PARADISE LOST Book I Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste

Brought death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful seat, Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed In the beginning how the heavens and earth Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed Fast by the oracle of God, I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. And chiefly thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for thou know'st; thou from the first Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread, Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss, And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark Illumine, what is low raise and support; That, to the height of this great argument, I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Say first--for Heaven hides nothing from thy view, Nor the deep tract of Hell--say first what cause Moved our grand parents, in that happy state, Favoured of Heaven so highly, to fall off From their Creator, and transgress his will For one restraint, lords of the World besides. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? Th' infernal Serpent; he it was whose guile, Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equalled the Most High, If he opposed, and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th' ethereal sky, 1

With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms. Nine times the space that measures day and night To mortal men, he, with his horrid crew, Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf, Confounded, though immortal. But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the thought Both of lost happiness and lasting pain Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate. At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild. A dungeon horrible, on all sides round, As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all, but torture without end Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed. Such place Eternal Justice has prepared For those rebellious; here their prison ordained In utter darkness, and their portion set, As far removed from God and light of Heaven As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell! There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, He soon discerns; and, weltering by his side, One next himself in power, and next in crime, Long after known in Palestine, and named Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heaven called Satan, with bold words Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:-"If thou beest he--but O how fallen! how changed From him who, in the happy realms of light Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads, though bright!--if he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise Joined with me once, now misery hath joined In equal ruin; into what pit thou seest From what height fallen: so much the stronger proved He with his thunder; and till then who knew The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, Nor what the potent Victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent, or change, 2

Though changed in outward lustre, that fixed mind, And high disdain from sense of injured merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, And to the fierce contentions brought along Innumerable force of Spirits armed, That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring, His utmost power with adverse power opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? All is not lost--the unconquerable will, And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deify his power Who, from the terror of this arm, so late Doubted his empire--that were low indeed; That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods, And this empyreal sybstance, cannot fail; Since, through experience of this great event, In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven." So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair; And him thus answered soon his bold compeer:-"O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers That led th' embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds Fearless, endangered Heaven's perpetual King, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate, Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat, Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and heavenly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns, Though all our glory extinct, and happy state Here swallowed up in endless misery. But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now Of force believe almighty, since no less Than such could have o'erpowered such force as ours) Have left us this our spirit and strength entire, Strongly to suffer and support our pains, 3

That we may so suffice his vengeful ire, Or do him mightier service as his thralls By right of war, whate'er his business be, Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire, Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep? What can it the avail though yet we feel Strength undiminished, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment?" Whereto with speedy words th' Arch-Fiend replied:-"Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable, Doing or suffering: but of this be sure-To do aught good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight, As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labour must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; Which ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim. But see! the angry Victor hath recalled His ministers of vengeance and pursuit Back to the gates of Heaven: the sulphurous hail, Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid The fiery surge that from the precipice Of Heaven received us falling; and the thunder, Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage, Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, The seat of desolation, void of light, Save what the glimmering of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves; There rest, if any rest can harbour there; And, re-assembling our afflicted powers, Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from hope, If not, what resolution from despair." Thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, With head uplift above the wave, and eyes That sparkling blazed; his other parts besides Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge As whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian or Earth-born, that warred on Jove, 4

and. Farewell. this the soil. while he sought Evil to others. aid the winds. as seamen tell. and mercy. 5 . Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool His mighty stature. which God of all his works Created hugest that swim th' ocean-stream. haply slumbering on the Norway foam. With fixed anchor in his scaly rind. Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. Both glorying to have scaped the Stygian flood As gods. but that the will And high permission of all-ruling Heaven Left him at large to his own dark designs. whose combustible And fuelled entrails. Then with expanded wings he steers his flight Aloft. "Is this the region. And leave a singed bottom all involved With stench and smoke. force hath made supreme Above his equals. whom the den By ancient Tarsus held. or that sea-beast Leviathan. on each hand the flames Driven backward slope their pointing spires. as the lake with liquid fire. Deeming some island. and enraged might see How all his malice served but to bring forth Infinite goodness.Briareos or Typhon. and wished morn delays. Moors by his side under the lee. "this the seat That we must change for Heaven?--this mournful gloom For that celestial light? Be it so.rolled In billows. the clime. Such resting found the sole Of unblest feet. since he Who now is sovereign can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from him is best Whom reason hath equalled. Him followed his next mate. happy fields. Sublimed with mineral fury. but on himself Treble confusion. till on dry land He lights--if it were land that ever burned With solid. or the shattered side Of thundering Etna. thence conceiving fire. shewn On Man by him seduced. That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himself damnation. Chained on the burning lake. oft. Him. incumbent on the dusky air." Said then the lost Archangel. wrath. or heaved his head. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff. And such appeared in hue as when the force Of subterranean wind transprots a hill Torn from Pelorus. and vengeance poured. So stretched out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. while night Invests the sea. leave i' th' midst a horrid vale. and by their own recovered strength. grace. That felt unusual weight. nor ever thence Had risen.

To reign is worth ambition. though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. As we erewhile. not like those steps On Heaven's azure. their liveliest pledge Of hope in fears and dangers--heard so oft In worst extremes. Ethereal temper. th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy. or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet Regained in Heaven. in all assaults Their surest signal--they will soon resume New courage and revive. none could have foiled! If once they hear that voice. Infernal world! and thou. massy. a Hell of Heaven. in her spotty globe. in my choice. Th' associates and co-partners of our loss. if I be still the same. whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening. and the torrid clime Smote on him sore besides. And what I should be. were but a wand-He walked with. all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free. or mountains. But wherefore let we then our faithful friends. and. and him Beelzebub Thus answered:--"Leader of those armies bright Which. from the top of Fesole. large. Rivers. Behind him cast. though now they lie Grovelling and prostrate on yon lake of fire. fallen such a pernicious height!" He scare had ceased when the superior Fiend Was moving toward the shore. The broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon. will not drive us hence: Here we may reigh secure. and on the perilous edge Of battle. Nathless he so endured. What matter where. His spear--to equal which the tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills. to descry new lands. to support uneasy steps Over the burning marl.Where joy for ever dwells! Hail. to be the mast Of some great ammiral. and round. No wonder. profoundest Hell. astounded and amazed. or what more lost in Hell?" So Satan spake. horrors! hail. his ponderous shield. vaulted with fire. but th' Omnipotent. when it raged. Or in Valdarno. Receive thy new possessor--one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place. And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion. and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell. till on the beach Of that inflamed sea he stood. and called 6 . Lie thus astonished on th' oblivious pool.

and were abashed. descending. lay these. Yet to their General's voice they soon obeyed Innumerable. as in the vales of Heaven? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the Conqueror. warping on the eastern wind. Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. as when men wont to watch On duty. sleeping found by whom they dread. whose waves o'erthrew Busiris and his Memphian chivalry. nether. So numberless were those bad Angels seen Hovering on wing under the cope of Hell. Till. in even balance down they light On the firm brimstone. who lay entranced Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks In Vallombrosa. th' uplifted spear Of their great Sultan waving to direct Their course. as a signal given. and. covering the flood. when with fierce winds Orion armed Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast. As when the potent rod Of Amram's son. for the ease you find To slumber here. 'Twixt upper. Waved round the coast. or the fierce pains not feel. and darkened all the land of Nile. Warriors. If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal Spirits! Or have ye chosen this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue. While with perfidious hatred they pursued The sojourners of Goshen. who beheld From the safe shore their floating carcases And broken chariot-wheels. up-called a pitchy cloud Of locusts. the Flower of Heaven--once yours. in Egypt's evil day. arise. Potentates. or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf? Awake.His legions--Angel Forms. That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung Like Night. tread us down Thus drooping. or scattered sedge Afloat. and fill all the plain: A multitude like which the populous North 7 . where th' Etrurian shades High over-arched embower. Under amazement of their hideous change. now lost. and up they sprung Upon the wing. and surrounding fires. or be for ever fallen!" They heard. Abject and lost. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight In which they were. So thick bestrown. who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood With scattered arms and ensigns. till anon His swift pursuers from Heaven-gates discern Th' advantage. He called so loud that all the hollow deep Of Hell resounded:--"Princes.

and spread Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands. wandering o'er the earth. yea. In Argob and in Basan. their names then known. Moloch. Forthwith. blotted out and rased By their rebellion from the Books of Life. Nor content with such Audacious neighbourhood. And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones. Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve Got them new names. and parents' tears. Their children's cries unheard that passed through fire To his grim idol. And with their darkness durst affront his light. and durst abide Jehovah thundering out of Sion. Though on their names in Heavenly records now Be no memorial. from the pit of Hell Roaming to seek their prey on Earth. who last. throned Between the Cherubim. At their great Emperor's call. besmeared with blood Of human sacrifice. often placed Within his sanctuary itself their shrines. Roused from the slumber on that fiery couch. horrid king. for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. and with cursed things His holy rites and solemn feasts profaned. The heads and leaders thither haste where stood Their great Commander--godlike Shapes. First. and Forms Excelling human. And devils to adore for deities: Then were they known to men by various names. gods adored Among the nations round. the wisest heart Of Solomon he led by fraoud to build His temple right against the temple of God 8 . Abominations. next the seat of God. princely Dignities.Poured never from her frozen loins to pass Rhene or the Danaw. who first. adorned With gay religions full of pomp and gold. By falsities and lies the greatest part Of mankind they corrupted to forsake God their Creator. long after. when her barbarous sons Came like a deluge on the South. Say. durst fix Their seats. Muse. as next in worth Came singly where he stood on the bare strand. and th' invisible Glory of him that made them to transform Oft to the image of a brute. Their altars by his altar. till. And various idols through the heathen world. to the stream Of utmost Arnon. Him the Ammonite Worshiped in Rabba and her watery plain. Though. form every squadron and each band. While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof? The chief were those who. Through God's high sufferance for the trial of man.

To do him wanton rites. whom the Phoenicians called Astarte. For those the race of Israel oft forsook Their Living Strength. Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged Even to that hill of scandal. Can either sex assume. sunk before the spear Of despicable foes. or both. These feminine. Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer's day. had general names Of Baalim and Ashtaroth--those male. Next Chemos. And Eleale to th' Asphaltic Pool: Peor his other name.On that opprobrious hill. Beguiled by fair idolatresses. in Hesebon And Horonaim. supposed with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the love-tale Infected Sion's daughters with like heat. from the bordering flood Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground. on their march from Nile. for which their heads as low Bowed down in battle. fell To idols foul. Like cumbrous flesh. Dilated or condensed. when he enticed Israel in Sittim. the type of Hell. For Spirits. beyond The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines. which cost them woe. With these came they who. built By that uxorious king whose heart. To whose bright image nigntly by the moon Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs. Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones. Not tried or manacled with joint or limb. And works of love or enmity fulfil. and made his grove The pleasant valley of Hinnom. so soft And uncompounded is their essence pure. Can execute their airy purposes. From Aroar to Nebo and the wild Of southmost Abarim. While smooth Adonis from his native rock Ran purple to the sea. In Sion also not unsung. lust hard by hate. queen of heaven. Tophet thence And black Gehenna called. by the grove Of Moloch homicide. though large. with crescent horns. where stood Her temple on th' offensive mountain. Seon's real. but. bowing lowly down To bestial gods. bright or obscure. With these in troop Came Astoreth. when they please. Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. and unfrequented left His righteous altar. 9 . Thammuz came next behind. th' obscene dread of Moab's sons. in what shape they choose.

sea-monster. and their train-With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms Rather than human. dreaded through the coast Of Palestine. And injury and outrage. and the rebel king Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan. whereon to burn His odious offerings. when night Darkens the streets. lucid streams. under names of old renown-Osiris. Likening his Maker to the grazed ox-Jehovah. Belial came last. He also against the house of God was bold: A leper once he lost.Whose wanton passions in the sacred proch Ezekiel saw. who. on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Pharphar. in one night. and that night In Gibeah. and. who filled With lust and violence the house of God? In courts and palaces he also reigns. Next came one Who mourned in earnest. Him followed Rimmon. Isis. when the captive ark Maimed his brute image. his sottish conqueror. where the noise Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers. In his own temple. when. And in luxurious cities. then wander forth the sons Of Belial. and gained a king-Ahaz. on the grunsel-edge. when their borrowed gold composed The calf in Oreb. Orus. when the hospitable door 10 . equalled with one stroke Both her first-born and all her bleating gods. whose delightful seat Was fair Damascus. in Gath and Ascalon. Where he fell flat and shamed his worshippers: Dagon his name. flown with insolence and wine. when the priest Turns atheist. head and hands lopt off. Witness the streets of Sodom. Nor did Israel scape Th' infection. or more gross to love Vice for itself. by the vision led. whom he drew God's altar to disparage and displace For one of Syrian mode. yet had his temple high Reared in Azotus. To him no temple stood Or altar smoked. and adore the gods Whom he had vanquished. And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. His eye surveyed the dark idolatries Of alienated Judah. yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars. than whom a Spirit more lewd Fell not from Heaven.upward man And downward fish. After these appeared A crew who. when he passed From Egypt marching. as did Eli's sons.

gently raised Their fainting courage. So Jove usurping reigned. be upreared His mighty standard. Then straight commands that. and thronging helms Appeared. and serried shields in thick array Of depth immeasurable. though far renowned Th' Ionian gods--of Javan's issue held Gods. Heaven's first-born. to have found themselves not lost In loss itself. firm. at the warlike sound Of trumpets loud and clarions. Seraphic arms and trophies. like measure found. which on his countenance cast Like doubtful hue. Their highest heaven. Anon they move In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood Of flutes and soft recorders--such as raised To height of noblest temper heroes old Arming to battle. All in a moment through the gloom were seen Ten thousand banners rise into the air. thence on the snowy top Of cold Olympus ruled the middle air. and unmoved With dread of death to flight or foul retreat. that bore Semblance of worth. That proud honour claimed Azazel as his right. These. with high words. These were the prime in order and in might: The rest were long to tell. to avoid worse rape. Their boasted parents. With orient colours waving: with them rose A forest huge of spears. full high advanced. or who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to th' Hesperian fields. and birthright seized By younger Saturn: he from mightier Jove. Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind.--Titan. With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed. All these and more came flocking.Exposed a matron. his wonted pride Soon recollecting. and through all the bounds Of Doric land. But he. His own and Rhea's son. not substance. but with looks Downcast and damp. and instead of rage Deliberate valour breathed. With his enormous brood. which. a Cherub tall: Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled Th' imperial ensign. yet confessed later than Heaven and Earth. all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: At which the universal host up-sent A shout that tore Hell's concave. and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. or on the Delphian cliff. yet such wherein appeared Obscure some glimpse of joy to have found their Chief Not in despair. And o'er the Celtic roamed the utmost Isles. 11 . first in Crete And Ida known. and dispelled their fears. Or in Dodona.

yet observed Their dread Commander. in guise Of warriors old. and chase Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain From mortal or immortal minds. And all who since. Darkened so. nor appeared Less than Archangel ruined. Could merit more than that small infantry Warred on by cranes--though all the giant brood Of Phlegra with th' heroic race were joined That fought at Thebes and Ilium. Their visages and stature as of gods. He. Thus far these beyond Compare of mortal prowess. or. and soon traverse The whole battalion views--their order due. Jousted in Aspramont. He through the armed files Darts his experienced eye. the followers rather 12 . Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore When Charlemain with all his peerage fell By Fontarabbia. disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations. since created Man. above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent. His form had yet not lost All her original brightness. from behind the moon.Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage With solemn touches troubled thoughts. Cruel his eye. with ordered spear and shield. on each side Mixed with auxiliar gods. or Trebisond. And now Advanced in view they stand--a horrid front Of dreadful length and dazzling arms. Thus they. or Montalban. and th' excess Of glory obscured: as when the sun new-risen Looks through the horizontal misty air Shorn of his beams. but under brows Of dauntless courage. and care Sat on his faded cheek. named with these. Breathing united force with fixed thought. Begirt with British and Armoric knights. Their number last he sums. Moved on in silence to soft pipes that charmed Their painful steps o'er the burnt soil. yet shone Above them all th' Archangel: but his face Deep scars of thunder had intrenched. Glories: for never. and. And now his heart Distends with pride. Met such embodied force as. In dim eclipse. baptized or infidel. Awaiting what command their mighty Chief Had to impose. but cast Signs of remorse and passion. Stood like a tower. hardening in his strength. and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs. to behold The fellows of his crime. Damasco. and considerate pride Waiting revenge. and what resounds In fable or romance of Uther's son. or Marocco.

but with th' Almighth!--and that strife Was not inglorious. whereat their doubled ranks they bend From wing to wing. burst forth: at last Words interwove with sighs found out their way:-"O myriads of immortal Spirits! O Powers Matchless. For this infernal pit shall never hold 13 . Thrice he assayed. and thrice. whereof so rife There went a fame in Heaven that he ere long Intended to create. when heaven's fire Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. by fraud or guile. in spite of scorn. But what power of mind. shall fail to re-ascend. and half enclose him round With all his peers: attention held them mute. could ever know repulse? For who can yet believe. With singed top their stately growth. but still his strength concealed-Which tempted our attempt. though th' event was dire. upheld by old repute. That all these puissant legions. Stands on the blasted heath. have lost our hopes. if but to pry. He now prepared To speak. and therein plant A generation whom his choice regard Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven. and this dire change. Consent or custom. and repossess their native seat? For me. though bare. or danger shunned By me. how such As stood like these. and know our own. could have feared How such united force of gods. shall be perhaps Our first eruption--thither. or dread New war provoked: our better part remains To work in close design. and from eteranl splendours flung For his revolt--yet faithful how they stood. whose exile Hath emptied Heaven. and wrought our fall. from the depth Of knowledge past or present. What force effected not. So as not either to provoke. as. that he no less At length from us may find. be witness all the host of Heaven. Tears. Hateful to utter. If counsels different. Forseeing or presaging. Thither. As this place testifies.(Far other once beheld in bliss). and his regal state Put forth at full. condemned For ever now to have their lot in pain-Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. Space may produce new Worlds. or elsewhere. such as Angels weep. Their glory withered. though after loss. But he who reigns Monarch in Heaven till then as one secure Sat on his throne. Henceforth his might we know. who overcomes By force hath overcome but half his foe. Self-raised.

Learn how their greatest monuments of fame And strength. whose grisly top Belched fire and rolling smoke. Severing each kind. drawn from the thighs Of mighty Cherubim." He spake.Celestial Spirits in bondage. with incessant toil And hands innumerable. Highly they raged Against the Highest. and in an hour What in an age they. and scummed the bullion-dross. A numerous brigade hastened: as when bands Of pioneers. and from the boiling cells By strange conveyance filled each hollow nook. and art. and. a second multitude With wondrous art founded the massy ore. the sudden blaze Far round illumined Hell. And here let those Who boast in mortal things. the least erected Spirit that fell From Heaven. nor th' Abyss Long under darkness cover. for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts Were always downward bent. Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed In vision beatific. Soon had his crew Opened into the hill a spacious wound. Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heaven. trodden gold. winged with speed. And digged out ribs of gold. Ransacked the centre. and fierce with grasped arms Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war. and by his suggestion taught. Mammon led them on-Mammon. to confirm his words. that soil may best Deserve the precious bane. But these thoughts Full counsel must mature. and wondering tell Of Babel. Forerun the royal camp. Nigh on the plain. For who can think submission? War. admiring more The riches of heaven's pavement. There stood a hill not far. scarce perform. Peace is despaired. That underneath had veins of liquid fire Sluiced from the lake. Let none admire That riches grow in Hell. A third as soon had formed within the ground A various mould. and with impious hands Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth For treasures better hid. with spade and pickaxe armed. 14 . in many cells prepared. As in an organ. and the works of Memphian kings. Or cast a rampart. then. must be resolved. The work of sulphur. By him first Men also. the rest entire Shone with a glossy scurf--undoubted sign That in his womb was hid metallic ore. outflew Millions of flaming swords. war Open or understood. to trench a field. are easily outdone By Spirits reprobate. from one blast of wind. Thither.

and gave to rule. Meanwhile the winged Heralds. and Doric pillars overlaid With golden architrave. when Egypt with Assyria strove In wealth and luxury. The hasty multitude Admiring entered. His hand was known In Heaven by many a towered structure high. and how he fell From Heaven they fabled.To many a row of pipes the sound-board breathes. Each in his Hierarchy. Not Babylon Nor great Alcairo such magnificence Equalled in all their glories. many a row Of starry lamps and blazing cressets. by command Of sovereign power. With his industrious crew. where pilasters round Were set. nor aught aviled him now To have built in Heaven high towers. and the work some praise. with bossy sculptures graven. Where sceptred Angels held their residence. Thus they relate. Their summons called From every band and squared regiment By place or choice the worthiest: they anon 15 . whom the supreme King Exalted to such power. nor did he scape By all his engines. the Orders bright. Th' ascending pile Stood fixed her stately height. her ample spaces o'er the smooth And level pavement: from the arched roof. like a falling star. discover. A summer's day. nor did there want Cornice or frieze. and straight the doors. to build in Hell. for he with this rebellious rout Fell long before. Pendent by subtle magic. fed With naptha and asphaltus. to enshrine Belus or Serapis their gods. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements: from morn To noon he fell. th' Aegaean isle. and in Ausonian land Men called him Mulciber. with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound. On Lemnos. Anon out of the earth a fabric huge Rose like an exhalation. And sat as Princes. wide Within. And some the architect. but was headlong sent. Opening their brazen folds. The roof was fretted gold. and with the setting sun Dropt from the zenith. with the sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet-Built like a temple. throughout the host proclaim A solemn council forthwith to be held At Pandemonium. or seat Their kings. Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. Erring. the high capital Of Satan and his peers. from noon to dewy eve. yielded light As from a sky.

Though without number still. on their mirth and dance Intent. At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. Thick swarmed. till. with jocund music charm his ear. Or dreams he sees. A thousand demi-gods on golden seats. and at the Soldan's chair Defied the best of Paynim chivalry To mortal combat. both on the ground and in the air. But far within. the gates And porches wide. Behold a wonder! They but now who seemed In bigness to surpass Earth's giant sons. All access was thronged. amidst the hall Of that infernal court. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. And summons read. from despair Thus high uplifted beyond hope. Whose midnight revels. the signal given. And in their own dimensions like themselves. and were at large. or faery elves. Now less than smallest dwarfs. As bees In spring-time. while overhead the Moon Sits arbitress. The suburb of their straw-built citadel. Book II High on a throne of royal state. or career with lance). in narrow room Throng numberless--like that pygmean race Beyond the Indian mount. some belated peasant sees. expatiate. Frequent and full.With hundreds and with thousands trooping came Attended. which far Outshone the wealth or Ormus and of Ind. and nearer to the Earth Wheels her pale course: they. aspires Beyond thus high. by merit raised To that bad eminence. Satan exalted sat. insatiate to pursue 16 . but chief the spacious hall (Though like a covered field. by a forest-side Or fountain. and confer Their state-affairs: so thick the airy crowd Swarmed and were straitened. New rubbed with balm. After short silence then. and. Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms Reduced their shapes immense. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. the great consult began. or on the smoothed plank. The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim In close recess and secret conclave sat. when the Sun with Taurus rides. where champions bold Wont ride in armed. Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings.

" He ceased.Vain war with Heaven. The prison of his ryranny who reigns 17 . We now debate. Whether of open war or covert guile. and the fixed laws of Heaven. though oppressed and fallen. and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is. He recked not. Heaven's fugitives. sceptred king. and firm accord. no good For which to strive. And trust themselves to fear no second fate!-Me though just right. For. now fiercer by despair. Thus far at least recovered. since no deep within her gulf can hold Immortal vigour. free choice With what besides in council or in fight Hath been achieved of merit--yet this loss. hath much more Established in a safe. Deities of Heaven!-For. Yielded with full consent. Of wiles. while they sit contriving. or when they need. I boast not: them let those Contrive who need. no strife can grow up there From faction: for none sure will claim in Hell Precedence. I give not Heaven for lost: from this descent Celestial Virtues rising will appear More glorious and more dread than from no fall. His proud imaginations thus displayed:-"Powers and Dominions. unenvied throne. none whose portion is so small Of present pain that with ambitious mind Will covet more! With this advantage. and. by success untaught. and by what best way. Did first create your leader--next. and next him Moloch. with that care lost Went all his fear: of God. and rather than be less Cared not to be at all. Stood up--the strongest and the fiercest Spirit That fought in Heaven. The happier state In Heaven. which follows dignity. His trust was with th' Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength. Who can advise may speak. then. or worse. we now return To claim our just inheritance of old. or Hell. and longing wait The signal to ascend--sit lingering here. shall the rest-Millions that stand in arms. More than can be in Heaven. and these words thereafter spake:-"My sentence is for open war. not now. then. More unexpert. but who here Will envy whom the highest place exposes Foremost to stand against the Thunderer's aim Your bulwark. and firm faith. Surer to prosper than prosperity Could have assured us. and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame. might draw Envy from each inferior. To union.

his fatal throne: Which. to meet the noise Of his almighty engine. and. and battle dangerous To less than gods. But perhaps The way seems difficult. some worse way his wrath may find To our destruction. Who but felt of late. see Black fire and horror shot with equal rage Among his Angels. if there be in Hell Fear to be worse destroyed! What can be worse Than to dwell here. if not victory. and expire. A fairer person lost not Heaven. and his look denounced Desperate revenge. descent and fall To us is adverse. driven out from bliss. all at once O'er Heaven's high towers to force resistless way.By our delay? No! let us rather choose. And with perpetual inroads to alarm. Will either quite consume us. if our substance be indeed divine. and by proof we feel Our power sufficient to disturb his Heaven. and steep to scale With upright wing against a higher foe! Let such bethink them. when. then. With what compulsion and laborious flight We sunk thus low? Th' ascent is easy. for lightning. That in our porper motion we ascend Up to our native seat. and pursued us through the Deep. and the torturing hour. His own invented torments. in act more graceful and humane." He ended frowning. Armed with Hell-flames and fury. Though inaccessible. to the height enraged. condemned In this abhorred deep to utter woe! Where pain of unextinguishable fire Must exercise us without hope of end The vassals of his anger. We should be quite abolished. On th' other side up rose Belial. when the scourge Inexorably. and reduce To nothing this essential--happier far Than miserable to have eternal being!-Or. Turning our tortures into horrid arms Against the Torturer. we are at worst On this side nothing. And cannot cease to be. he shall hear Infernal thunder. When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear Insulting. is yet revenge. and his throne itself Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire. What fear we then? what doubt we to incense His utmost ire? which. Th' event is feared! Should we again provoke Our stronger. if the sleepy drench Of that forgetful lake benumb not still. Calls us to penance? More destroyed than thus. he seemed 18 .

yet our great Enemy. To perish rather. Devoid of sense and motion? And who knows. and end Them in his anger whom his anger saves To punish endless? 'Wherefore cease we. and purge off the baser fire. our final hope Is flat despair: we must exasperate Th' Almighty Victor to spend all his rage. Victorious. then?' Say they who counsel war. And with persuasive accent thus began:-"I should be much for open war. and th' ethereal mould. And that must end us. and high exploit. this intellectual being. Or. what revenge? The towers of Heaven are filled With armed watch. and destined to eternal woe. Reserved. that render all access Impregnable: oft on the bodering Deep Encamp their legions. Belike through impotence or unaware. 'we are decreed.For dignity composed. To give his enemies their wish. swallowed up and lost In the wide womb of uncreated Night. Those thoughts that wander through eternity. or with obscure wing Scout far and wide into the realm of Night. Incapable of stain. and could make the worse appear The better reason. would on his throne Sit unpolluted. Though full of pain. All incorruptible. Will he. to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low-To vice industrious. Sad cure! for who would lose. let loose at once his ire. As not behind in hate. though his tongue Dropped manna. that he never will is sure. First. In what he counsels and in what excels Mistrustful. so wise. 19 . if what was urged Main reason to persuade immediate war Did not dissuade me most. Let this be good. O Peers. as the scope Of all his aim. could we break our way By force. When he who most excels in fact of arms. But all was false and hollow. Scorning surprise. Thus repulsed. Yet he pleased the ear. after some dire revenge. or will ever? How he can Is doubtful. would soon expel Her mischief. and at our heels all Hell should rise With blackest insurrection to confound Heaven's purest light. but to nobler deeds Timorous and slothful. grounds his courage on despair And utter dissolution. that must be our cure-To be no more. and seem to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success. whether our angry Foe Can give it.

Unrespited. should blow them into sevenfold rage. since fate inevitable Subdues us. thus expelled. and so doubtful what might fall. War. thus in arms? What when we fled amain. worst-Thus sitting. or bonds. Caught in a fiery tempest. Shall we. thus consulting. and besought The Deep to shelter us? This Hell then seemed A refuge from those wounds. and fear What yet they know must follow--to endure Exile. This is now Our doom. What can we suffer worse?' Is this. for what can force or guile With him. Designing or exhorting glorious war. threatening hideous fall One day upon our heads. Or when we lay Chained on the burning lake? That sure was worse. Our strength is equal. or for ever sunk Under yon boiling ocean. nor the law unjust That so ordains. the sport and prey Or racking whirlwinds. Impendent horrors. wrapt in chains. satisfied 20 . shall be hurled. alike My voice dissuades.Whatever doing. which if we can sustain and bear. thus far removed. or pain. therefore. This was at first resolved. Each on his rock transfixed. what can we suffer more. if that fail them. and omnipotent decree. then. I laugh when those who at the spear are bold And venturous. live thus vile--the race of Heaven Thus trampled. Not mind us not offending. then. And plunge us in the flames. or igominy. By my advice. Our Supreme Foe in time may much remit His anger. to suffer here Chains and these torments? Better these than worse. Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. open or concealed. pursued and struck With Heaven's afflicting thunder. unpitied. The sentence of their Conqueror. against so great a foe Contending. shrink. while we perhaps. The Victor's will. There to converse with everlasting groans. or who deceive his mind. If we were wise. as to do. and perhaps. Ages of hopeless end? This would be worse. whose eye Views all things at one view? He from Heaven's height All these our motions vain sees and derides. and this firmament Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire. Awaked. To suffer. unreprieved. or from above Should intermitted vengeance arm again His red right hand to plague us? What if all Her stores were opened. What if the breath that kindled those grim fires.

and in what place soe'er Thrive under evil. Useful of hurtful. and from our own Live to ourselves. How wearisome Eternity so spent in worship paid To whom we hate! Let us not then pursue. while he lordly sits Our envied sovereign. If we procure not to ourselves more woe. this darkness light. for ill not worst. by leave obtained Unacceptable. though in Heaven. if war be best. Our servile offerings? This must be our task In Heaven. though in this vast recess. The former. We can create. This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst 21 . void of pain. and.With what is punished. if his breath stir not their flames. this our delight. what chance. prosperous of adverse. argues as vain The latter. will receive Familiar the fierce heat. Him to unthrone we then May hope. and to the place conformed In temper and in nature. for what place can be for us Within Heaven's bound. and work ease out of pain Through labour and endurance. vain to hope. whence these raging fires Will slacken. Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous when great things of small. Besides what hope the never-ending flight Of future days may bring. or to regain Our own right lost. Our purer essence then will overcome Their noxious vapour. Free and to none accountable. unless Heaven's Lord supreme We overpower? Suppose he should relent And publish grace to all. or. Counselled ignoble ease and peaceful sloth. and his altar breathes Ambrosial odours and ambrosial flowers. and to his Godhead sing Forced hallelujahs." Thus Belial. and receive Strict laws imposed. This horror will grow mild. not feel. Not peace. to celebrate his throne With warbled hyms. changed at length. By force impossible. on promise made Of new subjection. and after him thus Mammon spake:-"Either to disenthrone the King of Heaven We war. our state Of splendid vassalage. but rather seek Our own good from ourselves. with what eyes could we Stand in his presence humble. when everlasting Fate shall yield To fickle Chance. with words clothed in reason's garb. and Chaos judge the strife. preferring Hard liberty before the easy yoke Of servile pomp. Or. what change Worth waiting--since our present lot appears For happy though but ill. inured.

Sage he stood With Atlantean shoulders. be called Princes of Hell? for so the popular vote Inclines--here to continue. All things invite To peaceful counsels. and public care. our temper changed Into their temper. Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat. gems and gold. his glory unobscured. how in safety best we may Compose our present evils. and his sentence pleased. none higher sat--with grave Aspect he rose. and the settled state Of order. cannot we his light Imitate when we please? This desert soil Wants not her hidden lustre. from whence deep thunders roar. whose bark by chance Or pinnace. And with the majesty of darkness round Covers his throne. Ethereal Virtues! or these titles now Must we renounce. Mustering their rage. and what can Heaven show more? Our torments also may. Nor want we skill or art from whence to raise Magnificence. Majestic." He scarce had finished. which might rise. these piercing fires As soft as now severe. which all night long Had roused the sea. changing style. and build up here 22 . anchors in a craggy bay After the tempest. and Heaven resembles Hell! As he our darkness. By policy and long process of time. with regard Of what we are and where. now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatched. Advising peace: for such another field They dreaded worse than Hell. fit to bear The weight of mightiest monarchies. and no less desire To found this nether empire. And princely counsel in his face yet shone. Become our elements. while thus he spake:-"Thrones and Imperial Powers. his look Drew audience and attention still as night Or summer's noontide air. Such applause was heard As Mammon ended. and in his rising seemed A pillar of state. Offspring of Heaven. Ye have what I advise. which must needs remove The sensible of pain. when such murmur filled Th' assembly as when hollow rocks retain The sound of blustering winds. though in ruin. Satan except. and. In emulation opposite to Heaven.Thick clouds and dark doth Heaven's all-ruling Sire Choose to reside. dismissing quite All thoughts of war. in length of time. Which when Beelzebub perceived--than whom. so much the fear Of thunder and the sword of Michael Wrought still within them.

as with his golden those in Heaven. to learn What creatures there inhabit. and with iron sceptre rule Us here. left To their defence who hold it: here. or possess 23 . Untamed reluctance. doubtless! while we dream. for what peace will be given To us enslaved. reserved His captive multitude. of what mould Or substance. though less In power and excellence. this place may lie exposed. And Heaven's high Arbitrator sit secure In his own strength. whose high walls fear no assault or siege. Under th' inevitable curb. so was his will Pronounced among the Gods. Yet ever plotting how the Conqueror least May reap his conquest. For he. but to remain In strictest bondage. And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted? and what peace can we return. but over Hell extend His empire. about this time To be created like to us. to be sure. And know not that the King of Heaven hath doomed This place our dungeon. nor shall we need With dangerous expedition to invade Heaven. in new league Banded against his throne. though slow. to live exempt From Heaven's high jurisdiction. still first and last will reign Sole king. but custody severe. and may least rejoice In doing what we most in suffering feel? Nor will occasion want. Or ambush from the Deep. and revenge. how endued. But. and of his kingdom lose no part By our revolt. By force of subtlety. Though Heaven be shut. not our safe retreat Beyond his potent arm. In height or depth. terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought. and what their power And where their weakness: how attempted best. the happy seat Of some new race.A growing empire. perhaps. Some advantageous act may be achieved By sudden onset--either with Hell-fire To waste his whole creation. The utmost border of his kingdom. but favoured more Of him who rules above. called Man. though thus far removed. and by an oath That shook Heaven's whole circumference confirmed. hostility and hate. to our power. Thither let us bend all our thoughts. What sit we then projecting peace and war? War hath determined us and foiled with loss Irreparable. What if we find Some easier enterprise? There is a place (If ancient and prophetic fame in Heaven Err not)--another World.

to confound the race Of mankind in one root. and. To heal the scar of these corrosive fires. or else in some mild zone Dwell. and with repenting hand Abolish his own works." 24 . and faded bliss-Faded so soon! Advise if this be worth Attempting. Synod of Gods. and interrupt his joy In our confusion. Through the strict senteries and stations thick Of Angels watching round? Here he had need All circumspection: and we now no less Choice in our suffrage. But. This would surpass Common revenge. or to sit in darkness here Hatching vain empires. that their God May prove their foe. Shall breathe her balm. which from the lowest deep Will once more lift us up. infinite Abyss. can then Suffice. or. And opportune excursion. and drive. first. relies. Great things resolved. not unvisited of Heaven's fair light. or what evasion bear him safe. what art. well ended long debate. like to what ye are. The bold design Pleased highly those infernal States. Nearer our ancient seat--perhaps in view Of those bright confines. shall curse Their frail original. But from the author of all ill. for on whom we send The weight of all. if not drive. in spite of fate." Thus beelzebub Pleaded his devilish counsel--first devised By Satan. Hurled headlong to partake with us. Secure. and in part proposed: for whence. and our last hope. unbottomed. and our joy upraise In his disturbance. with neighbouring arms. Upborne with indefatigable wings Over the vast abrupt. and joy Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent They vote: whereat his speech he thus renews:-"Well have ye judged. The puny habitants. and at the brightening orient beam Purge off this gloom: the soft delicious air. and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve. when his darling sons. done all to spite The great Creator? But their spite still serves His glory to augment. as we were driven.All as our own. And through the palpable obscure find out His uncouth way. ere he arrive The happy Isle? What strength. could spring So deep a malice. whence. whom shall we send In search of this new World? whom shall we find Sufficient? who shall tempt with wandering feet The dark. or spread his airy flight. we may chance Re-enter Heaven. Seduce them to our party.

These passed. Astonished. till. Or unknown region. Outrageous to devour. or oppose. due alike To him who reigns. and as hard escape? But I should ill become this throne. he sat. at last. prohibit all egress. unmoved thus spake:-"O Progeny of Heaven! Empyreal Thrones! With reason hath deep silence and demur Seized us. with monarchal pride Conscious of highest worth. if aught proposed And judged of public moment in the shape Of difficulty or danger. this huge convex of fire. the void profound Of unessential Night receives him next. and each In other's countenance read his own dismay. and so much to him due Of hazard more as he above the rest High honoured sits? Go. armed with power. mighty Powers. Long is the way And hard. Pondering the danger with deep thoughts. that out of Hell leads up to light. and render Hell More tolerable. Satan. And this imperial sovereignty. This enterprise None shall partake with me. Wherefore do I assume These royalties. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. Barred over us. If thence he scape. rose The Monarch. if any pass. if there be cure or charm To respite. O Peers. while I abroad Through all the coasts of dark destruction seek Deliverance for us all. Our prison strong. and with utter loss of being Threatens him. plunged in that abortive gulf. But all sat mute. adorned With splendour. immures us round Ninefold. therefore.This said. or slack the pain Of this ill mansion: intermit no watch Against a wakeful foe. intend at home. Alone. and gates of burning adamant. whom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows. or undertake The perilous attempt. though fallen. could deter Me from attempting. what remains him less Than unknown dangers. though undismayed." Thus saying. Terror of Heaven. the dreadful voyage. Wide-gaping. While here shall be our home. what best may ease The present misery. and prevented all reply. into whatever world. 25 . and not refuse to reign. None among the choice and prime Of those Heaven-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accept. awaiting who appeared To second. or deceive. and expectation held His look suspense.

and forth In order came the grand infernal Peers: Midst came their mighty Paramount. from his resolution raised. Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote. the fields revive. But they Dreaded not more th' adventure than his voice Forbidding. the hollow Abyss 26 . Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone. If chance the radiant sun. and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. and levy cruel wars Wasting the earth. with pomp supreme. and horrent arms. nor less Than Hell's dread Emperor. Others among the chief might offer now. that hill and valley rings.Prudent lest. might in opinion stand His rivals. Nor failed they to express how much they praised That for the general safety he despised His own: for neither do the Spirits damned Lose all their virtue. o'erspread Heaven's cheerful face. Certain to be refused. And. which glory excites. what erst they feared. Thus they their doubtful consultations dark Ended. That day and night for his destruction wait! The Stygian council thus dissolved. and seemed Alone th' antagonist of Heaven. O shame to men! Devil with devil damned Firm concord holds. though under hope Of heavenly grace. Or close ambition varnished o'er with zeal. and at once with him they rose. winning cheap the high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn. Then of their session ended they bid cry With trumpet's regal sound the great result: Toward the four winds four speedy Cherubim Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. God proclaiming peace. rejoicing in their matchless Chief: As. By herald's voice explained. Extend his evening beam. enmity. men only disagree Of creatures rational. Yet live in hatred. lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds on earth. while the north wind sleeps. when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds Ascending. And god-like imitated state: him round A globe of fiery Seraphim enclosed With bright emblazonry. and. with farewell sweet. The birds their notes renew. the louring element Scowls o'er the darkened landscape snow or shower. and bleating herds Attest their joy. each other to destroy: As if (which might induce us to accord) Man had not hellish foes enow besides. and strife Among themselves. so refused.

Part curb their fiery steeds. and couch their spears. Song charms the Sense) Others apart sat on a hill retired. and reasoned high Of Providence. Part on the plain. or shun the goal With rapid wheels. In discourse more sweet (For Eloquence the Soul. and hapless fall By doom of battle. and entertain The irksome hours. and Fate-Fixed fate. And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw Into th' Euboic sea. and took with ravishment The thronging audience. and false philosophy!-Yet. and armies rush To battle in the clouds. before each van Prick forth the airy knights. more fell. and tore Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines. to warn proud cities. Their song was partial. where he may likeliest find Truce to his restless thoughts. or in the air sublime. but the harmony (What could it less when Spirits immortal sing?) Suspended Hell. foreknowledge absolute. the ranged Powers Disband. wandering. Rend up both rocks and hills. could charm Pain for a while or anguish. till his great Chief return. with vast Typhoean rage. Of good and evil much they argued then. Hell scarce holds the wild uproar:-As when Alcides. Passion and apathy. each his several way Pursues. Will. or fronted brigades form: As when. Others. And found no end. and glory and shame: Vain wisdom all. war appears Waged in the troubled sky. as inclination or sad choice Leads him perplexed. and somewhat raised By false presumptuous hope. in wandering mazes lost. 27 . sing With notes angelical to many a harp Their own heroic deeds. Upon the wing or in swift race contend. more mild. As at th' Olympian games or Pythian fields. and complain that Fate Free Virtue should enthrall to Force or Chance. and excite Fallacious hope. or arm th' obdured breast With stubborn patience as with triple steel. Thence more at ease their minds. Till thickest legions close. Foreknowledge. and all the host of Hell With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim. with feats of arms From either end of heaven the welkin burns. and ride the air In whirlwind. and.Heard far adn wide. with a pleasing sorcery. felt th' envenomed robe. from Oechalia crowned With conquest. In thoughts more elevate. free will. Others. Of happiness and final misery. Retreated in a silent valley.

extremes by change more fierce. as they pass. and ruin seems Of ancient pile. as once it fled The lip of Tantalus. 28 . pleasure and pain. and found No rest. Viewed first their lamentable lot. Through many a dark and dreary vale They passed. All in one moment. and. beat with perpetual storms Of whirlwind and dire hail. Far off from these. to reach The tempting stream. th' adventurous bands. At certain revolutions all the damned Are brought. which on firm land Thaws not. and frozen round Periods of time. Cocytus. many a fiery alp. if any clime perhaps Might yield them easier habitation. by harpy-footed Furies haled. in squadrons and gross bands. and cold performs th' effect of fire. whereof who drinks Forthwith his former state and being forgets-Forgets both joy and grief. On bold adventure to discover wide That dismal world. the river of oblivion. Thus roving on In confused march forlorn. to oppose th' attempt. And wish and struggle. and eyes aghast. But Fate withstands. bend Four ways their flying march. all else deep snow and ice. They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro. Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage. Thither. and there to pine Immovable. that disgorge Into the burning lake their baleful streams-Abhorred Styx. a slow and silent stream. their sorrow to augment. A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. fierce Phlegeton. infixed. Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards The ford. and so near the brink. Sad Acheron of sorrow. along the banks Of four infernal rivers. From beds of raging fire to starve in ice Their soft ethereal warmth. the flood of deadly hate. and feel by turns the bitter change Of fierce extremes. O'er many a frozen. but gathers heap. and many a region dolorous. black and deep. With shuddering horror pale. and of itself the water flies All taste of living wight. Beyond this flood a frozen continent Lies dark and wild. rolls Her watery labyrinth.--thence hurried back to fire.Another part. Lethe. with one small drop to lose In sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe. named of lamentation loud Heard on the rueful stream. Where armies whole have sunk: the parching air Burns frore.

inutterable. and Hydras. impaled with circling fire. Far less abhorred than these Vexed Scylla. and Nature breeds. At last appear Hell-bounds. lakes. yet. Meanwhile the Adversary of God and Man. And thrice threefold the gates. would creep. terrible as Hell. Obominable. Voluminous and vast--a serpent armed With mortal sting. whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs. Where all life dies. Or substance might be called that shadow seemed. or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore. when they list. then soars Up to the fiery concave towering high. If aught disturbed their noise. Lured with the smell of infant blood. Before the gates there sat On either side a formidable Shape. Satan. Yet unconsumed. joint. But ended foul in many a scaly fold. yet there still barked and howled Within unseen. and fair. dens. Fierce as ten Furies. for evil only good. into her womb. by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Bengala. or limb. The other Shape-If shape it might be called that shape had none Distinguishable in member. and worse Than fables yet have feigned or fear conceived. bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore. all monstrous. and Chimeras dire. And kennel there. Gorgons. Perverse. while the labouring moon Eclipses at their charms. Puts on swift wings. all prodigious things. About her middle round A cry of Hell-hounds never-ceasing barked With wide Cerberean mouths full loud. As when far off at sea a fleet descried Hangs in the clouds. three of adamantine rock. riding through the air she comes. high reaching to the horrid roof. bogs. three folds were brass. when. death lives. Through the wide Ethiopian to the Cape. and shades of death-A universe of death. caves. they on the trading flood. sometimes the left. For each seemed either--black it stood as Night. Impenetrable.Rocks. and rung A hideous peal. Nor uglier follow the night-hag. which God by curse Created evil. 29 . to dance With Lapland witches. The one seemed woman to the waist. and toward the gates of Hell Explores his solitary flight: sometimes He scours the right hand coast. Three iron. Now shaves with level wing the deep. with thoughts inflamed of highest design. called In secret. fens. Ply stemming nightly toward the pole: so seemed Far off the flying Fiend.

And shook a dreadful dart: what seemed his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. and learn by proof. For never but once more was wither like To meet so great a foe. Created thing naught valued he nor shunned). Hell-born. and like a comet burned. Each at the head Levelled his deadly aim. or with one stroke of this dart Strange horror seize thee. till winds the signal blow To join their dark encounter in mid-air. not feared (God and his Son except. execrable Shape. That be assured. full of wrath. till then Unbroken. and in proud rebellious arms Drew after him the third part of Heaven's sons. not to contend with Spirits of Heaven. to enrage thee more. With heaven's artillery fraught. replied:-"Art thou that traitor Angel? art thou he. Th' undaunted Fiend what this might be admired-Admired. Conjured against the Highest--for which both thou And they. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Retire. and such a frown Each cast at th' other as when two black clouds. without leave asked of thee. Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith. though grim and terrible.--then stand front to front Hovering a space. And now great deeds 30 . and pangs unfelt before. and. are here condemned To waste eternal days in woe and pain? And reckon'st thou thyself with Spirits of Heaven Hell-doomed." To whom the Goblin. Satan was now at hand. came rattling on Over the Caspian. and in shape. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th' arctic sky. Thy king and lord? Back to thy punishment. outcast from God. False fugitive. On th' other side. advance Thy miscreated front athwart my way To yonder gates? Through them I mean to pass. And with disdainful look thus first began:-"Whence and what art thou. and from his seat The monster moving onward came as fast With horrid strides. Where I reign king. So frowned the mighty combatants that Hell Grew darker at their frown. Incensed with indignation. grew tenfold. That dar'st. Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue Thy lingering. so matched they stood." So spake the grisly Terror. More dreadful and deform. or taste thy folly. and breath'st defiance here and scorn. Satan stood Unterrified. Hell trembled as he strode. So speaking and so threatening. their fatal hands No second stroke intend. and to thy speed add wings.

" T' whom thus the Portress of Hell-gate replied:-"Hast thou forgot me. which one day will destroy ye both!" She spake. Becam'st enamoured. who. and with hideous outcry rushed between. ordained his drudge to execute Whate'er his wrath. Prevented. a goddess armed. and for a sign Portentous held me. Possesses thee to bend that mortal dart Against thy father's head? And know'st for whom? For him who sits above. In this infernal vale first met. and thy words so strange Thou interposest. Amazement seized All th' host of Heaven. back they recoiled afraid At first. and in the general fall 31 . and why. full oft Thyself in me thy perfect image viewing. Driven headlong from the pitch of Heaven. Likest to thee in shape and countenance bright." she cried.Had been achieved. and at her words the hellish Pest Forbore: then these to her Satan returned:-"So strange thy outcry. Out of thy head I sprung. and do I seem Now in thine eye so foul?--once deemed so fair In Heaven. Risen. Meanwhile war arose. familiar grown. when at th' assembly. and called me Sin. "O father. that my sudden hand. what intends thy hand. Down they fell. till first I know of thee What thing thou art. which he calls justice. and such joy thou took'st With me in secret that my womb conceived A growing burden. All on a sudden miserable pain Surprised thee. "Against thy only son? What fury. I pleased. thus double-formed. then. Had not the snaky Sorceress. thou call'st Me father. and with attractive graces won The most averse--thee chiefly. while thy head flames thick and fast Threw forth. and laughs the while At thee. whereof all Hell had rung. And fields were fought in Heaven: wherein remained (For what could else?) to our Almighty Foe Clear victory. Then shining heavenly fair. and that phantasm call'st my son. and in sight Of all the Seraphim with thee combined In bold conspiracy against Heaven's King. till on the left side opening wide. to our part loss and rout Through all the Empyrean. spares to tell thee yet by deeds What it intends. down Into this Deep. dim thine eyes and dizzy swum In darkness. bids-His wrath. nor ever saw till now Sight more detestable than him and thee. that sat Fast by Hell-gate and kept the fatal key. but. I know thee not. O son.

and his bane. unthought-of--know. with sorrow infinite To me. But thou. and cried out Death! Hell trembled at the hideous name. Before mine eyes in opposition sits Grim Death. of that rape begot These yelling monsters. And my fair son here show'st me. through dire change Befallen us unforeseen. which none can pass Without my opening. And. And me. Me overtook. all my nether shape thus grew Transformed: but he my inbred enemy Forth issued. would full soon devour For want of other prey. and the subtle Fiend his lore Soon learned. his parent. in embraces forcible and foul Engendering with me. and back resounded Death! I fled. now milder. and now excessive grown. swifter far. Pregnant by thee. with conscious terrors vex me round. when they list. then. Save he who reigns above. I forewarn thee. brandishing his fatal dart. and all the heavenly host 32 . now sad to mention. and sighed From all her caves. shun His deadly arrow. Made to destroy. and knows that I Should prove a bitter morsel. for that mortal dint. Pensive here I sat Alone. and thus answered smooth:-"Dear daughter--since thou claim'st me for thy sire. and joys Then sweet. his mother. neither vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms. That rest or intermission none I find. Whenever that shall be: so Fate pronounced. Through tempered heavenly. with fear and pain Distorted. till my womb. their repast. as thou saw'st--hourly conceived And hourly born. for. that. but long I sat not. all dismayed. but that he knows His end with mine involved. Tore through my entrails. none can resist. it seems. Inflamed with lust than rage). the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heaven. and gnaw My bowels. but he pursued (though more. that with ceaseless cry Surround me." She finished.I also: at which time this powerful key Into my hands was given. Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes. and. into the womb That bred them they return. my son and foe. O father. bursting forth Afresh. I come no enemy. I fled. and howl. breaking violent way. At last this odious offspring whom thou seest. with charge to keep These gates for ever shut. Thine own begotten. but to set free From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee. who set them on.

And bring ye to the place where thou and Death Shall dwell at ease. surcharged with potent multitude. not all the Stygian Powers 33 . Who hates me. But what owe I to his commands above. To sit in hateful office here confined. ere now Created vast and round--a place of bliss In the purlieus of Heaven. against all force Death ready stands to interpose his dart. from her side the fatal key." He ceased. With terrors and with clamours compassed round Of mine own brood. Forthwith the huge portcullis high up-drew. Fearless to be o'ermatched by living might. embalmed With odours. and through the void immense To search. towards the gate rolling her bestial train. and blessed his maw Destined to that good hour. Sad instrument of all our woe. Which. though more removed. Fell with us from on high. Might hap to move new broils. and. Lest Heaven.Of Spirits that. she took. all things shall be your prey. with wandering quest. with lonely steps to tread Th' unfounded Deep. I haste To know. where I shall reign At thy right hand voluptuous. and thus bespake her sire:-"The key of this infernal Pit. now designed. and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom air. and hath hither thrust me down Into this gloom of Tartarus profound. thou my author. Be this. I keep. to hear His famine should be filled. And. From them I go This uncouth errand sole. that on my bowels feed? Thou art my father. No less rejoiced His mother bad. without end. and Death Grinned horrible a ghastly smile. and one for all Myself expose. to supply Perhaps our vacant room. as beseems Thy daughter and thy darling. this once known. among The gods who live at ease. a place foretold Should be--and. but herself. thou My being gav'st me. by due And by command of Heaven's all-powerful King. by him forbidden to unlock These adamantine gates. shall soon return. in our just pretences armed. whom should I obey But thee? whom follow? Thou wilt bring me soon To that new world of light and bliss. by concurring signs. There ye shall be fed and filled Immeasurably. and therein placed A race of upstart creatures. Inhabitant of Heaven and heavenly born-Here in perpetual agony and pain. or aught Than this more secret. for both seemed highly pleased." Thus saying.

without bound. Without dimension. Moist. Swarm populous. that the lowest bottom shook Of Erebus. mibht pass through With horse and chariots ranked in loose array. To whom these most adhere He rules a moment: Chaos umpire sits. She opened. ancestors of Nature. sharp. Levied to side with warring winds. then in the key-hole turns Th' intricate wards. That with extended wings a bannered host. Light-armed or heavy. high arbiter. And by decision more embroils the fray By which he reigns: next him.Could once have moved. Nor was his ear less pealed With noises loud and ruinous (to compare Great things with small) than when Bellona storms With all her battering engines. Before their eyes in sudden view appear The secrets of the hoary Deep--a dark Illimitable ocean. but to shut Excelled her power: the gates wide open stood. and place. where length. smooth. Chance governs all. Into this wild Abyss. amidst the noise Of endless wars. Pondering his voyage. So wide they stood. And time. nor shore. Of neither sea. and like a furnace-mouth Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. and every bolt and bar Of massy iron or solid rock with ease Unfastens. and Dry. Under spread ensigns marching. in their several clans. Cold. hold Eternal anarchy. and by confusion stand. Strive here for mastery. and poise Their lighter wings. and height. Th' infernal doors. and perhaps her grave. On a sudden open fly. or less than if this frame Of Heaven were falling. where eldest Night And Chaos. for no narrow frith He had to cross. nor fire. The womb of Nature. and these elements In mutiny had from her axle torn 34 . breadth. or slow. Unless th' Almighty Maker them ordain His dark materials to create more worlds-Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while. are lost. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder. unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil. and to battle bring Their embryon atoms: they around the flag Of each his faction. four champions fierce. swift. With impetuous recoil and jarring sound. bent to rase Some capital city. For Hot. nor air. and which thus must ever fight. But all these in their pregnant causes mixed Confusedly.

dense. had not. and to this hour Down had been falling. Instinct with fire and nitre. As in a cloudy chair. by ill chance. Borne through the hollow dark. At last his sail-broad vans He spread for flight. that seat soon failing. to meet there whatever Power Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss Might in that noise reside. as my way Lies through your spacious empire up to light. And swims. Pursues the Arimaspian. on he fares. Nor good dry land--nigh foundered. of whom to ask Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies Bordering on light. I seek. and the dreaded name Of Demogorgon. hands. Fluttering his pennons vain. and his dark pavilion spread Wide on the wasteful Deep! With him enthroned Sat sable-vested Night. and. and Confusion. when straight behold the throne Of Chaos. That fury stayed-Quenched in a boggy Syrtis. or sinks. The consort of his reign. ascending rides Audacious. plumb-down he drops Ten thousand fathom deep. and by them stood Orcus and Ades. spurns the ground. hurried him As many miles aloft. With head. in the surging smoke Uplifted. Thither he plies Undaunted. And Discord with a thousand various mouths. All unawares. assaults his ear With loudest vehemence. all embroiled. or. I come no spy With purpose to explore or to disturb The secrets of your realm. o'er hill or moory dale. neither sea. and Chance. At length a universal hubbub wild Of stunning sounds. or creeps. and voices all confused. turning boldly. thence many a league. half lost. or wades. meets A vast vacuity. so eagerly the Fiend O'er bog or steep. As when a gryphon through the wilderness With winged course. Rumour next. or rare. The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud. but. half on foot. Half flying. rough. T' whom Satan. What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds Confine with Heaven. 35 . eldest of things. wings. behoves him now both oar and sail. And Tumult. by constraint Wandering this darksome desert. if some other place. pursues his way. thus:--"Ye Powers And Spirtis of this nethermost Abyss. through strait. or flies. but. Alone and without guide. who by stealth Had from his wakeful custody purloined The guarded gold. Chaos and ancient Night. Treading the crude consistence. or feet.The steadfast Earth.

Confusion worse confounded. and Satan stayed not to reply.From your dominion won. and spoil. With ruin upon ruin. Yours be th' advantage all. So much the nearer danger. So he with difficulty and labour hard Moved on. rout on rout. and once more Erect the standard there of ancient Night. if I that region lost. With fresh alacrity and force renewed Springs upward. Following his track (such was the will of Heaven) Paved after him a broad and beaten way Over the dark Abyss. when Man fell. thither to arrive I travel this profound. Answered: "I know thee. Pursuing. and Heaven-gates Poured out by millions her victorious bands. th' Ethereal King Possesses lately. With faltering speech and visage incomposed. Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain. glad that now his sea should find a shore. with difficulty and labour he. he once passed. harder beset And more endangered than when Argo passed Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks. wins his way. though overthrown. if all I can will serve That little which is left so to defend. Or when Ulysses on the larboard shunned Charybdis. and by th' other whirlpool steered. 36 . linked in a golden chain To that side Heaven from whence your legions fell! If that way be your walk. All usurpation thence expelled." He ceased. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence.*** That mighty leading Angel. like a pyramid of fire. But. and through the shock Of fighting elements. who thou art-. stretching far and wide beneath. who of late Made head against Heaven's King. mine the revenge!" Thus Satan. are my gain. Into the wild expanse. Encroached on still through our intestine broils Weakening the sceptre of old Night: first. and ruin. Go. you have not far. stranger. soon after. for such a numerous host Fled not in silence through the frighted Deep. Direct my course: Directed. But. no mean recompense it brings To your behoof. and speed. and him thus the Anarch old. Your dungeon. Havoc. Now lately Heaven and Earth. reduce To her original darkness and your sway (Which is my present journey). another world Hung o'er my realm. Hell. I saw and heard. whose boiling gulf Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length. on all sides round Environed.

Won from the void and formless infinite. And. With opal towers and battlements adorned Of living sapphire. once his native seat. 37 . As from her outmost works. though shrouds and tackle torn. and Chaos to retire. and now with ease. holy Light. And never but in unapproached light Dwelt from eternity. and at the voice Of God.From Hell continued. Here Nature first begins Her farthest verge. Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing. Escap'd the Stygian pool. Or in the emptier waste. and up to re-ascend. And. Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light. Or of the Eternal coeternal beam May I express thee unblam'd? since God is light. undetermined square or round. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sung of Chaos and eternal Night. in bigness as a star Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. except whom God and good Angels guard by special grace. while in my flight Through utter and through middle darkness borne. and from the walls of Heaven Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night A glimmering dawn. But now at last the sacred influence Of light appears. full fraught with mischievous revenge. Thither. by which the Spirits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro To tempt or punish mortals. Or hear"st thou rather pure ethereal stream. Before the Heavens thou wert. extended wide In circuit. hanging in a golden chain. like a weather-beaten vessel. With tumult less and with less hostile din. Book III Hail. he hies. Accursed. fast by. though long detain'd In that obscure sojourn. and in a cursed hour. dwelt then in thee Bright effluence of bright essence increate. offspring of Heaven firstborn. Weighs his spread wings. Whose fountain who shall tell? before the sun. reaching th' utmost orb Of this frail World. a broken foe. This pendent World. resembling air. didst invest *** The rising world of waters dark and deep. That Satan with less toil. holds Gladly the port. as with a mantle. at leisure to behold Far off th' empyreal Heaven. Taught by the heavenly Muse to venture down The dark descent.

and blind Maeonides. but chief Thee. and Satan there Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night 38 . bent down his eye His own works and their works at once to view: About him all the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars. unrivall'd love. From the pure empyrean where he sits High thron'd above all highth. Blind Thamyris. That wash thy hallow'd feet. In blissful solitude. and warbling flow. and find no dawn. Sion. on earth he first beheld Our two first parents. and for the book of knowledge fair Presented with a universal blank Of nature's works to me expung'd and ras'd. And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. Or flocks. or human face divine. Uninterrupted joy. or sunny hill. that roll in vain To find thy piercing ray. and from his sight receiv'd Beatitude past utterance. from the cheerful ways of men Cut off. prophets old: Then feed on thoughts. there plant eyes. or herds. he then survey'd Hell and the gulf between. So much the rather thou. So thick a drop serene hath quench'd their orbs. and the mind through all her powers Irradiate. celestial Light. as the wakeful bird Sings darkling. Yet not the more Cease I to wander.Though hard and rare: Thee I revisit safe. and Phineus. But cloud instead. that Man should find grace. Thus with the year Seasons return. that voluntary move Harmonious numbers. and ever-during dark Surrounds me. Thy sovran command. Now had the Almighty Father from above. and the flowery brooks beneath. His only son. And feel thy sovran vital lamp. Nightly I visit: nor sometimes forget So were I equall'd with them in renown. Smit with the love of sacred song. or shady grove. but not to me returns Day. And Tiresias. on his right The radiant image of his glory sat. yet the only two Of mankind in the happy garden plac'd Reaping immortal fruits of joy and love. all mist from thence Purge and disperse. Or dim suffusion veil'd. but thou Revisit'st not these eyes. or summer's rose. and in shadiest covert hid Tunes her nocturnal note. where the Muses haunt. or the sweet approach of even or morn. Or sight of vernal bloom. Clear spring. that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight. Shine inward.

By some false guile pervert. Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault. On the bare outside of this world. nor can justly accuse Their Maker. that shall redound Upon his own rebellious head. or their making. and shall pervert. Not what they would? what praise could they receive? What pleasure I from such obedience paid. he wings his way Not far off Heaven. or. authors to themselves in all 39 . Uncertain which. so bent he seems On desperate revenge. So without least impulse or shadow of fate. For man will hearken to his glozing lies. Wherein past. of freedom both despoil'd. When will and reason (reason also is choice) Useless and vain. he had of me All he could have. in ocean or in air. Made passive both. Sufficient to have stood. what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance. or their fate.In the dun air sublime. Not free. I made him just and right. with purpose to assay If him by force he can destroy. Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall He and his faithless progeny: Whose fault? Whose but his own? ingrate. he beholds. And now. can hold. Which had no less proved certain unforeknown. Him God beholding from his prospect high. future. worse. and ready now To stoop with wearied wings. not I. that seem'd Firm land imbosom'd. Such I created all the ethereal Powers And Spirits. And man there plac'd. and them who fail'd. And easily transgress the sole command. present. in the precincts of light. and willing feet. if I foreknew. Directly towards the new created world. and fell who fell. Thus to his only Son foreseeing spake. had serv'd necessity. nor yet the main abyss Wide interrupt. seest thou what rage Transports our Adversary? whom no bounds Prescrib'd no bars of Hell. Freely they stood who stood. both them who stood. As if predestination over-rul'd Their will dispos'd by absolute decree Or high foreknowledge they themselves decreed Their own revolt. Or aught by me immutably foreseen. nor all the chains Heap'd on him there. So were created. though free to fall. Not me? they therefore. constant faith or love. Where only what they needs must do appear'd. They trespass. as to right belong$ 'd. Only begotten Son. without firmament. Through all restraint broke loose.

all As my eternal purpose hath decreed. Love without end. . in him all his Father shone Substantially express'd. O Father. 40 . what for thy glory thou hast made? So should thy goodness and thy greatness both Be question'd and blasphem'd without defence. Father. Thy creature late so lov'd. My word. for so I form'd them free: and free they must remain. The first sort by their own suggestion fell. Or proud return. that Man should find grace. The other none: In mercy and justice both.Both what they judge. and revoke the high decree Unchangeable. and judgest only right. and to Hell Draw after him the whole race of mankind. which ordain'd $THeir freedom: they themselves ordain'd their fall. and thy goodness bring to nought. in whom my soul hath chief delight. though join'd With his own folly? that be from thee far. and frustrate thine? shall he fulfill His malice. That far be from thee. Beyond compare the Son of God was seen Most glorious. wherewith thy throne Encompass'd shall resound thee ever blest. shall brightest shine. I else must change Their nature. so shall my glory excel. and without measure grace. and in his face Divine compassion visibly appear'd. first and last. and in the blessed Spirits elect Sense of new joy ineffable diffus'd. For should Man finally be lost. that Man should find grace. O son. By him corrupted? or wilt thou thyself Abolish thy creation. ambrosial fragrance fill'd All Heaven. Yet with revenge accomplish'd. Thus while God spake. eternal. Till they enthrall themselves. Through Heaven and Earth. Self-tempted. and effectual might. with the innumerable sound Of hymns and sacred songs. Fall circumvented thus by fraud. self-deprav'd: Man falls. Son of my bosom. gracious was that word which clos'd Thy sovran command. All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are. who art judge Of all things made. thy youngest son. though to his heavier doom. Son who art alone. should Man. Or shall the Adversary thus obtain His end. Which uttering. deceiv'd By the other first: Man therefore shall find grace. and unmake For him. and what they choose. thus he to his Father spake. my wisdom. For which both Heaven and earth shall high extol Thy praises. To whom the great Creator thus replied. But Mercy.

And I will place within them as a guide. well us'd. shall never taste. repent. Affecting God-head. and my day of grace. they shall attain. and just the unjust to save? Dwells in all Heaven charity so dear? And silence was in Heaven: $ on Man's behalf He ask'd. for I will clear their senses dark. and. Mine ear shall not be slow. persisting. and ransom set. death for death. mine eye not shut. but all the heavenly quire stood mute. once more I will renew His lapsed powers. Light after light. heavenly Powers. And to the end. Much less that durst upon his own head draw The deadly forfeiture. He. Though but endeavour'd with sincere intent. but grace in me Freely vouchsaf'd. blind be blinded more. whom if they will hear. Yet not of will in him. Upheld by me. But to destruction sacred and devote. that he may know how frail His fallen condition is. with his whole posterity. By me upheld. Disloyal. to redeem Man's mortal crime. adjudg'd to Death and Hell 41 . unless for him Some other able. pay The rigid satisfaction. and bring obedience due. Die he or justice must. while offer'd grace Invites. safe arrive. This my long sufferance. But hard be harden'd. But yet all is not done. and sins Against the high supremacy of Heaven. yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe. and to appease betimes The incensed Deity. Elect above the rest. breaks his fealty. and deeper fall. and as willing. and soften stony hearts To pray. must die. That they may stumble on. To expiate his treason hath nought left. and to none but me. so is my will: The rest shall hear me call. and oft be warn'd Their sinful state. What may suffice. And none but such from mercy I exclude. but sav'd who will. where shall we find such love? Which of you will be mortal. though forfeit. and obedience due. Man disobeying. They who neglect and scorn. Say. and enthrall'd By sin to foul exorbitant desires.Man shall not quite be lost. Some I have chosen of peculiar grace. and to me owe All his deliverance. Patron or intercessour none appear'd. so losing all. To prayer. And now without redemption all mankind Must have been lost. My umpire Conscience. repentance.

and am his due. O thou in Heaven and Earth the only peace 42 . but soon th' Almighty thus replied. unimplor'd. to see thy face. at the sight Pleased. Behold me then: me for him. Death his death's wound shall then receive. once dead in sins. thy word is past. and breathed immortal love To mortal men. Shall enter Heaven. life for life I offer: on me let thine anger fall. wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain. Thou. of his mortal sting disarmed. All that of me can die. above which only shone Filial obedience: as a sacrifice Glad to be offered. that debt paid. and to all Comes unprevented. and for him lastly die Well pleased. And shall grace not find means. with the multitude of my redeemed. and show The powers of darkness bound. long absent. he attends the will Of his great Father. Indebted and undone. and this glory next to thee Freely put off. I for his sake will leave Thy bosom. Admiration seized All Heaven. The speediest of thy winged messengers. so coming. unsought? Happy for Man. $ thou wilt not leave me in the loathsome grave His prey. had not the Son of God. Atonement for himself. Wondering. he her aid Can never seek. out of Heaven shalt look down and smile. and subdue My vanquisher. and lost. by thee I live. Then. or offering meet. and stoop Inglorious. Father. Though now to Death I yield. Thou hast given me to possess Life in myself for ever. what this might mean. on me let Death wreak all his rage. I through the ample air in triumph high Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell. Father. and return. His dearest mediation thus renew'd. His words here ended. Under his gloomy power I shall not long Lie vanquished. nor suffer my unspotted soul For ever with corruption there to dwell. yet. Death last. but in thy presence joy entire. that finds her way. I ruin all my foes. and with his carcase glut the grave. by thee raised. While. But I shall rise victorious. hath none to bring. spoiled of his vaunted spoil. and whither tend. To visit all thy creatures. but peace assured And reconcilement: wrath shall be no more Thenceforth. Account me Man. In whom the fulness dwells of love divine.By doom severe. but his meek aspect Silent yet spake. Man shall find grace.

and still destroys In those who. and equally enjoying God-like fruition. by descending to assume Man's nature. Giving to death. Though last created. Far more than great or high. when they may. all power I give thee. As from a second root. be thou in Adam's room The head of all mankind. As in him perish all men. nor Man the least. to save A world from utter loss. Thrones. So heavenly love shall outdo hellish hate. So dearly to redeem what hellish hate So easily destroyed. whom thou only canst redeem. because in thee Love hath abounded more than glory abounds. and assume Thy merits. Son both of God and Man. Because thou hast. Princedoms. Powers. and dying to redeem. the whole race lost. By wondrous birth. His crime makes guilty all his sons. as head supreme. of them that bide In Heaven. And dying rise. without thee none. So Man. as is most just. accept not grace. By losing thee a while. be judged and die. here shalt reign Both God and Man. so in thee. Nor shalt thou. or under Earth in Hell. 00021053 Thou. lessen or degrade thine own. And live in thee transplanted. though throned in highest bliss Equal to God. or Earth. I reduce: All knees to thee shall bow. Their nature also to thy nature join. 43 . O thou My sole complacence! Well thou know'st how dear To me are all my works. when time shall be. under thee. Dominions. Made flesh. quitted all. attended gloriously from Heaven. reign for ever. of virgin seed. and rising with him raise His brethren. and hast been found By merit more than birthright Son of God. Shall satisfy for Man. thy merit.Found out for mankind under wrath. to save. And be thyself Man among men on Earth. shall absolve them who renounce Their own both righteous and unrighteous deeds. Anointed universal King. though Adam's son. Found worthiest to be so by being good. When thou. Imputed. ransomed with his own dear life. and from thee Receive new life. therefore. that for him I spare Thee from my bosom and right hand. shall be restored As many as are restored. Therefore thy humiliation shall exalt With thee thy manhood also to this throne: Here shalt thou sit incarnate.

first they sung Omnipotent. wherein the just shall dwell. See golden days. Immortal. 44 . Adore the Son. all ye Gods. a flower which once In Paradise. Eternal King. Infinite.Shalt in the sky appear. Thee. and waken raptures high. and fair truth. Adore him. Harps ever tuned. crowned again. Then. and forthwith the cited dead Of all past ages. and loud Hosannas filled The eternal regions: Lowly reverent Towards either throne they bow. and from thee send The summoning Arch-Angels to proclaim Thy dread tribunal. With these that never fade the Spirits elect Bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with beams. the bright Pavement. No sooner had the Almighty ceased. their golden harps they took. forthwith from all winds. such a peal shall rouse their sleep. with a shout Loud as from numbers without number. the Author of all being. shall sink Beneath thy sentence. fast by the tree of life. And where the river of bliss through midst of Heaven Rolls o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream. Immortal amarant. her numbers full. Immutable. Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. Began to bloom. but all The multitude of Angels. to the general doom Shall hasten. Then. And flowers aloft shading the fount of life. Father. uttering joy. Hell. they. But. God shall be all in all. and to the ground With solemn adoration down they cast Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold. such concord is in Heaven. that like a sea of jasper shone. And. where first it grew. No voice exempt. and honour him as me. sweet As from blest voices. Heaven rung With jubilee. all thy saints assembled. arraigned. there grows. The living. that glittering by their side Like quivers hung. Then thou thy regal scepter shalt lay by. Impurpled with celestial roses smiled. and from her ashes spring New Heaven and Earth. Now in loose garlands thick thrown off. Mean while The world shall burn. no voice but well could join Melodious part. but soon for man's offence To Heaven removed. after all their tribulations long. fruitful of golden deeds. who to compass all this dies. With joy and peace triumphing. thou shalt judge Bad Men and Angels. and with preamble sweet Of charming symphony they introduce Their sacred song. For regal scepter then no more shall need.

Son of thy Father's might. Begotten Son. Love no where to be found less than Divine! Hail. enclosed From Chaos. but when thou shadest The full blaze of thy beams. Thus they in Heaven. Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat Second to thee. offered himself to die For Man's offence. without cloud Made visible. He Heaven of Heavens and all the Powers therein By thee created. Their happy hours in joy and hymning spent. O unexampled love. Yet dazzle Heaven. Satan alighted walks: A globe far off It seemed. Whom else no creature can behold. and ever-threatening storms 45 . thou didst not doom So strictly. through a cloud Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine. and end the strife Of mercy and justice in thy face discerned. on thee Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides. In whose conspicuous countenance. To execute fierce vengeance on his foes. the Almighty Father shines. under the frown of Night Starless exposed. Mean while upon the firm opacous globe Of this round world. Back from pursuit thy Powers with loud acclaim Thee only extolled. Nor stop thy flaming chariot-wheels. and wild. Divine Similitude. whose first convex divides The luminous inferiour orbs. nor from thy Father's praise disjoin. while o'er the necks Thou drovest of warring Angels disarrayed. and by thee threw down The aspiring Dominations: Thou that day Thy Father's dreadful thunder didst not spare. but much more to pity incline: No sooner did thy dear and only Son Perceive thee purposed not to doom frail Man So strictly. thyself invisible Amidst the glorious brightness where thou sit'st Throned inaccessible. and. Not so on Man: Him through their malice fallen. that shook Heaven's everlasting frame. that brightest Seraphim Approach not. Saviour of Men! Thy name Shall be the copious matter of my song Henceforth. Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear. waste. but much more to pity inclined. but with both wings veil their eyes. Son of God. above the starry sphere. Thee next they sang of all creation first. and never shall my heart thy praise Forget. Transfused on thee his ample Spirit rests. and the inroad of Darkness old. Father of mercy and grace. now seems a boundless continent Dark.Fonntain of light. He to appease thy wrath.

Cleombrotus. Indian streams. Save on that side which from the wall of Heaven. wander here. Alone. leaped into the sea. Dislodging from a region scarce of prey To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling kids.Of Chaos blustering round. Living or lifeless. eremites. to be found was none. and he. New Babels. or middle Spirits hold Betwixt the angelical and human kind. the fruits Of painful superstition and blind zeal. Embryos. to be deemed A God. the Fiend Walked up and down alone. to enjoy Plato's Elysium. inclement sky. who. and still with vain design. had they wherewithal. Nought seeking but the praise of men. and in vain. As when a vultur on Imaus bred. black. bent on his prey. Not in the neighbouring moon as some have dreamed. Those argent fields more likely habitants. on this windy sea of land. though then renowned: The builders next of Babel on the plain Of Sennaar. Here pilgrims roam. Hither of ill-joined sons and daughters born First from the ancient world those giants came With many a vain exploit. None yet. and gray. But in his way lights on the barren plains Of Sericana. Though distant far. monstrous. would build: Others came single. On hills where flocks are fed. flies toward the springs Of Ganges or Hydaspes. All the unaccomplished works of Nature's hand. with all their trumpery. Abortive. or unkindly mixed. who. he. some small reflection gains Of glimmering air less vexed with tempest loud: Here walked the Fiend at large in spacious field. fleet hither. Till final dissolution. empty as their deeds. Translated Saints. that strayed so far to seek 46 . here find Fit retribution. and many more too long. and all who in vain things Built their fond hopes of glory or lasting fame. where Chineses drive With sails and wind their cany waggons light: So. for other creature in this place. All who have their reward on earth. Or happiness in this or the other life. Dissolved on earth. Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds. when sin With vanity had filled the works of men: Both all things vain. leaped fondly into Aetna flames. but store hereafter from the earth Up hither like aereal vapours flew Of all things transitory and vain. and idiots. and friars White. Empedocles.

put on the weeds of Dominick. This is the gate of Heaven. to few unknown Long after. and that first moved. when lo A violent cross wind from either coast Blows them transverse. or aggravate His sad exclusion from the doors of bliss: Direct against which opened from beneath. ten thousand leagues awry Into the devious air: Then might ye see Cowls. hoods. or flew o'er the lake Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. who lives in Heaven. whether to dare The Fiend by easy ascent. and underneath a bright sea flowed Of jasper. Each stair mysteriously was meant. appeared The work as of a kingly palace-gate. then reliques.In Golgotha him dead. whereon Who after came from earth. but far more rich. till at last a gleam Of dawning light turned thither-ward in haste His travelled steps: far distant he descries Ascending by degrees magnificent Up to the wall of Heaven a structure high. nor stood There always. with their wearers. With frontispiece of diamond and gold Embellished. who to be sure of Paradise. Indulgences. and now at foot Of Heaven's ascent they lift their feet. inimitable on earth By model. since called The Paradise of Fools. bulls. All this dark globe the Fiend found as he passed. pardons. and pass the fixed. bands Of guardians bright. Dying. dispenses. And that crystalling sphere whose balance weighs The trepidation talked. These stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised. Just o'er the blissful seat of Paradise. Fly o'er the backside of the world far off Into a Limbo large and broad. drawn. thick with sparkling orient gems The portal shone. and untrod. And long he wandered. failing arrived Wafted by Angels. They pass the planets seven. but drawn up to Heaven sometimes Viewless. in the field of Luz Dreaming by night under the open sky And waking cried. or by shading pencil. And they. 47 . beads. The sport of winds: All these. At top whereof. now unpeopled. The stairs were then let down. when he from Esau fled To Padan-Aram. upwhirled aloft. and habits. or of liquid pearl. tost And fluttered into rags. And now Saint Peter at Heaven's wicket seems To wait them with his keys.

Over the Promised Land to God so dear. or some renowned metropolis With glistering spires and pinnacles adorned. thither his course he bends Through the calm firmament. (but up or down. a passage wide. By center. Satan from hence. and. By which.) from eastern point Of Libra to the fleecy star that bears Andromeda far off Atlantick seas Beyond the horizon. such as bound the ocean wave. The Spirit malign. that shone Stars distant.A passage down to the Earth.) where the great luminary Aloof the vulgar constellations thick.t?kast by break of cheerful dawn Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill. Or longitude. Fortunate fields. and groves. the fount of Jordan's flood. but nigh hand seemed other worlds. Thrice happy isles. On high behests his angels to and fro Passed frequent. now on the lower stair. though that were large. where the Holy Land Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore. Wider by far than that of after-times Over mount Sion. Or other worlds they seemed. or happy isles. Through dark?. or eccentrick. At sight of all this world beheld so fair. and flowery vales. Which to his eye discovers unaware The goodly prospect of some foreign land First seen. though after Heaven seen. hard to tell. but who dwelt happy there He staid not to inquire: Above them all The golden sun. Which now the rising sun gilds with his beams: Such wonder seised. 48 . to visit oft those happy tribes. in splendour likest Heaven. Round he surveys (and well might. then from pole to pole He views in breadth. Looks down with wonder at the sudden view Of all this world at once. but much more envy seised. where bounds were set To darkness. Like those Hesperian gardens famed of old. and without longer pause Down right into the world's first region throws His flight precipitant. So wide the opening seemed.?.nd desart ways with?oeril gone All?might. Allured his eye. That scaled by steps of gold to Heaven-gate. and his eye with choice regard From Paneas. To Beersaba. As when a scout. That from his lordly eye keep distance due. where he stood So high above the circling canopy Of night's extended shade. and winds with ease Through the pure marble air his oblique way Amongst innumerable stars.

The same whom John saw also in the sun: His back was turned. There lands the Fiend. No where so clear. Not all parts like. Ruby or topaz. as they move Their starry dance in numbers that compute Days. But all sun-shine. and years. The place he found beyond expression bright. nor less his locks behind Illustrious on his shoulders fledge with wings Lay waving round. 49 . and a stone besides Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen. they. but all alike informed With radiant light. carbuncle most or chrysolite. metal or stone. with terrestrial humour mixed. as when his beams at noon Culminate from the equator. and to each inward part With gentle penetration. Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep. sharpened his visual ray To objects distant far. so far from us remote. towards his all-cheering lamp Turn swift their various motions. whence no way round Shadow from body opaque can fall. For sight no obstacle found here. as they now Shot upward still direct. a spot like which perhaps Astronomer in the sun's lucent orb Through his glazed optick tube yet never saw. part seemed gold. that gently warms The universe. as glowing iron with fire. or like to that which here below Philosophers in vain so long have sought. when with one virtuous touch The arch-chemick sun. or fixed in cogitation deep. Drained through a limbeck to his native form. and call up unbound In various shapes old Proteus from the sea.Dispenses light from far. Here in the dark so many precious things Of colour glorious. If metal. and effect so rare? Here matter new to gaze the Devil met Undazzled. Compared with aught on earth. and the air. though unseen. part silver clear. but not his brightness hid. months. That stone. and rivers run Potable gold. Of beaming sunny rays a golden tiar Circled his head. whereby he soon Saw within ken a glorious Angel stand. So wonderously was set his station bright. though by their powerful art they bind Volatile Hermes. If stone. In vain. to the twelve that shone In Aaron's breast-plate. What wonder then if fields and regions here Breathe forth Elixir pure. nor shade. Produces. on some great charge employed He seemed. or are turned By his magnetick beam. far and wide his eye commands.

The universal Maker we may praise. so well he feigned: Under a coronet his flowing hair In curls on either cheek played. and. and straight was known The Arch-Angel Uriel. Stand ready at command. The first art wont his great authentick will Interpreter through highest Heaven to bring. 50 . but chiefly Man. one of the seven Who in God's presence. Where all his sons thy embassy attend. Ere he drew nigh. Brightest Seraph. and held Before his decent steps a silver wand. But all these shining orbs his choice to dwell. yet such as in his face Youth smiled celestial. tell In which of all these shining orbs hath Man His fixed seat. Not of the prime. him for whom All these his works so wonderous he ordained. and on whom hath all these graces poured. or down to the Earth Bear his swift errands over moist and dry. gloriously bright. as now in hope To find who might direct his wandering flight To Paradise. as is meet. That both in him and all things. And here art likeliest by supreme decree Like honour to obtain. But first he casts to change his proper shape. and with secret gaze Or open admiration him behold. O'er sea and land: him Satan thus accosts. wings he wore Of many a coloured plume. nearest to his throne. Created this new happy race of Men To serve him better: Wise are all his ways. Admonished by his ear. and to every limb Suitable grace diffused. Which else might work him danger or delay: And now a stripling Cherub he appears. That I may find him.Glad was the Spirit impure. to repair that loss. On whom the great Creator hath bestowed Worlds. Hath brought me from the quires of Cherubim Alone thus wandering. or fixed seat hath none. for thou of those seven Spirits that stand In sight of God's high throne. and as his eye To visit oft this new creation round. and know All these his wonderous works. sprinkled with gold. Uriel. Unspeakable desire to see. his radiant visage turned. His habit fit for speed succinct. the Angel bright. His chief delight and favour. He drew not nigh unheard. Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes To deepest Hell. and are his eyes That run through all the Heavens. the happy seat of Man. His journey's end and our beginning woe.

and her monthly round Still ending. which tends to know The works of God. For neither Man nor Angel can discern Hypocrisy. and to simplicity Resigns her charge. through mid Heaven. that light His day. earth. This world's material mould. In his uprightness. came to a heap: Confusion heard his voice. stood vast infinitude confined. except to God alone. and turned to stars Numberless. Fair Angel. thy desire. By his permissive will. Who to the fraudulent impostor foul. hear only in Heaven: For wonderful indeed are all his works. the only evil that walks Invisible. shines. suspicion sleeps At wisdom's gate. Till at his second bidding Darkness fled. and held The sharpest-sighted Spirit of all in Heaven. whose hither side With light from hence. that led thee hither From thy empyreal mansion thus alone. leads to no excess That reaches blame. though regent of the sun. Each had his place appointed. each his course. while goodness thinks no ill Where no ill seems: Which now for once beguiled Uriel. Light shone. 51 . but rather merits praise The more it seems excess. though wisdom wake. Night would invade. and worthiest to be all Had in remembrance always with delight. answer thus returned. The rest in circuit walls this universe. which else. spirited with various forms. the seat of Man. through Heaven and Earth: And oft.So spake the false dissembler unperceived. though but reflected. and wild uproar Stood ruled. but there the neighbouring moon So call that opposite fair star) her aid Timely interposes. but hid their causes deep? I saw when at his word the formless mass. With borrowed light her countenance triform Hence fills and empties to enlighten the Earth. That rolled orbicular. And this ethereal quintessence of Heaven Flew upward. thereby to glorify The great Work-master. air. and how they move. That place is Earth. Look downward on that globe. Pleasant to know. and order from disorder sprung: Swift to their several quarters hasted then The cumbrous elements. Contented with report. flood. fire. as the other hemisphere. still renewing. To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps. as thou seest. or the wisdom infinite That brought them forth. But what created mind can comprehend Their number.

And like a devilish engine back recoils Upon himself. not rejoicing in his speed. horrour and doubt distract His troubled thoughts. nor from Hell One step. and the full-blazing sun. for that warning voice. what is. his bower. and round about him. is Paradise. till on Niphates' top he lights. Thus said. bowing low. Thy way thou canst not miss. Book IV O. Throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel. which now in his view Lay pleasant. no more than from himself. As to superiour Spirits is wont in Heaven. though bold Far off and fearless. Haply so 'scaped his mortal snare: For now Satan. But with no friendly voice. to which I point. thus in sighs began. nor with cause to boast.And in her pale dominion checks the night. and add thy name. can fly By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair. Begins his dire attempt. Came furious down to be revenged on men. Lookest from thy sole dominion like the God Of this new world. Took leave. his grieved look he fixes sad. and Satan. Then when the Dragon. put to second rout. much revolving. for within him Hell He brings. now first inflamed with rage. 52 . which nigh the birth Now rolling boils in his tumultuous breast. While time was. O thou. and his flight to Hell: Yet. Sometimes towards Heaven. and 'scaped. with surpassing glory crowned. and toward the coast of earth beneath. our first parents had been warned The coming of their secret foe. Sometimes towards Eden. those lofty shades. wakes the bitter memory Of what he was. Which now sat high in his meridian tower: Then. and from the bottom stir The Hell within him. Woe to the inhabitants on earth! that now. sped with hoped success. That slumbered. Where honour due and reverence none neglects. Nor staid. The tempter ere the accuser of mankind. That spot. and what must be Worse. to thee I call. who saw The Apocalypse. To wreak on innocent frail Man his loss Of that first battle. which he. that. Adam's abode. of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. came down. heard cry in Heaven aloud. me mine requires. he turned. Down from the ecliptick. at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads.

and that word Disdain forbids me.Of Sun! to tell thee how I hate thy beams. in the lowest deep. then. and pay him thanks. since love or hate. Nay. But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all? Be then his love accursed. none for pardon left? None left but by submission. at once Indebted and discharged. Ay me! they little know How dearly I abide that boast so vain. To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven. what burden then O. Drawn to his part. at last relent: Is there no place Left for repentance. And wrought but malice. to all temptations armed. myself am Hell. whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts Than to submit. And understood not that a grateful mind By owing owes not. And. but still pays. lifted up so high I sdeined subjection. whom he created what I was In that bright eminence. had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferiour Angel. So burdensome still paying. since against his thy will Chose freely what it now so justly rues. it deals eternal woe. The easiest recompence. O. and thought one step higher Would set me highest. Me miserable! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath. still to owe. and with his good Upbraided none. cursed be thou. I had stood Then happy. wherefore! he deserved no such return From me. and infinite despair? Which way I fly is Hell. a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide. boasting I could subdue The Omnipotent. Forgetful what from him I still received. Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring in Heaven against Heaven's matchless King: Ah. nor was his service hard. though mean. and in a moment quit The debt immense of endless gratitude. That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell. Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand? Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse. and me. from within Or from without. To me alike. but stand unshaken. How due! yet all his good proved ill in me. but other Powers as great Fell not. and my dread of shame Among the Spirits beneath. What could be less than to afford him praise. how glorious once above thy sphere. 53 . no unbounded hope had raised Ambition! Yet why not some other Power As great might have aspired.

and on the Assyrian mount Saw him disfigured. Cedar. Deep malice to conceal. whose eye pursued him down The way he went. and fir. Whereof he soon aware. and for him this world. as I from begging. hope. where delicious Paradise. As he supposed. whose hairy sides Access denied. By thee. more than could befall Spirit of happy sort. The lower still I fall. and pine. fear. and overhead upgrew Insuperable height of loftiest shade. Farewell. and with hope farewell. each passion dimmed his face Thrice changed with pale. then alone. therefore as far From granting he. For never can true reconcilement grow. envy. and was the first That practised falsehood under saintly show. As Man ere long. Artificer of fraud. be thou my good. only supreme In misery: Such joy ambition finds. So on he fares. and could obtain. in stead Mankind created. his gestures fierce He marked and mad demeanour. and. A sylvan scene. if any eye beheld. couched with revenge: Yet not enough had practised to deceive Uriel once warned.Under what torments inwardly I groan. and to the border comes Of Eden. remorse! all good to me is lost. and branching palm. By act of grace. Which marred his borrowed visage. behold. by thee at least Divided empire with Heaven's King I hold. Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep: Which would but lead me to a worse relapse And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear Short intermission bought with double smart. my former state. So farewell. But say I could repent. This knows my Punisher. With diadem and scepter high advanced. ire. 54 . For heavenly minds from such distempers foul Are ever clear. how soon Would highth recall high thoughts. Now nearer. As with a rural mound. While they adore me on the throne of Hell. shall know. how soon unsay What feigned submission swore? Ease would recant Vows made in pain. and this new world. unseen. and despair. Evil. Thus while he spake. as the ranks ascend. peace. all unobserved. and more than half perhaps will reign. crowns with her enclosure green. All hope excluded thus. and betrayed Him counterfeit. as violent and void. Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm. the champaign head Of a steep wilderness.

though with them better pleased Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume That drove him. and sheer within Lights on his feet. Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue. so lovely seemed That landskip: And of pure now purer air Meets his approach. As one continued brake. so thick entwined. and with a vengeance sent From Media post to Egypt. the undergrowth Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplexed All path of man or beast that passed that way. though enamoured. At one flight bound high over-leaped all bound Of hill or highest wall. When God hath showered the earth. and. and now are past Mozambick. with gay enamelled colours mixed: On which the sun more glad impressed his beams Than in fair evening cloud. loaden with fairest fruit. Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey. Yet higher than their tops The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung. Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold: Or as a thief. and whisper whence they stole Those balmy spoils. bent to unhoard the cash Of some rich burgher. from the spouse Of Tobit's son. with such delay Well pleased they slack their course. pensive and slow. Due entrance he disdained. 55 . able to drive All sadness but despair: Now gentle gales. there fast bound. or humid bow. whose substantial doors. off at sea north-east winds blow Sabean odours from the spicy shore Of Araby the blest. Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill Satan had journeyed on. Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve In hurdled cotes amid the field secure. dispense Native perfumes. Fanning their odoriferous wings. and to the heart inspires Vernal delight and joy. As when a prowling wolf. Who came their bane. As when to them who fail Beyond the Cape of Hope.Shade above shade. Appeared. And higher than that wall a circling row Of goodliest trees. a woody theatre Of stateliest view. 00081429 Which to our general sire gave prospect large Into his nether empire neighbouring round. in contempt. One gate there only was. But further way found none. and that looked east On the other side: which when the arch-felon saw. and many a league Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles: So entertained those odorous sweets the Fiend.

if Art could tell. So since into his church lewd hirelings climb. Out of the fertile ground he caused to grow All trees of noblest kind for sight. In narrow room. but through the shaggy hill Passed underneath ingulfed. fear no assault. grew fast by. what well used had been the pledge Of immortality. And all amid them stood the tree of life. and met the nether flood. which. Beneath him with new wonder now he views. Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing ill. wandering many a famous realm And country. the tree of knowledge. But rather to tell how. built by Grecian kings. and fed 56 . divided into four main streams. Sat like a cormorant. Eden stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of great Seleucia. Nature's whole wealth. smell. for God had thrown That mountain as his garden-mould high raised Upon the rapid current. by him in the east Of Eden planted. but God alone. but perverts best things To worst abuse. yet not true life Thereby regained. but only used For prospect. Nor changed his course. With mazy errour under pendant shades Ran nectar. Southward through Eden went a river large. through veins Of porous earth with kindly thirst up-drawn. but sat devising death To them who lived. and with many a rill Watered the garden. And now. How from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks. High eminent. In at the window climbs.Cross-barred and bolted fast. and next to life. nor on the virtue thought Of that life-giving plant. thence united fell Down the steep glade. A Heaven on Earth: For blissful Paradise Of God the garden was. to value right The good before him. Which from his darksome passage now appears. or o'er the tiles: So clomb this first grand thief into God's fold. visiting each plant. So little knows Any. The middle tree and highest there that grew. Our death. Runs diverse. taste. whereof here needs no account. Rose a fresh fountain. blooming ambrosial fruit Of vegetable gold. or to their meanest use. To all delight of human sense exposed. yea more. Thence up he flew. Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold. Of where the sons of Eden long before Dwelt in Telassar: In this pleasant soil His far more pleasant garden God ordained. and on the tree of life.

Others whose fruit. all delight. where the Fiend Saw. and flocks Grazing the tender herb. which cost Ceres all that pain To seek her through the world. Led on the eternal Spring. Nor where Abassin kings their issue guard. Both where the morning sun first warmly smote The open field. vernal airs. and strange Two of far nobler shape. burnished with golden rind. or level downs. undelighted. Herself a fairer flower by gloomy Dis Was gathered. The birds their quire apply. were interposed. unite their streams. and plain. and of delicious taste: Betwixt them lawns. Breathing the smell of field and grove. Godlike erect. airs. Hung amiable. Mount Amara. and her florid son Young Bacchus. and where the unpierced shade Imbrowned the noontide bowers: Thus was this place A happy rural seat of various view. erect and tall. and gently creeps Luxuriant. Hesperian fables true. or the flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spread her store. Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm. but Nature boon Poured forth profuse on hill. A whole day's journey high.Flowers worthy of Paradise. and without thorn the rose: Another side. attune The trembling leaves. Not that fair field Of Enna. If true. mean while murmuring waters fall Down the slope hills. Or palmy hillock. umbrageous grots and caves Of cool recess. and the inspired Castalian spring. Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance. from his stepdame Rhea's eye. or in a lake. where old Cham. Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Libyan Jove. and dale. enclosed with shining rock. nor that sweet grove Of Daphne by Orontes. Hid Amalthea. dispersed. o'er which the mantling vine Lays forth her purple grape. for in their looks divine 57 . Flowers of all hue. here only. though this by some supposed True Paradise under the Ethiop line By Nilus' head. which not nice Art In beds and curious knots. while universal Pan. nor that Nyseian isle Girt with the river Triton. all kind Of living creatures. might with this Paradise Of Eden strive. new to sight. but wide remote From this Assyrian garden. with native honour clad In naked majesty seemed lords of all: And worthy seemed. That to the fringed bank with myrtle crowned Her crystal mirrour holds. where Proserpine gathering flowers.

and hyacinthine locks Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clustering. Truth. after no more toil Of their sweet gardening labour than sufficed To recommend cool Zephyr. she for God in him: His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute rule. dishonest shame Of nature's works. by a fresh fountain side They sat them down.The image of their glorious Maker shone. and. which implied Subjection. (Severe.) Whence true authority in men. Simplicity and spotless innocence! So passed they naked on. the loveliest pair. Alone as they. the fairest of her daughters Eve. That ever since in love's embraces met. reluctant. nor endearing smiles Wanted. amorous delay. and in the rind. Nor gentle purpose. to their supper-fruits they fell. wholesome thirst and appetite More grateful. For softness she and sweet attractive grace. linked in happy nuptial league. About them frisking played All beasts of the earth. nor shunned the sight Of God or Angel. side-long as they sat recline On the soft downy bank damasked with flowers: The savoury pulp they chew. but required with gentle sway. Sin-bred. as a veil. for they thought no ill: So hand in hand they passed. Adam the goodliest man of men since born His sons. as their sex not equal seemed. modest pride. Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed. Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs Yielded them. since wild. though both Not equal. how have ye troubled all mankind With shows instead. And banished from man's life his happiest life. Still as they thirsted. but not beneath his shoulders broad: She. but in wanton ringlets waved As the vine curls her tendrils. Then was not guilty shame. forest or den. For contemplation he and valour formed. by him best received. wisdom. but in true filial freedom placed. as beseems Fair couple. down to the slender waist Her unadorned golden tresses wore Dishevelled. He for God only. And by her yielded. 58 . honour dishonourable. and of all chase In wood or wilderness. scoop the brimming stream. sanctitude severe and pure. nor youthful dalliance. Yielded with coy submission. and made ease More easy. mere shows of seeming pure. And sweet. Under a tuft of shade that on a green Stood whispering soft.

Happy. To entertain you two. pards. Though I unpitied: League with you I seek. Not Spirits. By conquering this new world. Ah! gentle pair. Honour and empire with revenge enlarged. Gambolled before them. whom I could pity thus forlorn. and such grace The hand that formed them on their shape hath poured. Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad. so lively shines In them divine resemblance. tigers. and in his paw Dandled the kid. So spake the Fiend. and could love.Sporting the lion ramped. And should I at your harmless innocence Melt. used all his might. compels me now To do what else. Insinuating. More woe. And mutual amity. yet no purposed foe To you. but for so happy ill secured Long to continue. to receive Your numerous offspring. though damned. yet to heavenly Spirits bright Little inferiour. bears. others on the grass Couched. close the serpent sly. and now filled with pasture gazing sat. my dwelling haply may not please. O Hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold! Into our room of bliss thus high advanced Creatures of other mould. Declined. when all these delights Will vanish. Or bedward ruminating. Not like these narrow limits. Thank him who puts me loth to this revenge On you who wrong me not for him who wronged. whom my thoughts pursue With wonder. and with necessity. for the sun. That I with you must dwell. ounces. yet such Accept your Maker's work. so strait. and wreathed His?kithetmroboscis. ye little think how nigh Your change approaches. yet publick reason just. And send forth all her kings. and in the ascending scale Of Heaven the stars that usher evening rose: When Satan still in gaze. Which I as freely give: Hell shall unfold. Like this fair Paradise. he gave it me. there will be room. as I do. 59 . and of his fatal guile Gave proof unheeded. and deliver ye to woe. and this high seat your Heaven Ill fenced for Heaven to keep out such a foe As now is entered. as first he stood. I should abhor. if no better place. so close. the more your taste is now of joy. wove with Gordian twine His braided train. earth-born perhaps. To make them mirth. was hasting now with prone career To the ocean isles. the unwieldy elephant. your sense. or you with me Henceforth. her widest gates.

then. this easy charge. yet with thee were sweet. all ear to hear new utterance flow. changes oft His couchant watch. That raised us from the dust. and for us this ample world. who at his hand Have nothing merited. himself now one. he might surest seize them both. and of his good As liberal and free as infinite. To whom thus Eve replied. Among so many signs of power and rule Conferred upon us. To prune these growing plants. Which were it toilsome. flesh of thy flesh. Now other. of all these joys. Straight couches close. and tend these flowers. About them round A lion now he stalks with fiery glare. and extol His bounty. rising. of all the trees In Paradise that bear delicious fruit So various. By word or action marked. Turned him. as one who chose his ground. Sole partner.The tyrant's plea. Then let us not think hard One easy prohibition. unespied. O thou for whom And from whom I was formed. and dominion given Over all other creatures that possess Earth. To mark what of their state he more might learn. Dearer thyself than all. Adam first of men To first of women Eve thus moving speech. Whence rushing. not to taste that only tree Of knowledge. following our delightful task. Griped in each paw: when. and sole part. planted by the tree of life. And without whom am to no end. for well thou knowest God hath pronounced it death to taste that tree. air. who by chance hath spied In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play. who enjoy Free leave so large to all things else. and sea. excused his devilish deeds. Be infinitely good. as their shape served best his end Nearer to view his prey. whate'er death is. The only sign of our obedience left. my guide And head! what thou hast said is just and right. and placed us here In all this happiness. nor can perform Aught whereof he hath need. Then as a tiger. he who requires From us no other service than to keep This one. So near grows death to life. Some dreadful thing no doubt. and. Then from his lofty stand on that high tree Down he alights among the sportful herd Of those four-footed kinds. and choice Unlimited of manifold delights: But let us ever praise him. needs must the Power That made us. For we to him indeed all praises owe. 60 .

Bending to look on me: I started back. But follow straight. much wondering where And what I was. That day I oft remember. Than that smooth watery image: Back I turned. is thyself. I chiefly. Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound Of waters issued from a cave. Under a platane. his bone. to have thee by my side 'Henceforth an individual solace dear. half her swelling breast 61 . invisibly thus led? Till I espied thee. yet methought less fair. and thy soft embraces. So spake our general mother.' What could I do. and thee claim 'My other half:' With that thy gentle hand Seised mine: I yielded. 'Substantial life. fair indeed and tall. and laid me down On the green bank. and spread Into a liquid plain. It started back. enjoying thee Pre-eminent by so much odds. which alone is truly fair. I thither went With unexperienced thought.And daily thanks. 'What thou seest. and found myself reposed Under a shade on flowers. and how. 'What there thou seest. that to me seemed another sky. whence thither brought. nearest my heart. him thou shalt enjoy 'Inseparably thine. and with eyes Of conjugal attraction unreproved. 'And I will bring thee where no shadow stays 'Thy coming. less amiably mild. to look into the clear Smooth lake. when from sleep I first awaked. 'With thee it came and goes: but follow me. Had not a voice thus warned me. 'Return. As I bent down to look. Less winning soft. 'Whom flyest thou? whom thou flyest. but pleased I soon returned. And meek surrender. and pined with vain desire. 'His flesh. 'Part of my soul I seek thee. to give thee being I lent 'Out of my side to thee. he 'Whose image thou art. who enjoy So far the happier lot. And wisdom. half-embracing leaned On our first father. and thence be called 'Mother of human race. fair Creature. fair Eve.and from that time see How beauty is excelled by manly grace. Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks Of sympathy and love: There I had fixed Mine eyes till now. just opposite A shape within the watery gleam appeared. then stood unmoved Pure as the expanse of Heaven. of him thou art. while thou Like consort to thyself canst no where find. Thou following cryedst aloud. to him shalt bear 'Multitudes like thyself.

and pressed her matron lip With kisses pure: Aside the Devil turned For envy. Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidden Suspicious. of knowledge called. shall enjoy their fill Of bliss on bliss. The happier Eden. Conspicuous far. whom knowledge might exalt Equal with Gods: aspiring to be such. one entrance high. piled up to the clouds. as Jupiter On Juno smiles. Imparadised in one another's arms. One fatal tree there stands. Smiled with superiour love. from him to draw What further would be learned. under the flowing gold Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight Both of her beauty. 62 . A chance but chance may lead where I may meet Some wandering Spirit of Heaven by fountain side. Yet happy pair. and submissive charms. his proud step he scornful turned. Live while ye may. and no corner leave unspied. where Heaven With earth and ocean meets. But with sly circumspection. and began Through wood. yet with jealous leer malign Eyed them askance. winding with one ascent Accessible from earth. Among our other torments not the least. Why should their Lord Envy them that? Can it be sin to know? Can it be death? And do they only stand By ignorance? Is that their happy state. till I return. invented with design To keep them low. and to reject Envious commands. and to himself thus plained. Or in thick shade retired. Sight hateful. They taste and die: What likelier can ensue But first with narrow search I must walk round This garden. the setting sun Slowly descended. through waste. his roam Mean while in utmost longitude. but fierce desire. it seems.Naked met his. Where neither joy nor love. enjoy. for long woes are to succeed! So saying. when he impregns the clouds That shed Mayflowers. Yet let me not forget what I have gained From their own mouths: All is not theirs. Short pleasures. while I to Hell am thrust. and with right aspect Against the eastern gate of Paradise Levelled his evening rays: It was a rock Of alabaster. Still unfulfilled with pain of longing pines. o'er dale. The proof of their obedience and their faith? O fair foundation laid whereon to build Their ruin! hence I will excite their minds With more desire to know. sight tormenting! thus these two. reasonless. o'er hill.

In whatsoever shape he lurk. impossible to climb. to thee thy course by lot hath given Charge and strict watch. This day at highth of noon came to my sphere A Spirit. shields. So promised he. helms. and spears. awaiting night. Where he first lighted. By shorter flight to the east. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds: He thus began in haste. but under shade Lost sight of him: One of the banished crew. zealous. But in the mount that lies from Eden north. by morrow dawning I shall know. have o'er-leaped these earthly bounds On purpose. So minded. or this less volubil earth. whose point now raised Bore him slope downward to the sun now fallen Beneath the Azores. Chief of the angelick guards.The rest was craggy cliff. him thy care must be to find. and marked his aery gait. 63 . whether the prime orb. But if within the circuit of these walks. Incredible how swift. no wonder if thy perfect sight. See far and wide: In at this gate none pass The vigilance here placed. I fear. gliding through the even On a sun-beam. and Uriel to his charge Returned on that bright beam. and with gold. and chiefly Man. hard thou knowest it to exclude Spiritual substance with corporeal bar. that to this happy place No evil thing approach or enter in. of whom Thou tellest. Uriel. Betwixt these rocky pillars Gabriel sat. hath ventured from the deep. Hung high with diamond flaming. but nigh at hand Celestial armoury. that overhung Still as it rose. had left him there Arraying with reflected purple and gold The clouds that on his western throne attend. God's latest image: I described his way Bent all on speed. Amid the sun's bright circle where thou sitst. had thither rolled Diurnal. To whom the winged warriour thus returned. with passions foul obscured: Mine eye pursued him still. Gabriel. as he seemed. to raise New troubles. when vapours fired Impress the air. to know More of the Almighty's works. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. About him exercised heroick games The unarmed youth of Heaven. but such as come Well known from Heaven. Thither came Uriel. and since meridian hour No creature thence: If Spirit of other sort. soon discerned his looks Alien from Heaven.

and this fair moon. All seasons. unsightly and unsmooth. and the timely dew of sleep. and sweet the coming on Of grateful Evening mild. 64 . They to their grassy couch. if we mean to tread with ease. Silence accompanied. thou mine: To know no more Is woman's happiest knowledge. Sweet is the breath of Morn. tree. And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw. God is thy law. And the regard of Heaven on all his ways. fruit. with branches overgrown. and their change. with perfect beauty adorned My Author and Disposer. When Adam thus to Eve. While other animals unactive range. night bids us rest. ere fresh morning streak the east With first approach of light. and flower. With charm of earliest birds: pleasant the sun. and Twilight gray Had in her sober livery all things clad. to reform Yon flowery arbours. since God hath set Labour and rest. and require More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth: Those blossoms also. as Nature wills. on herb. With thee conversing I forget all time. Glistering with dew. all please alike. for beast and bird. Mean while. rode brightest. fragrant the fertile earth After soft showers. we must be risen. that led The starry host. and her praise. To whom thus Eve. and all things now retired to rest. unemployed. Ask riddance. And at our pleasant labour. yonder alleys green. When first on this delightful land he spreads His orient beams. Man hath his daily work of body or mind Appointed. That mock our scant manuring. these to their nests Were slunk. And of their doings God takes no account. and those dropping gums. Rising in clouded majesty. Now falling with soft slumbrous weight. her rising sweet. what thou bidst Unargued I obey: So God ordains. at length Apparent queen unveiled her peerless light. till the moon.Now came still Evening on. Mind us of like repose. and less need rest. With this her solemn bird. She all night long her amorous descant sung. which declares his dignity. as day and night. That lie bestrown. to men Successive. the hour Of night. Our walk at noon. all but the wakeful nightingale. Fair Consort. Silence was pleased: Now glowed the firmament With living sapphires: Hesperus. then silent Night. inclines Our eye-lids: Other creatures all day long Rove idle. To-morrow.

made hereby apter to receive Perfection from the sun's more potent ray. and when we sleep: All these with ceaseless praise his works behold Both day and night: How often from the steep Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard Celestial voices to the midnight air. and each odorous bushy shrub. nor walk by moon. but with kindly heat Of various influence foment and warm. nor herb. nor silent Night. By morrow evening. when he framed All things to Man's delightful use. nor fragrance after showers. or responsive each to others note. With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds In full harmonick number joined. though unbeheld in deep of night. and from land to land In order. when she ascends With charm of earliest birds. or in part shed down Their stellar virtue on all kinds that grow On earth. and extinguish life In Nature and all things. though to nations yet unborn. Reared high their flourished heads between. though men were none. when sleep hath shut all eyes? To whom our general ancestor replied. which these soft fires Not only enlighten. Thus talking. Iris all hues. they set and rise. their songs Divide the night. accomplished Eve. Fenced up the verdant wall. Ministring light prepared. Lest total Darkness should by night regain Her old possession. Glistering with dew. Nor grateful Evening mild. the roof Of thickest covert was inwoven shade Laurel and myrtle. Daughter of God and Man. and lift our thoughts to Heaven. and jessamin. without thee is sweet. These have their course to finish round the earth. fruit. Shine not in vain. her starry train: But neither breath of Morn. Sole. roses. These then. nor rising sun On this delightful land. God want praise: Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth Unseen. Singing their great Creator? oft in bands While they keep watch.And these the gems of Heaven. flower. With this her solemn bird. But wherefore all night long shine these? for whom This glorious sight. Temper or nourish. each beauteous flower. both when we wake. hand in hand alone they passed On to their blissful bower: it was a place Chosen by the sovran Planter. Or glittering star-light. and what higher grew Of firm and fragrant leaf. or nightly rounding walk. nor think. and wrought 65 . That Heaven would want spectators. on either side Acanthus.

Straight side by side were laid. With flowers. mysterious law. thy gift of sleep. and sweet-smelling herbs. air. And starry pole: Thou also madest the night. than Pandora. leaves free to all. and uncropt falls to the ground. and innocence. and place. nor Nymph Nor Faunus haunted. Such was their awe of Man. In shadier bower More sacred and sequestered. Bird. And when we seek. whom the Gods Endowed with all their gifts. into their inmost bower Handed they went. and other rites Observing none. I ween. Thus. though but feigned. foe to God and Man? Hail. and under open sky adored The God that made both sky. And heavenly quires the hymenaean sung. but adoration pure Which God likes best. nor Eve the rites Mysterious of connubial love refused: Whatever hypocrites austerely talk Of purity. Adam from his fair spouse. Which we. garlands. and commands to some. as now. the moon's resplendent globe. the crown of all our bliss Ordained by thee. and this delicious place For us too large. But thou hast promised from us two a race To fill the earth. who shall with us extol Thy goodness infinite. and heaven. who bids abstain But our Destroyer. Maker Omnipotent. happy in our mutual help And mutual love. More lovely. both when we wake. Espoused Eve decked first her nuptial bed. and. This said unanimous. Here. eased the putting off These troublesome disguises which we wear. wedded Love. and O! too like In sad event. underfoot the violet. true source 66 . insect. she ensnared Mankind with her fair looks. earth. beast. Defaming as impure what God declares Pure. or worm. with rich inlay Broidered the ground. durst enter none. where thy abundance wants Partakers. in our appointed work employed. both stood. What day the genial Angel to our sire Brought her in naked beauty more adorned. Have finished. Crocus. to be avenged On him who had stole Jove's authentick fire. when to the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes. nor turned. and hyacinth. and thou the day. Pan or Sylvanus never slept. more coloured than with stone Of costliest emblem: Other creature here.Mosaick. Both turned. Our Maker bids encrease. at their shady lodge arrived. Which they beheld. in close recess.

Perpetual fountain of domestick sweets. So saying. Now had night measured with her shadowy cone Half way up hill this vast sublunar vault. embracing slept. leave unsearched no nook. half these draw off. joyless. And on their naked limbs the flowery roof Showered roses. Ithuriel and Zephon. Blest pair. loyal. When Gabriel to his next in power thus spake. and brother. stood armed To their night watches in warlike parade. loveless. with winged speed Search through this garden. Or think thee unbefitting holiest place. these to the bower direct In search of whom they sought: Him there they found Squat like a toad. best quitted with disdain. on he led his radiant files. lulled by nightingales. unendeared. Mixed dance. that I should write thee sin or blame. by thee Founded in reason. close at the ear of Eve. and pure. and gave them thus in charge. and know to know no more. which the morn repaired. and coast the south With strictest watch. not in the bought smile Of harlots. Casual fruition. and hither bring. Forth issuing at the accustomed hour. or wanton mask. Who tells of some infernal Spirit seen Hitherward bent (who could have thought?) escaped The bars of Hell. on errand bad no doubt: Such. if ye seek No happier state. or past. first were known. secure of harm. Dazzling the moon. From these. Sleep on. Far be it. as saints and patriarchs used. sole propriety In Paradise of all things common else! By thee adulterous Lust was driven from men Among the bestial herds to range. Assaying by his devilish art to reach 67 . two strong and subtle Spirits he called That near him stood. or midnight ball. Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced. Now laid perhaps asleep. here lights His constant lamp. just. Or serenate. nor in court-amours. Our circuit meets full west. where ye find. Here Love his golden shafts employs. Half wheeling to the shield. These. And from their ivory port the Cherubim. half to the spear. son. and O!yet happiest. As flame they part. seise fast.Of human offspring. and all the charities Of father. and waves his purple wings. This evening from the sun's decline arrived. Relations dear. Present. But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge. which the starved lover sings To his proud fair. Uzziel. Reigns here and revels. these other wheel the north.

With sudden blaze diffused. Him thus intent Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly. saw. shalt give account To him who sent us. for no falshood can endure Touch of celestial temper. escaped thy prison? and. half amazed So sudden to behold the grisly king. not the sent. said he. Back stept those two fair Angels. Blown up with high conceits ingendering pride. Departed from thee. inspiring venom. but returns Of force to its own likeness: Up he starts Discovered and surprised. answering scorn with scorn. Or if. whose charge is to keep This place inviolable. when thou no more wast good. inordinate desires. thence raise At least distempered. vain aims. Or undiminished brightness to be known. discontented thoughts. the smutty grain. the sender. and thou resemblest now Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foul. and with them forge Illusions. Yet thus. and superfluous begin Your message. Which of those rebel Spirits adjudged to Hell Comest thou. and pined His loss. Best with the best. As when a spark Lights on a heap of nitrous powder. transformed. If I must contend. Severe in youthful beauty. Here watching at the head of these that sleep? Know ye not then said Satan. thy shape the same. But come. 68 . So spake the Cherub. Why sat'st thou like an enemy in wait. Think not. inflames the air. that from pure blood arise Like gentle breaths from rivers pure. Know ye not me? ye knew me once no mate For you. and his grave rebuke. As when thou stoodest in Heaven upright and pure. That glory then. And felt how awful goodness is. unmoved with fear. added grace Invincible: Abashed the Devil stood. So started up in his own shape the Fiend. and these from harm. like to end as much in vain? To whom thus Zephon. filled with scorn. and saw Virtue in her shape how lovely. Why ask ye. as he list. there sitting where ye durst not soar: Not to know me argues yourselves unknown. if ye know. accost him soon. Vain hopes. but chiefly to find here observed His lustre visibly impaired. laid Fit for the tun some magazine to store Against a rumoured war. revolted Spirit. or. The lowest of your throng. yet seemed Undaunted. for thou.The organs of her fancy. be sure. phantasms and dreams. he might taint The animal spirits.

when those two approached. To thee no reason. Or less be lost. Lives there who loves his pain! Who would not. To whom their Chief. who by his gait And fierce demeanour seems the Prince of Hell. Why hast thou. and disturbed the charge Of others. Satan. He scarce had ended. more glory will be won. where found. they found me where they say. Employed. Stand firm. But evil hast not tried: and wilt object His will who bounds us! Let him surer bar His iron gates. Champing his iron curb: To strive or fly He held it vain. said Zephon bold. The rest is true. which in this place I sought. The warlike Angel moved. Gabriel. Though thither doomed! Thou wouldst thyself. awe from above had quelled His heart. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake. in what form and posture couched. where those half-rounding guards Just met. and closing stood in squadron joined. Disdainfully half smiling. like a proud steed reined. where thou mightst hope to change Torment with ease. but this question asked Puts me in doubt. went haughty on. And brief related whom they brought. The Fiend replied not. And with them comes a third of regal port. Not likely to part hence without contest. How busied. thus replied. broke the bounds prescribed To thy transgressions. And such I held thee.Or all at once. to violate sleep. overcome with rage. who approve not to transgress By thy example. from the front thus called aloud. and those Whose dwelling God hath planted here in bliss! To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. not else dismayed. and soonest recompense Dole with delight. Thy fear. But faded splendour wan. Gabriel? thou hadst in Heaven the esteem of wise. and thence weak. and now by glimpse discern Ithuriel and Zephon through the shade. O friends! I hear the tread of nimble feet Hasting this way. for in his look defiance lours. who knowest only good. But. finding way. A waiting next command. 69 . Thus he in scorn. it seems. but have power and right To question thy bold entrance on this place. break loose from Hell. But that implies not violence or harm. Will save us trial what the least can do Single against thee wicked. no doubt And boldly venture to whatever place Farthest from pain. Now drew they nigh The western point. if he intends our stay In that dark durance: Thus much what was asked.

Your military obedience. and scourge that wisdom back to Hell.O loss of one in Heaven to judge of wise Since Satan fell. Which taught thee yet no better. Not that I less endure. and to 'scape his punishment! So judge thou still. Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive. So wise he judges it to fly from pain However. And now returns him from his prison 'scaped. to dissolve 70 . meet thy flight Sevenfold. and couldst thou faithful add? O name. Though for possession put to try once more What thou and thy gay legions dare against. And practised distances to cringe. Argues no leader but a liear traced. professing next the spy. frowning stern. Which thou incurrest by flying. whereof in Hell Fame is not silent. To whom the warriour Angel soon replied. and my afflicted Powers To settle here on earth. or in mid air. fit body to fit head. But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee Came not all hell broke loose? or thou than they Less hardy to endure? Courageous Chief! The first in flight from pain! hadst thou alleged To thy deserted host this cause of flight. I alone first undertook To wing the desolate abyss. not to hazard all Through ways of danger by himself untried: I. But still thy words at random. Whose easier business were to serve their Lord High up in Heaven. O sacred name of faithfulness profaned! Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew? Army of Fiends. Argue thy inexperience what behoves From hard assays and ill successes past A faithful leader. when in battle to thy aid The blasting vollied thunder made all speed. not fight. To say and straight unsay. And seconded thy else not dreaded spear. Satan. as before. here in hope to find Better abode. To which the Fiend thus answered. pretending first Wise to fly pain. Insulting Angel! well thou knowest I stood Thy fiercest. whom folly overthrew. presumptuous! till the wrath. and spy This new created world. Gravely in doubt whether to hold them wise Or not. or shrink from pain. therefore. with songs to hymn his throne. that no pain Can equal anger infinite provoked. who ask what boldness brought him hither Unlicensed from his bounds in Hell prescribed. Was this your discipline and faith engaged.

disturbed and torn With violence of this conflict. thus bespake the Fiend. Battles and realms: In these he put two weights. So threatened he. and servily adored Heaven's awful Monarch? wherefore. drawest his triumphant wheels In progress through the road of Heaven star-paved. Hung forth in Heaven his golden scales. nor only Paradise In this commotion. Like Teneriff or Atlas. Left on the threshing floor his hopeless sheaves Prove chaff. sly hypocrite. and thou knowest mine. While thus he spake. And seal thee so. and kicked the beam. Us'd to the yoke. Avant. the angelick squadron bright Turned fiery red. yet seen Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign. but waxing more in rage replied. now ponders all events. The pendulous round earth with balanced air In counterpoise. and thyself to reign? But mark what I arreed thee now. Wherein all things created first he weighed. which way the wind Sways them. but in hope To dispossess him. as thick as when a field Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends Her bearded grove of ears. Fly neither whence thou fledst! If from this hour Within these hallowed limits thou appear. as henceforth not to scorn The facile gates of Hell too slightly barred. Collecting all his might. I know thy strength. or all the elements At least had gone to wrack. but the starry cope Of Heaven perhaps. and began to hem him round With ported spears. had not soon The Eternal. Proud limitary Cherub! but ere then Far heavier load thyself expect to feel From my prevailing arm. though Heaven's King Ride on thy wings. On the other side. and cringed. the careful plowman doubting stands. to prevent such horrid fray. sharpening in mooned horns Their phalanx. Then when I am thy captive talk of chains. Which Gabriel spying. Satan. Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained. and on his crest Sat Horrour plumed. who more than thou Once fawned. 71 . alarmed. Satan. and thou with thy compeers.Allegiance to the acknowledged Power supreme? And thou. The sequel each of parting and of fight: The latter quick up flew. dilated stood. unremoved: His stature reached the sky. who now wouldst seem Patron of liberty. nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield: Now dreadful deeds Might have ensued. but Satan to no threats Gave heed.

Her hand soft touching. we lose the prime. Close at mine ear one called me forth to walk With gentle voice. thus she spake. I thought it thine: It said. my espoused. her rosy steps in the eastern clime Advancing. Book V Now Morn. whom embracing. O sole in whom my thoughts find all repose. and shown how light. Aurora's fan. 'Why sleepest thou. If dreamed. My fairest. how weak. but given: What folly then To boast what arms can do? since thine no more Than Heaven permits. for his sleep Was aery-light. Such whispering waked her. Shot forth peculiar graces. and morn returned. Awake. When Adam waked. What drops the myrrh. though doubled now To trample thee as mire: For proof look up. And temperate vapours bland. or morrow's next design. 72 . Lightly dispersed. and with him fled the shades of night. The Fiend looked up. and glowing cheek. to mark how spring Our tender plants.Neither our own. Heaven's last best gift. But of offence and trouble. And read thy lot in yon celestial sign. my perfection! glad I see Thy face. as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes. and beheld Beauty. nor mine. from pure digestion bred. which my mind Knew never till this irksome night: Methought. which. then with voice Mild. so much the more His wonder was to find unwakened Eve With tresses discomposed. as I oft am wont. of thee. How nature paints her colours. My glory. how the bee Sits on the bloom extracting liquid sweet. and the shrill matin song Of birds on every bough. my latest found. whether waking or asleep. which the only sound Of leaves and fuming rills. for I this night (Such night till this I never passed) have dreamed. sowed the earth with orient pearl. on his side Leaning half raised. my ever new delight! Awake: The morning shines. and knew His mounted scale aloft: Nor more. As through unquiet rest: He. Where thou art weighed. how blows the citron grove. so customed. not. Works of day past. but with startled eye On Adam. Eve? now is the pleasant time. with looks of cordial love Hung over her enamoured. If thou resist. and the fresh field Calls us. whispered thus.but fled Murmuring. and what the balmy reed.

Nature's desire? 'In whose sight all things joy. save where silence yields 'To the night-warbling bird. he tasted.'The cool. To find thee I directed then my walk. methought. not to earth confined. 'O fruit divine. a prospect wide And various: Wondering at my flight and change 73 . fair angelick Eve! 'Partake thou also. nor Man? Is knowledge so despised? 'Or envy. 'If none regard. why else set here? This said. as I wondering looked. 'with fruit surcharged.' said he. that I. as only fit 'For Gods. 'Nor God. more abundant grows. 'But sometimes in the air. but much more sweet thus cropt. sometimes 'Ascend to Heaven. it seems. the pleasant savoury smell So quickened appetite. 'Sweet of thyself. happy creature. And on. Heaven wakes with all his eyes. but honoured more? 'Here. as we. the more 'Communicated. 'Happier thou mayest be. the silent. Could not but taste. or what reserve forbids to taste? 'Forbid who will. he drew nigh. alone I passed through ways That brought me on a sudden to the tree Of interdicted knowledge: fair it seemed. Even to my mouth of that same fruit held part Which he had plucked. but with venturous arm He plucked. and taste thy sweet. by merit thine. and with more pleasing light 'Shadowy sets off the face of things. happy though thou art. 'Forbidden here. Much fairer to my fancy than by day: And. and see 'What life the Gods live there. but found thee not. now reigns 'Full-orbed the moon.' I rose as at thy call. since good. his dewy locks distilled Ambrosia. Forthwith up to the clouds With him I flew. and be henceforth among the Gods 'Thyself a Goddess. overjoyed. with ravishment 'Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze. me damp horrour chilled At such bold words vouched with a deed so bold: But he thus. he paused not. beside it stood One shaped and winged like one of those from Heaven By us oft seen. on that tree he also gazed. 'The author not impaired. none shall from me withhold 'Longer thy offered good. and such live thou!' So saying. 'Deigns none to ease thy load. and underneath beheld The earth outstretched immense. methought. in vain. yet able to make Gods of Men: 'And why not Gods of Men. that now awake 'Tunes sweetest his love-laboured song. 'Whom to behold but thee. worthier canst not be: 'Taste this. and to me held. And 'O fair plant.

Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. but. when nature rests. of evil sprung. and wiped them with her hair. scarce up-risen. and dearer half. and the sun. in this thy dream. Yet evil whence? in thee can harbour none. how glad I waked To find this but a dream! Thus Eve her night Related. That wont to be more cheerful and serene. Waking thou never will consent to do. misjoining shapes. then retires Into her private cell. and the flowers That open now their choisest bosomed smells. he ere they fell Kissed. Oft in her absence mimick Fancy wakes To imitate her. and most in dreams. and thus Adam answered sad. suddenly My guide was gone. Two other precious drops that ready stood. and leave No spot or blame behind: Which gives me hope That what in sleep thou didst abhor to dream. joining or disjoining. But know that in the soul Are many lesser faculties. nor can I like This uncouth dream. from under shady arborous roof Soon as they forth were come to open sight Of day-spring. yet be not sad. Than when fair morning first smiles on the world. Wild work produces oft. and call Our knowledge or opinion. So cheered he his fair spouse. so unreproved. Which Reason. But with addition strange. I find Of our last evening's talk. methinks. 74 . Be not disheartened then. frames All what we affirm or what deny. She forms imaginations. Each in their crystal sluice. And let us to our fresh employments rise Among the groves. The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep Affects me equally. With wheels yet hovering o'er the ocean-brim. But first. and I. I fear. and to the field they haste. but O. But silently a gentle tear let fall From either eye. Some such resemblances. the fountains. aery shapes. Evil into the mind of God or Man May come and go. sunk down. that serve Reason as chief. as the gracious signs of sweet remorse And pious awe. and kept for thee in store. Reserved from night.To this high exaltation. nor cloud those looks. Best image of myself. methought. that feared to have offended. who. and she was cheered. of all external things Which the five watchful senses represent. Created pure. And fell asleep. among these Fancy next Her office holds. So all was cleared.

Thus wonderous fair. Fairest of stars. Thou Sun. In honour to the world's great Author rise. And when high noon hast gained. And ye five other wandering Fires. the eldest birth Of Nature's womb. and they thus began. Rising or falling still advance his praise. or dimly seen In these thy lowest works. fixed in their orb that flies. that move In mystick dance not without song. that sweet hour of prime. each morning duly paid In various style. or sung Unmeditated. ye in Heaven On Earth join all ye Creatures to extol Him first. If better thou belong not to the dawn. These are thy glorious works. for neither various style Nor holy rapture wanted they to praise Their Maker. Parent of good. last in the train of night. sound his praise In thy eternal course. Angels. ye who best can tell. resound His praise. and power divine. in fit strains pronounced. and mix And nourish all things. While day arises. Ye Mists and Exhalations. Air. Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers. Whether to deck with clouds the uncoloured sky. him midst. that crownest the smiling morn With thy bright circlet. and began Their orisons. and without end. multiform. Lowly they bowed adoring. praise him in thy sphere. day without night. such prompt eloquence Flowed from their lips. for ye behold him. Almighty! Thine this universal frame. Thyself how wonderous then! Unspeakable. With the fixed Stars. let your ceaseless change Vary to our great Maker still new praise. that now rise From hill or steaming lake. who out of darkness called up light. Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold. who sitst above these heavens To us invisible. Speak. dusky or gray. in prose or numerous verse. both when thou climbest.Shot parallel to the earth his dewy ray. and when thou fallest. that in quaternion run Perpetual circle. and with songs And choral symphonies. Circle his throne rejoicing. now flyest. More tuneable than needed lute or harp To add more sweetness. Acknowledge him thy greater. 75 . Sure pledge of day. him last. yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought. that now meetest the orient sun. and ye Elements. Moon. of this great world both eye and soul. Discovering in wide landskip all the east Of Paradise and Eden's happy plains. ye sons of light.

His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud; and, wave your tops, ye Pines, With every plant, in sign of worship wave. Fountains, and ye that warble, as ye flow, Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. Join voices, all ye living Souls: Ye Birds, That singing up to Heaven-gate ascend, Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep; Witness if I be silent, morn or even, To hill, or valley, fountain, or fresh shade, Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise. Hail, universal Lord, be bounteous still To give us only good; and if the night Have gathered aught of evil, or concealed, Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark! So prayed they innocent, and to their thoughts Firm peace recovered soon, and wonted calm. On to their morning's rural work they haste, Among sweet dews and flowers; where any row Of fruit-trees over-woody reached too far Their pampered boughs, and needed hands to check Fruitless embraces: or they led the vine To wed her elm; she, spoused, about him twines Her marriageable arms, and with him brings Her dower, the adopted clusters, to adorn His barren leaves. Them thus employed beheld With pity Heaven's high King, and to him called Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned To travel with Tobias, and secured His marriage with the seventimes-wedded maid. Raphael, said he, thou hearest what stir on Earth Satan, from Hell 'scaped through the darksome gulf, Hath raised in Paradise; and how disturbed This night the human pair; how he designs In them at once to ruin all mankind. Go therefore, half this day as friend with friend Converse with Adam, in what bower or shade Thou findest him from the heat of noon retired, To respite his day-labour with repast, Or with repose; and such discourse bring on, As may advise him of his happy state, Happiness in his power left free to will, Left to his own free will, his will though free, Yet mutable; whence warn him to beware He swerve not, too secure: Tell him withal His danger, and from whom; what enemy, Late fallen himself from Heaven, is plotting now The fall of others from like state of bliss; By violence? no, for that shall be withstood; 76

But by deceit and lies: This let him know, Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pretend Surprisal, unadmonished, unforewarned. So spake the Eternal Father, and fulfilled All justice: Nor delayed the winged Saint After his charge received; but from among Thousand celestial Ardours, where he stood Veiled with his gorgeous wings, up springing light, Flew through the midst of Heaven; the angelick quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all the empyreal road; till, at the gate Of Heaven arrived, the gate self-opened wide On golden hinges turning, as by work Divine the sovran Architect had framed. From hence no cloud, or, to obstruct his sight, Star interposed, however small he sees, Not unconformed to other shining globes, Earth, and the garden of God, with cedars crowned Above all hills. As when by night the glass Of Galileo, less assured, observes Imagined lands and regions in the moon: Or pilot, from amidst the Cyclades Delos or Samos first appearing, kens A cloudy spot. Down thither prone in flight He speeds, and through the vast ethereal sky Sails between worlds and worlds, with steady wing Now on the polar winds, then with quick fan Winnows the buxom air; till, within soar Of towering eagles, to all the fowls he seems A phoenix, gazed by all as that sole bird, When, to enshrine his reliques in the Sun's Bright temple, to Egyptian Thebes he flies. At once on the eastern cliff of Paradise He lights, and to his proper shape returns A Seraph winged: Six wings he wore, to shade His lineaments divine; the pair that clad Each shoulder broad, came mantling o'er his breast With regal ornament; the middle pair Girt like a starry zone his waist, and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold And colours dipt in Heaven; the third his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail, Sky-tinctured grain. Like Maia's son he stood, And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled The circuit wide. Straight knew him all the bands Of Angels under watch; and to his state, And to his message high, in honour rise; For on some message high they guessed him bound. Their glittering tents he passed, and now is come Into the blissful field, through groves of myrrh, And flowering odours, cassia, nard, and balm; 77

A wilderness of sweets; for Nature here Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will Her virgin fancies pouring forth more sweet, Wild above rule or art, enormous bliss. Him through the spicy forest onward come Adam discerned, as in the door he sat Of his cool bower, while now the mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays to warm Earth's inmost womb, more warmth than Adam needs: And Eve within, due at her hour prepared For dinner savoury fruits, of taste to please True appetite, and not disrelish thirst Of nectarous draughts between, from milky stream, Berry or grape: To whom thus Adam called. Haste hither, Eve, and worth thy sight behold Eastward among those trees, what glorious shape Comes this way moving; seems another morn Risen on mid-noon; some great behest from Heaven To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchsafe This day to be our guest. But go with speed, And, what thy stores contain, bring forth, and pour Abundance, fit to honour and receive Our heavenly stranger: Well we may afford Our givers their own gifts, and large bestow From large bestowed, where Nature multiplies Her fertile growth, and by disburthening grows More fruitful, which instructs us not to spare. To whom thus Eve. Adam, earth's hallowed mould, Of God inspired! small store will serve, where store, All seasons, ripe for use hangs on the stalk; Save what by frugal storing firmness gains To nourish, and superfluous moist consumes: But I will haste, and from each bough and brake, Each plant and juciest gourd, will pluck such choice To entertain our Angel-guest, as he Beholding shall confess, that here on Earth God hath dispensed his bounties as in Heaven. So saying, with dispatchful looks in haste She turns, on hospitable thoughts intent What choice to choose for delicacy best, What order, so contrived as not to mix Tastes, not well joined, inelegant, but bring Taste after taste upheld with kindliest change; Bestirs her then, and from each tender stalk Whatever Earth, all-bearing mother, yields In India East or West, or middle shore In Pontus or the Punick coast, or where Alcinous reigned, fruit of all kinds, in coat Rough, or smooth rind, or bearded husk, or shell, She gathers, tribute large, and on the board Heaps with unsparing hand; for drink the grape 78

She crushes, inoffensive must, and meaths From many a berry, and from sweet kernels pressed She tempers dulcet creams; nor these to hold Wants her fit vessels pure; then strows the ground With rose and odours from the shrub unfumed. Mean while our primitive great sire, to meet His God-like guest, walks forth, without more train Accompanied than with his own complete Perfections; in himself was all his state, More solemn than the tedious pomp that waits On princes, when their rich retinue long Of horses led, and grooms besmeared with gold, Dazzles the croud, and sets them all agape. Nearer his presence Adam, though not awed, Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek, As to a superiour nature bowing low, Thus said. Native of Heaven, for other place None can than Heaven such glorious shape contain; Since, by descending from the thrones above, Those happy places thou hast deigned a while To want, and honour these, vouchsafe with us Two only, who yet by sovran gift possess This spacious ground, in yonder shady bower To rest; and what the garden choicest bears To sit and taste, till this meridian heat Be over, and the sun more cool decline. Whom thus the angelick Virtue answered mild. Adam, I therefore came; nor art thou such Created, or such place hast here to dwell, As may not oft invite, though Spirits of Heaven, To visit thee; lead on then where thy bower O'ershades; for these mid-hours, till evening rise, I have at will. So to the sylvan lodge They came, that like Pomona's arbour smiled, With flowerets decked, and fragrant smells; but Eve, Undecked save with herself, more lovely fair Than Wood-Nymph, or the fairest Goddess feigned Of three that in mount Ida naked strove, Stood to entertain her guest from Heaven; no veil She needed, virtue-proof; no thought infirm Altered her cheek. On whom the Angel Hail Bestowed, the holy salutation used Long after to blest Mary, second Eve. Hail, Mother of Mankind, whose fruitful womb Shall fill the world more numerous with thy sons, Than with these various fruits the trees of God Have heaped this table!--Raised of grassy turf Their table was, and mossy seats had round, And on her ample square from side to side All autumn piled, though spring and autumn here Danced hand in hand. A while discourse they hold; 79

unpurged Vapours not yet into her substance turned. So down they sat. Heavenly stranger. please to taste These bounties. needs To be sustained and fed: Of elements The grosser feeds the purer. To us for food and for delight hath caused The earth to yield. As from the mine.if by fire Of sooty coal the empirick alchemist Can turn. and find the ground Covered with pearly grain: Yet God hath here Varied his bounty so with new delights. and both contain Within them every lower faculty Of sense. To whom the Angel. And corporeal to incorporeal turn. may of purest Spirits be found No ingrateful food: And food alike those pure Intelligential substances require. Whence in her visage round those spots. and concoctive heat To transubstantiate: What redounds. nor wonder.No fear lest dinner cool. and at even Sups with the ocean. which our Nourisher. And to their viands fell. the air those fires Ethereal. Metals of drossiest ore to perfect gold. earth the sea. Earth and the sea feed air. 80 . or holds it possible to turn. That one celestial Father gives to all. assimilate. Therefore what he gives (Whose praise be ever sung) to Man in part Spiritual. and vines Yield nectar. though from off the boughs each morn We brush mellifluous dews. The sun that light imparts to all. digest. For know. Nor doth the moon no nourishment exhale From her moist continent to higher orbs. transpires Through Spirits with ease. Mean while at table Eve Ministered naked. As may compare with Heaven. and their flowing cups With pleasant liquours crowned: O innocence Deserving Paradise! if ever. then. receives From all his alimental recompence In humid exhalations. smell. descends. taste. nor in mist. only this I know. touch. Though in Heaven the trees Of life ambrosial fruitage bear. Tasting concoct. unsavoury food perhaps To spiritual natures. but with keen dispatch Of real hunger. from whom All perfect good. As doth your rational. unmeasured out. whatever was created. nor seemingly The Angel. the common gloss Of Theologians. and as lowest first the moon. whereby they hear. and to taste Think not I shall be nice. see. when thus began Our author.

If not depraved from good. more spiritous. of life. what God for you saw good If I refuse not. and reason is her being. and pure. created all Such to perfection. O Adam. And from these corporal nutriments perhaps Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit. Divine effulgence. but in those hearts Love unlibidinous reigned. the injured lover's hell.Then had the sons of God excuse to have been Enamoured at that sight. nor jealousy Was understood. To intellectual. 81 . Food not of Angels. Till body up to spirit work. Not burdened nature. give both life and sense. whose high power. the latter most is ours. One Almighty is. Inhabitant with God. now know I well Thy favour. Discursive. but convert. in things that live. and up to him return. So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk. in this honour done to Man. whose excellence he saw Transcend his own so far. as you To proper substance. and of their being Who dwell in Heaven. from thence the leaves More aery. when Men With Angels may participate. Under whose lowly roof thou hast vouchsafed To enter. Endued with various forms. Wonder not then. or intuitive. whose radiant forms. As that more willingly thou couldst not seem At Heaven's high feasts to have fed: yet what compare To whom the winged Hierarch replied. As nearer to him placed. To vital spirits aspire. in bounds Proportioned to each kind. of kind the same. and his wary speech Thus to the empyreal minister he framed. so far Exceeded human. yet accepted so. nor too light fare. to animal. But more refined. and find No inconvenient diet. Man's nourishment. sudden mind arose In Adam. various degrees Of substance. or nearer tending Each in their several active spheres assigned. discourse Is oftest yours. last the bright consummate flower Spirits odorous breathes: flowers and their fruit. not to let the occasion pass Given him by this great conference to know Of things above his world. Fancy and understanding. one first matter all. Time may come. whence the soul Reason receives. Differing but in degree. by gradual scale sublimed. from whom All things proceed. Thus when with meats and drinks they had sufficed. and. and these earthly fruits to taste.

enthroned. Attend! That thou art happy. By steps we may ascend to God. to thy obedience. and all the angelick host. Divine instructer. nor can find. not free. That is. our happy state Hold. O favourable Spirit. I have heard. that stand In sight of God. This was that caution given thee. but to persevere He left it in thy power. Not our necessitated. Mean while enjoy Your fill what happiness this happy state Can comprehend. not immutable. O fall From what high state of bliss. or possibly his love desert. Here or in heavenly Paradises dwell. owe to God. to disobedience fallen. in this we stand or fall: And some are fallen. Well hast thou taught the way that might direct Our knowledge. That thou continuest such. and with more delighted ear. On other surety none: Freely we serve. and. incapable of more. and the scale of nature set From center to circumference. and can no other choose? Myself. propitious guest. But say. into what woe! To whom our great progenitor. such with him Finds no acceptance. ordained thy will By nature free. In contemplation of created things. as you yours. who will but what they must By destiny. To whom the patriarch of mankind replied. Who formed us from the dust and placed us here Full to the utmost measure of what bliss Human desires can seek or apprehend? To whom the Angel. whereon. What meant that caution joined. than when Cherubick songs by night from neighbouring hills Aereal musick send: Nor knew I not 82 . as we. be advised. If ye be found obedient. If ye be found Obedient? Can we want obedience then To him. therein stand. be tried whether they serve Willing or no. And good he made thee. or strict necessity: Our voluntary service he requires. Son of Heaven and Earth. not over-ruled by fate Inextricable. And so from Heaven to deepest Hell. Because we freely love. for how Can hearts. while our obedience holds.Improved by tract of time. owe to thyself. at choice. Whose progeny you are. or may. Thy words Attentive. ascend Ethereal. winged. and retain Unalterably firm his love entire. God made thee perfect. as in our will To love or not.

perhaps Not lawful to reveal? yet for thy good This is dispensed. and future. applied To motion. As may express them best. 83 . when on a day (For time. of orders. and degrees. from all the ends of Heaven. thus began. and for distinction serve Of hierarchies. Thus when in orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son. if thou consent. acts of zeal and love Recorded eminent. which must needs be strange. and Chaos wild Reigned where these Heavens now roll. Amidst as from a flaming mount. After short pause assenting. and still assure: Though what thou tellest Hath passed in Heaven. O prime of men. Standards and gonfalons 'twixt van and rear Stream in the air. High matter thou enjoinest me. Thus Adam made request. though in eternity. Yet that we never shall forget to love Our Maker. Worthy of sacred silence to be heard. past. The full relation. appeared Under their Hierarchs in orders bright: Ten thousand thousand ensigns high advanced. the empyreal host Of Angels by imperial summons called. some doubt within me move. Innumerable before the Almighty's throne Forthwith. though what if Earth Be but a shadow of Heaven. Orb within orb. I shall delineate so. where Earth now rests Upon her center poised. and things therein Each to other like.To be both will and deed created free. and scarce begins His other half in the great zone of Heaven. And we have yet large day. for scarce the sun Hath finished half his journey. without remorse. whose top Brightness had made invisible. my constant thoughts Assured me. thus spake.) on such day As Heaven's great year brings forth. By likening spiritual to corporal forms. more than on earth is thought? As yet this world was not. But more desire to hear. and Raphael. measures all things durable By present. and what surmounts the reach Of human sense. The ruin of so many glorious once And perfect while they stood? how last unfold The secrets of another world. the Father Infinite. and obey him whose command Single is yet so just. Sad task and hard: For how shall I relate To human sense the invisible exploits Of warring Spirits? how. Or in their glittering tissues bear imblazed Holy memorials.

That day. Wide over all the plain. and rubied nectar flows In pearl. Hear my decree. (for night comes not there In darker veil. Cast out from God and blessed vision. (For we have also our evening and our morn. Fruit of delicious vines. and on a sudden piled With Angels food. without end. On flowers reposed. So spake the Omnipotent. they drink. to him shall bow All knees in Heaven. (Such are the courts of God) the angelick throng. Eccentrick. but were not all. all in circles as they stood.Hear. whence light and shade Spring both. whom ye now behold At my right hand. breaks union. Mystical dance. Princedoms. And in their motions harmony divine So smooths her charming tones. Dominations. 84 . intervolved. which unrevoked shall stand. in diamond. Tables are set. Me disobeys. in all her wheels Resembles nearest. Evening now approached. Virtues. falls Into utter darkness. that God's own ear Listens delighted. and massy gold. Powers. which yonder starry sphere Of planets. not need. who showered With copious hand. as one individual soul. progeny of light. all seemed. rejoicing in their joy. your head I him appoint. Now when ambrosial night with clouds exhaled From that high mount of God. Thrones. when most irregular they seem. and wider far Than all this globous earth in plain outspread. secure Of surfeit.) and roseat dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. as other solemn days.) Forthwith from dance to sweet repast they turn Desirous. and that day. where full measure only bounds Excess. the face of brightest Heaven had changed To grateful twilight. They eat. deep ingulfed. We ours for change delectable. and in communion sweet Quaff immortality and joy. For ever happy: Him who disobeys. yet regular Then most. And by myself have sworn. and of fixed. all ye Angels. mazes intricate. his place Ordained without redemption. before the all-bounteous King. and shall confess him Lord: Under his great vice-gerent reign abide United. and on this holy hill Him have anointed. they spent In song and dance about the sacred hill. and with fresh flowerets crowned. and with his words All seemed well pleased. This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son. the growth of Heaven.

So spake the false Arch-Angel. save those. Soon as midnight brought on the dusky hour Friendliest to sleep and silence. and his next subordinate Awakening. and give laws. and leave Unworshipt. and sudden reared. the regent Powers. where they slept Fanned with cool winds. and infused Bad influence into the unwary breast Of his associate: He together calls. where we possess The quarters of the north. how then can now Thy sleep dissent? New laws thou seest imposed. and proclaimed Messiah King anointed. tells. Melodious hymns about the sovran throne Alternate all night long: but not so waked Satan. ere yet dim night Her shadowy cloud withdraws. Tell them. their camp extend By living streams among the trees of life. as he was taught. Thou to me thy thoughts Wast wont. the throne supreme. and thought himself impaired. yet fraught With envy against the Son of God. Contemptuous. Or several one by one. New laws from him who reigns. Homeward. new minds may raise In us who serve. The great hierarchal standard was to move. he resolved With all his legions to dislodge. The great Messiah. Companion dear? What sleep can close Thy eye-lids? and rememberest what decree Of yesterday. he of the first. so late hath passed the lips Of Heaven's Almighty. new counsels to debate What doubtful may ensue: More in this place To utter is not safe. Now ere dim night had disincumbered Heaven. That the Most High commanding. unobeyed. If not the first Arch-Angel. and his new commands. Both waking we were one. that day Honoured by his great Father. so call him now. Deep malice thence conceiving and disdain. I mine to thee was wont to impart. that by command. Under him Regent. thus to him in secret spake. 85 . And all who under me their banners wave. Who speedily through all the hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant. Pavilions numberless. his former name Is heard no more in Heaven. In favour and pre-eminence. with flying march. Sleepest thou. Celestial tabernacles. now ere night. in their course. could not bear Through pride that sight. Assemble thou Of all those myriads which we lead the chief.Dispersed in bands and files. great in power. I am to haste. who. there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King.

what our power is. thou thy foes Justly hast in derision. to his only Son thus said. when they see all regal power Given me to quell their pride. Heir of all my might. thou in whom my glory I behold In full resplendence. Nearly it now concerns us to be sure Of our Omnipotence. Mighty Father. Made answer. So spake the Son. and with what arms We mean to hold what anciently we claim Of deity or empire: Such a foe Is rising. lest unawares we lose This our high place. and Potentates. smiling. saw in whom. Regions they passed. Laughest at their vain designs and tumults vain. and to this hazard draw With speed what force is left. Matter to me of glory. the mighty regencies Of Seraphim. our hill.Tells the suggested cause. serene. to sound Or taint integrity: But all obeyed The wonted signal. And. or be found the worst in Heaven. is no more Than what this garden is to all the earth. and high was his degree in Heaven. Lightning divine. whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts. ineffable. what multitudes Were banded to oppose his high decree. or our right. our sanctuary. and. hath in his thought to try In battle. Son. for great indeed His name. with his Powers. Nor so content. And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him. how spread Among the sons of morn. but Satan. Mean while the Eternal eye. as the morning-star that guides The starry flock. 86 . which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower. whom their hate Illustrates. secure. and with lies Drew after him the third part of Heaven's host. saw without their light Rebellion rising. and in event Know whether I be dextrous to subdue Thy rebels. an host Innumerable as the stars of night. and all employ In our defence. who intends to erect his throne Equal to ours. To whom the Son with calm aspect and clear. Far was advanced on winged speed. throughout the spacious north. from forth his holy mount. allured them. and superiour voice Of their great Potentate. In their triple degrees. dew-drops. and casts between Ambiguous words and jealousies. Adam. regions to which All thy dominion. Or stars of morning. His countenance. Let us advise. and Thrones.

This only to consult how we may best. and rocks of gold. with pyramids and towers From diamond quarries hewn. If these magnifick titles yet remain Not merely titular. which having passed. who without law Err not? much less for this to be our Lord. Who can in reason then. The palace of great Lucifer.) which not long after. At length into the limits of the north They came. The Mountain of the Congregation called. To one. Receive him coming to receive from us Knee-tribute yet unpaid. Pretending so commanded to consult About the great reception of their King. not to serve. or right. assume Monarchy over such as live by right His equals. if I trust To know ye right. Princedoms. (so call That structure in the dialect of men Interpreted. and choose to bend The supple knee? Ye will not. Dominations. for orders and degrees Jar not with liberty. or if ye know yourselves Natives and sons of Heaven possessed before By none. as a mount Raised on a mount. yet free. And look for adoration. Thither to come. far blazing. Virtues. and Satan to his royal seat High on a hill. Thrones. for whom all this haste Of midnight-march. In freedom equal? or can introduce Law and edict on us. Powers.And all the sea. which assert Our being ordained to govern. Equally free. and if not equal all. he Affecting all equality with God. prostration vile! Too much to one! but double how endured. if in power and splendour less. Thus far his bold discourse without controul 87 . to the abuse Of those imperial titles. since by decree Another now hath to himself engrossed All power. For thither he assembled all his train. but well consist. and with calumnious art Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears. and hurried meeting here. and to his image now proclaimed? But what if better counsels might erect Our minds. With what may be devised of honours new. In imitation of that mount whereon Messiah was declared in sight of Heaven. and teach us to cast off this yoke? Will ye submit your necks. and us eclipsed under the name Of King anointed. from one entire globose Stretched into longitude.

Flatly unjust. Princedoms. thou sayest. Crowned them with glory. to bind with laws the free. but his zeal None seconded. and to their glory named Thrones. Equal to him begotten Son? by whom. That equal over equals monarch reign: Thyself. That to his only Son. and formed the Powers of Heaven Such as he pleased. and divine commands obeyed. by right endued With regal scepter. thus replied. more haughty. Essential Powers. As by his Word. pronounced and sworn. and the incensed Son. the Mighty Father made All things. Or all angelick nature joined in one. His laws our laws. Or singular and rash: Whereat rejoiced The Apostate. least of all from thee. how far from thought To make us less. Cease then this impious rage. and circumscribed their being? Yet. And tempt not these. even thee. But to grant it thee unjust. That we were formed then sayest thou? and the work Of secondary hands. all honour to him done Returns our own. While pardon may be found in time besought. and in a flame of zeal severe The current of his fury thus opposed. but hasten to appease The incensed Father. as out of season judged. every soul in Heaven Shall bend the knee. when among the Seraphim Abdiel. And equal over equals to let reign. bent rather to exalt Our happy state. Powers. Canst thou with impious obloquy condemn The just decree of God. we know how good. and in that honour due Confess him rightful King? unjust. In place thyself so high above thy peers. One over all with unsucceeded power. since he the head One of our number thus reduced becomes. by task transferred 88 . nor by his reign obscured. Ingrate. Dominations. false.Had audience. Shalt thou give law to God? shalt thou dispute With him the points of liberty. and proud! Words which no ear ever to hear in Heaven Expected. And of our good and of our dignity How provident he is. Virtues. by experience taught. O argument blasphemous. under one head more near United. So spake the fervent Angel. though great and glorious. But more illustrious made. who made Thee what thou art. than whom none with more zeal adored The Deity. dost thou count. Stood up. and all the Spirits of Heaven By him created in their bright degrees. and.

by proof to try Who is our equal: Then thou shalt behold Whether by supplication we intend Address. which thou didst reject. O Spirit accursed. devouring fire. O alienate from God. or change his constant mind. Know none before us. raging into sudden flame. Forsaken of all good! I see thy fall Determined. thus answered bold. his love. ethereal sons. those indulgent laws Will not be now vouchsafed. Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause Through the infinite host. our own right hand Shall teach us highest deeds. Well thou didst advise. though alone Encompassed round with foes.From Father to his Son? strange point and new! Doctrine which we would know whence learned: who saw When this creation was? rememberest thou Thy making. Distinguish not: For soon expect to feel His thunder on thy head. ere evil intercept thy flight. 89 . Among innumerable false. self-begot. when fatal course Had circled his full orb. contagion spread Both of thy crime and punishment: Henceforth No more be troubled how to quit the yoke Of God's Messiah. Nor number. his zeal. So spake the Seraph Abdiel. Is now an iron rod to bruise and break Thy disobedience. Our puissance is our own. which he sustained Superiour. other decrees Against thee are gone forth without recall. self-raised By our own quickening power. lest the wrath Impendent. From amidst them forth he passed. unmoved. unterrified. and. And fly. and thy hapless crew involved In this perfidious fraud. nor less for that The flaming Seraph fearless. nor example. Though single. These tidings carry to the anointed King. This report. while the Maker gave thee being? We know no time when we were not as now. When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know. as the sound of waters deep. the birth mature Of this our native Heaven. That golden scepter. and to begirt the almighty throne Beseeching or besieging. with him wrought To swerve from truth. He said. Unshaken. Long way through hostile scorn. nor of violence feared aught. Yet not for thy advice or threats I fly These wicked tents devoted. Then who created thee lamenting learn. His loyalty he kept. unseduced. faithful only he. faithful found Among the faithless.

and fiery steeds. of celestial armies prince. Than scorned thou didst depart. From midst a golden cloud. 90 . Waked by the circling Hours. till her hour To veil the Heaven. and flaming arms. Back on thy foes more glorious to return. that one. and to subdue By force. Michael. who single hast maintained Against revolted multitudes the cause Of truth. with retorted scorn. And thou. Well done. There is a cave Within the mount of God. Go. Where light and darkness in perpetual round Lodge and dislodge by turns. first met his view: War he perceived. On to the sacred hill They led him high applauded. Right reason for their law. for this was all thy care To stand approved in sight of God. Shot through with orient beams. with rosy hand Unbarred the gates of light. like day and night. and found Already known what he for news had thought To have reported: Gladly then he mixed Among those friendly Powers. and at the other door Obsequious darkness enters. though darkness there might well Seem twilight here: And now went forth the Morn Such as in highest Heaven arrayed in gold Empyreal. when all the plain Covered with thick embattled squadrons bright. his back he turned On those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. thus mild was heard. Chariots. Light issues forth.And. well hast thou fought The better fight. far worse to bear Than violence. unpursued. which makes through Heaven Grateful vicissitude. Servant of God. and present Before the seat supreme. aided by this host of friends. who him received With joy and acclamations loud. Reflecting blaze on blaze. from before her vanished Night. yet one Returned not lost. from whence a voice. who reason for their law refuse. in military prowess next. who by right of merit reigns. in word mightier than they in arms. Through Heaven's wide champain held his way. That of so many myriads fallen. till Morn. war in procinct. though worlds Judged thee perverse: The easier conquest now Remains thee. and for their King Messiah. Book VI All night the dreadless Angel. And for the testimony of truth hast borne Universal reproach. fast by his throne.

lead forth my armed Saints. for they weened That self-same day. in the cause Of God and his Messiah.Gabriel. and helmets thronged. and the passive air upbore Their nimble tread. Came summoned over Eden to receive Their names of thee. which ready opens wide His fiery Chaos to receive their fall. Equal in number to that Godless crew Rebellious: Them with fire and hostile arms Fearless assault. so over many a tract Of Heaven they marched. reluctant flames. Far in the horizon to the north appeared From skirt to skirt a fiery region. Into their place of punishment. and on his throne To set the Envier of his state. drive them out from God and bliss. On they move Indissolubly firm. ranged for fight. as when the total kind Of birds. and. stretched In battailous aspect. for high above the ground Their march was. who wont to meet So oft in festivals of joy and love Unanimous. To win the mount of God. So spake the Sovran Voice. and smoke to roll In dusky wreaths. Hymning the Eternal Father: But the shout 91 . and clouds began To darken all the hill. the sign Of wrath awaked. in orderly array on wing. to the brow of Heaven Pursuing. Tenfold the length of this terrene: At last. lead forth to battle these my sons Invincible. as sons of one great Sire. nor with less dread the loud Ethereal trumpet from on high 'gan blow: At which command the Powers militant. and nearer view Bristled with upright beams innumerable Of rigid spears. and many a province wide. by fight or by surprise. Nor straitening vale. to the sound Of instrumental harmony. nor obvious hill. moved on In silence their bright legions. that breathed Heroick ardour to adventurous deeds Under their God-like leaders. but their thoughts proved fond and vain In the mid way: Though strange to us it seemed At first. The banded Powers of Satan hasting on With furious expedition. That stood for Heaven. that Angel should with Angel war. the gulf Of Tartarus. divides Their perfect ranks. By thousands and by millions. in mighty quadrate joined Of union irresistible. the proud Aspirer. nor stream. with boastful argument portrayed. And in fierce hosting meet. nor wood. and shields Various.

And thus his own undaunted heart explores. The throne of God unguarded. and whelmed Thy legions under darkness: But thou seest All are not of thy train. at one blow. O Heaven! that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain. half-way he met His daring foe. art thou met? thy hope was to have reached The highth of thy aspiring unopposed. and golden shields. and piety to God. Who out of smallest things could. there be. Idol of majesty divine. On the rough edge of battle ere it joined. though then To thee not visible. That he. trusting in the Almighty's aid. I mean to try. who faith Prefer. Unaided.now learn too late 92 . could have finished thee. Satan. and thus securely him defied. Came towering. where he stood Among the mightiest. or with solitary hand Reaching beyond all limit.Of battle now began. nor is it aught but just. Have raised incessant armies to defeat Thy folly. exalted as a God. and from his armed peers Forth stepping opposite. Proud. Abdiel that sight endured not. enclosed With flaming Cherubim. for now "twixt host and host but narrow space was left. and rushing sound Of onset ended soon each milder thought. though brutish that contest and foul. and his side Abandoned. armed in adamant and gold. So pondering. Then lighted from his gorgeous throne. and front to front Presented stood in terrible array Of hideous length: Before the cloudy van. bent on highest deeds. at this prevention more Incensed. who in debate of truth hath won. When reason hath to deal with force. at the terrour of thy power Or potent tongue: Fool!not to think how vain Against the Omnipotent to rise in arms. A dreadful interval. yet so Most reason is that reason overcome. or weakest prove Where boldest. when I alone Seemed in thy world erroneous to dissent From all: My sect thou seest. The Apostate in his sun-bright chariot sat. whose reason I have tried Unsound and false. Should win in arms. with vast and haughty strides advanced. where faith and realty Remain not: Wherefore should not strength and might There fail where virtue fails. without end. though to fight unconquerable? His puissance. High in the midst. in both disputes alike Victor.

first sought for. as thine now serve thee. durst oppose A third part of the Gods. seditious Angel! to receive Thy merited reward. in synod met Their deities to assert. At first I thought that Liberty and Heaven To heavenly souls had been all one. but in wished hour Of my revenge. let me serve In Heaven God ever blest. Ministring Spirits. Reign thou in Hell. a noble stroke he lifted high. the tenth on bended knee His massy spear upstaid. as if on earth Winds under ground. thy kingdom. Nor motion of swift thought. Half sunk with all his pines. from the path of truth remote: Unjustly thou depravest it with the name Of servitude. expect: Mean while From me returned. Sidelong had pushed a mountain from his seat. Thyself not free. Apostate! still thou errest.How few sometimes may know. Whom the grand foe. and excels Them whom he governs. with scornful eye askance. Yet lewdly darest our ministring upbraid. can allow Omnipotence to none. and his divine Behests obey. while they feel Vigour divine within them. Inspired with contradiction. This greeting on thy impious crest receive. less could his shield. worthiest to be obeyed. To whom in brief thus Abdiel stern replied. Yet chains in Hell. So saying. when thousands err. the first assay Of this right hand provoked. (Unanswered lest thou boast) to let thee know. as erst thou saidst. Or Nature: God and Nature bid the same. This is servitude. that thy success may show Destruction to the rest: This pause between. But well thou comest Before thy fellows. Amazement seised 93 . ambitious to win From me some plume. but so swift with tempest fell On the proud crest of Satan. trained up in feast and song! Such hast thou armed. thou returnest From flight. but now I see that most through sloth had rather serve. that no sight. To serve the unwise. Servility with freedom to contend. nor end wilt find Of erring. since first that tongue. from flight. As both their deeds compared this day shall prove. Thus answered. the minstrelsy of Heaven. who. Such ruin intercept: Ten paces huge He back recoiled. Which hung not. When he who rules is worthiest. Ill for thee. to serve whom God ordains. or him who hath rebelled Against his worthier. but to thyself enthralled. not realms. or waters forcing way.

and the faithful armies rung Hosanna to the Highest: Nor stood at gaze The adverse legions. And flying vaulted either host with fire. and shout. and met in arms No equal. for wide was spread That war and various. and the madding wheels Of brazen chariots raged. nor less hideous joined The horrid shock. who that day Prodigious power had shown. though numbered such As each divided legion might have seemed A numerous host. and when to close The ridges of grim war: No thought of flight. Had not the Eternal King Omnipotent. through the vast of Heaven It sounded. sometimes on firm ground A standing fight. or turn the sway Of battle. All Heaven Resounded. their happy native seat.The rebel Thrones. Now storming fury rose. the least of whom could wield These elements. and arm him with the force Of all their regions: How much more of power Army against army numberless to raise Dreadful combustion warring. all air seemed then Conflicting fire. So under fiery cope together rushed Both battles main. to see Thus foiled their mightiest. From his strong hold of Heaven. and disturb. and fierce desire Of battle: Whereat Michael bid sound The Arch-Angel trumpet. at length 94 . but infinite. then. Long time in even scale The battle hung. Presage of victory. As only in his arm the moment lay Of victory: Deeds of eternal fame Were done. Though not destroy. in strength each armed hand A legion. ours joy filled. each on himself relied. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. And clamour such as heard in Heaven till now Was never. arms on armour clashing brayed Horrible discord. till Satan. all Earth Had to her center shook. dire was the noise Of conflict. or stand. ranging through the dire attack Of fighting Seraphim confused. and had Earth been then. led in fight. with ruinous assault And inextinguishable rage. open when. but greater rage. soaring on main wing. What wonder? when Millions of fierce encountering Angels fought On either side. yet leader seemed Each warriour single as in chief. over head the dismal hiss Of fiery darts in flaming vollies flew. high over-ruled And limited their might. None of retreat. Tormented all the air. expert When to advance.

and both addressed for fight Unspeakable. or to what things Liken on earth conspicuous. and evil go with thee along. but that they rise Unvanquished. once upright And faithful. Thou and thy wicked crew! there mingle broils. or if to fall. imperious. and opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant. but have sought thee far and nigh. that so shall end The strife which thou callest evil. the arch-foe subdued Or captive dragged in chains. hateful to all. now proved false! But think not here To trouble holy rest. And join him named Almighty to thy aid. Ere this avenging sword begin thy doom. here however to dwell free. and into nature brought Misery. that may lift Human imagination to such highth 95 . as hoping here to end Intestine war in Heaven. Heaven casts thee out From all her confines. If not to reign: Mean while thy utmost force. though with the tongue Of Angels. his ample shield. Unnamed in Heaven. to the place of evil. for who. Or some more sudden vengeance. Brooks not the works of violence and war. They ended parle. can relate. And thy adherents: How hast thou disturbed Heaven's blessed peace. with hostile frown And visage all inflamed first thus began. and felled Squadrons at once. the seat of bliss. now plenteous as thou seest These acts of hateful strife. Or turn this Heaven itself into the Hell Thou fablest. unknown till thy revolt. So spake the Prince of Angels. Author of evil. Hence then. easier to transact with me That thou shouldst hope. I fly not. Nor think thou with wind Of aery threats to awe whom yet with deeds Thou canst not. to whom thus The Adversary. A vast circumference. such destruction to withstand He hasted. winged from God. Heaven. Hast thou turned the least of these To flight. with huge two-handed sway Brandished aloft. Though heaviest by just measure on thyself. and with threats To chase me hence? err not. Precipitate thee with augmented pain. Thy offspring. and glad. but we style The strife of glory.Saw where the sword of Michael smote. which we mean to win. Hell. the horrid edge came down Wide-wasting. At his approach The great Arch-Angel from his warlike toil Surceased. uncreated till the crime Of thy rebellion! how hast thou instilled Thy malice into thousands.

if. Two planets. All intellect. Now waved their fiery swords. and. such as. and not need repeat. and in the air Made horrid circles. with steep force to smite Descending. But with swift wheel reverse. in mid sky Should combat. Among the constellations war were sprung. liver or reins. and his pride Humbled by such rebuke. Together both with next to almighty arm Up-lifted imminent. the angelick throng. while Expectation stood In horrour: From each hand with speed retired. nature's concord broke. for Spirits that live throughout Vital in every part. shared All his right side: Then Satan first knew pain. nor odds appeared In might or swift prevention: But the sword Of Michael from the armoury of God Was given him tempered so. And writhed him to and fro convolved. and from the gash A stream of necturous humour issuing flowed Sanguine. to set forth Great things by small. rushing from aspect malign Of fiercest opposition. all ear. and in half cut sheer. heart of head. so far beneath His confidence to equal God in power. To find himself not matchless. where it stood retired From off the files of war: There they him laid Gnashing for anguish. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. arms.Of Godlike power? for likest Gods they seemed. 96 . nor staid. as they please. deep entering. not as frail man In entrails. and despite. one stroke they aimed That might determine. who interposed Defence. all sense. Not long divisible. Where erst was thickest fight. Stood they or moved. Cannot but by annihilating die. motion. that neither keen Nor solid might resist that edge: it met The sword of Satan. As not of power at once. Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound Receive. Yet soon he healed. and shame. two broad suns their shields Blazed opposite. And all his armour stained. ere while so bright. all eye. no more than can the fluid air: All heart they live. so sore The griding sword with discontinuous wound Passed through him: But the ethereal substance closed. unsafe within the wind Of such commotion. and their jarring spheres confound. Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven. Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By Angels many and strong. all head. such as celestial Spirits may bleed. in stature. And left large field.

through the faint Satanick host Defensive scarce. or flight. Illaudable. And fiery-foaming steeds. their mightiest quelled. but with redoubled blow Ariel. Fled ignominious. Invulnerable. And now. or pain. In might though wonderous and in acts of war. not to have sinned. Then first with fear surprised. Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy The atheist crew. Vanquished Adramelech. Far otherwise the inviolable Saints. with shattered arms And uncouth pain fled bellowing. that to be less than Gods Disdained. and sense of pain. till that hour Not liable to fear. Mean while in other parts like deeds deserved Memorial. nor from the Holy One of Heaven Refrained his tongue blasphemous. or size Assume. but meaner thoughts learned in their flight. and their names Eternize here on earth. Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. and from just. Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail. deformed rout Entered. For strength from truth divided. but anon Down cloven to the waist. and through infamy seeks fame: Therefore eternal silence be their doom. advanced entire. 97 . but those elect Angels. Two potent Thrones. I might relate of thousands. recoiled O'er-wearied. overthrew. In cubick phalanx firm. shape. And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array Of Moloch. condense or rare. With many an inroad gored. furious king. all the ground With shivered armour strown. and Raphael. and colour. yet to glory aspires Vain-glorious. Seek not the praise of men: The other sort. nought merits but dispraise And ignominy. what stood. And at his chariot-wheels to drag him bound Threatened. who him defied. and in a rock of diamond armed. yet by doom Cancelled from Heaven and sacred memory. his vaunting foe. contented with their fame in Heaven. or with pale fear surprised. and foul disorder. as?kikes them best.They limb themselves. and Asmadai. Nor of renown less eager. Such high advantages their innocence Gave them above their foes. impenetrably armed. where the might of Gabriel fought. On each wing Uriel. the battle swerved. to such evil brought By sin of disobedience. and on a heap Chariot and charioteer lay overturned. and Arioch. Though huge. and the violence Of Ramiel scorched and blasted.

while we can preserve Unhurt our minds. and understanding sound. Found worthy not of liberty alone. unobnoxious to be pained By wound. Cherubick waving fires: On the other part. O now in danger tried. Weapons more violent. Some disadvantage we endured and pain. and worse our foes. He sat. Sore toiled. and. Victor and vanquished: On the foughten field Michael and his Angels prevalent Encamping. Imperishable. Due search and consultation will disclose. as soon contemned. though from their place by violence moved. when next we meet. now known in arms Not to be overpowered. in fight they stood Unwearied. but. over Heaven Inducing darkness. why not eternal days?) What Heaven's Lord had powerfullest to send Against us from about his throne. Or equal what between us made the odds. yet hard For Gods. Of future we may deem him. known. though till now Omniscient thought. Deliverer from new Lords. dominion. Since now we find this our empyreal form Incapable of mortal injury. void of rest. Too mean pretence! but what we more affect. In nature none: If other hidden cause Left them superiour. and. leader to free Enjoyment of our right as Gods. 98 . and too unequal work we find. And in the midst thus undismayed began. And cloudy in aspect thus answering spake. True is. and judged Sufficient to subdue us to his will. Soon closing.Not to have disobeyed. Till now not known. and. placed in guard their watches round. of Principalities the prime. Now Night her course began. As one he stood escaped from cruel fight. (And if one day. Companions dear. Satan with his rebellious disappeared. And silence on the odious din of war: Under her cloudy covert both retired. and renown. His potentates to council called by night. though pierced with wound. Of evil then so small as easy think The remedy. glory. Who have sustained one day in doubtful fight. it seems. Far in the dark dislodged. perhaps more valid arms. grateful truce imposed. less firmly armed. But proves not so: Then fallible. his riven arms to havock hewn. and by native vigour healed. and in the assembly next upstood Nisroch. Honour. May serve to better us.

Abandon fear. as shall dash To pieces. fruit. and gold. Nor long shall be our labour. I bring. This continent of spacious Heaven. how he To be the inventer missed. and each. gems. Effect shall end our wish. or inspired With devilish machination. yet ere dawn. long and round. though matchless. Which of us who beholds the bright surface Of this ethereous mould whereon we stand. Whose eye so superficially surveys These things. which thou aright Believest so main to our success. and makes remiss the hands Of mightiest? Sense of pleasure we may well Spare out of life perhaps. excessive. till touched With Heaven's ray. overturns All patience. and. materials dark and crude. Some one intent on mischief. quelled with pain Which all subdues. But live content. Which. adorned With plant. and not repine. at the other bore with touch of fire Dilated and infuriate. He. The invention all admired. to strength and counsel joined Think nothing hard. from which evil Ruin must needs ensue. as not to mind from whence they grow Deep under ground. Mean while revive. opening to the ambient light? These in their dark nativity the deep Shall yield us. for what avails Valour or strength. shall send forth From far. and tempered.Against unequal arms to fight in pain. the worst Of evils. He ended. which yet unfound most would have thought Impossible: Yet. and their languished hope revived. they shoot forth So beauteous. Whereto with look composed Satan replied. impassive. Not uninvented that. and o'erwhelm whatever stands Adverse. if malice should abound. into hollow engines. flower ambrosial. might devise 99 . pregnant with infernal flame. who therefore can invent With what more forcible we may offend Our yet unwounded enemies. with thundering noise. of thy race In future days. much less to be despaired. or arm Ourselves with like defence. haply. Thick rammed. to me deserves No less than for deliverance what we owe. among our foes Such implements of mischief. Against unpained. which is the calmest life: But pain is perfect misery. Of spiritous and fiery spume. and his words their drooping cheer Enlightened. so easy it seemed Once found. that they shall fear we have disarmed The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt.

Instant without disturb they took alarm. quit of all impediment. Where lodged. and in mid air aloud thus cried. To hide the fraud. of Cherubim the swiftest wing. in a moment up they turned Wide the celestial soil. aware themselves. None arguing stood. So all ere day-spring. In motion or in halt: Him soon they met Under spread ensigns moving nigh. on war and mutual slaughter bent. no drizzling shower. Now when fair morn orient in Heaven appeared. they mingled. sulphurous and nitrous foam They found. and to arms The matin trumpet sung: In arms they stood Of golden panoply. and scouts each coast light-armed scour. innumerable hands Were ready. and in order set. and secure: Let each His adamantine coat gird well. With silent circumspection. and each Fit well his helm. Borne even or high. fear not his flight. unespied. Came flying. or if for fight. and saw beneath The originals of nature in their crude Conception. Warriours. pernicious with one touch to fire. Whereof to found their engines and their balls Of missive ruin. Secret they finished. Up rose the victor-Angels. part incentive reed Provide. for this day will pour down. Concocted and adusted they reduced To blackest grain. the foe at hand. and into store conveyed: Part hidden veins digged up (nor hath this earth Entrails unlike) of mineral and stone. At interview both stood 100 .so thick a cloud He comes. in hollow cube Training his devilish enginery. and settled in his face I see Sad resolution. impaled On every side with shadowing squadrons deep. and soon In order. So warned he them. Whom fled we thought. But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire. Forthwith from council to the work they flew. Soon banded. will save us long pursuit This day.Like instrument to plague the sons of men For sin. under conscious night. and. back with speediest sail Zophiel. or whither fled. others from the dawning hills Look round. Arm. And onward moved embattled: When behold! Not distant far with heavy pace the foe Approaching gross and huge. in slow But firm battalion. refulgent host. with subtle art. Each quarter to descry the distant foe. If I conjecture aught. gripe fast his orbed shield. arm for fight.

how we seek Peace and composure. Heaven! Heaven. evaded swift By quick contraction or remove. on the victor host Levelled. whom they hit.A while. unarmed. repulse Repeated. Angel on Arch-Angel rolled. A triple mounted row of pillars laid On wheels (for like to pillars most they seemed. who appointed stand Do as you have in charge. and turn not back perverse: But that I doubt. and with open breast Stand ready to receive them. and to a narrow vent applied With nicest touch. whose roar Embowelled with outrageous noise the air. iron. none on their feet might stand. stony mould. Though standing else as rocks. when to right and left the front Divided. for sudden all at once their reeds Put forth. Nor served it to relax their serried files. disgorging foul Their devilish glut. in wood or mountain felled. but now Foul dissipation followed. all Heaven appeared. That. if they like Our overture. chained thunderbolts and hail Of iron globes. And to their foes a laughter. Immediate in a flame. as Spirits. and indecent overthrow Doubled. they might Have easily. Portending hollow truce: At each behind A Seraph stood. for in view Stood ranked of Seraphim another row. however witness. which. and briefly touch What we propound. Not long. would render them yet more despised. and thus was heard commanding loud. but down they fell By thousands.) Brass. new and strange. And all her entrails tore. Collected stood within our thoughts amused. In posture to displode their second tire Of thunder: Back defeated to return 101 . witness thou anon! while we discharge Freely our part: ye. had not their mouths With hideous orifice gaped on us wide. while we. From those deep-throated engines belched. But soon obscured with smoke. and forced rout. With branches lopt. and in his hand a reed Stood waving tipt with fire. That all may see who hate us. and loud that all may hear! So scoffing in ambiguous words. to right and left the front unfold. Vanguard. but suddenly at head appeared Satan. Or hollowed bodies made of oak or fir. What should they do? if on they rushed. The sooner for their arms. and to either flank retired: Which to our eyes discovered. he scarce Had ended. suspense. with such impetuous fury smote.

which in the air Came shadowing. and into strange vagaries fell. They show us when our foes walk not upright. and found them arms Against such hellish mischief fit to oppose. waters. And all his host derided. Rage prompted them at length. and when we. As they would dance.) Light as the lightning glimpse they ran. And to his mates thus in derision called. yet for a dance they seemed Somewhat extravagant and wild. while they stood A while in trouble: But they stood not long. and by the shaggy tops Up-lifting bore them in their hands: Amaze. (what could we more?) propounded terms Of composition. Till on those cursed engines' triple-row They saw them whelmed. in like gamesome mood. Their armour helped their harm. From their foundations loosening to and fro. they flew. Be sure. and of his thunder made a scorn. Not understood. straight they changed their minds. We should compel them to a quick result. woods. Forthwith (behold the excellence. Had need from head to foot well understand. and oppressed whole legions armed. Of hard contents. with all their load. Flew off. Rocks. Themselves invaded next. crushed in and bruised Into their substance pent. And stumbled many: Who receives them right. Satan beheld their plight. and full of force urged home. and all their confidence Under the weight of mountains buried deep. When coming towards them so dread they saw The bottom of the mountains upward turned.They worse abhorred. which wrought them pain 102 . They plucked the seated hills. If our proposals once again were heard. Leader! the terms we sent were terms of weight. and to the hills (For Earth hath this variety from Heaven Of pleasure situate in hill and dale. hightened in their thoughts beyond All doubt of victory: Eternal Might To match with their inventions they presumed So easy. So they among themselves in pleasant vein Stood scoffing. To entertain them fair with open front And breast. seized the rebel host. and on their heads Main promontories flung. and terrour. this gift they have besides. O Friends! why come not on these victors proud Ere while they fierce were coming. perhaps For joy of offered peace: But I suppose. Such as we might perceive amused them all. To whom thus Belial. Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed!) Their arms away they threw. the power.

he thus began. foreseen This tumult. and thou knowest. Purest at first. when two such foes met armed. in imitation. where he sits Shrined in his sanctuary of Heaven secure. since none but Thou Can end it. and no solution will be found: War wearied hath performed what war can do. to be Heir. And to disordered rage let loose the reins With mountains. Two days. Save what sin hath impaired. as we compute the days of Heaven. this perverse commotion governed thus. and the neighbouring hills uptore: So hills amid the air encountered hills. Effulgence of my glory. Long struggling underneath. As likeliest was. Had not the Almighty Father. ere they could wind Out of such prison. and dangerous to the main. though Spirits of purest light. armed. that all may know In Heaven and Hell thy power above compare. The Assessour of his throne. The rest. the third is thine. Two days are therefore past. Whence in perpetual fight they needs must last Endless. that the glory may be thine Of ending this great war. and to be King 103 . Since Michael and his Powers went forth to tame These disobedient: Sore hath been their fight. Son beloved.Implacable. To manifest thee worthiest to be Heir Of all things. with ruin overspread. And. Son. and permitted all. To honour his anointed Son avenged Upon his enemies. And in whose hand what by decree I do. For to themselves I left them. as with weapons. advised: That his great purpose he might so fulfil. and thus far Have suffered. what by Deity I am. and to declare All power on him transferred: Whence to his Son. which makes Wild work in Heaven. Consulting on the sum of things. to like arms Betook them. Second Omnipotence! two days are past. Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. For thee I have ordained it. which yet hath wrought Insensibly. Equal in their creation they were formed. Infernal noise! war seemed a civil game To this uproar. horrid confusion heaped Upon confusion rose: And now all Heaven Had gone to wrack. in whose face invisible is beheld Visibly. and many a dolorous groan. Into thee such virtue and grace Immense I have transfused. That under ground they fought in dismal shade. now gross by sinning grown. for I suspend their doom.

and colours of the showery arch. So said. drive them out From all Heaven's bounds into the utter deep: There let them learn. Unfeigned Halleluiahs to thee sing. o'er his scepter bowing. Over their heads a crystal firmament. To chains of darkness. He said. and in me all whom thou lovest: But whom thou hatest. my almighty arms Gird on. he all his Father full expressed Ineffably into his face received. with eyes the wheels Of beryl. circling thy holy mount. as with stars. in thy Father's might. 104 . To their prepared ill mansion driven down. and careering fires between. when in the end Thou shalt be all in all. declarest thy will Fulfilled. Itself instinct with Spirit. Go then. Forth rushed with whirlwind sound The chariot of Paternal Deity. My bow and thunder. I always thee. and I among them Chief. but convoyed By four Cherubick shapes. I hate. bring forth all my war. wheel within wheel undrawn. Ascend my chariot. Whom to obey is happiness entire.By sacred unction. as I put thy mildness on. and Messiah his anointed King. as likes them. Image of thee in all things. thy deserved right. And the third sacred morn began to shine. That thou. And gladlier shall resign. And thus the Filial Godhead answering spake. rid Heaven of these rebelled. First. and the undying worm. Flashing thick flames. and on his Son with rays direct Shone full. Pursue these sons of darkness. As is most just: This I my glory account. Hymns of high praise. inlaid with pure Amber. Highest. Holiest. to despise God. he. Armed with thy might. which to fulfil is all my bliss. four faces each Had wonderous. guide the rapid wheels That shake Heaven's basis. rose From the right hand of Glory where he sat. thou always seek'st To glorify thy Son. and sword upon thy puissant thigh. Thou Mightiest. and my whole delight. Then shall thy Saints unmixed. I assume. their bodies all And wings were set with eyes. Best. That from thy just obedience could revolt. and from the impure Far separate. and shall soon. and can put on Thy terrours. Scepter and power. My exaltation. Whereon a sapphire throne. thy giving. O Father. O Supreme of heavenly Thrones. and I in thee For ever. in me well pleased. Dawning through Heaven.

Under their Head imbodied all in one. so have ye done. This saw his hapless foes. And to rebellious fight rallied their Powers. Grieving to see his glory.He. or to fall In universal ruin last. they heard his voice. circumfused on either wing. and bickering flame. when the great Son of God To all his host on either hand thus spake. Nor multitude. and of God Accepted. Under whose conduct Michael soon reduced His army. in sapphire throned. here stand. And from about him fierce effusion rolled Of smoke. and went Obsequious. or whose he sole appoints: Number to this day's work is not ordained. Vengeance is his. at the sight Took envy. When the great ensign of Messiah blazed Aloft by Angels borne. and behold 105 . Before him Power Divine his way prepared. Or wonders move the obdurate to relent? They. And twenty thousand (I their number heard) Chariots of God. And with fresh flowerets hill and valley smiled. hardened more by what might most reclaim. At his command the uprooted hills retired Each to his place. his sign in Heaven. Stood re-embattled fierce. by force or fraud Weening to prosper. work divinely wrought. half on each hand. Insensate. He on the wings of Cherub rode sublime On the crystalline sky. In heavenly Spirits could such perverseness dwell? But to convince the proud what signs avail. fearless in his righteous cause. and at length prevail Against God and Messiah. Stand still in bright array. but by his own First seen: Them unexpected joy surprised. Invincibly: But of this cursed crew The punishment to other hand belongs. aspiring to his highth. and. Ye Angels armed. this day from battle rest: Faithful hath been your warfare. And as ye have received. and sparkles dire: Attended with ten thousand thousand Saints. and now To final battle drew. Ascended. beside him hung his bow And quiver with three-bolted thunder stored. were seen. Or faint retreat. at his right hand Victory Sat eagle-winged. He onward came. Heaven his wonted face renewed. in celestial panoply all armed Of radiant Urim. far off his coming shone. Illustrious far and wide. ye Saints. hope conceiving from despair. stand only. but stood obdured. disdaining flight.

fallen. to whom in Heaven s'preme Kingdom. That wished the mountains now might be again Thrown on them. as with the sound Of torrent floods. astonished. and from the living wheels Distinct alike with multitude of eyes. Exhausted. but root them out of Heaven: The overthrown he raised. and into terrour changed His countenance too severe to be beheld. He on his impious foes right onward drove. nor care who them excels. or of a numerous host. pursued With terrours. according to his will. Hath honoured me. for he meant Not to destroy. all resistance lost. Because the Father. such as in their souls infixed Plagues: They. which he sent Before him. All courage. of other excellence Not emulous. Yet envied. and helmed heads he rode Of Thrones and mighty Seraphim prostrate. and power. and glory appertains. Therefore to me their doom he hath assigned. that withered all their strength. So spake the Son. not you. Nor other strife with them do I vouchsafe. they all. against me is all their rage. as a shelter from his ire. And full of wrath bent on his enemies. down their idle weapons dropt: O'er shields. opening wide. but checked His thunder in mid volley. to try with me In battle which the stronger proves. but me. from the fourfold-visaged Four Distinct with eyes. Or I alone against them. and helms. Gloomy as night. which. and as a herd Of goats or timorous flock together thronged Drove them before him thunder-struck. in his right hand Grasping ten thousand thunders. and a spacious gap disclosed 106 . spiritless.God's indignation on these godless poured By me. since by strength They measure all. Full soon Among them he arrived. and the orbs Of his fierce chariot rolled. and every eye Glared lightning. they have despised. afflicted. and with furies. One Spirit in them ruled. to the bounds And crystal wall of Heaven. And of their wonted vigour left them drained. under his burning wheels The stedfast empyrean shook throughout. At once the Four spread out their starry wings With dreadful shade contiguous. All but the throne itself of God. That they may have their wish. Yet half his strength he put not forth. Rolled inward. Nor less on either side tempestuous fell His arrows. and shot forth pernicious fire Among the accursed.

and him sung victorious King. remember. Hell. firm they might have stood. the house of woe and pain. and fear to transgress. to him dominion given. But listen not to his temptations. and soon repaired Her mural breach. with him Bereaved of happiness. and too fast had bound. Thus. thou mayest partake His punishment. each Order bright. By terrible example. celebrated. as they went. but far worse Urged them behind: Headlong themselves they threw Down from the verge of Heaven. Sole victor. With jubilee advanced. Shaded with branching palm. and war in Heaven Among the angelick Powers. from the expulsion of his foes. who silent stood Eye-witnesses of his almighty acts. and. Thee once to gain companion of his woe. Hell heard the unsufferable noise. Hell saw Heaven ruining from Heaven. so huge a rout Incumbered him with ruin: Hell at last Yawning received them whole. Disburdened Heaven rejoiced. Sung triumph. The discord which befel. Nine days they fell: Confounded Chaos roared. At thy request. measuring things in Heaven by things on Earth. Son. and on them closed. Heir. who rebelled With Satan. that. Which would be all his solace and revenge. eternal misery. and the deep fall Of those too high aspiring. 107 . Worthiest to reign: He. to thee I have revealed What might have else to human race been hid. Yet fell. Who now is plotting how he may seduce Thee also from obedience. rode Triumphant through mid Heaven. Messiah his triumphal chariot turned: To meet him all his Saints. their fit habitation. Where now he sits at the right hand of bliss. and would have fled Affrighted. As a despite done against the Most High. but strict Fate had cast too deep Her dark foundations. returning whence it rolled. and that thou mayest beware By what is past. eternal wrath Burnt after them to the bottomless pit. warn Thy weaker. into the courts And temple of his Mighty Father throned On high.Into the wasteful deep: The monstrous sight Struck them with horrour backward. who into glory him received. he who envies now thy state. let it profit thee to have heard. fraught with fire Unquenchable. And felt tenfold confusion in their fall Through his wild anarchy. and Lord. the reward Of disobedience.

to beware Apostasy. Urania. And solitude. More safe I sing with mortal voice.) Dismounted. unchanged To hoarse or mute. or when morn Purples the east: still govern thou my song. The affable Arch-Angel. till the savage clamour drowned Both harp and voice. and slight that sole command. the race Of that wild rout that tore the Thracian bard In Rhodope. on the Aleian field I fall. Charged not to touch the interdicted tree. Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse. whose voice divine Following. but. Wisdom thy sister. not the name. Erroneous there to wander. lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race. So fail not thou. by what befel in Heaven To those apostates. and with her didst play In presence of the Almighty Father. had forewarned Adam. Standing on earth. Up led by thee Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed. not rapt above the pole. An earthly guest. while thou Visitest my slumbers nightly. On evil days though fallen. Goddess. though few. who thee implores: For thou art heavenly. though fallen on evil days. nor on the top Of old Olympus dwellest. or fountain flowed. and fit audience find. and drawn empyreal air. and with dangers compassed round. (as once Bellerophon. Say. So easily obeyed amid the choice 108 . nor could the Muse defend Her son. though from a lower clime.Book VII Descend from Heaven. and evil tongues. Thy tempering: with like safety guided down Return me to my native element: Lest from this flying steed unreined. by that name If rightly thou art called. above the Olympian hill I soar. Urania. pleased With thy celestial song. But drive far off the barbarous dissonance Of Bacchus and his revellers. where woods and rocks had ears To rapture. In darkness. Above the flight of Pegasean wing! The meaning. yet not alone. and forlorn. If they transgress. by dire example. heavenly-born. I call: for thou Nor of the Muses nine. she an empty dream. but narrower bound Within the visible diurnal sphere. Before the hills appeared. Half yet remains unsung. what ensued when Raphael.

to forewarn Us timely of what might else have been our loss. He. with moving fires adorned Innumerable. Whose liquid murmur heard new thirst excites. as one whose drouth Yet scarce allayed still eyes the current stream. with desire to know What nearer might concern him. 109 . With such confusion: but the evil. for our instruction. and full of wonder in our ears. and the work begun. For which to the infinitely Good we owe Immortal thanks. Divine interpreter! by favour sent Down from the empyrean. for what cause. and whereof created. the ambient air wide interfused Embracing round this floried Earth. Deign to descend now lower. in his holy rest Through all eternity. redounded as a flood on those From whom it sprung. and this which yields or fills All space. things. Proceeded thus to ask his heavenly guest. which human knowledge could not reach. to impart Things above earthly thought. with his consorted Eve. the more we know. which yet concerned Our knowing. to their thought So unimaginable. Whence Adam soon repealed The doubts that in his heart arose: and now Led on. what cause Moved the Creator. And the great light of day yet wants to run Much of his race though steep. Though wandering. yet sinless. so late to build In Chaos. The story heard attentive. how this world Of Heaven and Earth conspicuous first began. the end Of what we are. How first began this Heaven which we behold Distant so high. was done Before his memory. Unknown. not to explore the secrets ask Of his eternal empire. if unforbid thou mayest unfold What we. to hear Of things so high and strange. with solemn purpose to observe Immutably his sovran will. or without. but the more To magnify his works. how soon Absolved. as hate in Heaven. thou hast revealed. When. impossible to mix With blessedness. and his admonishment Receive. And war so near the peace of God in bliss. Far differing from this world. as to highest wisdom seemed. and was filled With admiration and deep muse. What within Eden. soon Driven back.Of all tastes else to please their appetite. suspense in Heaven. Great things. But since thou hast vouchsafed Gently. and relate What may no less perhaps avail us known.

as nourishment to wind. brighter once amidst the host Of Angels. shall not be withheld Thy hearing. And longer will delay to hear thee tell His generation. hath suppressed in night. Obtain. and to his Son thus spake. listening to thee. Or we can bid his absence. which the invisible King. and the great Son returned Victorious with his Saints. such commission from above I have received.) Fell with his flaming legions through the deep Into his place. Thus Adam his illustrious guest besought: And thus the Godlike Angel answered mild. after Lucifer from Heaven (So call him. will watch. Know then. This also thy request. the seat Of Deity supreme. thy potent voice. than that star the stars among. beyond. At least our envious Foe hath failed. to answer thy desire Of knowledge within bounds. though to recount almighty works What words or tongue of Seraph can suffice. Their station. and needs no less Her temperance over appetite. with caution asked. and this high temple to frequent With ministeries due. us dispossessed. and solemn rites: But. and soon turns Wisdom to folly. I see. by whose aid This inaccessible high strength. and infer Thee also happier. retains Number sufficient to possess her realms Though wide. But knowledge is as food. Or heart of man suffice to comprehend? Yet what thou canst attain. nor let thine own inventions hope Things not revealed. To none communicable in Earth or Heaven: Enough is left besides to search and know. Heaven. and Sleep. He trusted to have seised. and the rising birth Of Nature from the unapparent Deep: Or if the star of evening and the moon Haste to thy audience. that. and into fraud Drew many. he hears. Only Omniscient. till thy song End. which best may serve To glorify the Maker.Held by thy voice. lest his heart exalt him in the harm 110 . yet populous. Night with her will bring. and dismiss thee ere the morning shine. to know In measure what the mind may well contain. Silence. whom their place knows here no more: Yet far the greater part have kept. abstain To ask. the Omnipotent Eternal Father from his throne beheld Their multitude. who thought All like himself rebellious. Oppresses else with surfeit.

When such was heard declared the Almighty's will. to have dispeopled Heaven. One kingdom. more swift Than time or motion. sapience and love Immense. nor vacuous the space. and in a moment will create Another world. by thee This I perform. Mean while inhabit lax. and chariots winged From the armoury of God. I can repair That detriment. which is free To act or not. a better race to bring Into their vacant room. gave effect. winged Spirits. whose just avenging ire Had driven out the ungodly from his sight And the habitations of the just. and Seraph.Already done. and in their dwellings peace. there to dwell. between two brazen mountains lodged 111 . and what I will is Fate. Immediate are the acts of God. to Him Glory and praise. And put not forth my goodness. They open to themselves at length the way Up hither. till. ride forth. because I Am who fill Infinitude. instead Of Spirits malign. joy and union without end. And Earth be changed to Heaven. and be it done! My overshadowing Spirit and Might with thee I send along. and bid the Deep Within appointed bounds be Heaven and Earth. Necessity and Chance Approach not me. Potentates. And Virtues. good will To future men. and Thrones. And thou my Word. retire. uncircumscribed myself. the Filial Godhead. Though I. but to human ears Cannot without process of speech be told. out of one man a race Of men innumerable. ye Powers of Heaven. speak thou. where stand of old Myriads. whose wisdom had ordained Good out of evil to create. So sang the Hierarchies: Mean while the Son On his great expedition now appeared. Not here. About his chariot numberless were poured Cherub. and to what he spake His Word. and thence diffuse His good to worlds and ages infinite. Great triumph and rejoicing was in Heaven. under long obedience tried. So told as earthly notion can receive. begotten Son. My damage fondly deemed. Boundless the Deep. Girt with Omnipotence. and all his Father in him shone. Glory to Him. by degrees of merit raised. with radiance crowned Of Majesty Divine. Glory they sung to the Most High. and Heaven to Earth. So spake the Almighty. if such it be to lose Self-lost.

Celestial equipage. quintessence pure. to let forth The King of Glory. God saw the light was good. on the wings of Cherubim Uplifted. for yet the sun Was not. and between spun out the air. and all created things: One foot he centered. the rest to several place Disparted. and the wonders of his might. peace. wild. And light from darkness by the hemisphere Divided: light the Day. dark. but. to behold Creation. Thus was the first day even and morn: 112 . This be thy just circumference. Matter unformed and void: Darkness profound Covered the abyss: but on the watery calm His brooding wings the Spirit of God outspread. prepared In God's eternal store. and thou Deep. and with the center mix the pole. For Chaos heard his voice: Him all his train Followed in bright procession. coming to create new worlds. for within them Spirit lived. said God. Then staid the fervid wheels. she in a cloudy tabernacle Sojourned the while. Sprung from the deep. to assault Heaven's highth. harnessed at hand. in his powerful Word And Spirit. as mountains. wasteful. thus far thy bounds. but downward purged The black tartareous cold infernal dregs. Silence. then conglobed Like things to like. and the world unborn. He named. Said then the Omnifick Word. in paternal glory rode Far into Chaos. harmonious sound On golden hinges moving. thus the Earth. And vital virtue infused. Sphered in a radiant cloud. On heavenly ground they stood. and in his hand He took the golden compasses. Up from the bottom turned by furious winds And surging waves. to circumscribe This universe. O World! Thus God the Heaven created. Let there be light. and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure. And Earth self-balanced on her center hung. and forthwith Light Ethereal.Against a solemn day. and from the shore They viewed the vast immeasurable abyss Outrageous as a sea. and from her native east To journey through the aery gloom began. first of things. and now came forth Spontaneous. and darkness Night. and vital warmth Throughout the fluid mass. Adverse to life: then founded. Thus far extend. And said. Attendant on their Lord: Heaven opened wide Her ever-during gates. your discord end! Nor staid. ye troubled Waves.

Again. not idle. such flight the great command impressed On the swift floods: As armies at the call Of trumpet (for of armies thou hast heard) Troop to their standard. Be gathered now ye waters under Heaven Into one place. so he the world Built on circumfluous waters calm. so low Down sunk a hollow bottom broad and deep. but. with joy and shout The hollow universal orb they filled. diffused In circuit to the uttermost convex Of this great round. For haste. And touched their golden harps. when orient light Exhaling first from darkness they beheld. 113 . nor withstood them rock or hill. and let dry land appear. and hymning praised God and his works. Transparent. their tops ascend the sky: So high as heaved the tumid hills. where way they found. God said. found their way. If steep. Fermented the great mother to conceive. when God said. The waters underneath from those above Dividing: for as earth. elemental air. or ridge direct. and let it divide The waters from the waters. Immediately the mountains huge appear Emergent. in wide Crystalline ocean. But they. Satiate with genial moisture. but in the womb as yet Of waters. The Earth was formed. embryon immature involved. if through plain. so the watery throng. partition firm and sure. Soft-ebbing. Birth-day of Heaven and Earth. And on the washy oose deep channels wore. Both when first evening was. uprolled. and when first morn. Capacious bed of waters: Thither they Hasted with glad precipitance. As drops on dust conglobing from the dry: Part rise in crystal wall. and God made The firmament. Creator him they sung. and their broad bare backs upheave Into the clouds. Appeared not: over all the face of Earth Main ocean flowed. with torrent rapture. or circuit wide With serpent errour wandering. expanse of liquid. pure.Nor past uncelebrated. or under ground. with warm Prolifick humour softening all her globe. nor unsung By the celestial quires. Wave rolling after wave. lest fierce extremes Contiguous might distemper the whole frame: And Heaven he named the Firmament: So even And morning chorus sung the second day. Let there be firmament Amid the waters. and the loud misrule Of Chaos far removed.

and made the stars. The dry land. when the bare Earth. herb yielding seed. before it grew On the green stem: God saw that it was good: So even and morn recorded the third day. these scarce blown. unadorned. that sudden flowered Opening their various colours. smelling sweet: and. God made. as in dance. ere God had bid the ground be dry. Whose seed is in herself upon the Earth. and the great receptacle Of congregated waters. Or wander with delight. as I ordain Their office in the firmament of Heaven. altern. To give light on the Earth. Let the Earth Put forth the verdant grass. and the humble shrub. till then Desart and bare. to divide The day from night. the greater to have rule by day. He scarce had said. and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit. and it was so. And set them in the firmament of Heaven To illuminate the Earth. God saw. And let them be for lights.Easy. And God made two great lights. a seat where Gods might dwell. And light from darkness to divide. and each Plant of the field. and love to haunt Her sacred shades: though God had yet not rained Upon the Earth. which. and man to till the ground None was. forth crept The swelling gourd. Forth flourished thick the clustering vine. Then herbs of every leaf. where rivers now Stream. he called Seas: And saw that it was good. and each fountain side. ere it was in the Earth. and made gay Her bosom. or gemmed Their blossoms: With high woods the hills were crowned. and perpetual draw their humid train. and said. And bush with frizzled hair implicit: Last Rose. and every herb. up stood the corny reed Embattled in her field. With borders long the rivers: that Earth now Seemed like to Heaven. and let them be for signs. And fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind. unsightly. whose verdure clad Her universal face with pleasant green. Let there be lights High in the expanse of Heaven. and watered all the ground. that it was good: For of celestial bodies first the sun 114 . Brought forth the tender grass. and rule the night. the stately trees. The less by night. but from the Earth a dewy mist Went up. and for days. Earth. For seasons. Surveying his great work. and circling years. and rule the day In their vicissitude. All but within those banks. Again the Almighty spake. With tufts the valleys. great for their use To Man.

jocund to run His longitude through Heaven's high road. and in the seas. and shining scales. And lakes. His mirrour. for other light she needed none In that aspect. By tincture or reflection they augment Their small peculiar. in their golden urns draw light. firm to retain Her gathered beams. Revolved on Heaven's great axle. living soul: And let fowl fly above the Earth. unlightsome first. First in his east the glorious lamp was seen. With thousand thousand stars. and each Soul living. then in the east her turn she shines. and her reign With thousand lesser lights dividual holds. Though of ethereal mould: then formed the moon Globose. But opposite in levelled west was set. with wings Displayed on the open firmament of Heaven. multiply. that then appeared Spangling the hemisphere: Then first adorned With their bright luminaries that set and rose. and through groves Of coral stray. and still that distance keeps Till night. Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day. Be fruitful. And God created the great whales. and the Pleiades. Forthwith the sounds and seas. sporting with quick glance. and all the horizon round Invested with bright rays. the gray Dawn. made porous to receive And drink the liquid light. as to their fountain. And God said. And saw that it was good. saying. Graze the sea-weed their pasture. the waters fill. each creek and bay. Glide under the green wave. with diminution seen. each that crept.A mighty sphere he framed. other stars Repairing. Hither. or with mate. great palace now of light. thick as a field: Of light by far the greater part he took. And sowed with stars the Heaven. with full face borrowing her light From him. and placed In the sun's orb. or. which plenteously The waters generated by their kinds. Transplanted from her cloudy shrine. and blessed them. and shoals Of fish that with their fins. Let the waters generate Reptile with spawn abundant. on the Earth. before him danced. With fry innumerable swarm. and every magnitude of stars. And every bird of wing after his kind. 115 . And let the fowl be multiplied. Regent of day. And hence the morning-planet gilds her horns. though from human sight So far remote. in sculls that oft Bank the mid sea: part single. and running streams. Shedding sweet influence: Less bright the moon.

enormous in their gait. Hugest of living creatures. with mutual wing Easing their flight. tower The mid aereal sky: Others on ground Walked firm. and creeping things. The sixth. nor then the solemn nightingale Ceased warbling. and fens. but feathered soon and fledge They summed their pens. Cattle. the air Floats as they pass. Each in their kind. and spread their painted wings Till even. Their brood as numerous hatch. and the other whose gay train Adorns him. a sea. and at his trunk spouts out. there the eagle and the stork On cliffs and cedar tops their eyries build: Part loosely wing the region. and over lands. under a cloud In prospect. bathed Their downy breast. Evening and morn solemnized the fifth day. perfect forms. rising on stiff pennons. in their pearly shells at ease. or under rocks their food In jointed armour watch: on smooth the seal And bended dolphins play: part huge of bulk Wallowing unwieldy. coloured with the florid hue Of rainbows and starry eyes. borne on winds. The waters thus With fish replenished. when God said. Limbed and full grown: Out of the ground up rose. ranged in figure. yet oft they quit The dank. part more wise In common. The Earth obeyed. and straight Opening her fertile womb teemed at a birth Innumerous living creatures. and set forth Their aery caravan. wedge their way. and at his gills Draws in. the swan with arched neck. so steers the prudent crane Her annual voyage. Or. fanned with unnumbered plumes: From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Solaced the woods. on the deep Stretched like a promontory sleeps or swims. Mean while the tepid caves. Let the Earth bring forth soul living in her kind. the crested cock whose clarion sounds The silent hours. 116 . Between her white wings mantling proudly. and. and. on silver lakes and rivers. from the egg that soon Bursting with kindly rupture forth disclosed Their callow young. and shores. and of creation last. and beast of the Earth. rows Her state with oary feet. soaring the air sublime. Tempest the ocean: there leviathan. but all night tun'd her soft lays: Others. arose With evening harps and matin. high over seas Flying. and the air with fowl. Intelligent of seasons. With clang despised the ground. attend Moist nutriment.Show to the sun their waved coats dropt with gold. And seems a moving land.

Insect or worm: those waved their limber fans For wings. and smallest lineaments exact In all the liveries decked of summer's pride With spots of gold and purple. Streaking the ground with sinuous trace. was flown. the wild beast where he wons In forest wild. and of the sixth day yet remained: There wanted yet the master-work. joined in her popular tribes Of commonalty: Swarming next appeared The female bee. the end Of all yet done. beast. And rampant shakes his brinded mane. their long dimension drew. but obedient at thy call. Pattern of just equality perhaps Hereafter. was walked.As from his lair. Among the trees in pairs they rose. nor unknown The serpent. brake. but endued 117 . was swum. By fowl. that feeds her husband drone Deliciously. then springs as broke from bonds. with brazen eyes And hairy mane terrifick. a creature. At once came forth whatever creeps the ground. And thou their natures knowest. Needless to thee repeated. in thicket. and scaly crocodile. Of huge extent sometimes. as a line. or den. in small room large heart enclosed. as the great first Mover's hand First wheeled their course: Earth in her rich attire Consummate lovely smiled. now half appeared The tawny lion. The grassy clods now calved. air. Now Heaven in all her glory shone. First crept The parsimonious emmet. and the tiger. subtlest beast of all the field. as the mole Rising. Wonderous in length and corpulence. earth. and gavest them names. provident Of future. Frequent. As plants: Ambiguous between sea and land The river-horse. fish. the ounce. and in broad herds upsprung. though to thee Not noxious. some of serpent-kind. and added wings. involved Their snaky folds. these in flocks Pasturing at once. pawing to get free His hinder parts. the crumbled earth above them threw In hillocks: The swift stag from under ground Bore up his branching head: Scarce from his mould Behemoth biggest born of earth upheaved His vastness: Fleeced the flocks and bleating rose. and builds her waxen cells With honey stored: The rest are numberless. The libbard. water. and rolled Her motions. azure and green: These. who. they walked: The cattle in the fields and meadows green: Those rare and solitary. not prone And brute as other creatures. not all Minims of nature.

This garden. self-knowing. in his own image he Created thee. And every living thing that moves on the Earth. Death is the penalty imposed. his high abode. Up to the Heaven of Heavens. Thou mayest not. lest Sin Surprise thee. This said. planted with the trees of God. Variety without end. thither with heart. The addition of his empire.With sanctity of reason. Man In our similitude. O Man. and eyes Directed in devotion. then blessed mankind. Here finished he. thou diest. But grateful to acknowledge whence his good Descends. Wherever thus created. tasted. multiply. Adam. and upright with front serene Govern the rest. works knowledge of good and evil. Up he rode Followed with acclamation. Which. who made him chief Of all his works: therefore the Omnipotent Eternal Father (for where is not he Present?) thus to his Son audibly spake. thence. and fill the Earth. in the day thou eatest. and behold all was entirely good. Dust of the ground. in the image of God Express. and said. and fowl of the air. might erect His stature. And every creeping thing that creeps the ground. and throughout dominion hold Over fish of the sea. how good. And govern well thy appetite. he formed thee. up returned. as thou knowest. Delectable both to behold and taste. So even and morn accomplished the sixth day: Yet not till the Creator from his work Desisting. and the sound 118 . but thy consort Female. for no place Is yet distinct by name. thee. Beast of the field. Answering his great idea. and all that he had made Viewed. and let them rule Over the fish and fowl of sea and air. to adore And worship God Supreme. Male he created thee. and from thence Magnanimous to correspond with Heaven. He brought thee into this delicious grove. though unwearied. Let us make now Man in our image. Thence to behold this new created world. but of the tree. and her black attendant Death. and voice. all sorts are here that all the Earth yields. how it showed In prospect from his throne. and in thy nostrils breathed The breath of life. for race. Be fruitful. and thou becamest a living soul. how fair. and over all the Earth. Subdue it. And freely all their pleasant fruit for food Gave thee. beware.

While the bright pomp ascended jubilant. hid the mount. all organs of sweet stop. That opened wide her blazing portals. whose dust is gold And pavement stars. as stars to thee appear. from work Now resting. Creation and the six days acts they sung: Great are thy works. or tongue Relate thee! Greater now in thy return Than from the giant Angels: Thee that day Thy thunders magnified. (thou rememberest. Who can impair thee. for he also went Invisible. Author and End of all things. but to create Is greater than created to destroy. intermixed with voice Choral or unison: of incense clouds. Mighty King. Jehovah! infinite Thy power! what thought can measure thee. a World. Open. for God will deign To visit oft the dwellings of just men. A broad and ample road. Forerunning night. Which nightly. ye everlasting gates! they sung. blessed and hallowed the seventh day. Open. for the sun Was set. and sat him down With his great Father. Open. the solemn pipe. when at the holy mount Of Heaven's high-seated top. Tempered soft tunings. (such privilege Hath Omnipresence) and the work ordained. thou seest Powdered with stars. yet staid. and twilight from the east came on. led To God's eternal house direct the way. But not in silence holy kept: the harp Had work and rested not.) The heavens and all the constellations rung. the imperial throne Of Godhead. As resting on that day from all his work. So sung The glorious train ascending: He through Heaven. and. for thou heardst. the air Resounded. as a circling zone. ye Heavens! your living doors. The Filial Power arrived. and with frequent intercourse Thither will send his winged messengers On errands of supernal grace. The planets in their station listening stood. And dulcimer. his six days work. and henceforth oft.let in The great Creator from his work returned Magnificent. All sounds on fret by string or golden wire. or bound Thy empire! Easily the proud attempt 119 . Delighted. And now on Earth the seventh Evening arose in Eden.Symphonious of ten thousand harps. Fuming from golden censers. fixed for ever firm and sure. Seen in the galaxy. that tuned Angelick harmonies: The earth. that milky way.

and the empyrean rung With halleluiahs: Thus was sabbath kept. and persevere upright! So sung they. Then. whom God hath thus advanced! Created in his image. say. and. divine Historian. with stars Numerous. that posterity. and every star perhaps a world Of destined habitation. that he a while Thought him still speaking. that asked How first this world and face of things began. thus gratefully replied. this world. When I behold this goodly frame. Their pleasant dwelling-place. who thus largely hast allayed The thirst I had of knowledge. What thanks sufficient. Of Heaven and Earth consisting. founded in view On the clear hyaline. while impiously they thought Thee to diminish. and compute 120 . With glory attributed to the high Creator! Something yet of doubt remains. another Heaven From Heaven-gate not far. on earth. Thou hast repelled. and in Adam's ear So charming left his voice. might know: If else thou seekest Aught. there to dwell And worship him.Of Spirits apostate. Book VIII The Angel ended. but delight. as new waked. Of amplitude almost immense. And thy request think now fulfilled. or air. Witness this new-made world. if they know Their happiness. now heard With wonder. Who seeks To lessen thee. and in reward to rule Over his works. Informed by thee. with her nether ocean circumfused. in sea. else by me unsearchable. but thou knowest Their seasons: among these the seat of Men. still stood fixed to hear. as is due. Earth. and from thee withdraw The number of thy worshippers. And what before thy memory was done From the beginning. against his purpose serves To manifest the more thy might: his evil Thou usest. And sons of Men. not surpassing human measure. Which only thy solution can resolve. and vouchsafed This friendly condescension to relate Things. and their counsels vain. or what recompence Equal. And multiply a race of worshippers Holy and just: Thrice happy. have I to render thee. and from thence createst more good. Thrice happy Men. the glassy sea.

touched by her fair tendance. Rose. Greater so manifold. for on her. And Raphael now. in all her vast survey Useless besides. bud and bloom. her warmth and light. Yet went she not. For aught appears. That better might with far less compass move. A pomp of winning Graces waited still. To visit how they prospered. a spot. such a sumless journey brought Of incorporeal speed. she knew. and solve high dispute With conjugal caresses: from his lip Not words alone pleased her. to Adam's doubt proposed. as not with such discourse Delighted. and receives. for Heaven Is as the book of God before thee set. Not unattended. With lowliness majestick from her seat. Speed. Benevolent and facile thus replied. to this one use. a grain. this punctual spot.) merely to officiate light Round this opacous Earth. To ask or search. reasoning I oft admire. And. she sole auditress. with the firmament compared And all her numbered stars. where she sat retired in sight. One day and night. he. I blame thee not. Adam relating. with superfluous hand So many nobler bodies to create. that seem to roll Spaces incomprehensible. Her husband the relater she preferred Before the Angel. and went forth among her fruits and flowers.Their magnitudes. So spake our sire. while the sedentary Earth. as Queen. And from about her shot darts of desire Into all eyes. which Eve Perceiving. attains Her end without least motion. to describe whose swiftness number fails. How Nature wise and frugal could commit Such disproportions. (for such Their distance argues. and on their orbs impose Such restless revolution day by day Repeated. would intermix Grateful digressions. Her nursery. gladlier grew. and their swift return Diurnal. in love and mutual honour joined? With Goddess-like demeanour forth she went. O! when meet now Such pairs. they at her coming sprung. As tribute. An atom. to wish her still in sight. or not capable her ear Of what was high: such pleasure she reserved. And grace that won who saw to wish her stay. and by his countenance seemed Entering on studious thoughts abstruse. this Earth. Served by more noble than herself. 121 . and of him to ask Chose rather.

His beams. whether Heaven move or Earth. that great Or bright infers not excellence: the Earth Though. And for the Heaven's wide circuit. perhaps to move His laughter at their quaint opinions wide Hereafter. though so it seem To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth. Imports not. Who art to lead thy offspring. That to corporeal substances could add Speed almost spiritual: Me thou thinkest not slow. but to thee.Wherein to read his wonderous works. or years: This to attain. to show Invalid that which thee to doubt it moved. Lodged in a small partition. who built So spacious. or. or days. when she alone receives The benefit: Consider first. or months. orb in orb: Already by thy reasoning this I guess. contrive To save appearances. unbuild. That Man may know he dwells not in his own. Who since the morning-hour set out from Heaven Where God resides. But in the fruitful Earth. Earth sitting still. But this I urge. there first received. Nor glistering. unactive else. if they list to try Conjecture. An edifice too large for him to fill. Admitting motion in the Heavens. 122 . how build. he his fabrick of the Heavens Hath left to their disputes. nor Heaven such journeys run. how gird the sphere With centrick and eccentrick scribbled o'er. and his line stretched out so far. Earth's habitant. their vigour find. and learn His seasons. how they will wield The mighty frame. and ere mid-day arrived In Eden. let it speak The Maker's high magnificence. hours. Not that I so affirm. in comparison of Heaven. to his Omnipotence. and not divulge His secrets to be scanned by them who ought Rather admire. Yet not to Earth are those bright luminaries Officious. and the rest Ordained for uses to his Lord best known. Though numberless. may of solid good contain More plenty than the sun that barren shines. Cycle and epicycle. The swiftness of those circles attribute. distance inexpressible By numbers that have name. and supposest That bodies bright and greater should not serve The less not bright. so small. the rest From Man or Angel the great Architect Did wisely to conceal. Whose virtue on itself works no effect. when they come to model Heaven And calculate the stars. if thou reckon right.

God. and rain produce Fruits in her softened soil for some to eat Allotted there. If earth. conveyed so far Down to this habitable. Only to shine. and fear! Of other creatures. is obvious to dispute. desart and desolate. and clouds may rain. Which two great sexes animate the world. her other part Still luminous by his ray. Or save the sun his labour. or standing still. yet scarce to contribute Each orb a glimpse of light. might err in things too high. Or she from west her silent course advance. Fields and inhabitants: Her spots thou seest As clouds. industrious of herself. the wheel Of day and night. and that swift Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb supposed. In six thou seest. And bears thee soft with the smooth hair along. Stored in each orb perhaps with some that live. Enlightening her by day. and other suns perhaps. Leave them to God above. For such vast room in Nature unpossessed By living soul. Insensibly three different motions move? Which else to several spheres thou must ascribe. Moved contrary with thwart obliquities. With their attendant moons. or whether not. What if that light. If it presume. Communicating male and female light. Sollicit not thy thoughts with matters hid. predominant in Heaven. as she by night This earth? reciprocal. To the terrestrial moon be as a star. And no advantage gain. With inoffensive pace that spinning sleeps On her soft axle. which returns Light back to them. But whether the sun. But whether thus these things. Placed Heaven from Earth so far. that earthly sight. He from the east his flaming road begin. Rise on the earth. to remove his ways from human sense. while she paces even. 123 . which needs not thy belief. and other stars. thou wilt descry. Progressive. now low. and with her part averse From the sun's beam meet night. What if the sun Be center to the world. him serve. so stedfast though she seem. fetch day Travelling east. Sent from her through the wide transpicuous air. and what if seventh to these The planet earth. Invisible else above all stars. dance about him various rounds? Their wandering course now high. as him pleases best. By his attractive virtue and their own Incited. retrograde. or earth rise on the sun. then hid. if land be there.

How fully hast thou satisfied me. Or emptiness. mention may arise Of something not unseasonable to ask. haply. bring to their sweetness no satiety. till then thou seest How subtly to detain thee I devise. Angel serene! And. what creatures there Live. And sweeter thy discourse is to my ear Than fruits of palm-tree pleasantest to thirst And hunger both. they satiate. To whom thus Adam. but. is fume. she learn. and thy wonted favour. but of highest Heaven. not to know at large of things remote From use. deigned. unprepared. or degree. Though pleasant. unless we ourselves Seek them with wandering thoughts. but thy words. and soon fill. be lowly wise: Think only what concerns thee. Therefore from this high pitch let us descend A lower flight.Wherever placed. cleared of doubt. pure Intelligence of Heaven. and thy being. To whom thus Raphael answered heavenly meek. and speak of things at hand Useful. Contented that thus far hath been revealed Not of Earth only. Fond! were it not in hope of thy reply: For. whence. And not molest us. And day is not yet spent. Till warned. hear me relate My story. Inviting thee to hear while I relate. this Paradise And thy fair Eve. I seem in Heaven. let him dispose. from which God hath bid dwell far off all anxious cares. Nor tongue ineloquent. and of her roving is no end. replied. But apt the mind or fancy is to rove Unchecked. taught to live The easiest way. By sufferance. in what state. That. for God on thee Abundantly his gifts hath also poured 124 . Nor are thy lips ungraceful. Heaven is for thee too high To know what passes there. at the hour Of sweet repast. obscure and subtle. which perhaps thou hast not heard. or by experience taught. to know That which before us lies in daily life. Unpractised. joy thou In what he gives to thee. or fond impertinence: And renders us. Thee I have heard relating what was done Ere my remembrance: now. Is the prime wisdom: What is more. freed from intricacies. and still to seek. nor with perplexing thoughts To interrupt the sweet of life. Dream not of other worlds. from labour. and notions vain. Sire of men. in things that most concern. condition. with grace divine Imbued. while I sit with thee.

and sunny plains. all things smiled. Birds on the branches warbling. each motion. and upright Stood on my feet: about me round I saw Hill. Destruction with creation might have mixed. and inquire Gladly into the ways of God with Man: For God. and set On Man his equal love: Say therefore on. As thitherward endeavouring. or flew. hath honoured thee. 125 . up I sprung. Glad we returned up to the coasts of light Ere sabbath-evening: so we had in charge. Straight toward Heaven my wondering eyes I turned. for who himself beginning knew Desire with thee still longer to converse Induced me. or from what cause. incensed at such eruption bold. In balmy sweat. and shady woods. as Sovran King. and barricadoed strong. while God was in his work. The dismal gates. But thy relation now. Knew not. Squared in full legion (such command we had) To see that none thence issued forth a spy. and to inure Our prompt obedience. and walked. But us he sends upon his high behests For state. fast shut. and forthwith spake. forms. and limb by limb Surveyed. by these. till. Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure. Fast we found. we see. But long ere our approaching heard within Noise. and on the reeking moisture fed. or mute. For I that day was absent. raised By quick instinctive motion. other than the sound of dance or song. Torment. Creatures that lived and moved. So spake the Godlike Power. With fragrance and with joy my heart o'erflowed. his image fair: Speaking. Not that they durst without his leave attempt. Nor less think we in Heaven of thee on Earth Than of our fellow-servant. and thus our Sire. As new waked from soundest sleep.Inward and outward both. Far on excursion toward the gates of Hell. Myself I then perused. all comeliness and grace Attends thee. and sometimes ran With supple joints. Lest he. to speak I tried. which with his beams the sun Soon dried. Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid. or where. as befel. And liquid lapse of murmuring streams. and each word. dale. Or enemy. as lively vigour led: But who I was. And gazed a while the ample sky. and loud lament. for I attend. and sometimes went. and furious rage. Pleased with thy words no less than thou with mine. For Man to tell how human life began Is hard.

In adoration at his feet I fell Submiss: He reared me. tell. though I thought I then was passing to my former state Insensible. as in air Smooth-sliding without step. of men innumerable ordained 'First Father! called by thee. I come thy guide 'To the garden of bliss. And ye that live and move. On a green shady bank. Presence Divine. and bowers. And lived: One came. and with soft oppression seised My droused sense. rise. Ye Hills. Adam. A circuit wide. how may I know him. and found Before mine eyes all real. last led me up A woody mountain. fair light. and forthwith to dissolve: When suddenly stood at my head a dream. and of the fruit to eat: 'Of every tree that in the garden grows 'Eat freely with glad heart. thy seat prepared. and Plains. methought.--by some great Maker then. 'Thy mansion wants thee. Pensive I sat me down: There gentle sleep First found me. And thou enlightened Earth. And said. how here?-Not of myself. Loaden with fairest fruit that hung to the eye Tempting. 'Author of all this thou seest 'Above. whereat I waked.' So saying. that what I saw Of Earth before scarce pleasant seemed. but with awe. and readily could name Whate'er I saw. In goodness and in power pre-eminent: Tell me.-While thus I called. fear here no dearth: 126 . from among the trees appeared. if ye saw. with walks. so fresh and gay. and strayed I knew not whither. untroubled. enclosed. And feel that I am happier than I know. with goodliest trees Planted. ye Rivers. Woods. whose high top was plain. and Dales. Each tree. Rejoicing. how I came thus. said I. how adore. fair Creatures. stirred in me sudden appetite To pluck and eat. 'First Man. And over fields and waters.My tongue obeyed. of shape divine. 'This Paradise I give thee. had not he. who was my guide Up hither. and first beheld This happy light. and 'Whom thou soughtest I am. From whom I have that thus I move and live. or beneath. Tell.' Said mildly. Thou Sun. profuse of flowers. as the dream Had lively shadowed: Here had new begun My wandering. From where I first drew air. answer none returned. when. by the hand he took me raised. Whose inward apparition gently moved My fancy to believe I yet had being. or round about thee. count it thine 'To till and keep.

What callest thou solitude? Is not the Earth With various living creatures. as they passed. And to the heavenly Vision thus presumed. which resounds Yet dreadful in mine ear. and with hands so liberal. Thou hast provided all things: But with me I see not who partakes. 'From that day mortal. shun to taste. each bird stooped on his wing. 'In sign whereof. 127 .' Sternly he pronounced The rigid interdiction. I named them. 'Not only these fair bounds. what contentment find? Thus I presumptuous. 'Not hither summoned. Author of this universe. beast. since they cannot change 'Their element. but soon his clear aspect Returned. and all things that therein live. 'Remember what I warn thee. with such knowledge God endued My sudden apprehension: But in these I found not what methought I wanted still. and understood Their nature. 'Amid the garden by the tree of life. though in my choice Not to incur. each bird and beast behold Approaching two and two. inevitably thou shalt die. O. Or. and this happy state 'Shalt lose. for thou above all these. my sole command 'Transgressed. to draw the thinner air. and the air Replenished. understand the same 'Of fish within their watery residence. Above mankind. Surpassest far my naming. by what name. these cowering low With blandishment. And all this good to man? for whose well being So amply. and all these at thy command To come and play before thee? Knowest thou not Their language and their ways? They also know. and gracious purpose thus renewed.' As thus he spake. thus replied. In solitude What happiness. all enjoying. fish. and the Vision bright. how may I Adore thee. which I have set 'The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith. 'The day thou eatest thereof. and pay thee fealty 'With low subjection. As with a smile more brightened. who can enjoy alone. or air.'But of the tree whose operation brings 'Knowledge of good and ill. each bird and beast behold 'After their kinds. expelled from hence into a world 'Of woe and sorrow. 'Or live in sea. and fowl. or aught than mankind higher. I bring them to receive 'From thee their names. 'And shun the bitter consequence: for know. as lords 'Possess it. but all the Earth 'To thee and to thy race I give.

Let not my words offend thee. How have I then with whom to hold converse. be propitious while I speak. Whereto the Almighty answered. What thinkest thou then of me. thy realm is large. what harmony. and seemed So ordering: I. but soon prove Tedious alike: Of fellowship I speak Such as I seek. or fish with fowl So well converse. his image multiplied. for none I know Second to me or like. And these inferiour far beneath me set? Among unequals what society Can sort. A nice and subtle happiness. the other still remiss. and least of all. and this my state? Seem I to thee sufficiently possessed Of happiness. thus replied. Cannot well suit with either. not displeased. and in thee Is no deficience found: Not so is Man. Heavenly Power. Supreme of things! Thou in thyself art perfect. To attain The highth and depth of thy eternal ways All human thoughts come short. in the choice Of thy associates. I lowly answered. My Maker. in disparity The one intense. Adam! and wilt taste No pleasure. and bear rule. Hast thou not made me here thy substitute.And reason not contemptibly: With these Find pastime. or not? who am alone From all eternity. but. And humble deprecation. Save with the creatures which I made. solitary. So spake the Universal Lord. and beget Like of his like. though One: But Man by number is to manifest His single imperfection. with leave of speech implored. fit to participate All rational delight: wherein the brute Cannot be human consort: They rejoice Each with their kind. already Infinite. Worse then can man with beast. in proportion due Given and received. or true delight? Which must be mutual. infinite descents Beneath what other creatures are to thee? He ceased. nor with the ox the ape. Thou to thyself proposest. But in degree. No need that thou Shouldst propagate. And through all numbers absolute. the cause of his desire By conversation with his like to help Or solace his defects. So fitly them in pairs thou hast combined: Much less can bird with beast. and those To me inferiour. 128 . though in pleasure. equal much less. I see. lion with lioness.

so lovely fair. or I heard no more. but different sex. Thou in thy secresy although alone. He ended. and acceptance found. unfelt before. Which it had long stood under. yet. but of thyself. and sought repair Of sleep. My image. Knew it not good for Man to be alone. deified: I. And be so minded still: I. And life-blood streaming fresh. for now My earthly by his heavenly overpowered. cannot these erect From prone. by conversing. Best with thyself accompanied. Canst raise thy creature to what highth thou wilt Of union or communion. and saw the shape Still glorious before whom awake I stood: Who stooping opened my left side. and took From thence a rib. methought I saw. Whose fellowship therefore unmeet for thee Good reason was thou freely shouldst dislike. for trial only brought. which instantly fell on me. Man-like. and dearest amity. Under his forming hands a creature grew. Thus far to try thee. called By Nature as in aid. be assured. Though sleeping. and freedom used Permissive. seemed now Mean. 129 . so pleased. in her contained And in her looks. thy other self. As with an object that excels the sense Dazzled and spent.In unity defective. my internal sight. But suddenly with flesh filled up and healed: The rib he formed and fashioned with his hands. not imparted to the brute. which requires Collateral love. where I lay. by which. And find thee knowing. seekest not Social communication. strained to the highth In that celestial colloquy sublime. or in her summed up. To see how thou couldest judge of fit and meet: What next I bring shall please thee. Abstract as in a trance. Which thou hast rightly named. Thy likeness. which from that time infused Sweetness into my heart. Thus I emboldened spake. Adam. sunk down. with cordial spirits warm. Expressing well the spirit within thee free. thy fit help. and closed mine eyes. wide was the wound. but open left the cell Of fancy. nor in their ways complacence find. And no such company as then thou sawest Intended thee. Thy wish exactly to thy heart's desire. ere thou spakest. Mine eyes he closed. I was pleased. not of beasts alone. That what seemed fair in all the world. which gained This answer from the gracious Voice Divine.

And into all things from her air inspired The spirit of love and amorous delight. She disappeared, and left me dark; I waked To find her, or for ever to deplore Her loss, and other pleasures all abjure: When out of hope, behold her, not far off, Such as I saw her in my dream, adorned With what all Earth or Heaven could bestow To make her amiable: On she came, Led by her heavenly Maker, though unseen, And guided by his voice; nor uninformed Of nuptial sanctity, and marriage rites: Grace was in all her steps, Heaven in her eye, In every gesture dignity and love. I, overjoyed, could not forbear aloud. This turn hath made amends; thou hast fulfilled Thy words, Creator bounteous and benign, Giver of all things fair! but fairest this Of all thy gifts! nor enviest. I now see Bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh, myself Before me: Woman is her name;of Man Extracted: for this cause he shall forego Father and mother, and to his wife adhere; And they shall be one flesh, one heart, one soul. She heard me thus; and though divinely brought, Yet innocence, and virgin modesty, Her virtue, and the conscience of her worth, That would be wooed, and not unsought be won, Not obvious, not obtrusive, but, retired, The more desirable; or, to say all, Nature herself, though pure of sinful thought, Wrought in her so, that, seeing me, she turned: I followed her; she what was honour knew, And with obsequious majesty approved My pleaded reason. To the nuptial bower I led her blushing like the morn: All Heaven, And happy constellations, on that hour Shed their selectest influence; the Earth Gave sign of gratulation, and each hill; Joyous the birds; fresh gales and gentle airs Whispered it to the woods, and from their wings Flung rose, flung odours from the spicy shrub, Disporting, till the amorous bird of night Sung spousal, and bid haste the evening-star On his hill top, to light the bridal lamp. Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss, Which I enjoy; and must confess to find In all things else delight indeed, but such As, used or not, works in the mind no change, Nor vehement desire; these delicacies 130

I mean of taste, sight, smell, herbs, fruits, and flowers, Walks, and the melody of birds: but here Far otherwise, transported I behold, Transported touch; here passion first I felt, Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else Superiour and unmoved; here only weak Against the charm of Beauty's powerful glance. Or Nature failed in me, and left some part Not proof enough such object to sustain; Or, from my side subducting, took perhaps More than enough; at least on her bestowed Too much of ornament, in outward show Elaborate, of inward less exact. For well I understand in the prime end Of Nature her the inferiour, in the mind And inward faculties, which most excel; In outward also her resembling less His image who made both, and less expressing The character of that dominion given O'er other creatures: Yet when I approach Her loveliness, so absolute she seems And in herself complete, so well to know Her own, that what she wills to do or say, Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best: All higher knowledge in her presence falls Degraded; Wisdom in discourse with her Loses discountenanced, and like Folly shows; Authority and Reason on her wait, As one intended first, not after made Occasionally; and, to consummate all, Greatness of mind and Nobleness their seat Build in her loveliest, and create an awe About her, as a guard angelick placed. To whom the Angel with contracted brow. Accuse not Nature, she hath done her part; Do thou but thine; and be not diffident Of Wisdom; she deserts thee not, if thou Dismiss not her, when most thou needest her nigh, By attributing overmuch to things Less excellent, as thou thyself perceivest. For, what admirest thou, what transports thee so, An outside? fair, no doubt, and worthy well Thy cherishing, thy honouring, and thy love; Not thy subjection: Weigh with her thyself; Then value: Oft-times nothing profits more Than self-esteem, grounded on just and right Well managed; of that skill the more thou knowest, The more she will acknowledge thee her head, And to realities yield all her shows: Made so adorn for thy delight the more, So awful, that with honour thou mayest love 131

Thy mate, who sees when thou art seen least wise. But if the sense of touch, whereby mankind Is propagated, seem such dear delight Beyond all other; think the same vouchsafed To cattle and each beast; which would not be To them made common and divulged, if aught Therein enjoyed were worthy to subdue The soul of man, or passion in him move. What higher in her society thou findest Attractive, human, rational, love still; In loving thou dost well, in passion not, Wherein true love consists not: Love refines The thoughts, and heart enlarges; hath his seat In reason, and is judicious; is the scale By which to heavenly love thou mayest ascend, Not sunk in carnal pleasure; for which cause, Among the beasts no mate for thee was found. To whom thus, half abashed, Adam replied. Neither her outside formed so fair, nor aught In procreation common to all kinds, (Though higher of the genial bed by far, And with mysterious reverence I deem,) So much delights me, as those graceful acts, Those thousand decencies, that daily flow From all her words and actions mixed with love And sweet compliance, which declare unfeigned Union of mind, or in us both one soul; Harmony to behold in wedded pair More grateful than harmonious sound to the ear. Yet these subject not; I to thee disclose What inward thence I feel, not therefore foiled, Who meet with various objects, from the sense Variously representing; yet, still free, Approve the best, and follow what I approve. To love, thou blamest me not; for Love, thou sayest, Leads up to Heaven, is both the way and guide; Bear with me then, if lawful what I ask: Love not the heavenly Spirits, and how their love Express they? by looks only? or do they mix Irradiance, virtual or immediate touch? To whom the Angel, with a smile that glowed Celestial rosy red, Love's proper hue, Answered. Let it suffice thee that thou knowest Us happy, and without love no happiness. Whatever pure thou in the body enjoyest, (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy In eminence; and obstacle find none Of membrane, joint, or limb, exclusive bars; Easier than air with air, if Spirits embrace, Total they mix, union of pure with pure Desiring, nor restrained conveyance need, 132

As flesh to mix with flesh, or soul with soul. But I can now no more; the parting sun Beyond the Earth's green Cape and verdant Isles Hesperian sets, my signal to depart. Be strong, live happy, and love! But, first of all, Him, whom to love is to obey, and keep His great command; take heed lest passion sway Thy judgement to do aught, which else free will Would not admit: thine, and of all thy sons, The weal or woe in thee is placed; beware! I in thy persevering shall rejoice, And all the Blest: Stand fast;to stand or fall Free in thine own arbitrement it lies. Perfect within, no outward aid require; And all temptation to transgress repel. So saying, he arose; whom Adam thus Followed with benediction. Since to part, Go, heavenly guest, ethereal Messenger, Sent from whose sovran goodness I adore! Gentle to me and affable hath been Thy condescension, and shall be honoured ever With grateful memory: Thou to mankind Be good and friendly still, and oft return! So parted they; the Angel up to Heaven From the thick shade, and Adam to his bower. Book IX No more of talk where God or Angel guest With Man, as with his friend, familiar us'd, To sit indulgent, and with him partake Rural repast; permitting him the while Venial discourse unblam'd. I now must change Those notes to tragick; foul distrust, and breach Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt, And disobedience: on the part of Heaven Now alienated, distance and distaste, Anger and just rebuke, and judgement given, That brought into this world a world of woe, Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery Death's harbinger: Sad talk!yet argument Not less but more heroick than the wrath Of stern Achilles on his foe pursued Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous'd; Or Neptune's ire, or Juno's, that so long Perplexed the Greek, and Cytherea's son: 00482129 If answerable style I can obtain 133

caparisons and steeds. cautious of day. And dictates to me slumbering. There was a place. bent On Man's destruction. and foreworned the Cherubim That kept their watch. Not that which justly gives heroick name To person. and much they may. of these Nor skill'd nor studious. by stealth Found unsuspected way. who brings it nightly to my ear. on the coast averse From entrance or Cherubick watch. or cold Climate. unless an age too late. if all be mine. Into a gulf shot under ground. Or tilting furniture. not time. Where Tigris. sufficient of itself to raise That name. or inspires Easy my unpremeditated verse: Since first this subject for heroick song Pleas'd me long choosing. gorgeous knights At joust and tournament. short arbiter "twixt day and night.Of my celestial patroness. Bases and tinsel trappings. maugre what might hap Of heavier on himself. at the foot of Paradise. On the eighth returned. first wrought the change. Now not. The space of seven continued nights he rode With darkness. descried His entrance. then marshall'd feast Serv'd up in hall with sewers and seneshals. and after him the star Of Hesperus. thence full of anguish driven. the better fortitude Of patience and heroick martyrdom Unsung. and beginning late. who deigns Her nightly visitation unimplor'd. hitherto the only argument Heroick deem'd chief mastery to dissect With long and tedious havock fabled knights In battles feign'd. now improv'd In meditated fraud and malice. who late fled before the threats Of Gabriel out of Eden. Not sedulous by nature to indite Wars. regent of the sun. damp my intended wing Depress'd. imblazon'd shields. whose office is to bring Twilight upon the earth. Me. fearless returned From compassing the earth. Since Uriel. till part 134 . The sun was sunk. higher argument Remains. thrice the equinoctial line He circled. Impresses quaint. four times crossed the car of night From pole to pole. and now from end to end Night's hemisphere had veil'd the horizon round: When satan. traversing each colure. and. The skill of artifice or office mean. or to poem. though sin. Not hers. or to describe races and games. or years.

and with inspection deep Considered every creature. yet bear their bright officious lamps. in other beasts observed. for thee alone. involved in rising mist. and with it rose Satan. all their known virtue appears Productive in herb. so much more I feel Torment within me. and valley. and land. irresolute Of thoughts revolved. Rocks. in whom To enter. If I could joy in aught. and the more I see Pleasures about me. Him after long debate. dens. then sought Where to lie hid. yet extends to all. 135 . worse would build? Terrestrial Heaven. Now land. reforming what was old! O Earth. how like to Heaven. reason. woods. if not preferred For what God. Not in themselves. beyond the sense of brute. seat worthier of Gods. which. Thus he resolved. West from Orontes to the ocean barred At Darien . Light above light. but first from inward grief His bursting passion into plaints thus poured. and caves! But I in none of these Find place or refuge. after better. now sea and shores with forest crowned. receivest from all those orbs: in thee. and nobler birth Of creatures animate with gradual life Of growth. which of all Most opportune might serve his wiles. Centring. Doubt might beget of diabolick power Active within. thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus: Thus the orb he roamed With narrow search. so thou. none would suspicious mark. all summed up in Man. and in length.Rose up a fountain by the tree of life: In with the river sunk. as from the hateful siege Of contraries: all good to me becomes Bane. as built With second thoughts. From Eden over Pontus and the pool Maeotis. and his dark suggestions hide From sharpest sight: for. Downward as far antarctick. and plains. sea he had searched. his final sentence chose Fit vessel. rivers. and found The Serpent subtlest beast of all the field. plant. and in Heaven much worse would be my state. fittest imp of fraud. sense. In thee concentring all their precious beams Of sacred influence! As God in Heaven Is center. sweet interchange Of hill. With what delight could I have walked thee round. as seems. in the wily snake Whatever sleights. danced round by other Heavens That shine. As from his wit and native subtlety Proceeding. More justly. up beyond the river Ob.

in whose mazy folds To hide me. Exalted from so base original. to elude. who erst contended With Gods to sit the highest. mixed with bestial slime. though thereby worse to me redound: For only in destroying I find ease To my relentless thoughts. and who knows how long Before had been contriving? though perhaps Not longer than since I. freed From servitude inglorious well nigh half The angelick name. thus wrapt in mist Of midnight vapour glide obscure. With heavenly spoils. or. obnoxious. and. To basest things. I reck not. am now constrained Into a beast. unless by mastering Heaven's Supreme. and earth his seat. and pry In every bush and brake. Determined to advance into our room A creature formed of earth. Bitter ere long. first or last. Nor hope to be myself less miserable By what I seek. and the dark intent I bring. as to him linked in weal or woe. must down as low As high he soared. six nights and days Continued making. And flaming ministers to watch and tend Their earthly charge: Of these the vigilance I dread.But neither here seek I. Man he made. Since higher I fall short. This essence to incarnate and imbrute. In woe then. and. where hap may find The serpent sleeping. Whether such virtue spent of old now failed More Angels to create. no nor in Heaven To dwell. O foul descent! that I. Revenge. and. Almighty styled. and thinner left the throng Of his adorers: He. our spoils: What he decreed. if they at least Are his created. to be avenged. That to the highth of Deity aspired! But what will not ambition and revenge Descend to? Who aspires. He effected. him destroyed. to spite us more. all this will soon Follow. in one day to have marred What he. For whom all this was made. so it light well aimed. that destruction wide may range: To me shall be the glory sole among The infernal Powers. and. Him lord pronounced. And to repair his numbers thus impaired. and him endow. Or won to what may work his utter loss. at first though sweet. on him who next 136 . O indignity! Subjected to his service angel-wings. back on itself recoils: Let it. but others to make such As I. in one night. and for him built Magnificent this world.

and his brutal sense. what wonder if so near Looks intervene and smiles. which intermits Our day's work. through each thicket dank or dry. From the Earth's great altar send up silent praise To the Creator. Our pleasant task enjoined. Luxurious by restraint. And Eve first to her husband thus began. whether to wind The woodbine round this arbour. on the grassy herb. his Maker raised From dust: Spite then with spite is best repaid. or direct The clasping ivy where to climb. partake The season prime for sweetest scents and airs: Then commune. Nor nocent yet. and flower. that done. but. His head the midst. waiting close the approach of morn. or prune. forth came the human pair. or prop. And joined their vocal worship to the quire Of creatures wanting voice. he held on His midnight-search. Thou therefore now advise. that breathed Their morning incense. Whom. this new favourite Of Heaven. One night or two with wanton growth derides Tending to wild. and the hour of supper comes unearned? 137 . while I. Fearless unfeared he slept: in at his mouth The Devil entered. us the more to spite. find what to redress till noon: For. Now. or bind. how that day they best may ply Their growing work: for much their work out-grew The hands' dispatch of two gardening so wide. when as sacred light began to dawn In Eden on the humid flowers. brought to little. herb. where choice Leads thee. this man of clay. that breathe. In yonder spring of roses intermixed With myrtle. or object new Casual discourse draw on. In heart or head. what we by day Lop overgrown. till more hands Aid us. the work under our labour grows. well may we labour still to dress This garden. son of despite. soon inspired With act intelligential. thou. still to tend plant. where soonest he might find The serpent. but his sleep Disturbed not. Like a black mist low-creeping. well stored with subtile wiles: Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den. though begun Early. Adam. when all things. while so near each other thus all day Our task we choose. Or bear what to my mind first thoughts present: Let us divide our labours. and his nostrils fill With grateful smell. but. him fast-sleeping soon he found In labyrinth of many a round self-rolled. possessing. or where most needs.Provokes my envy. So saying.

than which perhaps no bliss Enjoyed by us excites his envy more. and of his own Despairing. or to disturb Conjugal love. and protects. associate sole. 138 . These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands Will keep from wilderness with ease. As one who loves. and are of love the food. than to study houshold good. and delight to reason joined. Or this. How we might best fulfil the work which here God hath assigned us. and all Earth's Lord! That such an enemy we have. lest harm Befall thee severed from me. seeks to work us woe and shame By sly assault. to me beyond Compare above all living creatures dear! Well hast thou motioned. and some unkindness meets. what malicious foe Envying our happiness. To brute denied. leave not the faithful side That gave thee being. or with her the worst endures. And good works in her husband to promote. for thou knowest What hath been warned us. as to debar us when we need Refreshment. And short retirement urges sweet return. well thy thoughts employed. Love. Yet not so strictly hath our Lord imposed Labour. us asunder. as wide As we need walk. to short absence I could yield: For solitude sometimes is best society. or worse. Who guards her. who seeks Our ruin. Sole Eve.To whom mild answer Adam thus returned. or this sweet intercourse Of looks and smiles. or talk between. still shades thee. And from the parting Angel over-heard. till younger hands ere long Assist us. With sweet austere composure thus replied. Offspring of Heaven and Earth. not the lowest end of human life. Safest and seemliest by her husband stays. He made us. But other doubt possesses me. Food of the mind. for smiles from reason flow. where each To other speedy aid might lend at need: Whether his first design be to withdraw Our fealty from God. where danger or dishonour lurks. and somewhere nigh at hand Watches. nor of me shalt pass Unpraised: for nothing lovelier can be found In woman. if much converse perhaps Thee satiate. both by thee informed I learn. no doubt. The wife. For not to irksome toil. but to delight. To whom the virgin majesty of Eve. But. Hopeless to circumvent us joined. whether food. with greedy hope to find His wish and best advantage.

intended by our foe. who could seduce Angels. His violence thou fearest not. we not endued Single with like defence.As in a shady nook I stood behind. Daughter of God and Man. Can either not receive. stronger. 139 . will hardly dare. from the influence of thy looks. thus to dwell In narrow circuit straitened by a foe. which plain infers Thy equal fear. at least asperses The tempted with dishonour foul. I. but to avoid The attempt itself. supposed Not incorruptible of faith. though in vain. who thought Less attributed to her faith sincere. or can repel. His fraud is then thy fear. Would utmost vigour raise. not proof Against temptation: Thou thyself with scorn And anger wouldst resent the offered wrong. because we have a foe May tempt it. Subtle or violent. Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel When I am present. Just then returned at shut of evening flowers. and thy trial choose With me. in thy sight More wise. from sin and blame entire: Not diffident of thee do I dissuade Thy absence from my sight. For he who tempts. immortal Eve! For such thou art. wherever met. If such affront I labour to avert From thee alone. that my firm faith and love Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced. Subtle he needs must be. Thoughts. still in fear of harm? But harm precedes not sin: only our foe. Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn. though bold. if need were Of outward strength. Though ineffectual found: misdeem not then. best witness of thy virtue tried? So spake domestick Adam in his care And matrimonial love. mis-thought of her to thee so dear? To whom with healing words Adam replied. Shame to be overcome or over-reached. which how found they harbour in thy breast. nor think superfluous other's aid. and raised unite. If this be our condition. Or daring. How are we happy. not capable of death or pain. which on us both at once The enemy. that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt To God or thee. receive Access in every virtue. more watchful. But. Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed. thou looking on. I expected not to hear. Adam. but Eve. being such As we. first on me the assault shall light. while shame.

So spake the patriarch of mankind. the other who can know. and thus forewarned 140 . Not then mistrust. replied. And fall into deception unaware. Lest. find peace within. affronts us with his foul esteem Of our integrity: his foul esteem Sticks no dishonour on our front. Go in thy native innocence. That I should mind thee oft. thus exposed. yet submiss. virtue. To whom thus Adam fervently replied. enjoins. and still erect. Not seeing thee attempted. not free. and mind thou me. Wouldst thou approve thy constancy. Or aught that might his happy state secure. and mis-inform the will To do what God expressly hath forbid. love. as she was warned. yet lies within his power: Against his will he can receive no harm. and Reason he made right. for what obeys Reason. then wherefore shunned or feared By us? who rather double honour gain From his surmise proved false. Secure from outward force. if this be so. but Eve Persisted. O Woman. She dictate false. And what is faith. absents thee more. without exteriour help sustained? Let us not then suspect our happy state Left so imperfect by the Maker wise. do thine. who attest? But. Firm we subsist. best are all things as the will Of God ordained them: His creating hand Nothing imperfect or deficient left Of all that he created. As not secure to single or combined. Since Reason not impossibly may meet Some specious object by the foe suborned. But bid her well be ware. Frail is our happiness. But God left free the will. rely On what thou hast of virtue. summon all! For God towards thee hath done his part. Not keeping strictest watch. unassayed Alone. With thy permission then. but tender love. much less Man. yet possible to swerve. within himself The danger lies. which to avoid Were better. our witness.Tempting. if thou think. though last. and most likely if from me Thou sever not: Trial will come unsought. trial unsought may find Us both securer than thus warned thou seemest. Go. is free. for thy stay. by some fair-appearing good surprised. from the event. Seek not temptation then. but turns Foul on himself. Favour from Heaven. approve First thy obedience. And Eden were no Eden.

May find us both perhaps far less prepared. 141 . but in them The whole included race. had formed. Waited with hellish rancour imminent To intercept thy way. or send thee back Despoiled of innocence.Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words Touched only. the Fiend. but not with hope Of what so seldom chanced. And on his quest. oft stooping to support Each flower of slender stalk. like a Wood-Nymph light. or specked with gold. hapless Eve. Pomona when she fled Vertumnus. Their tendance. or Pomona. azure. Such ambush. The willinger I go. where any tuft Of grove or garden-plot more pleasant lay. or sound repose. Betook her to the groves. Likest she seemed. Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove. his purposed prey. Mere serpent in appearance. the more shall shame him his repulse. And all things in best order to invite Noontide repast. or to Ceres in her prime. of faith. and since first break of dawn. or Angels brought. whose head. Though not as she with bow and quiver armed. To Pales. he wished. Eve separate he spies. Of thy presumed return! event perverse! Thou never from that hour in Paradise Foundst either sweet repast. where she stood. but Delia's self In gait surpassed. and. or plantation for delight. but desiring more her stay. Oft he to her his charge of quick return Repeated. of bliss! For now. Beyond his hope. Thus saying. and Goddess-like deport. So bent. from her husband's hand her hand Soft she withdrew. where likeliest he might find The only two of mankind. but wished his hap might find Eve separate. much failing. Half spied. though gay Carnation. hid among sweet flowers and shades. forth was come. Her long with ardent look his eye pursued Delighted. nor much expect A foe so proud will first the weaker seek. By fountain or by shady rivulet He sought them both. or of Delia's train. when to his wish. so thick the roses blushing round About her glowed. Oread or Dryad. O much deceived. when least sought. Guiltless of fire. purple. In bower and field he sought. But with such gardening tools as Art yet rude. thus adorned. she to him as oft engaged To be returned by noon amid the bower. Veiled in a cloud of fragrance. or afternoon's repose. that our trial.

where the sapient king Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse. to breathe Among the pleasant villages and farms Adjoined. Of guile. host of old Laertes' son. From her best prop so far. hope here to taste Of pleasure. and for the time remained Stupidly good. thus excites. but all pleasure to destroy. for her now pleases more. and many a walk traversed Of stateliest covert. mindless the while Herself. of hate.Hung drooping unsustained. or renowned Alcinous. and with rapine sweet bereaved His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought: That space the Evil-one abstracted stood From his own evil. pine. Among thick-woven arborets. and in her look sums all delight: Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold This flowery plat. fair virgin pass. Save what is in destroying. of envy. and feminine. If chance. of enmity disarmed. of revenge: But the hot Hell that always in him burns. each rural sound. or tedded grass. Then voluble and bold. and storm so nigh. the hand of Eve: Spot more delicious than those gardens feigned Or of revived Adonis. cedar. whither have ye led me! with what sweet Compulsion thus transported. each rural sight. Or dairy. Where houses thick and sewers annoy the air. not mystick. thus alone: Her heavenly form Angelick. not for him ordained: then soon Fierce hate he recollects. other joy To me is lost.nor hope Of Paradise for Hell. Thoughts. Nearer he drew. and all his thoughts Of mischief. or least action. and flowers Imbordered on each bank. the person more. Though in mid Heaven. She most. to forget What hither brought us! hate. or palm. or kine. Much he the place admired. And tortures him now more. but more soft. them she upstays Gently with myrtle band. Then. let me not let pass Occasion which now smiles. The smell of grain. What pleasing seemed. with nymph-like step. behold alone 142 . Her graceful innocence. overawed His malice. not love. gratulating. now seen. from each thing met conceives delight. her every air Of gesture. the more he sees Of pleasure. the sweet recess of Eve Thus early. Forth issuing on a summer's morn. now hid. soon ended his delight. though fairest unsupported flower. As one who long in populous city pent. Or that.

that on the grass Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape And lovely. as one who sought access. Hate stronger. She fair. the highth of Rome. divinely fair. glad Of her attention gained. bolder now. nor to which transformed Ammonian Jove. as oft so steers.The woman. and shifts her sail: So varied he. and carbuncle his eyes. To lure her eye. and sleek enamelled neck. though of terrestrial mould. was seen. as since. The way which to her ruin now I tend. But as in gaze admiring: oft he bowed His turret crest. that towered Fold above fold. Fawning. erect Amidst his circling spires. inmate bad! and toward Eve Addressed his way: not with indented wave. or the god In Epidaurus. under show of love well feigned. His gentle dumb expression turned at length The eye of Eve to mark his play. by skilful steersmen wrought Nigh river's mouth or foreland. Than at Circean call the herd disguised. And strength. Hermione and Cadmus. and pain Enfeebled me. though terrour be in love And beauty. and licked the ground whereon she trod. side-long he works his way. I not. not nigh. opportune to all attempts. of courage haughty. so much hath Hell debased. With tract oblique At first. with serpent-tongue Organick. for I view far round. more duteous at her call. or impulse of vocal air. heard the sound Of rusling leaves. uncalled before her stood. He with Olympias. busied. but feared To interrupt. 143 . to what I was in Heaven. As when a ship. Whose higher intellectual more I shun. as used To such disport before her through the field. enclosed In serpent. but on his rear. With burnished neck of verdant gold. not approached by stronger hate. From every beast. and of limb Heroick built. So spake the enemy of mankind. where the wind Veers oft. he. Her husband. and of his tortuous train Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve. she. His fraudulent temptation thus began. a surging maze! his head Crested aloft. Prone on the ground. but minded not. Circular base of rising folds. Foe not informidable! exempt from wound. this with her who bore Scipio. He. never since of serpent-kind Lovelier. fit love for Gods! Not terrible. not those that in Illyria changed. or Capitoline.

Not unamazed. sovran Mistress. at length. 144 . and right thou shouldst be obeyed: I was at first as other beasts that graze The trodden herb. and in their actions. Serpent. and gaze Insatiate. with disdain. and how To me so friendly grown above the rest Of brutal kind. adored and served By Angels numberless. at least. Displeased that I approach thee thus. When from the boughs a savoury odour blown. Redouble then this miracle. these beasts among. if perhaps Thou canst. Where universally admired. I chanced A goodly tree far distant to behold Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mixed. she thus in answer spake. whom God. and say. more awful thus retired. who art sole wonder! much less arm Thy looks. Ruddy and gold: I nearer drew to gaze. the Heaven of mildness. Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair. or the teats Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at even. and his proem tuned: Into the heart of Eve his words made way. resplendent Eve! Easy to me it is to tell thee all What thou commandest. What may this mean? language of man pronounced By tongue of brute.nor have feared Thy awful brow. So glozed the Tempter. thy daily train. To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied. and shallow to discern Half what in thee is fair. on a day roving the field. more pleased my sense Than smell of sweetest fennel. but not with human voice endued. Created mute to all articulate sound: The latter I demur. and thy celestial beauty adore With ravishment beheld! there best beheld. and human sense expressed? The first. As was my food. for such wonder claims attention due. Grateful to appetite. for in their looks Much reason. of these I thought denied To beasts. of abject thoughts and low. on their creation-day. all things thine By gift. Who sees thee? and what is one? who should be seen A Goddess among Gods. that daily are in sight? Say. subtlest beast of all the field I knew. and apprehended nothing high: Till. Thee all things living gaze on.Wonder not. Thee. one man except. but here In this enclosure wild. Empress of this fair world. Beholders rude. Though at the voice much marvelling. How camest thou speakable of mute. I thus single. nor aught but food discerned Or sex. oft appears.

said Eve. all things fair and good: But all that fair and good in thy divine Semblance. He. Still hanging incorruptible. to degree Of reason in my inward powers. yet unknown To us. ere long I might perceive Strange alteration in me. To satisfy the sharp desire I had Of tasting those fair apples. Yet more amazed. For. one small thicket past Of blowing myrrh and balm: if thou accept My conduct. Hope elevates. and Eve.Unsucked of lamb or kid. on a flat. to pluck and eat my fill I spared not. I resolved Not to defer. leading. thy overpraising leaves in doubt The virtue of that fruit. About the mossy trunk I wound me soon. the way is ready. never had I found. blithe and glad. to come And gaze. Beyond a row of myrtles. the branches would require Thy utmost reach or Adam's: Round the tree All other beasts that saw. Fast by a fountain. Empress. for. Or Earth. To whom the wily Adder. Amid the tree now got. Powerful persuaders. Sated at length. in thee first proved: But say. and joy 145 . where grows the tree? from hence how far? For many are the trees of God that grow In Paradise. and in thy beauty's heavenly ray. and not long. though importune perhaps. and worship thee of right declared Sovran of creatures. such pleasure till that hour. till men Grow up to their provision. in such abundance lies our choice. but could not reach. high from ground. and various. United I beheld. unwary thus replied. and more hands Help to disburden Nature of her birth. I can bring thee thither soon Lead then. and speech Wanted not long. To mischief swift. universal Dame! So talked the spirited sly Snake. At feed or fountain. Serpent. urged me so keen. As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched. that tend their play. Thenceforth to speculations high or deep I turned my thoughts. though to this shape retained. where plenty hung Tempting so nigh. and made intricate seem straight. with like desire Longing and envying stood. swiftly rolled In tangles. and with capacious mind Considered all things visible in Heaven. no fair to thine Equivalent or second! which compelled Me thus. quickened at the scent Of that alluring fruit. hunger and thirst at once. or Middle.

lest ye die. As when of old some orator renowned. as to passion moved. we live Law to ourselves. they say. But of this tree we may not taste nor touch. as of some great matter to begin. and. and left that command Sole daughter of his voice. Hovering and blazing with delusive light. Fruitless to me. The credit of whose virtue rest with thee. and oft through pond or pool. Kindled through agitation to a flame. Which when she saw. from succour far. deemed however wise. Ye shall not eat Thereof. Stood in himself collected. Compact of unctuous vapour. Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way To bogs and mires. and indignation at his wrong. though brief. Fluctuates disturbed. Indeed! hath God then said that of the fruit Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat. through his zeal of right: So standing. wise. our reason is our law. and the cold environs round. root of all our woe. So glistered the dire Snake. In Athens or free Rome. New part puts on. O sacred. She scarce had said. some evil Spirit attends. God hath said. Queen of this universe! do not believe 146 . Of the fruit Of each tree in the garden we may eat. as when a wandering fire. Which oft. not only to discern Things in their causes. yet comely and in act Raised. But of the fruit of this fair tree amidst The garden. our credulous mother. The Tempter. Motion. to the tree Of prohibition. each act. and into fraud Led Eve. which the night Condenses.Brightens his crest. There swallowed up and lost. where eloquence Flourished. Wonderous indeed. but with show of zeal and love To Man. Sometimes in highth began. though fruit be here to excess. moving. since mute! to some great cause addressed. Mother of science! now I feel thy power Within me clear. or to highth up grown. God so commanded. as no delay Of preface brooking. when now more bold The Tempter. all impassioned. if cause of such effects. won audience ere the tongue. we might have spared our coming hither. while each part. Serpent. and wisdom-giving Plant. but to trace the ways Of highest agents. the rest. Yet Lords declared of all in earth or air$? To whom thus Eve. thus began. nor shall ye touch it. yet sinless. To whom the Tempter guilefully replied. thus to her guide she spake.

Why then was this forbid? Why. yet both live. And what are Gods. by venturing higher than my lot. these. which to behold 147 . for this fair earth I see. who have touched and tasted. whatever thing death be. if what is evil Be real. that Man should thus attain to know? What can your knowledge hurt him. that Man may not become As they. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. and many more Causes import your need of this fair fruit. how just? of evil. nothing: if they all things. human. which no worse than this can bring. Of good. That whoso eats thereof. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. that all from them proceeds: I question it. forthwith attains Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies The offence. as they know.Those rigid threats of death: ye shall not die: How should you? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. and ye shall be as Gods. ye. who enclosed Knowledge of good and evil in this tree. producing every kind. to put on Gods. not God. Warmed by the sun. is but proportion meet. reach then. participating God-like food? The Gods are first. That ye shall be as Gods. whom the pain Of death denounced. And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. Into her heart too easy entrance won: Fixed on the fruit she gazed. which to the Beast Is open? or will God incense his ire For such a petty trespass? and not praise Rather your dauntless virtue. and that advantage use On our belief. Though threatened. and be just. Knowing both good and evil. Why. Shall that be shut to Man. but to keep ye low and ignorant. since I as Man. Them. His worshippers? He knows that in the day Ye eat thereof. of brute. by the threatener? look on me. since easier shunned? God therefore cannot hurt ye. Internal Man. not feared then. I. replete with guile. Not just. why not known. knowledge of good and evil. your eyes that seem so clear. Me. Deterred not from achieving what might lead To happier life. nor obeyed: Your fear itself of death removes the fear. and his words. of human. by putting off Human. Yet are but dim. death to be wished. but to awe. or this tree Impart against his will. So ye shall die perhaps. Goddess humane. and freely taste! He ended. Gods.

Great are thy virtues. Back to the thicket slunk The guilty Serpent. Forbids us then to taste! but his forbidding Commends thee more. Inclinable now grown to touch or taste. gave signs of woe. What fear I then? rather. But. naming thee the tree Of knowledge. yet first Pausing a while. thus to herself she mused. In plain then. is as not had at all. forbids us to be wise? Such prohibitions bind not. and in her ears the sound Yet rung of his persuasive words. raised by the smell So savoury of that fruit. at first assay Gave elocution to the mute. Conceals not from us. and our want: For good unknown sure is not had. best of fruits. while it infers the good By thee communicated. Sighing through all her works. what forbids he but to know. nought else 148 .for Eve. who forbids thy use. inviting to the taste. and feed at once both body and mind? So saying. far from deceit or guile. and Nature from her seat.Might tempt alone. Forbids us good. Of God or death. And knows. Friendly to man. what profits then Our inward freedom? In the day we eat Of this fair fruit. Solicited her longing eye. this fruit divine. and well might. and speaks. and with truth: Mean while the hour of noon drew on. Though kept from man. and worthy to be admired. but brings with joy The good befallen him. what know to fear Under this ignorance of good and evil. Intent now wholly on her taste. and waked An eager appetite. she eat! Earth felt the wound. doubtless. and discerns. Of virtue to make wise: What hinders then To reach. impregned With reason. we shall die! How dies the Serpent? he hath eaten and lives. to her seeming. which with desire. For us alone Was death invented? or to us denied This intellectual food. her rash hand in evil hour Forth reaching to the fruit. knowledge both of good and evil. our doom is. author unsuspect. if death Bind us with after-bands. and reasons. had And yet unknown. or. for beasts reserved? For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first Hath tasted envies not. Fair to the eye. Irrational till then. she plucked. That all was lost. of law or penalty? Here grows the cure of all. and taught The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise: Thy praise he also. too long forborn. Whose taste.

jocund and boon. and perhaps. And knew not eating death: Satiate at length. infamed. Thus to herself she pleasingly began. derived 149 .Regarded. And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high. the more to draw his love. whose presence had infused Into the plant sciential sap. whether true Or fancied so. Shall live with her enjoying. In fruit she never tasted. and other care perhaps May have diverted from continual watch Our great Forbidder. from the tree her step she turned. Shall tend thee. And givest access. inferiour. not following thee. safe with all his spies About him. sometime Superiour. But keeps the odds of knowledge in my power Without copartner? so to add what wants In female sex. through expectation high Of knowledge. not was Godhead from her thought. each morning. Experience. for. next. A death to think! Confirmed then I resolve. and remote to see from thence distinct Each thing on Earth. Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe: So dear I love him. A thing not undesirable. and the fertile burden ease Of thy full branches offered free to all. I had remained In ignorance. as to the Power That dwelt within. hitherto obscured. that with him all deaths I could endure. as the Gods. such delight till then. precious of all trees In Paradise! of operation blest To sapience. And thy fair fruit let hang. And hightened as with wine. wedded to another Eve. or rather not. and give him to partake Full happiness with me. Best guide. though secret she retire. O sovran. as to no end Created. who is free This may be well: But what if God have seen. Though others envy what they cannot give: For. thou openest wisdom's way. but henceforth my early care. Till. But first low reverence done. High. virtuous. But to Adam in what sort Shall I appear? shall I to him make known As yet my change. and due praise. I grow mature In knowledge. And death ensue? then I shall be no more! And Adam. So saying. dieted by thee. who all things know. without him live no life. had the gift been theirs. Not without song. it had not here Thus grown. Greedily she ingorged without restraint. And render me more equal. I extinct. as seemed. to thee I owe.

New gathered. had wove Of choicest flowers a garland. when Fate will not permit. a tree Of danger tasted. and her rural labours crown. soon as he heard 150 . to adorn Her tresses. as we are threatened. there he her met. divine of something ill. and I then too late renounce Deity for thee. to me is bliss. Not dead. And growing up to Godhead. Great joy he promised to his thoughts. Scarce from the tree returning. But strange Hath been the cause. and odious soon. but thenceforth Endued with human voice and human sense. deprived Thy presence. and apology too prompt. which for thee Chiefly I sought. she thus addressed. as equal love. but of divine effect To open eyes. opener mine eyes. the way she took That morn when first they parted: by the tree Of knowledge he must pass. agony of love till now Not felt. or not obeying. To him she hasted. Waiting desirous her return. For bliss. And hath been tasted such: The serpent wise. Thou therefore also taste. in her hand A bough of fairest fruit. and ambrosial smell diffused. and have also found The effects to correspond. Dim erst. And forth to meet her went. Which. and is become. As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen. and make them Gods who taste. so long delayed: Yet oft his heart. and with me Persuasively hath so prevailed.From nectar. thou not tasting. and thought it long. Tedious. Lest. different degree Disjoin us. dilated spirits. that downy smiled. On the other side Adam. The pain of absence from thy sight. what rash untried I sought. for never more Mean I to try. and new Solace in her return. equal joy. that equal lot May join us. Adam the while. without thee can despise. that I Have also tasted. But in her cheek distemper flushing glowed. in her face excuse Came prologue. Hast thou not wondered. Adam. and wonderful to hear: This tree is not. Hath eaten of the fruit. drink of Gods. nor shall be twice. as thou hast part. nor to evil unknown Opening the way. he the faltering measure felt. ampler heart. Reasoning to admiration. Misgave him. at my stay? Thee I have missed. Thus Eve with countenance blithe her story told. unshared with thee. as we are told. with bland words at will. Or not restrained as we.

Profaned first by the serpent. and from thy state Mine never shall be parted. deflowered. and after thoughts disturbed Submitting to what seemed remediless. or done undo? Not God Omnipotent. and all his joints relaxed. will in earnest so destroy 151 . as Man. Creature in whom excelled Whatever can to sight or thought be formed. and now to death devote! Rather. Astonied stood and blank. And peril great provoked. or Angels. and unhallowed. Bold deed thou hast presumed. how to violate The sacred fruit forbidden! Some cursed fraud Of enemy hath beguiled thee. Higher degree of life. as thou saidst. till thus at length First to himself he inward silence broke. From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve Down dropt. To live again in these wild woods forlorn! Should God create another Eve. yet unknown. how hast thou yielded to transgress The strict forbiddance. amazed. demi-Gods. adventurous Eve. Had it been only coveting to eye That sacred fruit. yet he lives. as likely tasting to attain Proportional ascent. Lives. Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned. yet so Perhaps thou shalt not die. sacred to abstinence. And me with thee hath ruined. bliss or woe. and I Another rib afford. Holy. Nor yet on him found deadly. by him first Made common. So having said. while horrour chill Ran through his veins. good. Bone of my bone thou art. Though threatening. amiable. and love so dearly joined. Defaced. Nor can I think that God. last and best Of all God's works. ere our taste. inducement strong To us. perhaps the fact Is not so heinous now. O fairest of Creation. who thus hast dared. Creator wise. as one from sad dismay Recomforted. yet loss of thee Would never from my heart: no. which cannot be But to be Gods. divine. or sweet! How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost. Much more to taste it under ban to touch. nor Fate.The fatal trespass done by Eve. But past who can recall. and all the faded roses shed: Speechless he stood and pale. for with thee Certain my resolution is to die: How can I live without thee! how forego Thy sweet converse. no!I feel The link of Nature draw me: flesh of flesh. foretasted fruit. and gains to live.

and for joy 152 . of tasting this fair fruit. one crime. who. So faithful. love unequalled: but I feel Far otherwise the event. or aught than death more dread. flat seems to this. chiefly assured Remarkably so late of thy so true. If any be. Whose virtue for of good still good proceeds. So saying. from whose dear side I boast me sprung. not to be given the Foe. I would sustain alone The worst. Set over all his works. and say. For us created. and not persuade thee. So Adam. dignified so high. Dependant made. On my experience. needs with us must fail. So forcible within my heart I feel The bond of Nature draw me to my own. Shall separate us. undo. but. linked in love so dear. one soul in both. whereof good proof This day affords. hath presented This happy trial of thy love. and harsh. which else So eminently never had been known? Were it I thought death menaced would ensue This my attempt. though his power Creation could repeat. One flesh. who can please him long? Me first "He ruined. Direct. which in our fall. Certain to undergo like doom: If death Consort with thee. she embraced him. now Mankind. Not well conceived of God. or by occasion. Adam. freely taste. "Fickle their state whom God "Most favours. declaring thee resolved. and labour lose. and thus Eve to him replied. for what thou art is mine. Rather than death. death is to me as life. And fear of death deliver to the winds.Us his prime creatures. short Of thy perfection. to lose thee were to lose myself. do. However I with thee have fixed my lot. but life Augmented. new hopes. To undergo with me one guilt. rather die Deserted. new joys. so God shall uncreate. how shall I attain. And gladly of our union hear thee speak. than oblige thee with a fact Pernicious to thy peace. My own in thee. lest the Adversary Triumph. One heart. opened eyes. not death. O glorious trial of exceeding love. Illustrious evidence. Our state cannot be severed. Adam. example high! Engaging me to emulate. Taste so divine. we are one. Be frustrate. yet would be loth Us to abolish. whom will he next?" Matter of scorn. that what of sweet before Hath touched my sense.

he on Eve Began to cast lascivious eyes. and asphodel. 153 . that now. and. Much pleasure we have lost. if such pleasure be In things to us forbidden. adorned With all perfections. of sapience no small part. For never did thy beauty. after such delicious fare. flowers were the couch. so well this day thou hast purveyed. as again In pangs. As with new wine intoxicated both. I the praise Yield thee. now I see thou art exact of taste. bounty of this virtuous tree! So said he. while we abstained From this delightful fruit. she him As wantonly repaid. much won. whose eye darted contagious fire. Earth's freshest softest lap. that he his love Had so ennobled. in lust they burn: Till Adam thus 'gan Eve to dalliance move. But fondly overcome with female charm. Earth trembled from her entrails. Eve. well understood Of Eve. and violets. And elegant. not deceived. since the day I saw thee first and wedded thee.Tenderly wept. some sad drops Wept at completing of the mortal sin Original: while Adam took no thought. As meet is. or death. They swim in mirth. and forbore not glance or toy Of amorous intent. so well refreshed. Her hand he seised. tasting. Against his better knowledge. and fancy that they feel Divinity within them breeding wings. But come. Thick over-head with verdant roof imbowered. In recompence for such compliance bad Such recompence best merits from the bough She gave him of that fair enticing fruit With liberal hand: he scrupled not to eat. Pansies. And palate call judicious. fairer now Than ever. Since to each meaning savour we apply. and to a shady bank. so inflame my sense With ardour to enjoy thee. muttering thunder. nor known till now True relish. now let us play. nor Eve to iterate Her former trespass feared. Eating his fill. Wherewith to scorn the earth: But that false fruit Far other operation first displayed. it might be wished. as of choice to incur Divine displeasure for her sake. He led her nothing loth. and Nature gave a second groan. the more to sooth Him with her loved society. For this one tree had been forbidden ten. Carnal desire inflaming. And hyacinth. Sky loured.

O Eve. and native righteousness. now had left them. the last of evils. though not less than Eve abashed. devise What best may for the present serve to hide 154 . of the first Be sure then. Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit.There they their fill of love and love's disport Took largely. from about them. where highest woods. erst with joy And rapture so oft beheld? Those heavenly shapes Will dazzle now this earthly with their blaze Insufferably bright. The solace of their sin. Bad fruit of knowledge. was now exhaled. Even shame. where I may never see them more!-But let us now. whence evil store. of purity. of honour void. each the other viewing. of their mutual guilt the seal. and evil got. False in our promised rising. from the harlot-lap Of Philistean Dalilah. in some glade Obscured. of faith. if this be to know. he covered. and in face Confounded. with innumerable boughs Hide me. Of innocence.--How shall I behold the face Henceforth of God or Angel. That with exhilarating vapour bland About their spirits had played. And in our faces evident the signs Of foul concupiscence. up they rose As from unrest. wearied with their amorous play. innocence. and find we know Both good and evil. Bred of unkindly fumes. that as a veil Had shadowed them from knowing ill. in evil hour thou didst give ear To that false worm. and waked Shorn of his strength. good lost. and. So rose the Danite strong. as strucken mute: Till Adam. till dewy sleep Oppressed them. Just confidence. with conscious dreams Incumbered. spread their umbrage broad And brown as evening: Cover me. was gone. and grosser sleep. They destitute and bare Of all their virtue: Silent. Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained. but his robe Uncovered more. O! might I here In solitude live savage. true in our fall. ye Pines! Ye Cedars. Which leaves us naked thus. as in bad plight. At length gave utterance to these words constrained. Herculean Samson. and their minds How darkened. And honour. long they sat. of whomsoever taught To counterfeit Man's voice. naked left To guilty Shame. Soon found their eyes how opened. and inmost powers Made err. since our eyes Opened we find indeed. impenetrable To star or sun-light.

and the Will Heard not her lore. shunning heat. high passions. Some tree. and unseemliest seen. with what skill they had. shamed. who from beneath Usurping over sovran Reason claimed Superiour sway: From thus distempered breast. There sit not. broad as Amazonian targe. suspicion. but not at rest or ease of mind. how unlike To that first naked glory! Such of late Columbus found the American. so girt With feathered cincture. and staid With me. and reproach us as unclean. that this new comer. a pillared shade High over-arched. not that kind for fruit renowned. despoiled Of all our good. thus Eve. that in the ground The bended twigs take root. 155 . that seem most To shame obnoxious. In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms Branching so broad and long. Thus fenced. to Indians known. when that strange Desire of wandering. calm region once And full of peace. may cover round Those middle parts. as now. I know not whence possessed thee. and. and daughters grow About the mother tree. naked else. Mistrust. there soon they chose The fig-tree. miserable! Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve The faith they owe. But such as at this day. So counselled he. Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewed. Adam. as I besought thee. And girded on our loins. not. soon moved with touch of blame. now tost and turbulent: For Understanding ruled not. if to hide Their guilt and dreaded shame! O. when earnestly they seek Such proof. discord. To gird their waist. both in subjection now To sensual Appetite. To whom. their shame in part Covered. Shelters in cool. anger. estranged in look and altered style. and shook sore Their inward state of mind. they then begin to fail. this unhappy morn. And. Would thou hadst hearkened to my words. naked. and wild Among the trees on isles and woody shores. Shame. and both together went Into the thickest wood. but high winds worse within Began to rise. nor only tears Rained at their eyes. as they thought. hate.The parts of each from other. and tends his pasturing herds At loop-holes cut through thickest shade: Those leaves They gathered. together sewed. whose broad smooth leaves together sewed. and echoing walks between: There oft the Indian herdsman. vain covering. conclude. we had then Remained still happy. They sat them down to weep.

Hadst thou been firm and fixed in thy dissent. And. Adam replied. But confidence then bore thee on. thou couldst not have discerned Fraud in the Serpent. and joyed immortal bliss. thou didst not much gainsay. secure Either to meet no danger. the head. And force upon free will hath here no place. which is become my crime. Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there. Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours. I admonished thee. It seems. but I rue The errour now. but neither self-condemning. Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook. is this the recompence Of mine to thee. who. to worth in women overtrusting. or to find Matter of glorious trial. or will Of wandering. Command me absolutely not to go. as thou saidst? Too facile then. then first incensed. in thy restraint: What could I more I warned thee. Why he should mean me ill. left to herself. To whom. Going into such danger. and the lurking enemy That lay in wait. Nay. when thou wert lost. She first his weak indulgence will accuse. Who might have lived. beyond this. Adam severe! Imputest thou that to my default. And of their vain contest appeared no end. that I thought No evil durst attempt thee. and perhaps I also erred. foretold The danger. as thou callest it. Is this the love. didst permit. speaking as he spake. which who knows But might as ill have happened thou being by. Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act 156 . had been force. or seek to harm. and fair dismiss. if evil thence ensue. Neither had I transgressed. Thus it shall befall Him. Yet willingly chose rather death with thee? And am I now upbraided as the cause Of thy transgressing? Not enough severe. Was I to have never parted from thy side? As good have grown there still a lifeless rib. Being as I am.What words have passed thy lips. in overmuch admiring What seemed in thee so perfect. And thou the accuser. Or here the attempt. No ground of enmity between us known. nor thou with me. not I. approve. why didst not thou. ingrateful Eve! expressed Immutable.

Of Satan. Her husband she. Because not yet inflicted. Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind Of Man. not to taste that fruit. for what can 'scape the eye Of God all-seeing. When first this tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. I told ye then he should prevail. be not dismayed. to taste the fatal fruit. Was known in Heaven. Or touch with lightest moment of impulse His free will. or deceive his heart Omniscient? who. for of his state by this they knew. done in Paradise. their utmost vigilance And easily approved. Soon as the unwelcome news From Earth arrived at Heaven-gate. Foretold so lately what would come to pass. Whoever tempted. when the Most High Eternal Father. Accountable. About the new-arrived. in all things wise and just. to her own inclining left In even scale. which they not obeying. believing lies Against his Maker. But fallen he is. with strength entire and free will armed. to make appear. violated not their bliss. and ye Powers returned From unsuccessful charge. mixed With pity. and how He. and sad. With righteous plea. For Man. as he feared. Which your sincerest care could not prevent. For still they knew. but that the mortal sentence pass On his transgression. and ought to have still remembered. The high injunction. By some immediate stroke. Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth. dim sadness did not spare That time celestial visages. yet. and now What rests. no decree of mine Concurring to necessitate his fall. And. Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste The angelick guards ascended.--death denounced that day? Which he presumes already vain and void. had perverted Eve. And flattered out of all. Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice. in the serpent. to hear and know How all befel: They towards the throne supreme. in multitudes The ethereal people ran. manifold in sin. Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen Entrance unseen. Man should be seduced. and speed On his bad errand. mute. displeased All were who heard. but soon shall find 157 . (Incurred what could they less?) the penalty. made haste. from his secret cloud. deserved to fall. Assembled Angels. Complete to have discovered and repulsed Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend.

his Mediator. or Hell. Where art thou. Accompanied to Heaven-gate. sending thee Man's friend. and Intercessour both. and rebel to all law: Conviction to the serpent none belongs. till God. Convict by flight. And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. and. the speed of Gods Time counts not. ere day end. as may illustrate most Them fully satisfied. But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee. Whoever judged. To sentence Man: The voice of God they heard Now walking in the garden. Thus saying. And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen. and thus divinely answered mild. thy Son beloved. from his radiant seat he rose Of high collateral glory: Him Thrones. while day declined. they heard. not repenting. but thou knowest.Forbearance no acquittance. Justice shall not return as bounty scorned. Now was the sun in western cadence low From noon. this obtain Of right. for so I undertook Before thee. and thee appease. When time shall be. Father Eternal. and. the third best absent is condemned. or Earth. his designed Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary. yet I shall temper so Justice with mercy. in prospect lay. thus to Adam called aloud. Mayest ever rest well pleased. Princedoms. by soft winds Brought to their ears. to do thy will Supreme. but the judged. and Dominations ministrant. where none Are to behold the judgement. Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred All judgement. Approaching. Adam. Mine. Easy it may be seen that I intend Mercy colleague with justice. To fan the earth now waked. both man and wife. thine is to decree. I go to judge On earth these thy transgressours. from wrath more cool. due at their hour. though with swiftest minutes winged. when he. wont with joy to meet 158 . on the Son Blazed forth unclouded Deity: He full Resplendent all his Father manifest Expressed. that thou in me. and Powers. and gentle airs. whether in Heaven. Those two. unfolding bright Toward the right hand his glory. and all the coast. Attendance none shall need. that I may mitigate their doom On me derived. nor train. both in Heaven and Earth. Came the mild Judge. the worst on me must light. from whence Eden. and usher in The evening cool. Down he descended straight. So spake the Father.

either to undergo Myself the total crime. However insupportable. Lest on my head both sin and punishment. to attract Thy love. who Hath told thee? Hast thou eaten of the tree. To whom The gracious Judge without revile replied. discountenanced both. and of thy voice Afraid. and despair. or but equal. the partner of my life. and with him Eve. whose perfection far excelled Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed. Whence Adam. I heard thee in the garden. and calamitous constraint. 159 . and her gifts Were such. O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand Before my Judge. though should I hold my peace. so acceptable. or to accuse My other self. while her faith to me remains. thus answered brief. Her doing seemed to justify the deed. thus entertained with solitude. and obstinacy. Whereof I gave thee charge thou shouldst not eat? To whom thus Adam sore beset replied. yet thou Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. And for thee. I should conceal. Was she thy God. And gavest me as thy perfect gift.My coming seen far off? I miss thee here. Not pleased. But still rejoiced. and the place Wherein God set thee above her made of thee. hid myself. or what chance detains?--Come forth! He came. My voice thou oft hast heard. And shame. that her thou didst obey Before his voice? or was she made thy guide. Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I less conspicuous. more loth. Anger. that to her Thou didst resign thy manhood. and I did eat. and not expose to blame By my complaint: but strict necessity Subdues me. either to God.-This Woman. and discomposed. not thy subjection. Whose failing. whatever in itself. and guile. so divine. Or to each other. be all Devolved. And what she did. whom thou madest to be my help. though first To offend. faltering long. and perturbation. so good. but apparent guilt. and lovely. being naked. as under government well seemed. So fit. She gave me of the tree. how is it now become So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked. Superiour. That from her hand I could suspect no ill. and hast not feared. or what change Absents thee. Love was not in their looks. and hate. To whom the Sovran Presence thus replied.

Because thou hast done this. judged as then best: And on the Serpent thus his curse let fall. Captivity led captive through the air. Son of Mary. (since he no further knew) Nor altered his offence. with shame nigh overwhelmed. thou bruise his heel. Even he. triumphed In open show. thus abashed replied. Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. The realm itself of Satan. like lightning. then verified When Jesus. rising from his grave Spoiled Principalities and Powers. each beast of the field. thou in sorrow Shalt eat thereof.Unseemly to bear rule. Woman. As vitiated in nature: More to know Concerned not Man. and. So spake this oracle. Which when the Lord God heard. concerning which I charged thee. who now foretold his fatal bruise. he over thee shall rule. without delay To judgement he proceeded on the accused Serpent. yet God at last To Satan first in sin his doom applied. he thus to Eve in few. Saw Satan fall. hadst thou known thyself aright. though brute. justly then accursed. Her seed shall bruise thy head. who made him instrument Of mischief. The Serpent me beguiled. with ascension bright. And eaten of the tree. And dust shalt eat all the days of thy life. Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth Unbid. Prince of the air. and between thine and her seed. and to thy husband's will Thine shall submit. and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. long usurped. second Eve. down from Heaven. Say. children thou shalt bring In sorrow forth. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. and polluted from the end Of his creation. what is this which thou hast done? To whom sad Eve. unable to transfer The guilt on him. thou art accursed Above all cattle. yet not before her Judge Bold or loquacious. which was thy part And person. So having said. On Adam last thus judgement he pronounced. Confessing soon. Upon thy belly groveling thou shalt go. then. Whom he shall tread at last under our feet. 160 . Between thee and the woman I will put Enmity. Thou shalt not eat thereof: Cursed is the ground for thy sake. all the days of thy life. And to the Woman thus his sentence turned. and I did eat. Though in mysterious terms. saying.

since the Fiend passed through. And the instant stroke of death. O Son. so now. As father of his family. Removed far off. or slain. if mishap. Into his blissful bosom reassumed In glory. Arraying. let us try Adventurous work. covered from his Father's sight. Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid. and shalt to dust return. But. and happier seat provides For us. ere thus was sinned and judged on Earth. as of old. By secretest conveyance. to him appeased All. why sit we here each other viewing Idly. he clad Their nakedness with skins of beasts. And thought not much to clothe his enemies. disdained not to begin Thenceforth the form of servant to assume. Powerful at greatest distance to unite. what had passed with Man Recounted. his offspring dear? It cannot be But that success attends him. In counterview within the gates. Or sympathy. with fury driven By his avengers. mixing intercession sweet. that now Must suffer change. with his robe of righteousness. belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos. thrives In other worlds. who thus now to Death began. Ere this he had returned. yet to thy power and mine Not unagreeable. So judged he Man. my shade Inseparable. For dust thou art. With secret amity. things of like kind. much more. As when he washed his servants feet. or some connatural force. For Death from Sin no power can separate. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise. and dominion given me large Beyond this deep. denounced that day. know thy birth. but inward nakedness. then. whatever draws me on. while Satan.Till thou return unto the ground. lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable. Wings growing. impervious. for thou Out of the ground wast taken. Within the gates of Hell sat Sin and Death. to found a path 161 . Thou. since no place like this Can fit his punishment. both Judge and Saviour sent. our great author. pitying how they stood Before him naked to the air. Nor he their outward only with the skins Of beasts. though all-knowing. must with me along. Sin opening. or their revenge. To him with swift ascent he up returned. Opprobrious. Mean while. that now Stood open wide.

smote. Easing their passage hence. cold and dry. easy. Smooth. broad as the gate. And with Asphaltick slime. and with power (their power was great) Hovering upon the waters. come flying. the rest his look Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move. So. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl. from hence a passage broad. So saying. together crouded drove. As with a trident. Then both from out Hell-gates. to a field. Xerxes. though many a league remote. the liberty of Greece to yoke. as in raging sea Tost up and down. Leads thee. Forfeit to Death. a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host. Against the day of battle. Go. whither Fate. floating once. Flew diverse. the following day. Where armies lie encamped. Deep to the roots of Hell the gathered beach They fastened. blowing adverse Upon the Cronian sea. From each side shoaling towards the mouth of Hell. what they met Solid or slimy. if great things to small may be compared. As when two polar winds. lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death. 162 . Sagacious of his quarry from so far. Or transmigration. and inclination strong. so strongly drawn By this new-felt attraction and instinct. The aggregated soil Death with his mace petrifick.Over this main from Hell to that new world. and the mole immense wrought on Over the foaming deep high-arched. into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos. and upturned His nostril wide into the murky air. in bloody fight: So scented the grim Feature. such a scent I draw Of carnage. and fixed as firm As Delos. Where Satan now prevails. Whom thus the meager Shadow answered soon. Nor can I miss the way. down to Hell. inoffensive. but afford thee equal aid. nor err The way. with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. for intercourse. as their lot shall lead. that stop the imagined way Beyond Petsora eastward. a bridge Of length prodigious. and taste The savour of death from all things there that live: Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest Be wanting. together drive Mountains of ice. thou leading. to the rich Cathaian coast. damp and dark. prey innumerable. joining to the wall Immoveable of this now fenceless world. I shall not lag behind.

with joy And tidings fraught. He. Hell With long reach interposed. but shun The present. following the track Of Satan to the self-same place where he First lighted from his wing. Long he admiring stood. saw their shame that sought Vain covertures. And of this World. that past. but those his children dear Their parent soon discerned. And at the brink of Chaos. and listening where the hapless pair Sat in their sad discourse. to each of these three places led. Came to the sea: and. Europe with Asia joined. and prime architect: For I no sooner in my heart divined. over Hellespont Bridging his way. but when he saw descend The Son of God to judge them. fearing. after Eve seduced. Thou art their author. Thy trophies! which thou viewest as not thine own. Now had they brought the work by wonderous art Pontifical.From Susa. not hoping to escape. saw his guileful act By Eve. And now their way to Earth they had descried. behold! Satan. terrified He fled. Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering His zenith. who to meet him came. his fair Enchanting daughter. his Memnonian palace high. Over the vexed abyss. To Paradise first tending. and at sight Of that stupendious bridge his joy encreased. My heart. Thence gathered his own doom. and. though in disguise. and. too fast they made And durable! And now in little space The confines met of empyrean Heaven. on the left hand. returned By night. a ridge of pendant rock. while the sun in Aries rose: Disguised he came. thus the silence broke. to the outside bare Of this round world: With pins of adamant And chains they made all fast. unminded slunk Into the wood fast by. Great joy was at their meeting. changing shape. three several ways In sight. to Hell he now returned. when. what his wrath Might suddenly inflict. O Parent. these are thy magnifick deeds. and various plaint. unhoped Met. though all unweeting. To observe the sequel. but of future time. his offspring dear. and landed safe From out of Chaos. near the foot Of this new wonderous pontifice. guilty. which understood Not instant. in likeness of an Angel bright. seconded Upon her husband. And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves. which by a secret harmony 163 . till Sin.

Antagonist of Heaven's Almighty King.Still moves with thine. And henceforth monarchy with thee divide Of all things. That thou on earth hadst prospered. and be strong! 164 . there let him still victor sway. There dwell. with this glorious work. Therefore. sole lord of all declared. Mine. and overlay. Though distant from thee worlds between. from this new world Retiring. There didst not. by his own doom alienated. which thy looks Now also evidence. and thou Son and Grandchild both. Whom thus the Prince of darkness answered glad. one continent Of easy thorough-fare. that so near Heaven's door Triumphal with triumphal act have met. Thine now is all this world. and create Plenipotent on earth. and made one realm. of all The infernal empire. To my associate Powers. parted by the empyreal bounds. joined in connexion sweet. confined Within Hell-gates till now. Thou hast achieved our liberty. of matchless might Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now My hold of this new kingdom all depends.) Amply have merited of me. Hell and this world. and with them rejoice. Chiefly on Man. one realm. here thou shalt monarch reign. As battle hath adjudged. among these numerous orbs. the affairs of Hell No detriment need fear. Such fatal consequence unites us three! Hell could no longer hold us in our bounds. High proof ye now have given to be the race Of Satan (for I glory in the name. All yours. Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure Detain from following thy illustrious track. with this thy son. Him first make sure your thrall. If your joint power prevail. while I Descend through darkness. My substitutes I send ye. Fair Daughter. and fully avenged Our foil in Heaven. Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit. Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne. With this portentous bridge. You two this way. the dark abyss. and lastly kill. thence on the earth Dominion exercise and in the air. thou us impowered To fortify thus far. yet felt. from thy orbicular world. and reign in bliss. them to acquaint With these successes. but straight I felt. on your road with ease. thy virtue hath won What thy hands builded not. thy wisdom gained With odds what war hath lost. His quadrature. That I must after thee. go. right down to Paradise descend.

over the snowy plains. won. for those. or Bactrin Sophi. That scorned his indignation: Through the gate. Thrones. In show plebeian Angel militant Of lowest order. or brighter. solicitous what chance Might intercept their emperour sent. and with like joy Congratulant approached him. Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim: Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers. his fulgent head And shape star-bright appeared. they with speed Their course through thickest constellations held. Wide open and unguarded. the rest were all Far to the inland retired. By Astracan. leaves all waste beyond The realm of Aladule. reduced in careful watch Round their metropolis. There kept their watch the legions. so by allusion called Of that bright star to Satan paragoned. and round about him saw unseen: At last. at the upper end Was placed in regal lustre. and now expecting Each hour their great adventurer. passed. in his retreat To Tauris or Casbeen: So these. about the walls Of Pandemonium. from the search Of foreign worlds: He through the midst unmarked. and with these words attention. And all about found desolate. As when the Tartar from his Russian foe. as from a cloud. Flown to the upper world. And with rebounding surge the bars assailed. Down a while He sat. clad With what permissive glory since his fall Was left him. from the horns Of Turkish crescent. the blasted stars looked wan. Retires. And planets. invisible Ascended his high throne. had left their charge. planet-struck. real eclipse Then suffered. Powers. Raised from their dark Divan. The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate: On either side Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed. and whom they wished beheld. Virtues. Satan passed. Appointed to sit there. left desart utmost Hell Many a dark league. while the Grand In council sat.So saying he dismissed them. 165 . Dominations. under state Of richest texture spread. Princedoms. who with hand Silence. city and proud seat Of Lucifer. Spreading their bane. and from the door Of that Plutonian hall. so he Departing gave command. the late Heaven-banished host. which. or false glitter: All amazed At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throng Bent their aspect. and they observed.

For in possession such, not only of right, I call ye, and declare ye now; returned Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth Triumphant out of this infernal pit Abominable, accursed, the house of woe, And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess, As Lords, a spacious world, to our native Heaven Little inferiour, by my adventure hard With peril great achieved. Long were to tell What I have done; what suffered;with what pain Voyaged th' unreal, vast, unbounded deep Of horrible confusion; over which By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved, To expedite your glorious march; but I Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride The untractable abyss, plunged in the womb Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild; That, jealous of their secrets, fiercely opposed My journey strange, with clamorous uproar Protesting Fate supreme; thence how I found The new created world, which fame in Heaven Long had foretold, a fabrick wonderful Of absolute perfection! therein Man Placed in a Paradise, by our exile Made happy: Him by fraud I have seduced From his Creator; and, the more to encrease Your wonder, with an apple; he, thereat Offended, worth your laughter! hath given up Both his beloved Man, and all his world, To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us, Without our hazard, labour, or alarm; To range in, and to dwell, and over Man To rule, as over all he should have ruled. True is, me also he hath judged, or rather Me not, but the brute serpent in whose shape Man I deceived: that which to me belongs, Is enmity which he will put between Me and mankind; I am to bruise his heel; His seed, when is not set, shall bruise my head: A world who would not purchase with a bruise, Or much more grievous pain?--Ye have the account Of my performance: What remains, ye Gods, But up, and enter now into full bliss? So having said, a while he stood, expecting Their universal shout, and high applause, To fill his ear; when, contrary, he hears On all sides, from innumerable tongues, A dismal universal hiss, the sound Of publick scorn; he wondered, but not long Had leisure, wondering at himself now more, His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare; 166

His arms clung to his ribs; his legs entwining Each other, till supplanted down he fell A monstrous serpent on his belly prone, Reluctant, but in vain; a greater power Now ruled him, punished in the shape he sinned, According to his doom: he would have spoke, But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue To forked tongue; for now were all transformed Alike, to serpents all, as accessories To his bold riot: Dreadful was the din Of hissing through the hall, thick swarming now With complicated monsters head and tail, Scorpion, and Asp, and Amphisbaena dire, Cerastes horned, Hydrus, and Elops drear, And Dipsas; (not so thick swarmed once the soil Bedropt with blood of Gorgon, or the isle Ophiusa,) but still greatest he the midst, Now Dragon grown, larger than whom the sun Ingendered in the Pythian vale or slime, Huge Python, and his power no less he seemed Above the rest still to retain; they all Him followed, issuing forth to the open field, Where all yet left of that revolted rout, Heaven-fallen, in station stood or just array; Sublime with expectation when to see In triumph issuing forth their glorious Chief; They saw, but other sight instead! a croud Of ugly serpents; horrour on them fell, And horrid sympathy; for, what they saw, They felt themselves, now changing; down their arms, Down fell both spear and shield; down they as fast; And the dire hiss renewed, and the dire form Catched, by contagion; like in punishment, As in their crime. Thus was the applause they meant, Turned to exploding hiss, triumph to shame Cast on themselves from their own mouths. There stood A grove hard by, sprung up with this their change, His will who reigns above, to aggravate Their penance, laden with fair fruit, like that Which grew in Paradise, the bait of Eve Used by the Tempter: on that prospect strange Their earnest eyes they fixed, imagining For one forbidden tree a multitude Now risen, to work them further woe or shame; Yet, parched with scalding thirst and hunger fierce, Though to delude them sent, could not abstain; But on they rolled in heaps, and, up the trees Climbing, sat thicker than the snaky locks That curled Megaera: greedily they plucked The fruitage fair to sight, like that which grew Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed; 167

This more delusive, not the touch, but taste Deceived; they, fondly thinking to allay Their appetite with gust, instead of fruit Chewed bitter ashes, which the offended taste With spattering noise rejected: oft they assayed, Hunger and thirst constraining; drugged as oft, With hatefullest disrelish writhed their jaws, With soot and cinders filled; so oft they fell Into the same illusion, not as Man Whom they triumphed once lapsed. Thus were they plagued And worn with famine, long and ceaseless hiss, Till their lost shape, permitted, they resumed; Yearly enjoined, some say, to undergo, This annual humbling certain numbered days, To dash their pride, and joy, for Man seduced. However, some tradition they dispersed Among the Heathen, of their purchase got, And fabled how the Serpent, whom they called Ophion, with Eurynome, the wide-Encroaching Eve perhaps, had first the rule Of high Olympus; thence by Saturn driven And Ops, ere yet Dictaean Jove was born. Mean while in Paradise the hellish pair Too soon arrived; Sin, there in power before, Once actual; now in body, and to dwell Habitual habitant; behind her Death, Close following pace for pace, not mounted yet On his pale horse: to whom Sin thus began. Second of Satan sprung, all-conquering Death! What thinkest thou of our empire now, though earned With travel difficult, not better far Than still at Hell's dark threshold to have sat watch, Unnamed, undreaded, and thyself half starved? Whom thus the Sin-born monster answered soon. To me, who with eternal famine pine, Alike is Hell, or Paradise, or Heaven; There best, where most with ravine I may meet; Which here, though plenteous, all too little seems To stuff this maw, this vast unhide-bound corps. To whom the incestuous mother thus replied. Thou therefore on these herbs, and fruits, and flowers, Feed first; on each beast next, and fish, and fowl; No homely morsels! and, whatever thing The sithe of Time mows down, devour unspared; Till I, in Man residing, through the race, His thoughts, his looks, words, actions, all infect; And season him thy last and sweetest prey. This said, they both betook them several ways, Both to destroy, or unimmortal make All kinds, and for destruction to mature Sooner or later; which the Almighty seeing, 168

From his transcendent seat the Saints among, To those bright Orders uttered thus his voice. See, with what heat these dogs of Hell advance To waste and havock yonder world, which I So fair and good created; and had still Kept in that state, had not the folly of Man Let in these wasteful furies, who impute Folly to me; so doth the Prince of Hell And his adherents, that with so much ease I suffer them to enter and possess A place so heavenly; and, conniving, seem To gratify my scornful enemies, That laugh, as if, transported with some fit Of passion, I to them had quitted all, At random yielded up to their misrule; And know not that I called, and drew them thither, My Hell-hounds, to lick up the draff and filth Which Man's polluting sin with taint hath shed On what was pure; til, crammed and gorged, nigh burst With sucked and glutted offal, at one sling Of thy victorious arm, well-pleasing Son, Both Sin, and Death, and yawning Grave, at last, Through Chaos hurled, obstruct the mouth of Hell For ever, and seal up his ravenous jaws. Then Heaven and Earth renewed shall be made pure To sanctity, that shall receive no stain: Till then, the curse pronounced on both precedes. He ended, and the heavenly audience loud Sung Halleluiah, as the sound of seas, Through multitude that sung: Just are thy ways, Righteous are thy decrees on all thy works; Who can extenuate thee? Next, to the Son, Destined Restorer of mankind, by whom New Heaven and Earth shall to the ages rise, Or down from Heaven descend.--Such was their song; While the Creator, calling forth by name His mighty Angels, gave them several charge, As sorted best with present things. The sun Had first his precept so to move, so shine, As might affect the earth with cold and heat Scarce tolerable; and from the north to call Decrepit winter; from the south to bring Solstitial summer's heat. To the blanc moon Her office they prescribed; to the other five Their planetary motions, and aspects, In sextile, square, and trine, and opposite, Of noxious efficacy, and when to join In synod unbenign; and taught the fixed Their influence malignant when to shower, Which of them rising with the sun, or falling, Should prove tempestuous: To the winds they set 169

to them day Had unbenighted shone. rend the woods. which Adam saw 170 . thwart of these. except to those Beyond the polar circles. Glared on him passing. To recompense his distance. and shore. Vapour. At that tasted fruit The sun. Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds. which had forbid the snow From cold Estotiland. how had the world Inhabited. and the Virgin. Up to the Tropick Crab: thence down amain By Leo. and mist. Thus began Outrage from lifeless things. but fled him. and stormy gust and flaw. produced Like change on sea and land. and Argestes loud. Bursting their brazen dungeon. Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat? These changes in the Heavens. From the sun's axle. though sinless. the sun Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road Like distant breadth to Taurus with the seven Atlantick Sisters. they with labour pushed Oblique the centrick globe: Some say. and the Scales. and the Spartan Twins. though slow. These were from without The growing miseries. or. turned His course intended. through fierce antipathy: Beast now with beast 'gan war. twice ten degrees and more. and seas upturn. Eurus and Zephyr. else had the spring Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers. to bring in change Of seasons to each clime. Daughter of Sin. and south as far Beneath Magellan. Some say. with their lateral noise. and Caecias. else. Corrupt and pestilent: Now from the north Of Norumbega. in their sight Had rounded still the horizon. Equal in days and nights. With adverse blast upturns them from the south Notus. air. Sirocco and Libecchio. as from Thyestean banquet. with countenance grim. more than now. As deep as Capricorn. sideral blast. and Afer black with thunderous clouds From Serraliona. he bid his Angels turn ascanse The poles of earth. And fish with fish. armed with ice. Devoured each other. Boreas. the thunder when to roll With terrour through the dark aereal hall. and the Samoed shore. as fierce.Their corners. And snow. while the low sun. And Thrascias. and exhalation hot. to graze the herb all leaving. and hail. nor stood much in awe Of Man. and fowl with fowl. when with bluster to confound Sea. and not known Or east or west. among the irrational Death introduced. but Discord first.

but. And sleep secure. And. and me so late The glory of that glory. the spirit of Man Which God inspired. For this we may thank Adam! but his thanks Shall be the execration: so. and be earth Insensible! How glad would lay me down As in my mother's lap! There I should rest. and lengthened out To deathless pain? How gladly would I meet Mortality my sentence. I deserved it. it were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust. unable to perform Thy terms too hard. in a troubled sea of passion tost. all from me Shall with a fierce reflux on me rebound. Encrease and multiply. Yet one doubt Pursues me still. Or multiply. if here would end The misery. once heard Delightfully. no fear of worse To me. To the loss of that. lest all I cannot die. On me. but curses on my head? Who of all ages to succeed. whom to behold was then my highth Of happiness!--Yet well. O fleeting joys Of Paradise. Sufficient penalty. Maker. his dreadful voice no more Would thunder in my ears. O voice.Already in part. Thus to disburden sought with sad complaint. Lest that pure breath of life. as on their natural center. or shall beget. but this will not serve: All that I eat or drink. though in their place. To sorrow abandoned. dear bought with lasting woes! Did I request thee. Is propagated curse. or here place In this delicious garden? As my will Concurred not to my being. but worse felt within. by which I was to hold The good I sought not. who now become Accursed. why hast thou added The sense of endless woes? Inexplicable Why am I mocked with death. cannot together perish 171 . though hid in gloomiest shade. feeling The evil on him brought by me. and to my offspring. Now death to hear! for what can I encrease. would torment me With cruel expectation. besides Mine own that bide upon me. light Heavy. O miserable of happy! Is this the end Of this new glorious world. and would bear My own deservings. of blessed? hide me from the face Of God. from my clay To mould me Man? did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me. will curse My head? Ill fare our ancestor impure. Desirous to resign and render back All I received.

For anger's sake. as argument Of weakness. as the source and spring Of all corruption. By which all causes else. finite to infinite. me only. For one man's fault. Bereaving sense. Forced I absolve: all my evasions vain. In punished Man. why should all mankind. Or in some other dismal place. Man is not so. after all disputes.--Ay me!that fear Comes thundering back with dreadful revolution On my defenceless head. Will he draw out. as I supposed. all the blame lights due. not of power. both mind and will depraved Not to do only. Satisfied never? That were to extend His sentence beyond dust and Nature's law. what dies but what had life And sin? The body properly had neither. then. All of me then shall die: let this appease The doubt. But say That death be not one stroke. Than all the world much heavier. whom death must end? Can he make deathless death? That were to make Strange contradiction. how would you bless Me. It guiltless? But from me what can proceed. How can he exercise Wrath without end on Man. both Death and I Am found eternal. act. Nor I on my part single.With this corporeal clod. Not to the extent of their own sphere. in the grave. according still To the reception of their matter. to satisfy his rigour. Sons! O. but to will the same With me? How can they then acquitted stand In sight of God? Him. though through mazes. Is his wrath also? Be it. who knows But I shall die a living death? O thought Horrid. in me all Posterity stands cursed: Fair patrimony That I must leave ye. if true! Yet why? It was but breath Of life that sinned. And reasonings. But all corrupt. and so last To perpetuity. heavier than the earth to bear. though divided 172 . So might the wrath! Fond wish!couldst thou support That burden. and without me. which to God himself Impossible is held. For though the Lord of all be infinite. lead me still But to my own conviction: first and last On me. thus guiltless be condemned. were I able To waste it all myself. but endless misery From this day onward. and leave ye none! So disinherited. But mortal doomed. and incorporate both. since human reach no further knows. now your curse! Ah. which I feel begun Both in me.

Wholesome. Like his. Out of my sight. O fountains. with one thrice-acceptable stroke To end me? Shall Truth fail to keep her word. And understood not all was but a show.With that bad Woman? Thus. what thou desirest. and oft Cursed his creation. O woods. and dreadful gloom. hillocks. and concludes thee miserable Beyond all past example and future. all but a rib Crooked by nature. may show Thy inward fraud.-Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld. with damps. Death as oft accused Of tardy execution. out of which I find no way. pretended To hellish falshood. longing to be seen. with the serpent meeting. dales. thou Serpent! That name best Befits thee with him leagued. when least was safe. but that thy shape. Desolate where she sat. snare them! But for thee I had persisted happy. And what thou fearest. and resound far other song. and cool. not now. lest that too heavenly form. Justice Divine Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries. imagined wise. approaching nigh. Well if thrown out. from deep to deeper plunged! Thus Adam to himself lamented loud. Fooled and beguiled. and disdained Not to be trusted. nothing wants. Through the still night. Rejected my forewarning. and colour serpentine. mature. Justice Divine not hasten to be just? But Death comes not at call. Constant. Which to his evil conscience represented All things with double terrour: On the ground Outstretched he lay. To Satan only like both crime and doom. proof against all assaults. but. to warn all creatures from thee Henceforth. by him thou. from me drawn. O Conscience! into what abyss of fears And horrours hast thou driven me. had not thy pride And wandering vanity. and mild. thyself as false And hateful. since denounced The day of his offence. on the cold ground. as now appears. bent. as supernumerary 173 . I by thee To trust thee from my side. and bowers! With other echo late I taught your shades To answer. him overweening To over-reach. More to the part sinister. Rather than solid virtue. but with black air Accompanied. Said he. as ere Man fell. alike destroys all hope Of refuge. Why comes not Death. Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed: But her with stern regard he thus repelled. Though by the Devil himself.

scarce one short hour perhaps. withheld By parents. just object of his ire! She ended weeping. And to the place of judgement will return. Between us two let there be peace. Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Through her perverseness. Whereon I live. Immoveable. one enmity Against a foe by doom express assigned us.To my just number found. That cruel Serpent: On me exercise not Thy hatred for this misery befallen. He added not. that all The sentence. create at last This novelty on earth. already linked and wedlock-bound To a fell adversary. both joining. I against God and thee. Adam! witness Heaven What love sincere. And strait conjunction with this sex: for either He never shall find out fit mate. besought His peace. Or find some other way to generate Mankind? This mischief had not been befallen. thy aid. me than thyself More miserable! Both have sinned. till peace obtained from fault 174 . and houshold peace confound. Not so repulsed. and thus proceeded in her plaint. from thy head removed. My only strength and stay: Forlorn of thee. On me already lost. thy gentle looks. bereave me not. Thy counsel. but such As some misfortune brings him. that peopled highest Heaven With Spirits masculine. may light On me. And more that shall befall. his hate or shame: Which infinite calamity shall cause To human life. O! why did God. or mistake. Creator wise. Me. this fair defect Of nature. embracing them. at his feet Fell humble. if she love. as Angels. and reverence in my heart I bear thee. in this uttermost distress. Unhappily deceived! Thy suppliant I beg. or his happiest choice too late Shall meet. and unweeting have offended. There with my cries importune Heaven. Forsake me not thus. As joined in injuries. and clasp thy knees. but shall see her gained By a far worse. where subsist? While yet we live. Whither shall I betake me. and. or. innumerable Disturbances on earth through female snares. and from her turned. with tears that ceased not flowing And tresses all disordered. without feminine.but thou Against God only. me only. but Eve. and not fill the world at once With Men. sole cause to thee of all this woe. and her lowly plight.

though sharp and sad. his aid: As one disarmed. Found so erroneous. in thy power It lies. To whom thus Eve. whom she had displeased. thence by just event Found so unfortunate: Nevertheless. whose thou feelest as yet least part. And thus with peaceful words upraised her soon. in our share of woe. but a slow-paced evil. Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking. I to that place Would speed before thee. Will prove no sudden. hopeful to regain Thy love. from thee I will not hide What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen. his anger all he lost. A long day's dying. Or end. how we may lighten Each other's burden. replied. And my displeasure bearest so ill. Our own begotten. That on my head all might be visited. vile as I am. to being yet unbegot. his life so late.--let us no more contend. to place Of new acceptance. and be louder heard. Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven. Childless thou art. blamed enough elsewhere.Acknowledged and deplored. Tending to some relief of our extremes. Now at his feet submissive in distress. But rise. And to our seed (O hapless seed!) derived. in Adam wrought Commiseration: Soon his heart relented Towards her. alas! Bear thine own first. and too desirous. ill able to sustain His full wrath. and of our loins to bring Into this cursed world a woeful race. as before. If care of our descent perplex us most. childless remain: so Death 175 . Restored by thee. yet tolerable. That after wretched life must be at last Food for so foul a monster. and sole delight. Adam. the sole contentment of my heart Living or dying. Which must be born to certain woe. by sad experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can find. recovering heart. nor blame Each other. and of easier choice. and miserable it is To be to others cause of misery. to augment our pain. As in our evils. devoured By Death at last. and by me exposed. if aught I see. So now of what thou knowest not. who desirest The punishment all on thyself. but strive In offices of love. If prayers Could alter high decrees. Since this day's death denounced. yet ere conception to prevent The race unblest. His counsel. To me committed. Unwary.

Shall be deceived his glut, and with us two Be forced to satisfy his ravenous maw. But if thou judge it hard and difficult, Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain From love's due rights, nuptial embraces sweet; And with desire to languish without hope, Before the present object languishing With like desire; which would be misery And torment less than none of what we dread; Then, both ourselves and seed at once to free From what we fear for both, let us make short, -Let us seek Death; -- or, he not found, supply With our own hands his office on ourselves: Why stand we longer shivering under fears, That show no end but death, and have the power, Of many ways to die the shortest choosing, Destruction with destruction to destroy? -She ended here, or vehement despair Broke off the rest: so much of death her thoughts Had entertained, as dyed her cheeks with pale. But Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed, To better hopes his more attentive mind Labouring had raised; and thus to Eve replied. Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems To argue in thee something more sublime And excellent, than what thy mind contemns; But self-destruction therefore sought, refutes That excellence thought in thee; and implies, Not thy contempt, but anguish and regret For loss of life and pleasure overloved. Or if thou covet death, as utmost end Of misery, so thinking to evade The penalty pronounced; doubt not but God Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire, than so To be forestalled; much more I fear lest death, So snatched, will not exempt us from the pain We are by doom to pay; rather, such acts Of contumacy will provoke the Highest To make death in us live: Then let us seek Some safer resolution, which methinks I have in view, calling to mind with heed Part of our sentence, that thy seed shall bruise The Serpent's head; piteous amends! unless Be meant, whom I conjecture, our grand foe, Satan; who, in the serpent, hath contrived Against us this deceit: To crush his head Would be revenge indeed! which will be lost By death brought on ourselves, or childless days Resolved, as thou proposest; so our foe Shal 'scape his punishment ordained, and we Instead shall double ours upon our heads. 176

No more be mentioned then of violence Against ourselves; and wilful barrenness, That cuts us off from hope; and savours only Rancour and pride, impatience and despite, Reluctance against God and his just yoke Laid on our necks. Remember with what mild And gracious temper he both heard, and judged, Without wrath or reviling; we expected Immediate dissolution, which we thought Was meant by death that day; when lo!to thee Pains only in child-bearing were foretold, And bringing forth; soon recompensed with joy, Fruit of thy womb: On me the curse aslope Glanced on the ground; with labour I must earn My bread; what harm? Idleness had been worse; My labour will sustain me; and, lest cold Or heat should injure us, his timely care Hath, unbesought, provided; and his hands Clothed us unworthy, pitying while he judged; How much more, if we pray him, will his ear Be open, and his heart to pity incline, And teach us further by what means to shun The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow! Which now the sky, with various face, begins To show us in this mountain; while the winds Blow moist and keen, shattering the graceful locks Of these fair spreading trees; which bids us seek Some better shroud, some better warmth to cherish Our limbs benummed, ere this diurnal star Leave cold the night, how we his gathered beams Reflected may with matter sere foment; Or, by collision of two bodies, grind The air attrite to fire; as late the clouds Justling, or pushed with winds, rude in their shock, Tine the slant lightning; whose thwart flame, driven down Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine; And sends a comfortable heat from far, Which might supply the sun: Such fire to use, And what may else be remedy or cure To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought, He will instruct us praying, and of grace Beseeching him; so as we need not fear To pass commodiously this life, sustained By him with many comforts, till we end In dust, our final rest and native home. What better can we do, than, to the place Repairing where he judged us, prostrate fall Before him reverent; and there confess Humbly our faults, and pardon beg; with tears Watering the ground, and with our sighs the air

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Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek Book XI Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn From his displeasure; in whose look serene, When angry most he seemed and most severe, What else but favour, grace, and mercy, shone? So spake our father penitent; nor Eve Felt less remorse: they, forthwith to the place Repairing where he judged them, prostrate fell Before him reverent; and both confessed Humbly their faults, and pardon begged; with tears Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek. Thus they, in lowliest plight, repentant stood Praying; for from the mercy-seat above Prevenient grace descending had removed The stony from their hearts, and made new flesh Regenerate grow instead; that sighs now breathed Unutterable; which the Spirit of prayer Inspired, and winged for Heaven with speedier flight Than loudest oratory: Yet their port Not of mean suitors; nor important less Seemed their petition, than when the ancient pair In fables old, less ancient yet than these, Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore The race of mankind drowned, before the shrine Of Themis stood devout. To Heaven their prayers Flew up, nor missed the way, by envious winds Blown vagabond or frustrate: in they passed Dimensionless through heavenly doors; then clad With incense, where the golden altar fumed, By their great intercessour, came in sight Before the Father's throne: them the glad Son Presenting, thus to intercede began. See$ Father, what first-fruits on earth are sprung From thy implanted grace in Man; these sighs And prayers, which in this golden censer mixed With incense, I thy priest before thee bring; Fruits of more pleasing savour, from thy seed Sown with contrition in his heart, than those Which, his own hand manuring, all the trees Of Paradise could have produced, ere fallen From innocence. Now therefore, bend thine ear To supplication; hear his sighs, though mute; Unskilful with what words to pray, let me Interpret for him; me, his advocate 178

And propitiation; all his works on me, Good, or not good, ingraft; my merit those Shall perfect, and for these my death shall pay. Accept me; and, in me, from these receive The smell of peace toward mankind: let him live Before thee reconciled, at least his days Numbered, though sad; till death, his doom, (which I To mitigate thus plead, not to reverse,) To better life shall yield him: where with me All my redeemed may dwell in joy and bliss; Made one with me, as I with thee am one. To whom the Father, without cloud, serene. All thy request for Man, accepted Son, Obtain; all thy request was my decree: But, longer in that Paradise to dwell, The law I gave to Nature him forbids: Those pure immortal elements, that know, No gross, no unharmonious mixture foul, Eject him, tainted now; and purge him off, As a distemper, gross, to air as gross, And mortal food; as may dispose him best For dissolution wrought by sin, that first Distempered all things, and of incorrupt Corrupted. I, at first, with two fair gifts Created him endowed; with happiness, And immortality: that fondly lost, This other served but to eternize woe; Till I provided death: so death becomes His final remedy; and, after life, Tried in sharp tribulation, and refined By faith and faithful works, to second life, Waked in the renovation of the just, Resigns him up with Heaven and Earth renewed. But let us call to synod all the Blest, Through Heaven's wide bounds: from them I will not hide My judgements; how with mankind I proceed, As how with peccant Angels late they saw, And in their state, though firm, stood more confirmed. He ended, and the Son gave signal high To the bright minister that watched; he blew His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps When God descended, and perhaps once more To sound at general doom. The angelick blast Filled all the regions: from their blisful bowers Of amarantine shade, fountain or spring, By the waters of life, where'er they sat In fellowships of joy, the sons of light Hasted, resorting to the summons high; And took their seats; till from his throne supreme The Almighty thus pronounced his sovran will. O Sons, like one of us Man is become 179

reveal To Adam what shall come in future days. and denounce To them. the pastoral reed Of Hermes. Self-left. dream at least to live For ever. and the arch-angelick Power prepared For swift descent. Dismiss them not disconsolate. Happier! had it sufficed him to have known Good by itself. Leucothea waked. And live for ever. Take to thee from among the Cherubim Thy choice of flaming warriours. and from the Paradise of God Without remorse drive out the sinful pair. He ceased. To re-salute the world with sacred light. though sorrowing. lest the Fiend. and more wakeful than to drouse. longer than they move. some new trouble raise: Haste thee. with him the cohort bright Of watchful Cherubim: four faces each Had. Charmed with Arcadian pipe. from thence Perpetual banishment. Or in behalf of Man. all their shape Spangled with eyes more numerous than those Of Argus. or to invade Vacant possession. So send them forth. Cherubick watch. and eat. like a double Janus. all approach far off to fright. Lest therefore his now bolder hand Reach also of the tree of life. Michael. From hallowed ground the unholy.) all terrour hide. lest they faint At the sad sentence rigorously urged. yet in peace: And on the east side of the garden place. but let him boast His knowledge of good lost. fitter soil. and of a sword the flame Wide-waving. And send him from the garden forth to till The ground whence he was taken. With whose stolen fruit Man once more to delude. As I shall thee enlighten. and all my trees their prey. My motions in him. and prays contrite. since his taste Of that defended fruit. and to their progeny. Mean while. and evil not at all. And guard all passage to the tree of life: Lest Paradise a receptacle prove To Spirits foul. and with tears Bewailing their excess. Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs. He sorrows now. or his opiate rod. repents. how variable and vain. If patiently thy bidding they obey. to remove him I decree. Yet. this my behest have thou in charge. and with fresh dews imbalmed 180 .To know both good and evil. and evil got. His heart I know. intermix My covenant in the Woman's seed renewed. (For I behold them softened.

What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? Here let us live. but with fear yet linked. since by thee Man is to live. and found Strength added from above. but Fate Subscribed not: Nature first gave signs. till day droop.The earth. content. now with sweat imposed. 181 . while here we dwell. So spake. that all The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends. Eve rightly called. Methought I saw him placable and mild. Kneeled. and to my memory His promise. Which. Who highly thus to entitle me vouchsaf'st. that thy seed shall bruise our foe. Eve. nigh in her sight The bird of Jove. For since I sought By prayer the offended Deity to appease. impressed On bird. To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek. next favourable thou. to me reproach Rather belongs. for thee ordained A help. air suddenly eclipsed. though in fallen state. Which thus to Eve his welcome words renewed. or to incline his will. Two birds of gayest plume before him drove. Ill-worthy I such title should belong To me transgressour. beast. though now enjoined Laborious. easily my faith admit. joy. so wished much humbled Eve. Though after sleepless night. am graced The source of life. and we shall live. stooped from his aery tour. mother of all mankind. when Adam and first matron Eve Had ended now their orisons. persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favour. who first brought death on all. who. But. upborne Even to the seat of God. new hope to spring Out of despair. But the field To labour calls us. After short blush of morn. and all dispraise: But infinite in pardon was my Judge. for see!the morn. begins Her rosy progress smiling: let us forth. air. Where'er our day's work lies. Hard to belief may seem. and all things live for Man. Far other name deserving. distrust. that from us aught should ascend to Heaven So prevalent as to concern the mind Of God high-blest. Bending his ear. then not minded in dismay. Mother of all things living. yet this will prayer Or one short sigh of human breath. peace returned Home to my breast. Whence hail to thee. and before him humbled all my heart. yet now Assures me that the bitterness of death Is past. I never from thy side henceforth to stray. became thy snare. All unconcerned with our unrest. That I.

took his way. Which Heaven. which perhaps Of us will soon determine. assassin-like. when the Angels met Jacob in Mahanaim. and morning-light More orient in yon western cloud. and. to Eve thus spake. Not unperceived of Adam. And thither must return. Who knows? or more than this. pursued a gentle brace. and be no more? Why else this double object in our sight Of flight pursued in the air. and what till then our life. O Eve. Against the Syrian king. who to surprise One man. As Raphael. and o'er the ground. because from death released Some days: how long. some further change awaits us nigh. had levied war. 182 . shows Forerunners of his purpose. Adam observed. for by this the heavenly bands Down from a sky of jasper lighted now In Paradise. But solemn and sublime. And slow descends with something heavenly fraught? He erred not. covered with a camp of fire. by his gait. From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill. for I descry. One way the self-same hour? why in the east Darkness ere day's mid-course. War unproclaimed. not unmoved. While the great visitant approached. or impose New laws to be observed. who to Eve. Not that more glorious. that I should much confide. Goodliest of all the forest. haply too secure. some great Potentate Or of the Thrones above. First hunter then. One of the heavenly host. nor sociably mild. With reverence I must meet. That I should fear. which on the flaming mount appeared In Dothan. thus spake.Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods. Nor that. and with his eye the chase Pursuing. and on a hill made halt. of our discharge From penalty. The princely Hierarch In their bright stand there left his Powers. where he saw The field pavilioned with his guardians bright. he alone. by these mute signs in Nature. To find where Adam sheltered. hart and hind. had not doubt And carnal fear that day dimmed Adam's eye. A glorious apparition. Eve$ now expect great tidings. or to warn Us. to seise Possession of the garden. that draws O'er the blue firmament a radiant white. Direct to the eastern gate was bent their flight. that we are dust. such majesty Invests him coming! yet not terrible. None of the meanest. and thou retire. whom not to offend.

and in his hand the spear. which I bred up with tender hand From the first opening bud. worn by kings and heroes old In time of truce. Fit haunt of Gods? where I had hope to spend. over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flowed. to this obscure And wild? how shall we breathe in other air Less pure. the respite of that day That must be mortal to us both. Quiet though sad. And send thee from the garden forth to till The ground whence thou wast taken.He ended: and the Arch-Angel soon drew nigh. and whither wander down Into a lower world. His starry helm unbuckled showed him prime In manhood where youth ended. nuptial bower! by me adorned With what to sight or smell was sweet! from thee How shall I part. That never will in other climate grow.t even. Lament not. and Death. Eve. But longer in this Paradise to dwell Permits not: to remove thee I am come. Not in his shape celestial. O flowers. fitter soil. but his coming thus declared. Defeated of his seisure many days Given thee of grace. Redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim. Iris had dipt the woof. wherein thou mayest repent. or the grain Of Sarra. with audible lament Discovered soon the place of her retire. by his side. and gave ye names! Who now shall rear ye to the sun. Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress. Satan's dire dread. Heaven's high behest no preface needs: Sufficient that thy prayers are heard. hung the sword. native soil! these happy walks and shades. Adam bowed low. Adam. 183 . My early visitation. And one bad act with many deeds well done Mayest cover: Well may then thy Lord. That all his senses bound. He added not. kingly. Livelier than Meliboean. for Adam at the news Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood. accustomed to immortal fruits? Whom thus the Angel interrupted mild. and my last . but as man Clad to meet man. nor set thy heart. worse than of Death! Must I thus leave thee$ Paradise? thus leave Thee. but patiently resign What justly thou hast lost. As in a glistering zodiack. and water from the ambrosial fount? Thee lastly. he. from his state Inclined not. appeased. O unexpected stroke. who unseen Yet all had heard. Eve. or rank Your tribes.

And in performing end us. and air. departing hence. and to my sons relate. Or monument to ages. and his scattered spirits returned. This most afflicts me. and every kind that lives. Departure from this happy place. To Michael thus his humble words addressed. and dejection. 184 . and far off his steps adore. and despair. that.Thus over-fond. or foot-step trace? For though I fled him angry. deprived His blessed countenance: Here I could frequent With worship place by place where he vouchsafed Presence Divine. Celestial. whom to follow thou art bound. on that which is not thine: Thy going is not lonely. or named Of them the highest. thou knowest Heaven his. think there thy native soil. whether among the Thrones. Nor knowing us. sea. thy tidings bring. our sweet Recess. 'On this mount he appeared. which might else in telling wound. and fruits. and pile up every stone Of lustre from the brook. I now Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts Of glory. what besides Of sorrow. yet recalled To life prolonged and promised race. To whom thus Michael with regard benign. and theron Offer sweet-smelling gums. Adam. Where he abides. under this tree 'Stood visible. Fomented by his virtual power and warmed: All the earth he gave thee to possess and rule. if by prayer Incessant I could hope to change the will Of Him who all things can. for such of shape may seem Prince above princes! gently hast thou told Thy message. As from his face I shall be hid. in memory. here with him at this fountain talked: So many grateful altars I would rear Of grassy turf. Not this rock only. Our frailty can sustain. among these pines his voice 'I heard. Blown stifling back on him that breathes it forth: Therefore to his great bidding I submit. nor known: And. with thee goes Thy husband. by this from the cold sudden damp Recovering. Adam. I would not cease To weary him with my assiduous cries: But prayer against his absolute decree No more avails than breath against the wind. and all the Earth. and only consolation left Familiar to our eyes! all places else Inhospitable appear. and flowers: In yonder nether world where shall I seek His bright appearances. his Omnipresence fills Land. and desolate.

No despicable gift. or Eden: this had been Perhaps thy capital seat. As once thou sleptst. to celebrate And reverence thee. and to temper joy with fear And pious sorrow. while she to life was formed. It was a hill. thereby to learn True patience. the Tempter set Our second Adam. If so I may attain.So both ascend In the visions of God. and their glory. equally inured By moderation either state to bear. -. to the evil turn My obvious breast. in clearest ken. the path Thou leadest me. I follow thee. know. nor wider looking round. To Paquin of Sinaean kings. as here. supernal grace contending With sinfulness of men. and of his presence many a sign Still following thee. their great progenitor. while thou to foresight wakest. surmise not then His presence to these narrow bounds confined Of Paradise. and in plain. Which that thou mayest believe. Stretched out to the amplest reach of prospect lay. Temir's throne. Not higher that hill. But this pre-eminence thou hast lost. brought down To dwell on even ground now with thy sons: Yet doubt not but in valley. and to thy offspring: good with bad Expect to hear. arming to overcome By suffering. safe Guide. and be confirmed Ere thou from hence depart. To whom thus Adam gratefully replied. and will be found alike Present. And Samarchand by Oxus. Ascend. I am sent To show thee what shall come in future days To thee. from whence had spread All generations. in the wilderness. seat of Cathaian Can. from the destined walls Of Cambalu. However chastening. and of his steps the track divine. and thence 185 . let Eve (for I have drenched her eyes) Here sleep below. Of Paradise the highest. and to the hand of Heaven submit. To show him all Earth's kingdoms. still compassing thee round With goodness and paternal love. from whose top The hemisphere of earth. Whereon. Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead Safest thy life. and had hither come From all the ends of the earth. His eye might there command wherever stood City of old or modern fame. for different cause. his face Express. and earn rest from labour won.--Ascend This hill. and best prepared endure Thy mortal passage when it comes. the seat Of mightiest empire. God is.

and Quiloa. to the realm Of Congo. and yet unspoiled Guiana. and all his spirits became entranced. and beheld a field. then. the seat of Montezume. Adam. nor with the snake conspired. and Tremisen. now enforced to close his eyes. came with the firstlings of his flock. or where the Russian Ksar In Mosco. sacrificing. the richer seat Of Atabalipa. or the Sultan in Bizance. who never touched The excepted tree. and Algiers. thought Ophir. and all due rights performed: His offering soon propitious fire from Heaven 186 . Fez and Sus. More meek. and the less maritim kings Mombaza. with incense strowed. Sunk down. the other part sheep-walks and folds. Nor sinned thy sin. On Europe thence. Down to the golden Chersonese. to bring forth more violent deeds. Morocco. That Adam. which thy original crime hath wrought In some to spring from thee. and his attention thus recalled. His eyes he opened. the green ear. nor could his eye not ken The empire of Negus to his utmost port Ercoco. as came to hand. Turchestan-born. and Melind. Part arable and tilth. or since In Hispahan. and where Rome was to sway The world: in spirit perhaps he also saw Rich Mexico. Or thence from Niger flood to Atlas mount The kingdoms of Almansor. whose great city Geryon's sons Call El Dorado. But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. now ope thine eyes. Rustick. On the cleft wood. Unculled. But him the gentle Angel by the hand Soon raised. whereon were sheaves New reaped. and first behold The effects. thither anon A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits. Which that false fruit that promised clearer sight Had bred. laid The inwards and their fat. of grassy sord. Even to the inmost seat of mental sight. and the yellow sheaf. then purged with euphrasy and rue The visual nerve. or where The Persian in Ecbatan sat. for he had much to see. yet from that sin derive Corruption. And Sofala. and Angola farthest south. And Cusco in Peru. And from the well of life three drops instilled. a shepherd next. So deep the power of these ingredients pierced.To Agra and Lahor of great Mogul. I' the midst an altar as the land-mark stood. Choicest and best.

which on the earth shall bring Diseases dire. Dropsies. than within. Dire was the tossing. but delayed to strike. epilepsies. who well had sacrificed. how horrible to feel! To whom thus Michael. And over them triumphant Death his dart Shook. Marasmus. yet to sense More terrible at the entrance. some great mischief hath befallen To that meek man. Convulsions. Adam. and the other's faith. and asthmas. sad. foul and ugly to behold. The other's not. deadly pale. replied. all maladies Of ghastly spasm. he also moved. Some. by intemperance more In meats and drinks. though oft invoked 187 . Horrid to think. flood. but many shapes Of Death. Alas! both for the deed. For envy that his brother's offering found From Heaven acceptance. by violent stroke shall die. all feverous kinds. Is piety thus and pure devotion paid? To whom Michael thus. dark. of which a monstrous crew Before thee shall appear. Death thou hast seen In his first shape on Man. O Teacher. Intestine stone and ulcer. approved. and many are the ways that lead To his grim cave. but the bloody fact Will be avenged. all dismal. By fire. Demoniack phrenzy. famine. And moon-struck madness. and grateful steam. and thus in haste to the Angel cried. Whereat he inly raged. Lose no reward. and joint-racking rheums. and wide-wasting pestilence. Immediately a place Before his eyes appeared. though here thou see him die. that thou mayest know What misery the inabstinence of Eve Shall bring on Men. deep the groans.Consumed with nimble glance. qualms Of heart-sick agony. as they talked.and. and for the cause! But have I now seen Death? Is this the way I must return to native dust? O sight Of terrour. A lazar-house it seemed. moaping melancholy. the unjust the just hath slain. colick-pangs. Smote him into the midriff with a stone That beat out life. as thou sawest. and to come Out of thy loins. or racking torture. Despair Tended the sick busiest from couch to couch. he fell. noisome. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseased. These two are brethren. Much at that sight was Adam in his heart Dismayed. and. pining atrophy. fierce catarrhs. To which our sire. Rolling in dust and gore. Groaned out his soul with gushing blood effused. for his was not sincere.

and took His image whom they served. to what wretched state reserved! Better end here unborn. if we knew What we receive. by themselves defaced. why Obtruded on us thus? who. his plaint renewed. Till many years over thy head return: So mayest thou live. from such deformities be free. Or if his likeness. for his Maker's image sake. how we may come To death. scarce recovering words. Sight so deform what heart of rock could long Dry-eyed behold? Adam could not. In what thou eatest and drinkest. seeking from thence Due nourishment.With vows. for death mature: This is Old Age. thou must outlive Thy youth. Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve. Obtuse. when themselves they vilified To serve ungoverned Appetite. would either no accept Life offered. created once So goodly and erect. for the air of youth. thou drop Into thy mother's lap. to what fall Degraded. which will change To withered. or be with ease Gathered. and final hope. but their own. To such unsightly sufferings be debased Under inhuman pains? Why should not Man. and. and mix with our connatural dust? There is. till. but then. While they pervert pure Nature's healthful rules To loathsome sickness. though faulty since. Retaining still divine similitude In part. in thy blood will reign 188 . and submit. by temperance taught. nor harshly plucked. and gray. thy senses then. said Michael. And. Can thus The image of God in Man. But is there yet no other way. as their chief good. O miserable mankind. Though not of woman born. exempt? Their Maker's image. or soon beg to lay it down. said Adam. till firmer thoughts restrained excess. besides These painful passages. all taste of pleasure must forego. and gave him up to tears A space. Why is life given To be thus wrested from us? rather. since they God's image did not reverence in themselves. worthily. but wept. then Forsook them. like ripe fruit. not gluttonous delight. Glad to be so dismissed in peace. thy beauty. answered Michael. Disfiguring not God's likeness. a brutish vice. thy strength. weak. To what thou hast. Hopeful and cheerful. compassion quelled His best of man. I yield it just. And. if thou well observe The rule of Not too much. Therefore so abject is their punishment.

nor would prolong Life much. and each his liking chose. two massy clods of iron and brass Had melted. then. nor those things last. richly gay In gems and wanton dress. how I may be quit.A melancholy damp of cold and dry To weigh thy spirits down. his volant touch. all in heat They light the nuptial torch. and in dance came on: The men. from which he formed First his own tools. After these. and patiently attend My dissolution. others. by some. and. were herds Of cattle grazing. garlands. permit to Heaven: And now prepare thee for another sight. then. But on the hither side. thence gliding hot To some cave's mouth. Instinct through all proportions. when from the tents. and all their study bent To worship God aright. to the harp they sung Soft amorous ditties. who moved Their stops and chords. bent rather. then first to marriage rites invoked: With feast and musick all the tents resound. (whether found where casual fire Had wasted woods on mountain or in vale. And now of love they treat. and bid invoke Hymen. they on the plain Long had not walked. and fair event Of love and youth not lost. was seen. how long. To whom our ancestor. He looked. and saw a spacious plain. they liked. or short. Michael replied. but what thou livest Live well. at the forge Labouring. and let their eyes Rove without rein. Nor love thy life. Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue. Such happy interview. and know his works Not hid. Down to the plain descended. Fairest and easiest. and last consume The balm of life. what might else be wrought Fusil or graven in metal. which was their seat. Down to the veins of earth. nor hate. In other part stood one who. in the amorous net Fast caught. whereon Were tents of various hue. that made melodious chime. till the evening-star. though grave. appeared. flowers. Love's harbinger. which might preserve Freedom and peace to Men. by their guise Just men they seemed. Was heard. of harp and organ. of this cumbrous charge. till. whence the sound Of instruments. eyed them. or whether washed by stream From underground. Which I must keep till my appointed day Of rendering up. behold! A bevy of fair women. a different sort From the high neighbouring hills.) the liquid ore he drained Into fit moulds prepared. 189 . Henceforth I fly not death. low and high. songs.

Yet empty of all good wherein consists Woman's domestick honour and chief praise. studious they appear Of arts that polish life. so smooth. Cities of men with lofty gates and towers. though to nature seeming meet. part curb the foaming steed. Judge not what is best By pleasure. and superiour gifts received. to dance. He looked. were the tents Of wickedness. towns. Bred only and completed to the taste Of lustful appetence. Said the Angel. To whom thus Michael. but they his gifts acknowledged none. than those two past. O pity and shame. Single or in array of battle ranged Both horse and foot. and troll the tongue. or in the mid way faint! But still I see the tenour of Man's woe Holds on the same. Created. Much better seems this vision. Erelong to swim at large. who should better hold his place By wisdom. all their fame Ignobly. so gay. For that fair female troop thou sawest. whose lives Religious titled them the sons of God. wherein shall dwell his race Who slew his brother. soon inclined to admit delight. Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise. conformity divine. so blithe. To dress. Unmindful of their Maker. The bent of nature. and laugh. though his Spirit Taught them. as thou art. To whom thus Adam.And charming symphonies. and more hope Of peaceful days portends. Part wield their arms. Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her ends. Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget. which he thus expressed. to sing. fierce faces threatening war. and now swim in joy. should turn aside to tread Paths indirect. from Woman to begin. for which The world erelong a world of tears must weep. attached the heart Of Adam. nor idly mustering stood. True opener of mine eyes. 190 . that they. inventers rare. who to live well Entered so fair. and saw wide territory spread Before him. of short joy bereft. prime Angel blest. From Man's effeminate slackness it begins. that seemed Of Goddesses. Those were of hate and death. Shall yield up all their virtue. to nobler end Holy and pure. to the trains and to the smiles Of these fair atheists. Concourse in arms. and roll the eye: To these that sober race of men. and rural works between. But now prepare thee for another scene. or pain much worse. Those tents thou sawest so pleasant.

by battery. Where cattle pastured late. scale. For in those days might only shall be admired. Of justice. Death's ministers. who of themselves Abhor to join. with warriours mixed. Their booty. O!what are these. In factious opposition. and oppression. and mine. and gigantick deeds. but soon. men of high renown. whom had not Heaven Rescued. and had seized with violent hands. eminent In wise deport. and sword-law. now scattered lies With carcasses and arms the ensanguined field. and bring home spoils with infinite Man-slaughter. and multiply Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew His brother: for of whom such massacre Make they. which makes a bloody fray. truth. Produce prodigious births of body or mind. Through all the plain. Where good with bad were matched. and subdue Nations. Had not a cloud descending snatched him thence Unseen amid the throng: so violence Proceeded. spake much of right and wrong. On each hand slaughter. 191 . In other part the sceptered heralds call To council. fair oxen and fair kine. scarce with life the shepherds fly. but of their brethren. or fleecy flock. stones. and for glory done Of triumph. shall be held the highest pitch Of human glory. to be styled great conquerours Patrons of mankind. in the city-gates. by imprudence mixed.One way a band select from forage drives A herd of beeves. Deserted: Others to a city strong Lay siege. and to his guide Lamenting turned full sad. With cruel tournament the squadrons join. and. Adam was all in tears. And valour and heroick virtue called. and refuge none was found. These are the product Of those ill-mated marriages thou sawest. and sulphurous fire. till at last. Gods. men of men But who was that just man. and harangues are heard. or religion. had in his righteousness been lost? To whom thus Michael. and sons of Gods. Assaulting. others from the wall defend With dart and javelin. anon Gray-headed men and grave. and peace. From a fat meadow ground. encamped. But call in aid. Assemble. Ewes and their bleating lambs over the plain. To overcome in battle. And judgement from above: him old and young Exploded. not men? who thus deal death Inhumanly to men. Of middle age one rising. Such were these giants.

and pairs. For man and beast: when lo. down rushed the rain Impetuous. and entered in as taught Their order: last the sire and his three sons. for daring single to be just. and in the side a door Contrived. Measured by cubit. Sent up amain. and God made fast the door. All now was turned to jollity and game. whereso met. And testified against their ways. where passing fair Allured them. all the clouds together drove From under Heaven. the hills to their supply Vapour. To luxury and riot. he oft Frequented their assemblies. The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar. Triumphs or festivals. thence from cups to civil broils. he ceased Contending. But he. Which now direct thine eyes and soon behold. whom thou beheldst The only righteous in a world preverse. Smeared round with pitch. feast and dance. and saw the face of things quite changed. the seventh from thee. under judgements imminent: But all in vain: which when he saw. and now the thickened sky Like a dark cieling stood. And what most merits fame. and to them preached Conversion and repentance. and removed his tents far off. Thus fame shall be achieved. and of provisions laid in large. Exempt from death. that God would come To judge them with his Saints. and insect small. him the Most High Rapt in a balmy cloud with winged steeds Did. Began to build a vessel of huge bulk. as thou sawest. With their four wives. from the mountain hewing timber tall. and plagues of men. a wonder strange! Of every beast. and secure with beaked prow Rode tilting o'er the waves. He looked. Marrying or prostituting. all dwellings else 192 . to walk with God High in salvation and the climes of bliss. length. till the earth No more was seen: the floating vessel swum Uplifted. the rest what punishment. renown on earth. and. as to souls In prison. and exhalation dusk and moist. Came sevens. And therefore hated. as befel. Then. and breadth. in silence hid. At length a reverend sire among them came. And of their doings great dislike declared. receive. Rape or adultery. and bird. and highth.Destroyers rightlier called. with black wings Wide-hovering. and continued. to show thee what reward Awaits the good. Mean while the south-wind rose. And utter odious truth. therefore so beset With foes.

And sunk thee as thy sons. How comes it thus? unfold. all virtue lose 193 . and lust. celestial Guide. to torment me ere their being. sea-monsters whelped And stabled. And whether here the race of Man will end. and war on earth. are they First seen in acts of prowess eminent And great exploits. end so sad. to behold The end of all thy offspring. and in their palaces. whom last thou sawest In triumph and luxurious wealth. all in view destroyed at once. Which neither his foreknowing can prevent. Man is not whom to warn: those few escaped Famine and anguish will at last consume. ease. evil he may be sure. To whom thus Michael. Let no man seek Henceforth to be foretold. O visions ill foreseen! Better had I Lived ignorant of future! so had borne My part of evil only.Flood overwhelmed. as when a father mourns His children. but of true virtue void. Grievous to bear: but that care now is past. Though comfortless. and rich prey. till wantonness and pride Raise out of friendship hostile deeds in peace. thee also drowned. of mankind. Shall change their course to pleasure. by my foreknowledge gaining birth Abortive. with their freedom lost. All would have then gone well. so numerous late. till. in one small bottom swum imbarked. peace would have crowned With length of happy days the race of Man. And scarce to the Angel utter'dst thus thy plaint. and achieved thereby Fame in the world. having spilt much blood. Depopulation! Thee another flood. on thy feet thou stoodest at last. With thought that they must be. And he the future evil shall no less In apprehension than in substance feel. Who. How didst thou grieve then. and enslaved by war. The conquered also. that were dispensed The burden of many ages. and sloth. each day's lot Enough to bear. Wandering that watery desart: I had hope. Sea without shore. high titles. those now. for now I see Peace to corrupt no less than war to waste. and done much wast Subduing nations. what shall befall Him or his children. But I was far deceived. Shall. sea covered sea. on me light At once. gently reared By the Angel. All left. Those. Adam. Surfeit. and them with all their pomp Deep under water rolled. Where luxury late reigned. Of tears and sorrow a flood. When violence was ceased.

No sooner he. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. but all the cataracts Of Heaven set open on the Earth shall pour Rain. day and night. forgot. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. shall in the ark be lodged. against example good. if none be thither brought 194 . how much more safe And full of peace. shall heave the ocean to usurp Beyond all bounds. departs From Canaan. And there take root an island salt and bare. from whom their piety feigned In sharp contest of battle found no aid Against invaders. Justice and temperance. and orcs. the only son of light In a dark age. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. Down the great river to the opening gulf. Worldly or dissolute. a son. and a world Offended: fearless of reproach and scorn. Against allurement. all fountains of the deep. therefore. on what their lords Shall leave them to enjoy. and shall return Of them derided. See where it flows. from amidst A world devote to universal wrack. and before them set The paths of righteousness. and houshold. by his command Shall build a wonderous ark. for the earth shall bear More than enough. cooled in zeal. Broke up. Thenceforth shall practice how to live secure. all depraved. One man except. custom. And sheltered round. pushed by the horned flood. as thou beheldst. to a land hereafter called Egypt. as inmate guests Or violence. but of God observed The one just man alive. till inundation rise Above the highest hills: Then shall this mount Of Paradise by might of waves be moved Out of his place. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. divided by the river Nile. with twelve sons encreased. The haunt of seals. and sea-mews' clang: To teach thee that God attributes to place No sanctity. With all his verdure spoiled. he of their wicked ways Shall them admonish. and trees adrift.And fear of God. truth and faith. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea: To sojourn in that land He comes. whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh: There he dies. denouncing wrath to come On their impenitence. The grand-child. that temperance may be tried: So all shall turn degenerate. with them of man and beast Select for life. To save himself.

what further shall ensue. as a flowery verge. Betokening peace from God. as rocks. With all the creatures. than I rejoice For one man found so perfect. Wrinkled the face of deluge. assured that Man shall live. and all his anger to forget. in his bill An olive-leaf he brings. Though late repenting him of Man depraved. who future things canst represent As present. and saw the ark hull on the flood. for the clouds were fled. Dextrously thou aimest. The ark no more now floats. as decayed. and from his ark The ancient sire descends. and their seed preserve.By men who there frequent. and thus his joy broke forth. Grieved at his heart. That God vouchsafes to raise another world From him. Forthwith from out the ark a raven flies. But say. their furious tide. Fast on the top of some high mountain fixed. to bind The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud. Grateful to Heaven. Driven by a keen north-wind. And now the tops of hills. over his head beholds A dewy cloud. Greatly rejoiced. blowing dry. and all flesh 195 . and in the cloud a bow Conspicuous with three lifted colours gay. and of the fresh wave largely drew. what mean those coloured streaks in Heaven Distended. appear. With clamour thence the rapid currents drive. whereon his foot may light: The second time returning. And after him. A dove sent forth once and again to spy Green tree or ground. and so just. which made their flowing shrink From standing lake to tripping ebb. And the clear sun on his wide watery glass Gazed hot. and shower the earth? To whom the Arch-Angel. heavenly Instructer! I revive At this last sight. He looked. who now had stopt His sluces. O thou. that stole With soft foot towards the deep. with all his train. but seems on ground. pacifick sign: Anon dry ground appears. So willingly doth God remit his ire. as the brow of God appeased? Or serve they. Lest it again dissolve. and covenant new. erst so sad. when looking down he saw The whole earth filled with violence. As after thirst. and eyes devout. behold. Whereat the heart of Adam. as the Heaven his windows shut. And now. the surer messenger. that. Far less I now lament for one whole world Of wicked sons destroyed. Which now abated. Then with uplifted hands. Towards the retreating sea. or therein dwell.

and reaping plenteous crop. And while the dread of judgement past remains Fresh in their minds. not to blot out mankind. or kid. with transition sweet. If Adam aught perhaps might interpose. yet. but. lamb. Thou therefore give due audience. from the herd or flock. With man therein or beast. Book XII As one who in his journey bates at noon. while yet but few. This second source of Men. Will arrogate dominion undeserved Over his brethren. and attend. Both Heaven and Earth. That he relents. Such grace shall one just man find in his sight. will therein set His triple-coloured bow. Seed-time and harvest. and multiply apace. till fire purge all things new. objects divine Must needs impair and weary human sense: Henceforth what is to come I will relate. wherein the just shall dwell. fraternal state. and quite dispossess Concord and law of nature from the earth. Then. and sacred feast. and end. Shall spend their days in joy unblamed. when he brings Over the earth a cloud. Thus thou hast seen one world begin. whereon to look. And call to mind his covenant: Day and night. heat and hoary frost. and hostile snare. With some regard to what is just and right Shall lead their lives. who. Much thou hast yet to see. and oil. With large wine-offerings poured. so here the Arch-Angel paused Betwixt the world destroyed and world restored. 196 . Under paternal rule: till one shall rise Of proud ambitious heart. those removed. as in despite of Heaven. but I perceive Thy mortal sight to fail. Shall hold their course. wine. nor rain to drown the world. Labouring the soil. proceed. and dwell Long time in peace. nor let the sea Surpass his bounds. such as refuse Subjection to his empire tyrannous: A mighty hunter thence he shall be styled Before the Lord.Corrupting each their way. by families and tribes. And Man. not content With fair equality. Corn. Though bent on speed. and. Oft sacrificing bullock. And makes a covenant never to destroy The earth again by flood. new speech resumes. as from a second stock. Hunting (and men not beasts shall be his game) With war. fearing the Deity.

fish. whom like ambition joins With him or under him to tyrannize. And from rebellion shall derive his name. and the work Confusion named. that right we hold By his donation. and. their memory be lost. ere the tower Obstruct Heaven-towers. Marching from Eden towards the west. fatherly displeased. and through their habitations walks To mark their doings. shall find The plain. to see the hubbub strange. Comes down to see their city. But God. human left from human free. Since thy original lapse. Regardless whether good or evil fame. true liberty Is lost. He with a crew. till hoarse. And get themselves a name. Dominion absolute. claiming second sovranty. And looking down. To sow a jangling noise of words unknown: Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud. if not of bread? To whom thus Michael. But this usurper his encroachment proud Stays not on Man. lest. far dispersed In foreign lands. where thin air Above the clouds will pine his entrails gross. to God his tower intends Siege and defiance: Wretched man!what food Will he convey up thither. O execrable son! so to aspire Above his brethren. and all in rage. to himself assuming Authority usurped. to sustain Himself and his rash army. affecting to subdue Rational liberty. yet know withal. As mocked they storm: great laughter was in Heaven. to rase Quite out their native language. but man over men He made not lord. And hear the din: Thus was the building left Ridiculous. instead. who on the quiet state of men Such trouble brought. which always with right reason dwells Twinned. fowl. wherein a black bituminous gurge Boils out from under ground. and of that stuff. they cast to build A city and tower. from God not given: He gave us only over beast. and in derision sets Upon their tongues a various spirit. Among the builders. such title to himself Reserving. the mouth of Hell: Of brick. each to other calls Not understood.Or from Heaven. Justly thou abhorrest That son. whose top may reach to Heaven. who oft descends to visit men Unseen. And famish him of breath. Whereto thus Adam. them beholding soon. Though of rebellion others he accuse. and from her hath no dividual being: 197 .

Not knowing to what land. Still tend from bad to worse. Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse. till then free. but trusting all his wealth With God. Thus will this latter. Deprives them of their outward liberty. Therefore. But justice. and fall To worship their own work in wood and stone For Gods! Yet him God the Most High vouchsafes To call by vision. And one peculiar nation to select From all the rest. Their inward lost: Witness the irreverent son Of him who built the ark. Who oft as undeservedly enthrall His outward freedom: Tyranny must be. into a land Which he will show him. Immediately inordinate desires. after him a cumbrous train Of herds and flocks. in a land unknown. on his vicious race. Wearied with their iniquities. till God at last. and numerous servitude. passing now the ford To Haran. heard this heavy curse. and avert His holy eyes. and from him will raise A mighty nation. that men (Canst thou believe?) should be so stupid grown. withdraw His presence from among them. as the former world. his friends. which is reason. from his father's house. or not obeyed. and upon him shower His benediction so. catch the government From reason. for the shame Done to his father. since he permits Within himself unworthy powers to reign Over free reason. Not wandering poor. in judgement just. who. resolving from thenceforth To leave them to their own polluted ways. Servant of servants. A nation from one faithful man to spring: Him on this side Euphrates yet residing. with what faith He leaves his Gods. that no wrong. As to forsake the living God. And upstart passions.Reason in man obscured. who called him. that in his seed All nations shall be blest: he straight obeys. Bred up in idol-worship: O. yet firm believes: I see him. of whom to be invoked. While yet the patriarch lived. Subjects him from without to violent lords. who 'scaped the flood. and false Gods. Ur of Chaldaea. Yet sometimes nations will decline so low From virtue. and some fatal curse annexed. Canaan he now attains. God. but thou canst not. His kindred. and to servitude reduce Man. and native soil. I see his tents Pitched about Sechem. and the neighbouring plain 198 .

) From Hermon east to the great western Sea. His cattle must of rot and murren die. but his sons Shall dwell to Senir. A son. must rend the Egyptians sky. Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss. Hail mixed with fire. departs From Canaan to a land hereafter called Egypt. This ponder. This patriarch blest. as I point them. who shall bruise The Serpent's head. To sojourn in that land He comes. yonder sea. Darkness must overshadow all his bounds. here. as inmate guests Too numerous. the lawless tyrant. true limit eastward. thunder mixed with hail. What it devours not. lice. whence of guests he makes them slaves Inhospitably. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. must all his palace fill With loathed intrusion. that all nations of the earth Shall in his seed be blessed: By that seed Is meant thy great Deliverer. whereof to thee anon Plainlier shall be revealed. though yet unnamed. To blood unshed the rivers must be turned. Like him in faith. and renown: The grandchild. and fill all the land. Must be compelled by signs and judgements dire. they return. leaves. From Hameth northward to the Desart south.Of Moreh. back to their promised land. the double-founted stream. A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down Must eat. there by promise he receives Gift to his progeny of all that land. Frogs. And all his people. And wheel on the earth. or grain. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. Mount Hermon. 199 . Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call. that long ridge of hills. and flies. and of his son a grand-child. with twelve sons increased. who denies To know their God. or fruit. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. and kills their infant males: Till by two brethren (these two brethren call Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim His people from enthralment. Jordan. devouring where it rolls. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea. With glory and spoil. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. and on the ground leave nothing green. There he dies. a son whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh. divided by the river Nile See where it flows. or message to regard. herb. on the shore Mount Carmel. each place behold In prospect. in wisdom. (Things by their names I call. But first.

while the obdurate king pursues: All night he will pursue. lightning. and the cloud. This also shall they gain by their delay In the wide wilderness. But the voice of God To mortal ear is dreadful: They beseech That Moses might report to them his will. Though present in his Angel. he descending. part. Then through the fiery pillar. not the readiest way. And terrour cease. for life To noble and ignoble is more sweet Untrained in arms. where rashness leads not on. religious rites Of sacrifice. By day a cloud. 200 . and blot out three days. the sea his rod obeys. will himself In thunder. part. till his rescued gain their shore: Such wondrous power God to his saint will lend. and loud trumpets' sound. informing them. to rule by laws ordained: God from the mount of Sinai. the sea Swallows him with his host. such as appertain To civil justice. On their embattled ranks the waves return. whose gray top Shall tremble. by types And shadows. by night a pillar of fire. there they shall found Their government. Thus with ten wounds The river-dragon tamed at length submits To let his sojourners depart. To guide them in their journey. of that destined Seed to bruise The Serpent. but still. And overwhelm their war: The race elect Safe toward Canaan from the shore advance Through the wild Desart. and fear Return them back to Egypt. as ice More hardened after thaw. all the first-born Of Egypt must lie dead. and oft Humbles his stubborn heart. between two crystal walls. but them lets pass. he grants what they besought. till. and their great senate choose Through the twelve tribes. and pillar of fire. who shall go Before them in a cloud. And craze their chariot-wheels: when by command Moses once more his potent rod extends Over the sea. with one midnight stroke. As on dry land. Lest. Ordain them laws. War terrify them inexpert. by what means he shall achieve Mankind's deliverance. but his approach Darkness defends between till morning watch. Last.Palpable darkness. God looking forth will trouble all his host. choosing rather Inglorious life with servitude. entering on the Canaanite alarmed. in his rage Pursuing whom he late dismissed. and remove Behind them. Awed by the rod of Moses so to stand Divided.

Here Adam interposed. to the land Promised to Abraham and his seed:--The rest Were long to tell. between the wings Of two bright Cherubim. such delight hath God in Men Obedient to his will. 'Till Israel overcome! so call the third From Abraham. So many laws argue so many sins Among them. The Holy One with mortal Men to dwell: By his prescript a sanctuary is framed Of cedar. Erewhile perplexed with thoughts. in whom all nations shall be blest. overlaid with gold. who thus shall Canaan win. Enlightener of my darkness. Thus. The records of his covenant. how many battles fought How many kings destroyed. Or how the sun shall in mid Heaven stand still A day entire. and kingdoms won. to introduce One greater. why to those Among whom God will deign to dwell on earth So many and so various laws are given. who sought Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. a fiery gleam by night. and my heart much eased. that he vouchsafes Among them to set up his tabernacle. This yet I apprehend not. to evince Their natural pravity. whose high office now Moses in figure bears. And therefore was law given them. those chiefly. what would become Of me and all mankind: But now I see His day. before him burn Seven lamps as in a zodiack representing The heavenly fires. and in the ark his testimony. 'And thou moon in the vale of Aialon. how can God with such reside? To whom thus Michael. laws and rites Established. Doubt not but that sin Will reign among them. 'Sun. and from him His whole descent. which concern Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Mine eyes true-opening. in Gibeon stand. of whose day he shall foretel. Save when they journey. over the tent a cloud Shall rest by day. therein An ark. over these A mercy-seat of gold. as of thee begot. by stirring up Sin against law to fight: that when they see 201 . O sent from Heaven. Conducted by his Angel.Instructed that to God is no access Without Mediator. son of Isaac. and at length they come. Man's voice commanding. gracious things Thou hast revealed. and night's due course adjourn. And all the Prophets in their age the times Of great Messiah shall sing. Favour unmerited by me.

as to leave them. And his next son. And therefore shall not Moses. cannot live. Whose foul idolatries. for of his reign shall be no end. Just for unjust. and other faults Heaped to the popular sum. that. From imposition of strict laws to free Acceptance of large grace. but when sins National interrupt their publick peace. Their city. in such righteousness To them by faith imputed. not performing. being but the minister Of law. and bring back Through the world's wilderness long-wandered Man Safe to eternal Paradise of rest. Mean while they. his temple. nor Man the mortal part Perform. The clouded ark of God. will so incense God. in full time. and but given With purpose to resign them. till then in tents Wandering. but not remove. and his holy ark. then under Kings. though of God Highly beloved. a promise shall receive Irrevocable. From whom as oft he saves them penitent By Judges first. shall in a glorious temple enshrine. and peace Of conscience. that of the royal stock Of David (so I name this king) shall rise A Son. of kings The last. The blood of bulls and goats. a long succession must ensue. the Woman's seed to thee foretold. disciplined From shadowy types to truth. Foretold to Abraham. and to kings foretold. as shall be registered Part good. of whom The second. for wealth and wisdom famed. from flesh to spirit. in their earthly Canaan placed. as in whom shall trust All nations. his people into Canaan lead. and. 202 . from servile fear To filial. part bad. Save by those shadowy expiations weak. But first. Up to a better covenant. whom the Gentiles Jesus call. both for piety renowned And puissant deeds. that his regal throne For ever shall endure. Provoking God to raise them enemies. and expose their land. Such follow him. works of law to works of faith. So law appears imperfect. who shall quell The adversary-Serpent. the like shall sing All Prophecy. Long time shall dwell and prosper. of bad the longer scroll. But Joshua. His name and office bearing. they may conclude Some blood more precious must be paid for Man. which the law by ceremonies Cannot appease. they may find Justification towards God.Law can discover sin.

whose fall from Heaven. or the local wounds Of head or heel: Not therefore joins the Son Manhood to Godhead. Returned from Babylon by leave of kings Their lords. factious they grow. then brings them back. As of a duel. Why our great Expectation should be called The seed of Woman: Virgin Mother. A virgin is his mother. They gladly thither haste. Dream not of their fight. a deadlier bruise. yet from my loins Thou shalt proceed. a scorn and prey To that proud city. He ceased. Without the vent of words. and his covenant sworn To David. and by a quire Of squadroned Angels hear his carol sung. his glory with the Heavens. with more strength to foil Thy enemy. To whom thus Michael. Unseen before in Heaven. who inquire His place. yet at his birth a star. But first among the priests dissention springs. to offer incense. myrrh. keeping watch by night. Men who attend the altar. Then lose it to a stranger. which these he breathed. And guides the eastern sages. Babylon thence called. the house of God They first re-edify. what stroke shall bruise the victor's heel. as had like grief been dewed in tears. till. hail.With all his sacred things. finisher Of utmost hope! now clear I understand What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in vain. stablished as the days of Heaven. There in captivity he lets them dwell The space of seventy years. Remembering mercy. that the true Anointed King Messiah might be born Barred of his right. whose high walls thou sawest Left in confusion. proclaims him come. but his sire The power of the Most High: He shall ascend The throne hereditary. 203 . and gold: His place of birth a solemn Angel tells To simple shepherds. whom God disposed. and from thy womb the Son Of God Most High: so God with Man unites! Needs must the Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain: Say where and when Their fight. and regard not David's sons. High in the love of Heaven. O prophet of glad tidings. and bound his reign With Earth's wide bounds. grown In wealth and multitude. discerning Adam with such joy Surcharged. and should most Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings Upon the temple itself: at last they seise The scepter. and for a while In mean estate live moderate. nor so is overcome Satan.

Death over him no power Shall long usurp. thy punishment He shall endure. the stars of morn shall see him rise Out of his grave. and suffering death. Proclaiming life to all who shall believe In his redemption. the sign 204 . though legal. and cursed death. men who in his life Still followed him. The law that is against thee. with him there crucified. not their own. ere the third dawning light Return. And fix far deeper in his head their stings Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's heel. fresh as the dawning light. and the sins Of all mankind. The law of God exact he shall fulfil Both by obedience and by love. his two main arms. by coming in the flesh To a reproachful life. For this he shall live hated. His death for Man. But by fulfilling that which thou didst want. A gentle wafting to immortal life. and that his obedience. which Man from death redeems. imposed On penalty of death. and in thy seed: Nor can this be. Nor after resurrection shall he stay Longer on earth. Obedience to the law of God. a death. as many as offered life Neglect not. slain for bringing life: But to the cross he nails thy enemies. but his works In thee.Disabled. to them shall leave in charge To teach all nations what of him they learned And his salvation. so he dies. But soon revives. becomes theirs by faith. Never to hurt them more who rightly trust In this his satisfaction. though love Alone fulfil the law. Not by destroying Satan. his merits To save them. Thy ransom paid. and to death condemned A shameful and accursed. than certain times to appear To his disciples. and the benefit embrace By faith not void of works: This God-like act Annuls thy doom. not to give thee thy death's wound: Which he. crush his strength. like sleep. be blasphemed. In sin for ever lost from life. judged. them who shall believe Baptizing in the profluent stream. And due to theirs which out of thine will grow: So only can high Justice rest appaid. Imputed. the death thou shouldest have died. Defeating Sin and Death. Seised on by force. nailed to the cross By his own nation. this act Shall bruise the head of Satan. shall recure. who comes thy Saviour. Or theirs whom he redeems. The penalty to thy transgression due. works.

So in his seed all nations shall be blest. Working through love. who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt? Be sure they will. triumphing through the air Over his foes and thine. What man can do against them. and the law of faith. thus replied.Of washing them from guilt of sin to life Pure. Then enter into glory. like that which the Redeemer died. All nations they shall teach. prince of air. there shall surprise The Serpent. upon their hearts shall write. that much more good thereof shall spring. The promise of the Father. or rejoice Much more. O Goodness infinite. and resume His seat at God's right hand. from that day. and also arm With spiritual armour. For death. what will betide the few His faithful. and there confounded leave. exalted high Above all names in Heaven. but to reward His faithful. more good-will to Men From God. but to the sons Of Abraham's faith wherever through the world. said the Angel. When this world's dissolution shall be ripe. And evil turn to good. Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins Salvation shall be preached. left among the unfaithful herd. and thence shall come. With glory and power to judge both quick and dead. and receive them into bliss. for. and occasioned. then paused. and drag in chains Through all his realm. able to resist Satan's assaults. To God more glory. So spake the Arch-Angel Michael. who shall dwell His Spirit within them. Replete with joy and wonder. if so befall. and our sire. The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people. Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend With victory. far happier place Than this of Eden. and quench his fiery darts. if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend. and far happier days. But say. not afraid. more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand. 205 . for then the Earth Shall all be Paradise. and over wrath grace shall abound. and in mind prepared. As at the world's great period. To judge the unfaithful dead. but from Heaven He to his own a Comforter will send. Whether I should repent me now of sin By me done. Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce. To guide them in all truth. Whether in Heaven or Earth.

Their doctrine and their story written left. Wolves shall succeed for teachers. Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven To their own vile advantages shall turn Of lucre and ambition. whom he sends To evangelize the nations. till the day Appear of respiration to the just. and titles. built by faith to stand. Though not but by the Spirit understood. from that pretence. Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force On every conscience. Then shall they seek to avail themselves of names. Thus they win Great numbers of each nation to receive With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: At length Their ministry performed. obscurely then foretold. at return Of him so lately promised to thy aid. on earth. and. Their own faith. though feigning still to act By spiritual. shall them with wonderous gifts endue To speak all tongues. Who against faith and conscience can be heard Infallible? yet many will presume: Whence heavy persecution shall arise On all. What will they then But force the Spirit of Grace itself. not another's? for. Poured first on his Apostles. laws which none shall find Left them inrolled. and the truth With superstitions and traditions taint. and bind His consort Liberty? what. as they forewarn. Left only in those written records pure. but unbuild His living temples. Under her own weight groaning. or what the Spirit within Shall on the heart engrave. Truth shall retire Bestuck with slanderous darts. And vengeance to the wicked. to themselves appropriating The Spirit of God. To good malignant. and with these to join Secular power. They die. the rest. The Woman's Seed. and do all miracles. Will deem in outward rites and specious forms Religion satisfied. Now ampler known thy Saviour and thy Lord. And oft supported so as shall amaze Their proudest persecutors: For the Spirit. to bad men benign. who in the worship persevere Of spirit and truth.Though to the death. As did their Lord before them. and works of faith Rarely be found: So shall the world go on. promised alike and given To all believers. but in their room. 206 . grievous wolves. and race well run. Places. far greater part. then on all Baptized. against such cruelties With inward consolations recompensed.

whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest. to the faithful. at whose front a flaming sword. purged and refined. happier far. And. and by small Accomplishing great things. and love. waken Eve. To whom thus also the Angel last replied. from Heaven to be revealed In glory of the Father. And love with fear the only God. for the hour precise Exacts our parting hence. with good Still overcoming evil. add love. Seer blest. and all the ethereal powers. add faith. All secrets of the deep. and peace. To bring forth fruits. but shalt possess A Paradise within thee. air. new Earth. Beyond which was my folly to aspire. then raise From the conflagrant mass. Measured this transient world. And all the rule. In signal of remove. thou hast attained the sum Of wisdom. Greatly in peace of thought. temperance. joy and eternal bliss. He ended. By me encamped on yonder hill. and have my fill Of knowledge. Add virtue. New Heavens. the race of time. Founded in righteousness. and see!the guards. Taught this by his example. that to obey is best. ages of endless date. This having learned.Last. and on him sole depend. though all the stars Thou knewest by name. And all the riches of this world enjoyedst. How soon hath thy prediction. Or works of God in Heaven. Till time stand fixed! Beyond is all abyss. Greatly-instructed I shall hence depart. in the clouds. hope no higher. one empire. all Nature's works. waves fiercely round: We may no longer stay: go. what this vessel can contain. to walk As in his presence. Henceforth I learn. patience. only add Deeds to thy knowledge answerable. expect Their motion. and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Is fortitude to highest victory. earth. or sea. whose end no eye can reach. by things deemed weak Subverting worldly strong. the soul Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth To leave this Paradise. By name to come called charity. Her also I with gentle dreams have calmed 207 . and thus Adam last replied. Merciful over all his works.-Let us descend now therefore from this top Of speculation. Eternity. ever to observe His providence. death the gate of life. to dissolve Satan with his perverted world.

Who for my wilful crime art banished hence. thou to me Art all things under $Heaven. and all her spirits composed To meek submission: thou. and they both descend the hill. but found her waked. He ended. Such favour I unworthy am vouchsafed. without thee here to stay. Is to go hence unwilling. Adam to the bower. They. and whither wentest. which will be many days. though all by me is lost. all the eastern side beheld Of Paradise. where Eve Lay sleeping. whereat In either hand the hastening Angel caught Our lingering parents. Fierce as a comet. as evening-mist Risen from a river o'er the marish glides. where to choose 208 . but answered not: For now. from the other hill To their fixed station. Waved over by that flaming brand. This further consolation yet secure I carry hence. ran before. at season fit. and fiery arms: Some natural tears they dropt. The great deliverance by her seed to come (For by the Woman's seed) on all mankind: That ye may live. and. though sad. And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel Homeward returning. the gate With dreadful faces thronged. some great good Presaging. and to the eastern gate Led them direct. With cause. and down the cliff as fast To the subjected plain. and dreams advise. Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard. Descended. Both in one faith unanimous. on the ground Gliding meteorous. which with torrid heat. so late their happy seat. By me the Promised Seed shall all restore. The brandished sword of God before them blazed. since with sorrow and heart's distress Wearied I fell asleep: But now lead on. In me is no delay. looking back. all in bright array The Cherubim descended. with thee to go. So spake our mother Eve. And thus with words not sad she him received. but wiped them soon. I know. Is to stay here. for evils past. too nigh The Arch-Angel stood. Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. yet much more cheered With meditation on the happy end. Which he hath sent propitious. The world was all before them. And vapour as the Libyan air adust. For God is also in sleep. all places thou. and Adam heard Well pleased. Began to parch that temperate clime. then disappeared.Portending good. Whence thou returnest. High in front advanced.

Their place of rest. Through Eden took their solitary way. and Providence their guide: They. [The End] 209 . hand in hand. with wandering steps and slow.

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