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Antilock-Braking System Using Fuzzy Logic
Abstract
This paper deals with study and tests on an experimental car with antilock-braking system (ABS) and vehicle speed estimation using fuzzy logic. Vehicle dynamics and braking systems are complex and behave strongly non-linear which causes difficulties in developing a classical controller for ABS. Fuzzy logic, however facilitates such system designs and improves tuning abilities. The underlying control philosophy takes into consideration wheel acceleration as well as wheel slip in order to recognize blocking tendencies. The knowledge of the actual vehicle velocity is necessary to calculate wheel slips. This is done by means of a fuzzy estimator, which weighs the inputs of a longitudinal acceleration sensor and four wheel speed sensors. If lockup tendency is detected, magnetic valves are switched to reduce brake pressure. Performance evaluation is based both on computer simulations and an experimental car. To guarantee realtime ability (one control cycle takes seven milliseconds) and to relieve the electronic control unit (ECU), all fuzzy calculations are made by the fuzzy coprocessor SAE 81C99A. Measurements in the experimental car prove the functionality of this automotive fuzzy hardware system.

Introduction

Thus the use of fuzzy logic for an antilock-braking system (ABS) seems to be promising. a relatively new. Figure 1: a) Friction characteristics b)Wheelmodel FZ: R: w: v: Angular Velocity Wheel Wheel wheel of wheel load radius frequency center FL: Longitudinal force Calculating the wheel slip by . the longitudinal wheel force results in . Antilock-Braking Systems The aim of an ABS is to minimize brake distance while steerability is retained even under hard braking. consider Figure 1a: Coefficient of friction is shown as a function of wheel slip. complex and even in not mathematically describable systems. knowledge based control technique performs exceptionally well in nonlinear. relating to the terms given in Figure 1b. intelligent. To understand the underlying physical effect which leads to wheel-blocking during braking. .2 Fuzzy Control.

Especially in the case of brake slips the measured speed does not correspond with reality. There are several methods possible: until now the velocity is measured with inductive sensors for the wheel rotational speed. Three discrete conditions are possible: decrease pressure. j is modulated. which induces a current within an attached sensor. these sensors are very expensive and will not be used for ABS. Each valve is hydraulically connected to the main brake cylinder. However. After that. a capacitive acceleration sensor for measuring the longitudinal acceleration ax is implemented. hydraulic lines and wheel brake cylinders. Steering is not possible any more. the operating point starts at s = 0. Furthermore Figure 2 depicts the hydraulic unit including main brake cylinder. optical or microwave sensors take advantage of a correlation method. braking pressure pi. Vehicle Speed A crucial point in the development of wheel slip control systems is the determination of the vehicle speed. . hold pressure firm and increase pressure (up to main brake pressure level only). By means of two magnetic two-way valves each wheel. At this moment the wheel force remains constant at the low level of sliding friction. Inaddition to common ABS fitted cars.3 At the beginning of an uncontrolled full braking. then rises steeply and reaches a peak at s = s max . j and can be evaluated by a microcontroller. the wheel locks within a few milliseconds because of the declining friction coefficient characteristic which acts as a positive feedback. to the wheel brake cylinders and to the recirculation. Sensors and Actuators The experimental car was fitted with sensors and actuators shown in Figure 2. Each wheel is connected to a metallic gearwheel. Therefore a fast and accurate control system is required to keep wheel slips within the shaded area shown in Figure 1a. To obtain very accurate results. The frequency of the rectangular shaped current is proportional to the angular frequency w i.

j: HU: pi. r=rear Estimation of Vehicle Speed Using Fuzzy Logic As described in the first chapter. The signals of the four wheel speed sensors w i. In this approach the speed estimation uses multisensor data fusion that means several sensors measure vehicle speed independently and the estimator decides which sensor is most reliable.j: i: j: Center of gravitiy Longitudinal acceleration Angular wheel frequency Hydraulic Unit Wheel brake pressure l=left. and an acceleration . the knowledge of the actual vehicle speed over ground is vital in order to calculate wheel slips correctly. r=right f=front. Daiß and Kiencke [1] presented an estimation system based on Kalman-Filter which performs well. The applied formulas are: .4 Figure 2: Sensors and actuators of the experimental car CG: ax: w i. Figure 3 represents the schematic structure of the fuzzy estimator.j are used as well as the signal of the acceleration sensor ax. but is not suitable because of very high performance requirements. Figure 3: Estimation of car velocity In a data pre-processing block the measured signals are filtered by a lowpass and the inputs for the fuzzy estimator are calculated: four wheels slip value D va.

Figure 4:structure of the fuzzy estimator Starting at block „Logic 1" and „Logic 2" the crisp inputs are fuzzificated. Zero. This cascade structure is chosen to reduce the number of rules. A time-delay of T is expressed by the term 1/z. Positive and Very_Positive). whereby aOffset is a correction value consisting of an offset and a road slope part. shown in Figure 4. After this subtraction. v Fuz(k-1) is the estimated velocity of the previous cycle. and the second (Logic 2) decides about the reliability of the integral of the acceleration sensor. the signal is lowpass filtered to obtain the constant component aOffset. which is calculated with the fuzzy logic system. It is derived by comparing the measured acceleration with the derivative of the vehicle speed v Fuz . Figure 5 shows the input-membership-functions (IMF) with four linguistic values (Negative. The fuzzy estimator itself is divided into two parts. Figure 5: input membership functions .5 and . The first (Logic 1) determines which wheel sensor is most reliable.

To classify the present driving condition vehicle acceleration is taken into consideration. three linguistic values are sufficient.6 The rule base consists of 35 rules altogether. The Fuzzy-ABS Algorithm . The output of the estimation is derived as a weighted sum of the wheel measurement plus the integrated and corrected acceleration: . Figure 6: output membership functions Figure 6 depicts the output-membership-functions (OMF). • rear wheels are less weighted than front wheels. all wheels are weighted low D va Zero: If wheel speeds tend to constant driving the acceleration D va Negative: The experimental car was rearwheel driven therefore because of wheel slips appearing. Here. This should be explained for three situations: • D va Positive: Braking situation. • signal is low weighted in order to adjust the sensor.

The rule base is complete that means. These rules create a nonlinear characteristic surface as shown in Figure 7. positive large}. very small. negative medium. The input variables are transformed into fuzzy variables slip and dvwheel/dt by the fuzzification process. zero.7 The Fuzzy-Controller uses two input values: the wheel slip SB: and the wheel acceleration: with wheel speed vWheel and vehicle speed vFuz. positive small. Both variables use seven linguistic values. As a result of two fuzzy variables. negative small. smaller than optimum. the slip variable is described by the terms slip = {zero. optimum. too small. all 49 rules are formulated and all 49 conditions are allowed. and the acceleration dvwheel/dt by dvwheel/dt = {negative large. very large}. Figure 7: fuzzy characteristic surface . each of them having seven labels. which is given by the Fuzzy-Estimator. negative few. 49 different conditions are possible. too large.

Numbers within a rectangle indicate the quantity of fuzzy rules. for example described in [2]. Figure 8: structure of fuzzy ABS controller The optimal breaking pressure results from the defuzzification of the linguistic variable pressure. In this work they were created using expert knowledge and analysis of measured data during ABS braking action. hold firm or decreased. . whether the pressure should be increased. The labels for this value are: pressure = {positive fast. Figure 9 summarizes the total amount of fuzzy calculations. positive slow. Finally a three-step controller determines the position of the magnetic valves. Figure 9: fuzzy calculations It should be noted that linguistic variables and rule tables can be designed with numerical optimization methods. the two fuzzy input values slip and dvwheel/dt can be mapped to the fuzzy output value pressure. zero.8 Using this characteristic surface. negative fast} The structure of the fuzzy ABS controller is shown in Figure 8. negative slow.

Without fuzzy ABS the braking pressure reaches a very high level and the wheels block within short.9 Simulation of a Full Braking After implementation of the whole system in SIMULINK. with and without the fuzzy ABS. steerability is not only retained during the whole braking maneuver. This results in an unstable behavior. the vehicle cannot be steered any more and the stopping distance increases. The applied braking pressure is depicted in the last diagram. The other wheels behave approximately similar. Figure 10a: simulations of a braking Figure 10b: simulations of a full braking . a full braking on high-m -road was carried out. the fluctuating decline of the wheel speed of the left front wheel as an example and the fluctuating level of the wheel slip. but the slowing down length was considerably shortened as well. The following graphs show the steady decline of the vehicle speed. With fuzzy ABS controller activated.

The flexibility of the coprocessor is considerable.10 Figure 10c: simulations of full braking Implementation of the Fuzzy ABS Controller The fuzzy ABS controller uses the microprocessor SAB 80C166 together with the fuzzy coprocessor SAE 81C99A [3]. different defuzzification modes including “Center of Gravity". tests on an experimental car. the computation time was only 0. While the control cycle time was set to a standard value of 7 msec. were carried out. Arbitrary shapes of membership functions. each of them having up to 256 inputs and rules. Test Results After the whole system was carefully simulated. a BMW 328i. up to 64 rule bases are possible. . Furthermore an interface to most commonly used microprocessors is available. Figure 11 shows a full braking with ABS on dry asphalt.5 msec! This offers facilities for implementation of extended vehicle dynamics control . Due to the implementation of Fuzzy algorithms into the hardware of the coprocessor. an enormous rule engine with up to 10 million rule calculations per second makes this device a very interesting product in the field of real time fuzzy control. the calculation speed of the host processor increased significantly.

Finally the system performance is proved by the last graph. The convincing advantage of fuzzy logic is the ability to modify and tune certain parts of this characteristic surface easily and carefully.11 Figure 11: Results of test brake The first diagram displays the decreasing estimated speed of the vehicle vFuz and the fluctuating decrease of the speed of the left front wheel vl. Just the linguistic rules or variables need to be varied. which was created by fuzzy logic. Conclusion The basis of the controlling algorithm consists of a nonlinear characteristic surface. The longitudinal acceleration ax is near the physical limit. presented in the next diagram. The slip value is limited successfully by means of the output of the ABS controller. This simplifies the development and shortens the development time considerable.f. Wheel acceleration and wheel slip are shown in the second and third graph. which is the driver current of the magnetic valve. .

. D. and Kiencke. A. [2] Ostertag. 4th IEEE CCA. 1996.: Beobachtung fahrdynamischer Zustände und Verbesserung einer ABS. University of Karlsruhe.: Realisierung einer Fuzzy-ABS-Regelung mit dem Mikrocontroller SAB 80C166 und dem Fuzzy-Coprozessor SAE 81C99A. The deceleration level and steerability is comparable to commercially available systems. D.: Estimation of Vehicle Speed . dissertation. Ph. [3] Klein. 1996.Fuzzy-Estimation in Comparison with Kalman-Filtering. dissertation. University of Karlsruhe. [4] Daiß.: Strukturierte Optimierung technischer Prozesse am Beispiel der KFZ Crasherkennung. U.und Fahrdynamikregelung. Project work at the Institute for Industrial Information Systems. R. Institute for Industrial Information Systems. Ph. Bibliography [1] Daiß. 1995. University of Karlsruhe. M. 1995.12 Implementation of the fuzzy ABS leads to excellent results of braking behavior of the test vehicle. Institute for Industrial Information Systems. A. New York.