors and also it encourages for exploitations of high quality
regulation capacity resulted from insufficient flexible power sources, as resources and guarantee the orderly progress of wind power develop-
well as the incomplete market mode in the country, among others, ment.

B.K. Sahu Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) 1393–1405

5.2. Standard setting income taxes already paid. In Local governments of wind resource rich
provinces of China (such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu, Jilin,
In January 2010, the National Energy Bureau introduced a new Hebei and Jiangsu), have also introduced policies for wind power
regulation for the offshore wind energy developments and construc- development, including wind power development plans and 2020
tion. This policy covers whole systems such as planning, prefeasibility targets, and interim measures for wind power projects [39]. The
and feasibility studies and operation and maintenance of the offshore NDRC has implemented medium and long term development goals
wind power plants. to increase China's renewable energy target up to 10% in 2010 and then
up to 15% in 2020. Further, the Chinese government has feeded four
5.3. Construction information different types of tariff rates specific to each geographical region. The
tariffs are RMB (Renminbi) 0.51 per kW h (7.5 US cents per kW h) for
In February 2009, the National Energy Bureau has established one best wind resource regions of Inner Mongolia and parts of Xinjiang.
information centre named as Nation Wind Power Information The second and third levels are RMB 0.54 per kW h (7.9 US cents per
Administration for providing of all information about the wind power kW h) and RMB 0.58 per kW h (8.5 US cents per kW h) for more
construction in the country. However, it was started the formal work average regions throughout large sections of the country such as parts
done by officially from June 2010. of western, central and north-eastern China. The fourth level is RMB
0.61 per kW h (9.0 US cents per kW h) for the least favourable resource
5.4. Grid construction regions. In December 2015, National Development and Reform
Commission (NDRC) has decided to cut feed-in tariff for new projects
By various studies in different wind power regions, in April 2010, after 2018 in Zone I, II, III and IV by RMB0.04, RMB0.02, RMB0.02,
the National Energy Bureau has developed the relationships of the and RMB0.01, per kW h respectively. However, technically, companies
power systems for the large scale wind power plants into the grid can satisfy with the 2016 feed-in tariff as long as the project is approved
connected systems. and included into subsidies list before 2018 and started construction
before 2019. Increasing tariff spread between Zone IV and Zone I will
6. Supportive policies for wind energy in China encourage companies to get more approval in Zone IV. In addition to
the reduction by NDRC, Shandong cut its provincial subsidy from
Liao Z. analysed 72 nos. of different policies implemented by RMB0.06/kw h of 2015 to RMB0.02/kw h in 2016. Yunnan proposed
different organizations for the developments of wind energy since to calculate wind feed in tariffs by using hydro power tariff as the
1995. He found that there are twenty organizations that had indepen- reference prices, which would cut down the wind tariff by around
dently or jointly issued wind energy policies including the Standing RMB0.13/kw h from its current Zone IV tariff. Tariff cut in Yunnan and
Committee of the National People's Congress, the State Council, the subsidy cut in Shandong will may affect all existing wind power
National Development and Reform Commission, the State Economic companies in 2017.
and Trade Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the
Ministry of Finance, the Customs Head Office, the State Bureau of 7. Deficiencies of wind energy policies in China
Taxation, the State Intellectual Property Office, the Ministry of Land
and Resources, and the Propaganda Department of the Central However, there are certain deficiencies in China's wind policies and
Committee of the CPC. Through the polices China's wind energy help major of them are:
to promote development of the energy sectors by in all aspects [65].
The law along with relevant government departments such as the (i) Current Chinese policies provide renewable power generation
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) determines quotas for power supply enterprises only and there are no quotas
grid-connected wind power prices and cost sharing policies. Pricing defined for power grid enterprises.
authorities of respective state councils shall determine the grid con- (ii) Lags in development objectives in China's wind power policy.
nected power prices for renewable energy power generation projects. Due to a fear that industrial development would not be able to
On the other hand, the public finance polices has provision for public keep pace, China's wind power development goals were much
finances through the Energy Development Fund. This fund is created to lower in the past than the rate of developments. Although the
support R & D in renewable energy, project development in farming government has indicated that wind power development target
and ranching areas, construction of electric power systems in remote should not be less than 80 GW by 2015 and 150 GW by 2020,
and island areas, local design of renewable energy technologies etc. this is still not a formal, legally binding document.
Moreover, power grid enterprises that cannot recover, through power (iii) The changes in the national value-added tax (VAT) system has
prices, grid connection expenses and other related expenses can apply affected the investment enthusiasm of local governments which
to the Renewable Energy Development Fund for support. The prefer- may also have a negative impact on wind power industry. At a
ential tax policies provide financial incentives that support the devel- national level, changing the VAT from production to consump-
opment of wind power. The government grants tax benefits to the tion and the implementation of a pre-tax deduction in terms of
projects listed in the renewable energy industrial development gui- the machinery and equipment of secondary industries will reduce
dance catalogue. The Enterprise Income Tax Law (passed in 2007) the tax burden on wind power development companies, but the
proposed enterprise income tax at a reduced rate of 20% for small low- income to local governments will be substantially reduced. These
profit enterprise satisfying the prescribed conditions and 15% for changes have encouraged several types of local protectionism
important high-tech enterprises which need to be supported by the [44].
state. The grid-connected wind power policy ensures achievement of (iv) The issue of wind curtailment remains unresolved. The raising of
the renewable energy target in total electric power volume within the curtailment with weak grid infrastructures affects the develop-
time period of the plan and also formulates specific measures for ments of wind energy since last few years. It is estimated that the
power-grid enterprises to priorities management and fully purchase the average rate of rejection of electricity has been increased by 10%
power generated from renewable energy. There are also several in the last six years. The curtailment cannot be solved overnight
provisions for foreign investment in wind power sector of China. A and will continued to be an issue for the industry for years to
foreign joint venture may enjoy the preferential treatment of reduction come. However, the current FIT did not take into account the
of or exemption from tax and also a foreign joint venture that reinvests factor of curtailment when it was introduced back in 2009. Due
in China its share of the net profit may apply for a refund of part of the to this continuous raised of curtailments may affects to the reach

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