PARADISE LOST Book I Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste

Brought death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful seat, Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed In the beginning how the heavens and earth Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed Fast by the oracle of God, I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. And chiefly thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for thou know'st; thou from the first Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread, Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss, And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark Illumine, what is low raise and support; That, to the height of this great argument, I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Say first--for Heaven hides nothing from thy view, Nor the deep tract of Hell--say first what cause Moved our grand parents, in that happy state, Favoured of Heaven so highly, to fall off From their Creator, and transgress his will For one restraint, lords of the World besides. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? Th' infernal Serpent; he it was whose guile, Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equalled the Most High, If he opposed, and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th' ethereal sky, 1

With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms. Nine times the space that measures day and night To mortal men, he, with his horrid crew, Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf, Confounded, though immortal. But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the thought Both of lost happiness and lasting pain Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate. At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild. A dungeon horrible, on all sides round, As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all, but torture without end Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed. Such place Eternal Justice has prepared For those rebellious; here their prison ordained In utter darkness, and their portion set, As far removed from God and light of Heaven As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell! There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, He soon discerns; and, weltering by his side, One next himself in power, and next in crime, Long after known in Palestine, and named Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heaven called Satan, with bold words Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:-"If thou beest he--but O how fallen! how changed From him who, in the happy realms of light Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads, though bright!--if he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise Joined with me once, now misery hath joined In equal ruin; into what pit thou seest From what height fallen: so much the stronger proved He with his thunder; and till then who knew The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, Nor what the potent Victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent, or change, 2

Though changed in outward lustre, that fixed mind, And high disdain from sense of injured merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, And to the fierce contentions brought along Innumerable force of Spirits armed, That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring, His utmost power with adverse power opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? All is not lost--the unconquerable will, And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deify his power Who, from the terror of this arm, so late Doubted his empire--that were low indeed; That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods, And this empyreal sybstance, cannot fail; Since, through experience of this great event, In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven." So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair; And him thus answered soon his bold compeer:-"O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers That led th' embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds Fearless, endangered Heaven's perpetual King, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate, Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat, Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and heavenly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns, Though all our glory extinct, and happy state Here swallowed up in endless misery. But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now Of force believe almighty, since no less Than such could have o'erpowered such force as ours) Have left us this our spirit and strength entire, Strongly to suffer and support our pains, 3

That we may so suffice his vengeful ire, Or do him mightier service as his thralls By right of war, whate'er his business be, Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire, Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep? What can it the avail though yet we feel Strength undiminished, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment?" Whereto with speedy words th' Arch-Fiend replied:-"Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable, Doing or suffering: but of this be sure-To do aught good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight, As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labour must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; Which ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim. But see! the angry Victor hath recalled His ministers of vengeance and pursuit Back to the gates of Heaven: the sulphurous hail, Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid The fiery surge that from the precipice Of Heaven received us falling; and the thunder, Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage, Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, The seat of desolation, void of light, Save what the glimmering of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves; There rest, if any rest can harbour there; And, re-assembling our afflicted powers, Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from hope, If not, what resolution from despair." Thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, With head uplift above the wave, and eyes That sparkling blazed; his other parts besides Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge As whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian or Earth-born, that warred on Jove, 4

Deeming some island. till on dry land He lights--if it were land that ever burned With solid. on each hand the flames Driven backward slope their pointing spires. Him followed his next mate. Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool His mighty stature. 5 . wrath. which God of all his works Created hugest that swim th' ocean-stream. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff. With fixed anchor in his scaly rind. while he sought Evil to others. whom the den By ancient Tarsus held. Him. Moors by his side under the lee. That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himself damnation. incumbent on the dusky air. and.rolled In billows. since he Who now is sovereign can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from him is best Whom reason hath equalled. the clime. oft. as seamen tell. "this the seat That we must change for Heaven?--this mournful gloom For that celestial light? Be it so. Then with expanded wings he steers his flight Aloft. leave i' th' midst a horrid vale. And leave a singed bottom all involved With stench and smoke. That felt unusual weight. or that sea-beast Leviathan. or the shattered side Of thundering Etna. Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. or heaved his head. and mercy. but that the will And high permission of all-ruling Heaven Left him at large to his own dark designs. Both glorying to have scaped the Stygian flood As gods.Briareos or Typhon. force hath made supreme Above his equals. Sublimed with mineral fury. aid the winds. shewn On Man by him seduced. and vengeance poured. and wished morn delays. as the lake with liquid fire. haply slumbering on the Norway foam. but on himself Treble confusion. Chained on the burning lake. thence conceiving fire. "Is this the region. Such resting found the sole Of unblest feet. Farewell. and enraged might see How all his malice served but to bring forth Infinite goodness. And such appeared in hue as when the force Of subterranean wind transprots a hill Torn from Pelorus. whose combustible And fuelled entrails. this the soil. and by their own recovered strength. while night Invests the sea. So stretched out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. grace." Said then the lost Archangel. happy fields. nor ever thence Had risen.

Receive thy new possessor--one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. and the torrid clime Smote on him sore besides. The broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon. his ponderous shield. and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell. though now they lie Grovelling and prostrate on yon lake of fire. Th' associates and co-partners of our loss. though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. and. profoundest Hell. His spear--to equal which the tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills. vaulted with fire. to descry new lands. to support uneasy steps Over the burning marl. What matter where. The mind is its own place. No wonder. but th' Omnipotent. till on the beach Of that inflamed sea he stood. a Hell of Heaven. or what more lost in Hell?" So Satan spake. in her spotty globe. Behind him cast. not like those steps On Heaven's azure. or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet Regained in Heaven. to be the mast Of some great ammiral.Where joy for ever dwells! Hail. and called 6 . and round. their liveliest pledge Of hope in fears and dangers--heard so oft In worst extremes. in my choice. And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion. if I be still the same. in all assaults Their surest signal--they will soon resume New courage and revive. whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening. Nathless he so endured. As we erewhile. astounded and amazed. Or in Valdarno. will not drive us hence: Here we may reigh secure. and on the perilous edge Of battle. Infernal world! and thou. massy. But wherefore let we then our faithful friends. Ethereal temper. th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy. or mountains. And what I should be. all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free. To reign is worth ambition. horrors! hail. when it raged. and him Beelzebub Thus answered:--"Leader of those armies bright Which. from the top of Fesole. Rivers. large. fallen such a pernicious height!" He scare had ceased when the superior Fiend Was moving toward the shore. none could have foiled! If once they hear that voice. Lie thus astonished on th' oblivious pool. were but a wand-He walked with.

when with fierce winds Orion armed Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast. While with perfidious hatred they pursued The sojourners of Goshen. th' uplifted spear Of their great Sultan waving to direct Their course. in even balance down they light On the firm brimstone. who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood With scattered arms and ensigns. That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung Like Night. Till. or be for ever fallen!" They heard. arise. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight In which they were. as in the vales of Heaven? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the Conqueror. and darkened all the land of Nile. till anon His swift pursuers from Heaven-gates discern Th' advantage. who lay entranced Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks In Vallombrosa. and up they sprung Upon the wing. descending. now lost. lay these.His legions--Angel Forms. covering the flood. as a signal given. as when men wont to watch On duty. Yet to their General's voice they soon obeyed Innumerable. So thick bestrown. and were abashed. Under amazement of their hideous change. or the fierce pains not feel. up-called a pitchy cloud Of locusts. and. tread us down Thus drooping. Potentates. or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf? Awake. and surrounding fires. Abject and lost. Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. nether. whose waves o'erthrew Busiris and his Memphian chivalry. and fill all the plain: A multitude like which the populous North 7 . As when the potent rod Of Amram's son. Warriors. sleeping found by whom they dread. He called so loud that all the hollow deep Of Hell resounded:--"Princes. warping on the eastern wind. in Egypt's evil day. Waved round the coast. the Flower of Heaven--once yours. 'Twixt upper. who beheld From the safe shore their floating carcases And broken chariot-wheels. for the ease you find To slumber here. If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal Spirits! Or have ye chosen this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue. or scattered sedge Afloat. So numberless were those bad Angels seen Hovering on wing under the cope of Hell. where th' Etrurian shades High over-arched embower.

Their altars by his altar. Roused from the slumber on that fiery couch. By falsities and lies the greatest part Of mankind they corrupted to forsake God their Creator. Nor content with such Audacious neighbourhood. the wisest heart Of Solomon he led by fraoud to build His temple right against the temple of God 8 . The heads and leaders thither haste where stood Their great Commander--godlike Shapes. long after. At their great Emperor's call. Muse. blotted out and rased By their rebellion from the Books of Life. horrid king. and durst abide Jehovah thundering out of Sion. who last. Say. and spread Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands. Forthwith. And various idols through the heathen world. as next in worth Came singly where he stood on the bare strand. gods adored Among the nations round. In Argob and in Basan. Their children's cries unheard that passed through fire To his grim idol. who first. often placed Within his sanctuary itself their shrines. and th' invisible Glory of him that made them to transform Oft to the image of a brute. While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof? The chief were those who. adorned With gay religions full of pomp and gold. wandering o'er the earth. And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones. yea. form every squadron and each band. Him the Ammonite Worshiped in Rabba and her watery plain. princely Dignities. Though. when her barbarous sons Came like a deluge on the South. First. Through God's high sufferance for the trial of man. to the stream Of utmost Arnon. from the pit of Hell Roaming to seek their prey on Earth. And with their darkness durst affront his light. for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. Moloch. and with cursed things His holy rites and solemn feasts profaned. Though on their names in Heavenly records now Be no memorial. next the seat of God.Poured never from her frozen loins to pass Rhene or the Danaw. throned Between the Cherubim. and Forms Excelling human. Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve Got them new names. and parents' tears. besmeared with blood Of human sacrifice. durst fix Their seats. till. their names then known. Abominations. And devils to adore for deities: Then were they known to men by various names.

though large. And works of love or enmity fulfil. built By that uxorious king whose heart. or both. supposed with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the love-tale Infected Sion's daughters with like heat. Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged Even to that hill of scandal. 9 . Not tried or manacled with joint or limb. While smooth Adonis from his native rock Ran purple to the sea. With these came they who. lust hard by hate. in Hesebon And Horonaim. which cost them woe. but. To do him wanton rites. In Sion also not unsung. Like cumbrous flesh. when he enticed Israel in Sittim. where stood Her temple on th' offensive mountain. Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones. beyond The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines. with crescent horns. Thammuz came next behind. These feminine. and unfrequented left His righteous altar. Seon's real. the type of Hell. Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer's day. With these in troop Came Astoreth. To whose bright image nigntly by the moon Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs. Can execute their airy purposes. from the bordering flood Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground.On that opprobrious hill. sunk before the spear Of despicable foes. by the grove Of Moloch homicide. and made his grove The pleasant valley of Hinnom. And Eleale to th' Asphaltic Pool: Peor his other name. Next Chemos. Dilated or condensed. th' obscene dread of Moab's sons. Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. From Aroar to Nebo and the wild Of southmost Abarim. queen of heaven. Tophet thence And black Gehenna called. For those the race of Israel oft forsook Their Living Strength. so soft And uncompounded is their essence pure. bright or obscure. bowing lowly down To bestial gods. in what shape they choose. when they please. Beguiled by fair idolatresses. on their march from Nile. whom the Phoenicians called Astarte. fell To idols foul. For Spirits. for which their heads as low Bowed down in battle. had general names Of Baalim and Ashtaroth--those male. Can either sex assume.

in one night. lucid streams. on the grunsel-edge. than whom a Spirit more lewd Fell not from Heaven. when the priest Turns atheist. and their train-With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms Rather than human. He also against the house of God was bold: A leper once he lost. In his own temple. whom he drew God's altar to disparage and displace For one of Syrian mode. when their borrowed gold composed The calf in Oreb. And in luxurious cities. Witness the streets of Sodom. Likening his Maker to the grazed ox-Jehovah. dreaded through the coast Of Palestine. His eye surveyed the dark idolatries Of alienated Judah. yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars. To him no temple stood Or altar smoked.Whose wanton passions in the sacred proch Ezekiel saw. on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Pharphar. when he passed From Egypt marching. his sottish conqueror. After these appeared A crew who. then wander forth the sons Of Belial. flown with insolence and wine. Belial came last. and adore the gods Whom he had vanquished. head and hands lopt off. equalled with one stroke Both her first-born and all her bleating gods. when. Next came one Who mourned in earnest. in Gath and Ascalon. Nor did Israel scape Th' infection. yet had his temple high Reared in Azotus. or more gross to love Vice for itself. when the hospitable door 10 . where the noise Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers. as did Eli's sons.upward man And downward fish. by the vision led. who. sea-monster. Isis. And injury and outrage. Where he fell flat and shamed his worshippers: Dagon his name. when the captive ark Maimed his brute image. under names of old renown-Osiris. Orus. whose delightful seat Was fair Damascus. who filled With lust and violence the house of God? In courts and palaces he also reigns. and gained a king-Ahaz. Him followed Rimmon. and the rebel king Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan. and that night In Gibeah. and. whereon to burn His odious offerings. when night Darkens the streets. And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds.

all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: At which the universal host up-sent A shout that tore Hell's concave. Or in Dodona. and unmoved With dread of death to flight or foul retreat. Their highest heaven. and dispelled their fears. With his enormous brood. to have found themselves not lost In loss itself. like measure found. not substance. but with looks Downcast and damp. That proud honour claimed Azazel as his right. to avoid worse rape. So Jove usurping reigned. a Cherub tall: Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled Th' imperial ensign. though far renowned Th' Ionian gods--of Javan's issue held Gods. All in a moment through the gloom were seen Ten thousand banners rise into the air. or on the Delphian cliff. His own and Rhea's son. These.--Titan. With orient colours waving: with them rose A forest huge of spears. and thronging helms Appeared. And o'er the Celtic roamed the utmost Isles. full high advanced.Exposed a matron. or who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to th' Hesperian fields. and instead of rage Deliberate valour breathed. which on his countenance cast Like doubtful hue. 11 . and birthright seized By younger Saturn: he from mightier Jove. that bore Semblance of worth. be upreared His mighty standard. Anon they move In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood Of flutes and soft recorders--such as raised To height of noblest temper heroes old Arming to battle. at the warlike sound Of trumpets loud and clarions. and serried shields in thick array Of depth immeasurable. Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind. Heaven's first-born. with high words. Their boasted parents. All these and more came flocking. yet such wherein appeared Obscure some glimpse of joy to have found their Chief Not in despair. gently raised Their fainting courage. which. With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed. thence on the snowy top Of cold Olympus ruled the middle air. Then straight commands that. and through all the bounds Of Doric land. yet confessed later than Heaven and Earth. But he. and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. his wonted pride Soon recollecting. firm. These were the prime in order and in might: The rest were long to tell. Seraphic arms and trophies. first in Crete And Ida known.

the followers rather 12 . from behind the moon. And now Advanced in view they stand--a horrid front Of dreadful length and dazzling arms. Stood like a tower. Cruel his eye. hardening in his strength. Their visages and stature as of gods. above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent. Damasco. In dim eclipse. Darkened so. Jousted in Aspramont. And all who since. His form had yet not lost All her original brightness. but cast Signs of remorse and passion. Could merit more than that small infantry Warred on by cranes--though all the giant brood Of Phlegra with th' heroic race were joined That fought at Thebes and Ilium. Glories: for never. yet shone Above them all th' Archangel: but his face Deep scars of thunder had intrenched. or Montalban. He through the armed files Darts his experienced eye. or Marocco. and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs. and considerate pride Waiting revenge.Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage With solemn touches troubled thoughts. since created Man. Begirt with British and Armoric knights. with ordered spear and shield. Breathing united force with fixed thought. Their number last he sums. on each side Mixed with auxiliar gods. He. And now his heart Distends with pride. but under brows Of dauntless courage. and soon traverse The whole battalion views--their order due. or Trebisond. and. yet observed Their dread Commander. Thus they. and chase Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain From mortal or immortal minds. to behold The fellows of his crime. Thus far these beyond Compare of mortal prowess. nor appeared Less than Archangel ruined. disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations. Met such embodied force as. and care Sat on his faded cheek. Awaiting what command their mighty Chief Had to impose. Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore When Charlemain with all his peerage fell By Fontarabbia. and what resounds In fable or romance of Uther's son. baptized or infidel. and th' excess Of glory obscured: as when the sun new-risen Looks through the horizontal misty air Shorn of his beams. or. Moved on in silence to soft pipes that charmed Their painful steps o'er the burnt soil. named with these. in guise Of warriors old.

though th' event was dire. whereof so rife There went a fame in Heaven that he ere long Intended to create. and therein plant A generation whom his choice regard Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven. and from eteranl splendours flung For his revolt--yet faithful how they stood. burst forth: at last Words interwove with sighs found out their way:-"O myriads of immortal Spirits! O Powers Matchless. whereat their doubled ranks they bend From wing to wing. Stands on the blasted heath. if but to pry. and wrought our fall. Their glory withered. If counsels different. So as not either to provoke. and know our own. But he who reigns Monarch in Heaven till then as one secure Sat on his throne. in spite of scorn. could ever know repulse? For who can yet believe. and half enclose him round With all his peers: attention held them mute. He now prepared To speak. Thither. when heaven's fire Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. and this dire change. shall fail to re-ascend. though after loss. such as Angels weep. Thrice he assayed. and thrice. Forseeing or presaging. that he no less At length from us may find. though bare. Self-raised. or dread New war provoked: our better part remains To work in close design. Henceforth his might we know.(Far other once beheld in bliss). how such As stood like these. but still his strength concealed-Which tempted our attempt. Tears. from the depth Of knowledge past or present. who overcomes By force hath overcome but half his foe. have lost our hopes. What force effected not. be witness all the host of Heaven. With singed top their stately growth. whose exile Hath emptied Heaven. But what power of mind. and his regal state Put forth at full. but with th' Almighth!--and that strife Was not inglorious. shall be perhaps Our first eruption--thither. and repossess their native seat? For me. Hateful to utter. or elsewhere. by fraud or guile. That all these puissant legions. condemned For ever now to have their lot in pain-Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. As this place testifies. or danger shunned By me. upheld by old repute. as. For this infernal pit shall never hold 13 . Consent or custom. Space may produce new Worlds. could have feared How such united force of gods.

But these thoughts Full counsel must mature. Soon had his crew Opened into the hill a spacious wound. admiring more The riches of heaven's pavement. drawn from the thighs Of mighty Cherubim. Nigh on the plain. to trench a field. and. scarce perform. Or cast a rampart. and art. and fierce with grasped arms Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war. from one blast of wind. nor th' Abyss Long under darkness cover. A numerous brigade hastened: as when bands Of pioneers. Thither. and in an hour What in an age they. whose grisly top Belched fire and rolling smoke. trodden gold. 14 . Mammon led them on-Mammon. winged with speed. and from the boiling cells By strange conveyance filled each hollow nook. in many cells prepared. a second multitude With wondrous art founded the massy ore. the rest entire Shone with a glossy scurf--undoubted sign That in his womb was hid metallic ore. the least erected Spirit that fell From Heaven. war Open or understood. and wondering tell Of Babel. And digged out ribs of gold." He spake.Celestial Spirits in bondage. that soil may best Deserve the precious bane. to confirm his words. That underneath had veins of liquid fire Sluiced from the lake. with spade and pickaxe armed. must be resolved. outflew Millions of flaming swords. Severing each kind. Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed In vision beatific. for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts Were always downward bent. Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heaven. then. For who can think submission? War. with incessant toil And hands innumerable. The work of sulphur. And here let those Who boast in mortal things. Let none admire That riches grow in Hell. and the works of Memphian kings. A third as soon had formed within the ground A various mould. Ransacked the centre. and by his suggestion taught. Peace is despaired. and with impious hands Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth For treasures better hid. By him first Men also. are easily outdone By Spirits reprobate. Highly they raged Against the Highest. Forerun the royal camp. There stood a hill not far. the sudden blaze Far round illumined Hell. As in an organ. and scummed the bullion-dross. Learn how their greatest monuments of fame And strength.

His hand was known In Heaven by many a towered structure high. when Egypt with Assyria strove In wealth and luxury. discover.To many a row of pipes the sound-board breathes. Anon out of the earth a fabric huge Rose like an exhalation. Thus they relate. the high capital Of Satan and his peers. and Doric pillars overlaid With golden architrave. The roof was fretted gold. and in Ausonian land Men called him Mulciber. And some the architect. Each in his Hierarchy. Pendent by subtle magic. but was headlong sent. where pilasters round Were set. With his industrious crew. Th' ascending pile Stood fixed her stately height. to enshrine Belus or Serapis their gods. like a falling star. with bossy sculptures graven. wide Within. th' Aegaean isle. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements: from morn To noon he fell. and how he fell From Heaven they fabled. with the sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet-Built like a temple. A summer's day. the Orders bright. and with the setting sun Dropt from the zenith. yielded light As from a sky. whom the supreme King Exalted to such power. nor aught aviled him now To have built in Heaven high towers. and straight the doors. The hasty multitude Admiring entered. Meanwhile the winged Heralds. or seat Their kings. throughout the host proclaim A solemn council forthwith to be held At Pandemonium. with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound. and the work some praise. Their summons called From every band and squared regiment By place or choice the worthiest: they anon 15 . Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. On Lemnos. for he with this rebellious rout Fell long before. many a row Of starry lamps and blazing cressets. to build in Hell. by command Of sovereign power. Erring. from noon to dewy eve. and gave to rule. Not Babylon Nor great Alcairo such magnificence Equalled in all their glories. her ample spaces o'er the smooth And level pavement: from the arched roof. And sat as Princes. nor did he scape By all his engines. nor did there want Cornice or frieze. Opening their brazen folds. Where sceptred Angels held their residence. fed With naptha and asphaltus.

With hundreds and with thousands trooping came Attended. A thousand demi-gods on golden seats. Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. the great consult began. and confer Their state-affairs: so thick the airy crowd Swarmed and were straitened. Though without number still. both on the ground and in the air. Behold a wonder! They but now who seemed In bigness to surpass Earth's giant sons. Thick swarmed. All access was thronged. Frequent and full. the signal given. the gates And porches wide. with jocund music charm his ear. amidst the hall Of that infernal court. and were at large. Whose midnight revels. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. on their mirth and dance Intent. New rubbed with balm. aspires Beyond thus high. expatiate. but chief the spacious hall (Though like a covered field. while overhead the Moon Sits arbitress. where champions bold Wont ride in armed. from despair Thus high uplifted beyond hope. and nearer to the Earth Wheels her pale course: they. As bees In spring-time. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. in narrow room Throng numberless--like that pygmean race Beyond the Indian mount. And summons read. At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. Or dreams he sees. Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms Reduced their shapes immense. some belated peasant sees. Now less than smallest dwarfs. Satan exalted sat. The suburb of their straw-built citadel. or faery elves. Book II High on a throne of royal state. by merit raised To that bad eminence. when the Sun with Taurus rides. and. The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim In close recess and secret conclave sat. But far within. or career with lance). by a forest-side Or fountain. After short silence then. or on the smoothed plank. which far Outshone the wealth or Ormus and of Ind. and at the Soldan's chair Defied the best of Paynim chivalry To mortal combat. And in their own dimensions like themselves. till. insatiate to pursue 16 .

sceptred king. The prison of his ryranny who reigns 17 . no good For which to strive. hath much more Established in a safe. and firm faith. And trust themselves to fear no second fate!-Me though just right. then. Thus far at least recovered. no strife can grow up there From faction: for none sure will claim in Hell Precedence. or when they need. and next him Moloch. The happier state In Heaven. He recked not. and by what best way. shall the rest-Millions that stand in arms. with that care lost Went all his fear: of God. or worse. but who here Will envy whom the highest place exposes Foremost to stand against the Thunderer's aim Your bulwark. not now. by success untaught." He ceased. we now return To claim our just inheritance of old. might draw Envy from each inferior. Did first create your leader--next. More than can be in Heaven. though oppressed and fallen. Surer to prosper than prosperity Could have assured us. now fiercer by despair. then. Yielded with full consent. since no deep within her gulf can hold Immortal vigour. To union. More unexpert. unenvied throne. His trust was with th' Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength. and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame. Heaven's fugitives. which follows dignity. and longing wait The signal to ascend--sit lingering here. I boast not: them let those Contrive who need. free choice With what besides in council or in fight Hath been achieved of merit--yet this loss. Deities of Heaven!-For. or Hell. while they sit contriving. His proud imaginations thus displayed:-"Powers and Dominions.Vain war with Heaven. We now debate. I give not Heaven for lost: from this descent Celestial Virtues rising will appear More glorious and more dread than from no fall. Stood up--the strongest and the fiercest Spirit That fought in Heaven. and rather than be less Cared not to be at all. and these words thereafter spake:-"My sentence is for open war. and firm accord. and. none whose portion is so small Of present pain that with ambitious mind Will covet more! With this advantage. Who can advise may speak. and the fixed laws of Heaven. Of wiles. Whether of open war or covert guile. For. and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is.

when. we are at worst On this side nothing. and reduce To nothing this essential--happier far Than miserable to have eternal being!-Or. if not victory. When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear Insulting. his fatal throne: Which. all at once O'er Heaven's high towers to force resistless way. Calls us to penance? More destroyed than thus. Armed with Hell-flames and fury." He ended frowning. descent and fall To us is adverse. to the height enraged. he seemed 18 . and by proof we feel Our power sufficient to disturb his Heaven. see Black fire and horror shot with equal rage Among his Angels. Though inaccessible. and. But perhaps The way seems difficult. he shall hear Infernal thunder. and steep to scale With upright wing against a higher foe! Let such bethink them. and his look denounced Desperate revenge. On th' other side up rose Belial. in act more graceful and humane. His own invented torments. condemned In this abhorred deep to utter woe! Where pain of unextinguishable fire Must exercise us without hope of end The vassals of his anger. and expire. when the scourge Inexorably. if our substance be indeed divine.By our delay? No! let us rather choose. That in our porper motion we ascend Up to our native seat. And with perpetual inroads to alarm. if the sleepy drench Of that forgetful lake benumb not still. Who but felt of late. And cannot cease to be. some worse way his wrath may find To our destruction. We should be quite abolished. and pursued us through the Deep. Th' event is feared! Should we again provoke Our stronger. With what compulsion and laborious flight We sunk thus low? Th' ascent is easy. if there be in Hell Fear to be worse destroyed! What can be worse Than to dwell here. to meet the noise Of his almighty engine. is yet revenge. and the torturing hour. driven out from bliss. and his throne itself Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire. What fear we then? what doubt we to incense His utmost ire? which. Turning our tortures into horrid arms Against the Torturer. Will either quite consume us. for lightning. then. and battle dangerous To less than gods. A fairer person lost not Heaven.

whether our angry Foe Can give it. Thus repulsed. and at our heels all Hell should rise With blackest insurrection to confound Heaven's purest light. But all was false and hollow. our final hope Is flat despair: we must exasperate Th' Almighty Victor to spend all his rage. And with persuasive accent thus began:-"I should be much for open war. and seem to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success. and destined to eternal woe. Incapable of stain. As not behind in hate. Those thoughts that wander through eternity. to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low-To vice industrious. To give his enemies their wish. though his tongue Dropped manna. and high exploit. Devoid of sense and motion? And who knows. then?' Say they who counsel war. could we break our way By force. let loose at once his ire. so wise. 19 . if what was urged Main reason to persuade immediate war Did not dissuade me most. Yet he pleased the ear. Sad cure! for who would lose. yet our great Enemy. or with obscure wing Scout far and wide into the realm of Night. 'we are decreed. Reserved. swallowed up and lost In the wide womb of uncreated Night. Let this be good. as the scope Of all his aim. that render all access Impregnable: oft on the bodering Deep Encamp their legions. Or. this intellectual being. All incorruptible. grounds his courage on despair And utter dissolution.For dignity composed. First. To perish rather. Though full of pain. In what he counsels and in what excels Mistrustful. and purge off the baser fire. or will ever? How he can Is doubtful. and th' ethereal mould. would soon expel Her mischief. When he who most excels in fact of arms. Belike through impotence or unaware. Will he. that he never will is sure. and end Them in his anger whom his anger saves To punish endless? 'Wherefore cease we. what revenge? The towers of Heaven are filled With armed watch. Scorning surprise. but to nobler deeds Timorous and slothful. after some dire revenge. O Peers. and could make the worse appear The better reason. Victorious. would on his throne Sit unpolluted. that must be our cure-To be no more. And that must end us.

worst-Thus sitting. This is now Our doom. pursued and struck With Heaven's afflicting thunder. thus far removed. Impendent horrors. Our strength is equal. and fear What yet they know must follow--to endure Exile. To suffer. Ages of hopeless end? This would be worse. thus in arms? What when we fled amain. shall be hurled. and so doubtful what might fall.Whatever doing. which if we can sustain and bear. since fate inevitable Subdues us. Our Supreme Foe in time may much remit His anger. and perhaps. shrink. thus expelled. satisfied 20 . What can we suffer worse?' Is this. open or concealed. while we perhaps. threatening hideous fall One day upon our heads. or bonds. the sport and prey Or racking whirlwinds. or pain. as to do. Unrespited. or igominy. and omnipotent decree. and this firmament Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire. thus consulting. Caught in a fiery tempest. Each on his rock transfixed. or who deceive his mind. alike My voice dissuades. Or when we lay Chained on the burning lake? That sure was worse. Awaked. whose eye Views all things at one view? He from Heaven's height All these our motions vain sees and derides. If we were wise. What if the breath that kindled those grim fires. Designing or exhorting glorious war. if that fail them. War. The Victor's will. what can we suffer more. for what can force or guile With him. This was at first resolved. live thus vile--the race of Heaven Thus trampled. Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. and besought The Deep to shelter us? This Hell then seemed A refuge from those wounds. And plunge us in the flames. should blow them into sevenfold rage. or for ever sunk Under yon boiling ocean. then. By my advice. against so great a foe Contending. The sentence of their Conqueror. wrapt in chains. unreprieved. or from above Should intermitted vengeance arm again His red right hand to plague us? What if all Her stores were opened. nor the law unjust That so ordains. There to converse with everlasting groans. Shall we. Not mind us not offending. to suffer here Chains and these torments? Better these than worse. then. therefore. unpitied. I laugh when those who at the spear are bold And venturous.

and in what place soe'er Thrive under evil. prosperous of adverse. if his breath stir not their flames. our state Of splendid vassalage. By force impossible. We can create. argues as vain The latter. Not peace. Our purer essence then will overcome Their noxious vapour. and to his Godhead sing Forced hallelujahs. void of pain. changed at length. with words clothed in reason's garb. and Chaos judge the strife. This horror will grow mild. and after him thus Mammon spake:-"Either to disenthrone the King of Heaven We war. whence these raging fires Will slacken. How wearisome Eternity so spent in worship paid To whom we hate! Let us not then pursue. If we procure not to ourselves more woe. unless Heaven's Lord supreme We overpower? Suppose he should relent And publish grace to all. Free and to none accountable. Or." Thus Belial.With what is punished. This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst 21 . and work ease out of pain Through labour and endurance. Besides what hope the never-ending flight Of future days may bring. Counselled ignoble ease and peaceful sloth. inured. or. this darkness light. and from our own Live to ourselves. for what place can be for us Within Heaven's bound. what change Worth waiting--since our present lot appears For happy though but ill. will receive Familiar the fierce heat. Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous when great things of small. with what eyes could we Stand in his presence humble. on promise made Of new subjection. by leave obtained Unacceptable. Our servile offerings? This must be our task In Heaven. and his altar breathes Ambrosial odours and ambrosial flowers. or to regain Our own right lost. and to the place conformed In temper and in nature. if war be best. though in this vast recess. but rather seek Our own good from ourselves. Him to unthrone we then May hope. not feel. though in Heaven. preferring Hard liberty before the easy yoke Of servile pomp. The former. and. for ill not worst. what chance. when everlasting Fate shall yield To fickle Chance. this our delight. while he lordly sits Our envied sovereign. to celebrate his throne With warbled hyms. and receive Strict laws imposed. Useful of hurtful. vain to hope.

with regard Of what we are and where. which all night long Had roused the sea. dismissing quite All thoughts of war. Such applause was heard As Mammon ended. his glory unobscured. All things invite To peaceful counsels. though in ruin. be called Princes of Hell? for so the popular vote Inclines--here to continue. and what can Heaven show more? Our torments also may. anchors in a craggy bay After the tempest. fit to bear The weight of mightiest monarchies. cannot we his light Imitate when we please? This desert soil Wants not her hidden lustre.Thick clouds and dark doth Heaven's all-ruling Sire Choose to reside. By policy and long process of time. in length of time. now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatched. these piercing fires As soft as now severe. Nor want we skill or art from whence to raise Magnificence. Become our elements. his look Drew audience and attention still as night Or summer's noontide air. Mustering their rage. changing style. Ye have what I advise." He scarce had finished. while thus he spake:-"Thrones and Imperial Powers. and no less desire To found this nether empire. whose bark by chance Or pinnace. how in safety best we may Compose our present evils. and. Satan except. And princely counsel in his face yet shone. and Heaven resembles Hell! As he our darkness. from whence deep thunders roar. and build up here 22 . so much the fear Of thunder and the sword of Michael Wrought still within them. In emulation opposite to Heaven. and public care. gems and gold. Advising peace: for such another field They dreaded worse than Hell. Majestic. which might rise. Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat. none higher sat--with grave Aspect he rose. And with the majesty of darkness round Covers his throne. and his sentence pleased. Sage he stood With Atlantean shoulders. Which when Beelzebub perceived--than whom. when such murmur filled Th' assembly as when hollow rocks retain The sound of blustering winds. which must needs remove The sensible of pain. and the settled state Of order. Ethereal Virtues! or these titles now Must we renounce. our temper changed Into their temper. and in his rising seemed A pillar of state. Offspring of Heaven.

Though Heaven be shut. The utmost border of his kingdom. What sit we then projecting peace and war? War hath determined us and foiled with loss Irreparable. and may least rejoice In doing what we most in suffering feel? Nor will occasion want. And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted? and what peace can we return. this place may lie exposed. and of his kingdom lose no part By our revolt. hostility and hate. reserved His captive multitude. about this time To be created like to us. but to remain In strictest bondage. still first and last will reign Sole king. For he. the happy seat Of some new race. and what their power And where their weakness: how attempted best. how endued. Yet ever plotting how the Conqueror least May reap his conquest. to learn What creatures there inhabit. Untamed reluctance. called Man. and by an oath That shook Heaven's whole circumference confirmed. in new league Banded against his throne. though thus far removed. and with iron sceptre rule Us here. but favoured more Of him who rules above. as with his golden those in Heaven. But. And know not that the King of Heaven hath doomed This place our dungeon. doubtless! while we dream. but over Hell extend His empire. terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought. In height or depth. And Heaven's high Arbitrator sit secure In his own strength. left To their defence who hold it: here. Thither let us bend all our thoughts. and revenge. Under th' inevitable curb. What if we find Some easier enterprise? There is a place (If ancient and prophetic fame in Heaven Err not)--another World. Or ambush from the Deep. though less In power and excellence. so was his will Pronounced among the Gods. By force of subtlety. though slow.A growing empire. of what mould Or substance. not our safe retreat Beyond his potent arm. to be sure. for what peace will be given To us enslaved. or possess 23 . to live exempt From Heaven's high jurisdiction. nor shall we need With dangerous expedition to invade Heaven. Some advantageous act may be achieved By sudden onset--either with Hell-fire To waste his whole creation. to our power. perhaps. whose high walls fear no assault or siege. but custody severe.

relies. infinite Abyss. Secure. not unvisited of Heaven's fair light. or to sit in darkness here Hatching vain empires. And through the palpable obscure find out His uncouth way." Thus beelzebub Pleaded his devilish counsel--first devised By Satan. ere he arrive The happy Isle? What strength. whom shall we send In search of this new World? whom shall we find Sufficient? who shall tempt with wandering feet The dark. which from the lowest deep Will once more lift us up. done all to spite The great Creator? But their spite still serves His glory to augment. and in part proposed: for whence. can then Suffice. Hurled headlong to partake with us. or spread his airy flight. Nearer our ancient seat--perhaps in view Of those bright confines. The puny habitants. And opportune excursion. like to what ye are. and our last hope. and at the brightening orient beam Purge off this gloom: the soft delicious air. or what evasion bear him safe. whence. and our joy upraise In his disturbance. But from the author of all ill. and. The bold design Pleased highly those infernal States. Upborne with indefatigable wings Over the vast abrupt. To heal the scar of these corrosive fires. and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. in spite of fate. Shall breathe her balm. Through the strict senteries and stations thick Of Angels watching round? Here he had need All circumspection: and we now no less Choice in our suffrage. shall curse Their frail original. and faded bliss-Faded so soon! Advise if this be worth Attempting. with neighbouring arms. or else in some mild zone Dwell. well ended long debate. But. that their God May prove their foe. first. what art. as we were driven. to confound the race Of mankind in one root. and interrupt his joy In our confusion. or. and joy Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent They vote: whereat his speech he thus renews:-"Well have ye judged. unbottomed. for on whom we send The weight of all." 24 . and drive. Seduce them to our party. we may chance Re-enter Heaven. could spring So deep a malice. if not drive. This would surpass Common revenge.All as our own. Synod of Gods. Great things resolved. when his darling sons. and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve.

But all sat mute. till. If thence he scape. prohibit all egress. Terror of Heaven. and with utter loss of being Threatens him. and render Hell More tolerable. or undertake The perilous attempt. what remains him less Than unknown dangers. the dreadful voyage. mighty Powers. and as hard escape? But I should ill become this throne. These passed. While here shall be our home. unmoved thus spake:-"O Progeny of Heaven! Empyreal Thrones! With reason hath deep silence and demur Seized us. what best may ease The present misery. Astonished. immures us round Ninefold. if there be cure or charm To respite. whom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows. and not refuse to reign. 25 . he sat. with monarchal pride Conscious of highest worth. O Peers. armed with power. Wide-gaping. This enterprise None shall partake with me. Barred over us. at last. if aught proposed And judged of public moment in the shape Of difficulty or danger. Pondering the danger with deep thoughts. Satan. and prevented all reply.This said. And this imperial sovereignty. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. though fallen. and gates of burning adamant. and expectation held His look suspense. that out of Hell leads up to light. could deter Me from attempting. Alone. Our prison strong. due alike To him who reigns. while I abroad Through all the coasts of dark destruction seek Deliverance for us all. Wherefore do I assume These royalties. this huge convex of fire. or slack the pain Of this ill mansion: intermit no watch Against a wakeful foe. the void profound Of unessential Night receives him next. Long is the way And hard. Or unknown region. None among the choice and prime Of those Heaven-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accept. though undismayed. Outrageous to devour. awaiting who appeared To second. or oppose. and each In other's countenance read his own dismay. into whatever world. intend at home. plunged in that abortive gulf. if any pass." Thus saying. or deceive. adorned With splendour. and so much to him due Of hazard more as he above the rest High honoured sits? Go. therefore. rose The Monarch.

Nor failed they to express how much they praised That for the general safety he despised His own: for neither do the Spirits damned Lose all their virtue. and seemed Alone th' antagonist of Heaven. winning cheap the high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn. Certain to be refused. when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds Ascending. Thus they their doubtful consultations dark Ended. Others among the chief might offer now. the louring element Scowls o'er the darkened landscape snow or shower. Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote. and levy cruel wars Wasting the earth. God proclaiming peace. lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds on earth. If chance the radiant sun. Yet live in hatred. enmity. men only disagree Of creatures rational. the fields revive. what erst they feared. and at once with him they rose.Prudent lest. and. Or close ambition varnished o'er with zeal. o'erspread Heaven's cheerful face. But they Dreaded not more th' adventure than his voice Forbidding. with farewell sweet. By herald's voice explained. from his resolution raised. The birds their notes renew. while the north wind sleeps. and forth In order came the grand infernal Peers: Midst came their mighty Paramount. might in opinion stand His rivals. Extend his evening beam. the hollow Abyss 26 . That day and night for his destruction wait! The Stygian council thus dissolved. Then of their session ended they bid cry With trumpet's regal sound the great result: Toward the four winds four speedy Cherubim Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. which glory excites. that hill and valley rings. with pomp supreme. Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone. though under hope Of heavenly grace. and strife Among themselves. and horrent arms. and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. so refused. And god-like imitated state: him round A globe of fiery Seraphim enclosed With bright emblazonry. rejoicing in their matchless Chief: As. And. O shame to men! Devil with devil damned Firm concord holds. each other to destroy: As if (which might induce us to accord) Man had not hellish foes enow besides. and bleating herds Attest their joy. nor less Than Hell's dread Emperor.

each his several way Pursues. and complain that Fate Free Virtue should enthrall to Force or Chance. Will. or arm th' obdured breast With stubborn patience as with triple steel. Thence more at ease their minds. could charm Pain for a while or anguish. or in the air sublime. In discourse more sweet (For Eloquence the Soul. and hapless fall By doom of battle. from Oechalia crowned With conquest. and false philosophy!-Yet. and Fate-Fixed fate. till his great Chief return. Upon the wing or in swift race contend. more fell. As at th' Olympian games or Pythian fields. Foreknowledge. and somewhat raised By false presumptuous hope. more mild. Rend up both rocks and hills. before each van Prick forth the airy knights. but the harmony (What could it less when Spirits immortal sing?) Suspended Hell. with a pleasing sorcery. Hell scarce holds the wild uproar:-As when Alcides. with vast Typhoean rage. And found no end. Their song was partial. in wandering mazes lost. and reasoned high Of Providence. free will. as inclination or sad choice Leads him perplexed. or shun the goal With rapid wheels. Passion and apathy. with feats of arms From either end of heaven the welkin burns. Others. the ranged Powers Disband. And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw Into th' Euboic sea. Part on the plain. and. and tore Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines. war appears Waged in the troubled sky. Song charms the Sense) Others apart sat on a hill retired. and couch their spears. Of happiness and final misery. Part curb their fiery steeds.Heard far adn wide. and excite Fallacious hope. and took with ravishment The thronging audience. sing With notes angelical to many a harp Their own heroic deeds. to warn proud cities. Of good and evil much they argued then. Retreated in a silent valley. and ride the air In whirlwind. and armies rush To battle in the clouds. or fronted brigades form: As when. 27 . Others. and entertain The irksome hours. In thoughts more elevate. Till thickest legions close. and glory and shame: Vain wisdom all. felt th' envenomed robe. foreknowledge absolute. where he may likeliest find Truce to his restless thoughts. wandering. and all the host of Hell With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim.

by harpy-footed Furies haled. and frozen round Periods of time. extremes by change more fierce. and cold performs th' effect of fire. th' adventurous bands.--thence hurried back to fire. infixed. the river of oblivion. Beyond this flood a frozen continent Lies dark and wild. which on firm land Thaws not. On bold adventure to discover wide That dismal world. whereof who drinks Forthwith his former state and being forgets-Forgets both joy and grief. Thus roving on In confused march forlorn. to reach The tempting stream. beat with perpetual storms Of whirlwind and dire hail. and there to pine Immovable. and feel by turns the bitter change Of fierce extremes. At certain revolutions all the damned Are brought. Where armies whole have sunk: the parching air Burns frore. all else deep snow and ice. named of lamentation loud Heard on the rueful stream. and found No rest. but gathers heap. as they pass. With shuddering horror pale. But Fate withstands. black and deep. They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro. and of itself the water flies All taste of living wight. O'er many a frozen. bend Four ways their flying march. Lethe. Through many a dark and dreary vale They passed. Sad Acheron of sorrow. along the banks Of four infernal rivers. A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. Thither. if any clime perhaps Might yield them easier habitation. their sorrow to augment. Viewed first their lamentable lot. that disgorge Into the burning lake their baleful streams-Abhorred Styx. 28 . and so near the brink. And wish and struggle. pleasure and pain. many a fiery alp. Cocytus. and eyes aghast. and ruin seems Of ancient pile. All in one moment.Another part. and many a region dolorous. Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards The ford. with one small drop to lose In sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe. to oppose th' attempt. rolls Her watery labyrinth. Far off from these. fierce Phlegeton. in squadrons and gross bands. as once it fled The lip of Tantalus. and. From beds of raging fire to starve in ice Their soft ethereal warmth. Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage. the flood of deadly hate. a slow and silent stream.

which God by curse Created evil. while the labouring moon Eclipses at their charms. would creep. high reaching to the horrid roof. yet there still barked and howled Within unseen. bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore. Far less abhorred than these Vexed Scylla. At last appear Hell-bounds. when. Gorgons. About her middle round A cry of Hell-hounds never-ceasing barked With wide Cerberean mouths full loud. yet. Voluminous and vast--a serpent armed With mortal sting. death lives. riding through the air she comes. 29 . they on the trading flood. and fair. Or substance might be called that shadow seemed. whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs. joint. then soars Up to the fiery concave towering high. Satan. Before the gates there sat On either side a formidable Shape. impaled with circling fire. bogs. And thrice threefold the gates. and toward the gates of Hell Explores his solitary flight: sometimes He scours the right hand coast. caves. Where all life dies. Meanwhile the Adversary of God and Man. inutterable. Puts on swift wings. And kennel there. dens. or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore. As when far off at sea a fleet descried Hangs in the clouds. lakes. Through the wide Ethiopian to the Cape. for evil only good. called In secret. into her womb. Now shaves with level wing the deep. fens. Yet unconsumed. terrible as Hell. when they list. and Hydras. The one seemed woman to the waist. to dance With Lapland witches. Perverse. Nor uglier follow the night-hag. Three iron. Obominable. and worse Than fables yet have feigned or fear conceived. Impenetrable. and shades of death-A universe of death. with thoughts inflamed of highest design. and Nature breeds. For each seemed either--black it stood as Night. all prodigious things. Ply stemming nightly toward the pole: so seemed Far off the flying Fiend. Fierce as ten Furies. and Chimeras dire. The other Shape-If shape it might be called that shape had none Distinguishable in member. and rung A hideous peal. If aught disturbed their noise. three of adamantine rock.Rocks. three folds were brass. by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Bengala. sometimes the left. or limb. all monstrous. Lured with the smell of infant blood. But ended foul in many a scaly fold.

And now great deeds 30 . replied:-"Art thou that traitor Angel? art thou he. and breath'st defiance here and scorn. and learn by proof. Where I reign king. outcast from God. Incensed with indignation. So speaking and so threatening. And with disdainful look thus first began:-"Whence and what art thou. and in proud rebellious arms Drew after him the third part of Heaven's sons. That be assured. their fatal hands No second stroke intend. till then Unbroken. so matched they stood. Created thing naught valued he nor shunned). That dar'st. and from his seat The monster moving onward came as fast With horrid strides. and like a comet burned. and to thy speed add wings. not to contend with Spirits of Heaven. Each at the head Levelled his deadly aim. and. On th' other side. advance Thy miscreated front athwart my way To yonder gates? Through them I mean to pass. Satan stood Unterrified." To whom the Goblin. Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue Thy lingering. With heaven's artillery fraught. Conjured against the Highest--for which both thou And they." So spake the grisly Terror. till winds the signal blow To join their dark encounter in mid-air. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. More dreadful and deform. Hell-born. execrable Shape. not feared (God and his Son except. grew tenfold. full of wrath. to enrage thee more. Th' undaunted Fiend what this might be admired-Admired. and in shape. Retire. For never but once more was wither like To meet so great a foe. So frowned the mighty combatants that Hell Grew darker at their frown. False fugitive. and pangs unfelt before.And shook a dreadful dart: what seemed his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th' arctic sky. Hell trembled as he strode.--then stand front to front Hovering a space. or with one stroke of this dart Strange horror seize thee. came rattling on Over the Caspian. Thy king and lord? Back to thy punishment. Satan was now at hand. though grim and terrible. and such a frown Each cast at th' other as when two black clouds. are here condemned To waste eternal days in woe and pain? And reckon'st thou thyself with Spirits of Heaven Hell-doomed. or taste thy folly. without leave asked of thee. Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith.

Likest to thee in shape and countenance bright. Driven headlong from the pitch of Heaven. Out of thy head I sprung. down Into this Deep. that sat Fast by Hell-gate and kept the fatal key. and with attractive graces won The most averse--thee chiefly. a goddess armed. to our part loss and rout Through all the Empyrean. thou call'st Me father. and at her words the hellish Pest Forbore: then these to her Satan returned:-"So strange thy outcry. familiar grown. who. Meanwhile war arose. and in the general fall 31 . then. and laughs the while At thee. O son. Amazement seized All th' host of Heaven. ordained his drudge to execute Whate'er his wrath. which he calls justice. spares to tell thee yet by deeds What it intends. but. Possesses thee to bend that mortal dart Against thy father's head? And know'st for whom? For him who sits above. dim thine eyes and dizzy swum In darkness. Down they fell. and that phantasm call'st my son. and thy words so strange Thou interposest. Prevented. Then shining heavenly fair. back they recoiled afraid At first. I know thee not. and why. Had not the snaky Sorceress. that my sudden hand. while thy head flames thick and fast Threw forth. what intends thy hand. Becam'st enamoured. Risen. and with hideous outcry rushed between. All on a sudden miserable pain Surprised thee. And fields were fought in Heaven: wherein remained (For what could else?) to our Almighty Foe Clear victory. nor ever saw till now Sight more detestable than him and thee. when at th' assembly. thus double-formed. and for a sign Portentous held me." she cried. In this infernal vale first met. full oft Thyself in me thy perfect image viewing. I pleased. and do I seem Now in thine eye so foul?--once deemed so fair In Heaven. whereof all Hell had rung. which one day will destroy ye both!" She spake. and called me Sin. and in sight Of all the Seraphim with thee combined In bold conspiracy against Heaven's King. "Against thy only son? What fury. bids-His wrath. "O father. and such joy thou took'st With me in secret that my womb conceived A growing burden. till first I know of thee What thing thou art. till on the left side opening wide." T' whom thus the Portress of Hell-gate replied:-"Hast thou forgot me.Had been achieved.

And my fair son here show'st me. I forewarn thee. I fled. with charge to keep These gates for ever shut. Inflamed with lust than rage). now sad to mention. and cried out Death! Hell trembled at the hideous name. brandishing his fatal dart. Tore through my entrails. and now excessive grown. And. till my womb. Made to destroy. as thou saw'st--hourly conceived And hourly born.I also: at which time this powerful key Into my hands was given. And me. Before mine eyes in opposition sits Grim Death. Whenever that shall be: so Fate pronounced. swifter far. the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heaven. now milder. Me overtook. with conscious terrors vex me round. his mother. for that mortal dint. and joys Then sweet. breaking violent way. that. who set them on. all dismayed. all my nether shape thus grew Transformed: but he my inbred enemy Forth issued. Pensive here I sat Alone. it seems. neither vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms. through dire change Befallen us unforeseen. but he pursued (though more. but to set free From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee. and all the heavenly host 32 . and thus answered smooth:-"Dear daughter--since thou claim'st me for thy sire. and his bane. into the womb That bred them they return. Pregnant by thee. and. for. and gnaw My bowels. bursting forth Afresh. of that rape begot These yelling monsters. their repast. and howl. which none can pass Without my opening. with sorrow infinite To me. and sighed From all her caves. O father. unthought-of--know. would full soon devour For want of other prey. with fear and pain Distorted. that with ceaseless cry Surround me. Through tempered heavenly. At last this odious offspring whom thou seest. That rest or intermission none I find. but that he knows His end with mine involved. and knows that I Should prove a bitter morsel. But thou. and back resounded Death! I fled. none can resist. my son and foe. I come no enemy. in embraces forcible and foul Engendering with me. then. Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes." She finished. but long I sat not. and the subtle Fiend his lore Soon learned. shun His deadly arrow. his parent. Thine own begotten. Save he who reigns above. when they list.

to supply Perhaps our vacant room. And. with lonely steps to tread Th' unfounded Deep.Of Spirits that. Fell with us from on high. and Death Grinned horrible a ghastly smile. not all the Stygian Powers 33 . embalmed With odours. thou my author. shall soon return. and blessed his maw Destined to that good hour. Which. whom should I obey But thee? whom follow? Thou wilt bring me soon To that new world of light and bliss. but herself." He ceased. And bring ye to the place where thou and Death Shall dwell at ease. a place foretold Should be--and. from her side the fatal key. with wandering quest. to hear His famine should be filled. now designed. I keep. that on my bowels feed? Thou art my father. There ye shall be fed and filled Immeasurably. But what owe I to his commands above. or aught Than this more secret. and therein placed A race of upstart creatures." Thus saying. Who hates me. against all force Death ready stands to interpose his dart. and one for all Myself expose. surcharged with potent multitude. as beseems Thy daughter and thy darling. for both seemed highly pleased. this once known. To sit in hateful office here confined. Might hap to move new broils. by him forbidden to unlock These adamantine gates. From them I go This uncouth errand sole. all things shall be your prey. Sad instrument of all our woe. where I shall reign At thy right hand voluptuous. No less rejoiced His mother bad. without end. in our just pretences armed. I haste To know. and through the void immense To search. Fearless to be o'ermatched by living might. among The gods who live at ease. Forthwith the huge portcullis high up-drew. towards the gate rolling her bestial train. by due And by command of Heaven's all-powerful King. though more removed. Lest Heaven. she took. thou My being gav'st me. ere now Created vast and round--a place of bliss In the purlieus of Heaven. and thus bespake her sire:-"The key of this infernal Pit. Be this. and. With terrors and with clamours compassed round Of mine own brood. Inhabitant of Heaven and heavenly born-Here in perpetual agony and pain. by concurring signs. and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom air. and hath hither thrust me down Into this gloom of Tartarus profound.

Pondering his voyage. She opened. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder. swift. and by confusion stand. and every bolt and bar Of massy iron or solid rock with ease Unfastens. With impetuous recoil and jarring sound. Under spread ensigns marching. without bound. Cold. Without dimension. in their several clans. So wide they stood. are lost. and Dry. high arbiter. unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil. nor fire. bent to rase Some capital city. and like a furnace-mouth Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. The womb of Nature. that the lowest bottom shook Of Erebus. Chance governs all. And by decision more embroils the fray By which he reigns: next him. nor shore. Of neither sea. Light-armed or heavy. and poise Their lighter wings. hold Eternal anarchy. Th' infernal doors. amidst the noise Of endless wars. And time. and perhaps her grave. Levied to side with warring winds. and place. Before their eyes in sudden view appear The secrets of the hoary Deep--a dark Illimitable ocean. On a sudden open fly. smooth. then in the key-hole turns Th' intricate wards. where length. For Hot. Unless th' Almighty Maker them ordain His dark materials to create more worlds-Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while. for no narrow frith He had to cross. or less than if this frame Of Heaven were falling. To whom these most adhere He rules a moment: Chaos umpire sits. and to battle bring Their embryon atoms: they around the flag Of each his faction. ancestors of Nature. where eldest Night And Chaos. or slow.Could once have moved. Strive here for mastery. sharp. Into this wild Abyss. and height. But all these in their pregnant causes mixed Confusedly. Moist. and which thus must ever fight. four champions fierce. nor air. but to shut Excelled her power: the gates wide open stood. breadth. mibht pass through With horse and chariots ranked in loose array. Nor was his ear less pealed With noises loud and ruinous (to compare Great things with small) than when Bellona storms With all her battering engines. and these elements In mutiny had from her axle torn 34 . Swarm populous. That with extended wings a bannered host.

Chaos and ancient Night. As in a cloudy chair. of whom to ask Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies Bordering on light. and. eldest of things. dense. As when a gryphon through the wilderness With winged course. What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds Confine with Heaven. ascending rides Audacious. Treading the crude consistence. and Confusion. but. At length a universal hubbub wild Of stunning sounds. The consort of his reign. spurns the ground. turning boldly. as my way Lies through your spacious empire up to light. Fluttering his pennons vain. so eagerly the Fiend O'er bog or steep. on he fares. and his dark pavilion spread Wide on the wasteful Deep! With him enthroned Sat sable-vested Night. by constraint Wandering this darksome desert. At last his sail-broad vans He spread for flight. I come no spy With purpose to explore or to disturb The secrets of your realm. Instinct with fire and nitre. Nor good dry land--nigh foundered. T' whom Satan. or flies. that seat soon failing. but. That fury stayed-Quenched in a boggy Syrtis. And swims. rough. in the surging smoke Uplifted. or. plumb-down he drops Ten thousand fathom deep. had not. 35 . wings. who by stealth Had from his wakeful custody purloined The guarded gold. and by them stood Orcus and Ades. Pursues the Arimaspian.The steadfast Earth. or feet. Half flying. or rare. Alone and without guide. With head. And Tumult. if some other place. through strait. pursues his way. neither sea. hurried him As many miles aloft. The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud. and voices all confused. half on foot. by ill chance. and Chance. meets A vast vacuity. assaults his ear With loudest vehemence. or wades. thence many a league. hands. thus:--"Ye Powers And Spirtis of this nethermost Abyss. all embroiled. And Discord with a thousand various mouths. All unawares. Thither he plies Undaunted. Rumour next. o'er hill or moory dale. or sinks. behoves him now both oar and sail. Borne through the hollow dark. to meet there whatever Power Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss Might in that noise reside. and the dreaded name Of Demogorgon. and to this hour Down had been falling. I seek. when straight behold the throne Of Chaos. or creeps. half lost.

But. thither to arrive I travel this profound. and by th' other whirlpool steered. Answered: "I know thee. All usurpation thence expelled. Your dungeon. Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain. and him thus the Anarch old. who of late Made head against Heaven's King." He ceased. another world Hung o'er my realm. Into the wild expanse. and Satan stayed not to reply. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence. linked in a golden chain To that side Heaven from whence your legions fell! If that way be your walk. soon after. Confusion worse confounded. mine the revenge!" Thus Satan. though overthrown. stranger. Now lately Heaven and Earth. Following his track (such was the will of Heaven) Paved after him a broad and beaten way Over the dark Abyss. stretching far and wide beneath. harder beset And more endangered than when Argo passed Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks. Or when Ulysses on the larboard shunned Charybdis. and ruin. So he with difficulty and labour hard Moved on. he once passed. when Man fell. and once more Erect the standard there of ancient Night. reduce To her original darkness and your sway (Which is my present journey). and Heaven-gates Poured out by millions her victorious bands. and speed. no mean recompense it brings To your behoof. whose boiling gulf Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length. th' Ethereal King Possesses lately. like a pyramid of fire. But. for such a numerous host Fled not in silence through the frighted Deep. and through the shock Of fighting elements. and spoil. you have not far. if I that region lost. glad that now his sea should find a shore. rout on rout. are my gain. I saw and heard. Hell.*** That mighty leading Angel. With ruin upon ruin. who thou art-. With fresh alacrity and force renewed Springs upward.From your dominion won. Direct my course: Directed. Yours be th' advantage all. Encroached on still through our intestine broils Weakening the sceptre of old Night: first. Havoc. with difficulty and labour he. on all sides round Environed. Go. if all I can will serve That little which is left so to defend. With faltering speech and visage incomposed. So much the nearer danger. Pursuing. wins his way. 36 .

Won from the void and formless infinite. dwelt then in thee Bright effluence of bright essence increate. resembling air. except whom God and good Angels guard by special grace. And. Weighs his spread wings. Here Nature first begins Her farthest verge. reaching th' utmost orb Of this frail World. and from the walls of Heaven Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night A glimmering dawn. like a weather-beaten vessel. in bigness as a star Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. Or of the Eternal coeternal beam May I express thee unblam'd? since God is light. Escap'd the Stygian pool. Thither. and at the voice Of God. 37 .From Hell continued. With tumult less and with less hostile din. and Chaos to retire. holds Gladly the port. and now with ease. Whose fountain who shall tell? before the sun. undetermined square or round. fast by. That Satan with less toil. Before the Heavens thou wert. while in my flight Through utter and through middle darkness borne. offspring of Heaven firstborn. Book III Hail. though long detain'd In that obscure sojourn. hanging in a golden chain. With opal towers and battlements adorned Of living sapphire. at leisure to behold Far off th' empyreal Heaven. once his native seat. Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light. and in a cursed hour. and up to re-ascend. Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing. full fraught with mischievous revenge. didst invest *** The rising world of waters dark and deep. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sung of Chaos and eternal Night. But now at last the sacred influence Of light appears. though shrouds and tackle torn. Or hear"st thou rather pure ethereal stream. And never but in unapproached light Dwelt from eternity. by which the Spirits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro To tempt or punish mortals. And. as with a mantle. Accursed. Or in the emptier waste. a broken foe. As from her outmost works. extended wide In circuit. holy Light. This pendent World. he hies. Taught by the heavenly Muse to venture down The dark descent.

unrivall'd love.Though hard and rare: Thee I revisit safe. Smit with the love of sacred song. prophets old: Then feed on thoughts. celestial Light. and warbling flow. from the cheerful ways of men Cut off. Yet not the more Cease I to wander. And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. on his right The radiant image of his glory sat. In blissful solitude. or summer's rose. Clear spring. where the Muses haunt. His only son. and in shadiest covert hid Tunes her nocturnal note. and blind Maeonides. And Tiresias. and for the book of knowledge fair Presented with a universal blank Of nature's works to me expung'd and ras'd. and the flowery brooks beneath. From the pure empyrean where he sits High thron'd above all highth. but not to me returns Day. or human face divine. Nightly I visit: nor sometimes forget So were I equall'd with them in renown. that roll in vain To find thy piercing ray. as the wakeful bird Sings darkling. Sion. or herds. on earth he first beheld Our two first parents. and Satan there Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night 38 . all mist from thence Purge and disperse. but chief Thee. Thus with the year Seasons return. or sunny hill. and from his sight receiv'd Beatitude past utterance. Or dim suffusion veil'd. and Phineus. Shine inward. Now had the Almighty Father from above. And feel thy sovran vital lamp. But cloud instead. or the sweet approach of even or morn. So much the rather thou. that Man should find grace. and the mind through all her powers Irradiate. but thou Revisit'st not these eyes. and ever-during dark Surrounds me. there plant eyes. Or flocks. and find no dawn. or shady grove. he then survey'd Hell and the gulf between. that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight. that voluntary move Harmonious numbers. Or sight of vernal bloom. So thick a drop serene hath quench'd their orbs. Blind Thamyris. yet the only two Of mankind in the happy garden plac'd Reaping immortal fruits of joy and love. Uninterrupted joy. Thy sovran command. That wash thy hallow'd feet. bent down his eye His own works and their works at once to view: About him all the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars.

In the dun air sublime. Freely they stood who stood. or. seest thou what rage Transports our Adversary? whom no bounds Prescrib'd no bars of Hell. that seem'd Firm land imbosom'd. On the bare outside of this world. Made passive both. and ready now To stoop with wearied wings. if I foreknew. without firmament. nor all the chains Heap'd on him there. And now. Through all restraint broke loose. Not me? they therefore. in the precincts of light. worse. and shall pervert. When will and reason (reason also is choice) Useless and vain. Or aught by me immutably foreseen. and them who fail'd. or their making. present. Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall He and his faithless progeny: Whose fault? Whose but his own? ingrate. Not free. Thus to his only Son foreseeing spake. For man will hearken to his glozing lies. And easily transgress the sole command. future. Only begotten Son. nor can justly accuse Their Maker. he beholds. Directly towards the new created world. Him God beholding from his prospect high. of freedom both despoil'd. not I. Where only what they needs must do appear'd. he wings his way Not far off Heaven. had serv'd necessity. Not what they would? what praise could they receive? What pleasure I from such obedience paid. Such I created all the ethereal Powers And Spirits. By some false guile pervert. what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance. and fell who fell. though free to fall. And man there plac'd. both them who stood. So without least impulse or shadow of fate. Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault. as to right belong$ 'd. They trespass. or their fate. authors to themselves in all 39 . So were created. that shall redound Upon his own rebellious head. can hold. he had of me All he could have. in ocean or in air. nor yet the main abyss Wide interrupt. As if predestination over-rul'd Their will dispos'd by absolute decree Or high foreknowledge they themselves decreed Their own revolt. Sufficient to have stood. constant faith or love. Which had no less proved certain unforeknown. Wherein past. with purpose to assay If him by force he can destroy. I made him just and right. and willing feet. Uncertain which. so bent he seems On desperate revenge.

my wisdom. All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are. To whom the great Creator thus replied. and revoke the high decree Unchangeable. Yet with revenge accomplish'd. By him corrupted? or wilt thou thyself Abolish thy creation. in whom my soul hath chief delight. thus he to his Father spake. and frustrate thine? shall he fulfill His malice. and to Hell Draw after him the whole race of mankind. Thus while God spake. ambrosial fragrance fill'd All Heaven. and effectual might. O son. Self-tempted. and in his face Divine compassion visibly appear'd. that Man should find grace. The other none: In mercy and justice both. 40 . self-deprav'd: Man falls. all As my eternal purpose hath decreed. Till they enthrall themselves. Love without end. eternal. Which uttering. Beyond compare the Son of God was seen Most glorious. Thy creature late so lov'd. thy youngest son. that Man should find grace. for so I form'd them free: and free they must remain. should Man. and unmake For him. Son who art alone. with the innumerable sound Of hymns and sacred songs. first and last. and judgest only right. wherewith thy throne Encompass'd shall resound thee ever blest. Father. though join'd With his own folly? that be from thee far.Both what they judge. But Mercy. though to his heavier doom. Or shall the Adversary thus obtain His end. For should Man finally be lost. in him all his Father shone Substantially express'd. O Father. . and thy goodness bring to nought. deceiv'd By the other first: Man therefore shall find grace. gracious was that word which clos'd Thy sovran command. what for thy glory thou hast made? So should thy goodness and thy greatness both Be question'd and blasphem'd without defence. For which both Heaven and earth shall high extol Thy praises. Through Heaven and Earth. so shall my glory excel. and what they choose. Fall circumvented thus by fraud. I else must change Their nature. That far be from thee. which ordain'd $THeir freedom: they themselves ordain'd their fall. shall brightest shine. who art judge Of all things made. Or proud return. The first sort by their own suggestion fell. and in the blessed Spirits elect Sense of new joy ineffable diffus'd. Son of my bosom. and without measure grace. My word.

well us'd. This my long sufferance. persisting. and to me owe All his deliverance. but sav'd who will. pay The rigid satisfaction. so is my will: The rest shall hear me call. for I will clear their senses dark. and sins Against the high supremacy of Heaven. repentance. while offer'd grace Invites. with his whole posterity. But to destruction sacred and devote. and just the unjust to save? Dwells in all Heaven charity so dear? And silence was in Heaven: $ on Man's behalf He ask'd. That they may stumble on. mine eye not shut. blind be blinded more. Patron or intercessour none appear'd. My umpire Conscience. and bring obedience due. To prayer. though forfeit. Elect above the rest. to redeem Man's mortal crime. but grace in me Freely vouchsaf'd. and to none but me. whom if they will hear. Die he or justice must. Some I have chosen of peculiar grace. and enthrall'd By sin to foul exorbitant desires. By me upheld. once more I will renew His lapsed powers. To expiate his treason hath nought left. Though but endeavour'd with sincere intent. and. they shall attain. shall never taste. Man disobeying. Yet not of will in him. He. adjudg'd to Death and Hell 41 .Man shall not quite be lost. and ransom set. Affecting God-head. but all the heavenly quire stood mute. And to the end. But yet all is not done. heavenly Powers. and oft be warn'd Their sinful state. And none but such from mercy I exclude. Upheld by me. What may suffice. and as willing. must die. yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe. And now without redemption all mankind Must have been lost. repent. safe arrive. But hard be harden'd. Say. so losing all. and obedience due. breaks his fealty. and soften stony hearts To pray. unless for him Some other able. Much less that durst upon his own head draw The deadly forfeiture. where shall we find such love? Which of you will be mortal. death for death. that he may know how frail His fallen condition is. and my day of grace. They who neglect and scorn. and to appease betimes The incensed Deity. Light after light. And I will place within them as a guide. Disloyal. Mine ear shall not be slow. and deeper fall.

All that of me can die. And shall grace not find means. hath none to bring. and with his carcase glut the grave. by thee I live. out of Heaven shalt look down and smile. but in thy presence joy entire. His words here ended. To visit all thy creatures. had not the Son of God. Under his gloomy power I shall not long Lie vanquished. I through the ample air in triumph high Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell. and show The powers of darkness bound. once dead in sins. with the multitude of my redeemed. he her aid Can never seek. above which only shone Filial obedience: as a sacrifice Glad to be offered. Indebted and undone. and to all Comes unprevented. wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain. Account me Man. of his mortal sting disarmed. and am his due. and return. Father. and whither tend. long absent. Shall enter Heaven. on me let Death wreak all his rage. what this might mean.By doom severe. thy word is past. Behold me then: me for him. The speediest of thy winged messengers. at the sight Pleased. or offering meet. but his meek aspect Silent yet spake. and breathed immortal love To mortal men. life for life I offer: on me let thine anger fall. In whom the fulness dwells of love divine. and subdue My vanquisher. but peace assured And reconcilement: wrath shall be no more Thenceforth. His dearest mediation thus renew'd. so coming. Death his death's wound shall then receive. While. Though now to Death I yield. Thou hast given me to possess Life in myself for ever. Then. O thou in Heaven and Earth the only peace 42 . he attends the will Of his great Father. to see thy face. but soon th' Almighty thus replied. nor suffer my unspotted soul For ever with corruption there to dwell. Man shall find grace. Admiration seized All Heaven. that debt paid. But I shall rise victorious. by thee raised. Death last. Atonement for himself. Wondering. and stoop Inglorious. yet. unsought? Happy for Man. I ruin all my foes. Thou. $ thou wilt not leave me in the loathsome grave His prey. that finds her way. and lost. I for his sake will leave Thy bosom. spoiled of his vaunted spoil. Father. and this glory next to thee Freely put off. and for him lastly die Well pleased. unimplor'd.

by descending to assume Man's nature. As from a second root. Therefore thy humiliation shall exalt With thee thy manhood also to this throne: Here shalt thou sit incarnate. without thee none. Anointed universal King. though Adam's son. because in thee Love hath abounded more than glory abounds. And live in thee transplanted. and from thee Receive new life. accept not grace. whom thou only canst redeem. and rising with him raise His brethren. be judged and die. 00021053 Thou. therefore. reign for ever. By wondrous birth. to save. So dearly to redeem what hellish hate So easily destroyed. all power I give thee. Nor shalt thou. Because thou hast. When thou. that for him I spare Thee from my bosom and right hand. to save A world from utter loss. Giving to death. quitted all. And be thyself Man among men on Earth. Though last created. Their nature also to thy nature join. His crime makes guilty all his sons. Made flesh. ransomed with his own dear life. or Earth. Dominions. and dying to redeem. Princedoms. Found worthiest to be so by being good. so in thee. be thou in Adam's room The head of all mankind. Powers. And dying rise. shall absolve them who renounce Their own both righteous and unrighteous deeds. and hast been found By merit more than birthright Son of God. when time shall be. 43 . when they may. nor Man the least. the whole race lost. of virgin seed. and equally enjoying God-like fruition. O thou My sole complacence! Well thou know'st how dear To me are all my works.Found out for mankind under wrath. or under Earth in Hell. here shalt reign Both God and Man. and assume Thy merits. though throned in highest bliss Equal to God. Imputed. By losing thee a while. as head supreme. of them that bide In Heaven. Son both of God and Man. Thrones. So Man. attended gloriously from Heaven. under thee. I reduce: All knees to thee shall bow. As in him perish all men. thy merit. as is most just. Shall satisfy for Man. lessen or degrade thine own. So heavenly love shall outdo hellish hate. shall be restored As many as are restored. Far more than great or high. and still destroys In those who.

the bright Pavement. and loud Hosannas filled The eternal regions: Lowly reverent Towards either throne they bow. and with preamble sweet Of charming symphony they introduce Their sacred song. to the general doom Shall hasten. shall sink Beneath thy sentence. Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. there grows. crowned again. Hell. and from thee send The summoning Arch-Angels to proclaim Thy dread tribunal. all ye Gods. that like a sea of jasper shone. and waken raptures high. forthwith from all winds. and from her ashes spring New Heaven and Earth. Thee. Now in loose garlands thick thrown off. and fair truth. a flower which once In Paradise. God shall be all in all. such concord is in Heaven. Immortal. Father.Shalt in the sky appear. Then thou thy regal scepter shalt lay by. Immutable. The living. No sooner had the Almighty ceased. after all their tribulations long. that glittering by their side Like quivers hung. where first it grew. with a shout Loud as from numbers without number. but all The multitude of Angels. But. who to compass all this dies. With joy and peace triumphing. arraigned. wherein the just shall dwell. Eternal King. With these that never fade the Spirits elect Bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with beams. but soon for man's offence To Heaven removed. and forthwith the cited dead Of all past ages. sweet As from blest voices. first they sung Omnipotent. 44 . Began to bloom. and to the ground With solemn adoration down they cast Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold. all thy saints assembled. they. And where the river of bliss through midst of Heaven Rolls o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream. Adore the Son. fast by the tree of life. Harps ever tuned. uttering joy. Heaven rung With jubilee. her numbers full. And. For regal scepter then no more shall need. And flowers aloft shading the fount of life. their golden harps they took. Mean while The world shall burn. thou shalt judge Bad Men and Angels. and honour him as me. fruitful of golden deeds. No voice exempt. Then. See golden days. no voice but well could join Melodious part. Infinite. such a peal shall rouse their sleep. Then. Adore him. Impurpled with celestial roses smiled. Immortal amarant. the Author of all being.

Begotten Son. but with both wings veil their eyes. Not so on Man: Him through their malice fallen. Whom else no creature can behold. Mean while upon the firm opacous globe Of this round world. Thus they in Heaven. Thee next they sang of all creation first. thyself invisible Amidst the glorious brightness where thou sit'st Throned inaccessible. Transfused on thee his ample Spirit rests. and end the strife Of mercy and justice in thy face discerned. above the starry sphere. that shook Heaven's everlasting frame. under the frown of Night Starless exposed. and ever-threatening storms 45 . Father of mercy and grace. but much more to pity incline: No sooner did thy dear and only Son Perceive thee purposed not to doom frail Man So strictly. Yet dazzle Heaven. Saviour of Men! Thy name Shall be the copious matter of my song Henceforth. Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat Second to thee. waste. To execute fierce vengeance on his foes. In whose conspicuous countenance.Fonntain of light. whose first convex divides The luminous inferiour orbs. that brightest Seraphim Approach not. Son of God. without cloud Made visible. Love no where to be found less than Divine! Hail. Satan alighted walks: A globe far off It seemed. and wild. the Almighty Father shines. and by thee threw down The aspiring Dominations: Thou that day Thy Father's dreadful thunder didst not spare. enclosed From Chaos. but much more to pity inclined. Their happy hours in joy and hymning spent. but when thou shadest The full blaze of thy beams. He to appease thy wrath. and. on thee Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides. Divine Similitude. Back from pursuit thy Powers with loud acclaim Thee only extolled. through a cloud Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine. Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear. and the inroad of Darkness old. O unexampled love. thou didst not doom So strictly. and never shall my heart thy praise Forget. He Heaven of Heavens and all the Powers therein By thee created. offered himself to die For Man's offence. Son of thy Father's might. while o'er the necks Thou drovest of warring Angels disarrayed. Nor stop thy flaming chariot-wheels. nor from thy Father's praise disjoin. now seems a boundless continent Dark.

and still with vain design. fleet hither. on this windy sea of land. wander here. eremites.Of Chaos blustering round. and friars White. Empedocles. and idiots. with all their trumpery. would build: Others came single. Nought seeking but the praise of men. and many more too long. when sin With vanity had filled the works of men: Both all things vain. who. None yet. inclement sky. though then renowned: The builders next of Babel on the plain Of Sennaar. he. Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds. had they wherewithal. but store hereafter from the earth Up hither like aereal vapours flew Of all things transitory and vain. and gray. or unkindly mixed. and all who in vain things Built their fond hopes of glory or lasting fame. Dislodging from a region scarce of prey To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling kids. Till final dissolution. black. where Chineses drive With sails and wind their cany waggons light: So. and he. to be deemed A God. New Babels. leaped fondly into Aetna flames. On hills where flocks are fed. Living or lifeless. Hither of ill-joined sons and daughters born First from the ancient world those giants came With many a vain exploit. Here pilgrims roam. All who have their reward on earth. All the unaccomplished works of Nature's hand. Cleombrotus. Save on that side which from the wall of Heaven. empty as their deeds. to be found was none. the Fiend Walked up and down alone. flies toward the springs Of Ganges or Hydaspes. But in his way lights on the barren plains Of Sericana. to enjoy Plato's Elysium. monstrous. leaped into the sea. Embryos. As when a vultur on Imaus bred. for other creature in this place. Not in the neighbouring moon as some have dreamed. Indian streams. Though distant far. here find Fit retribution. or middle Spirits hold Betwixt the angelical and human kind. Translated Saints. that strayed so far to seek 46 . Those argent fields more likely habitants. Or happiness in this or the other life. bent on his prey. and in vain. some small reflection gains Of glimmering air less vexed with tempest loud: Here walked the Fiend at large in spacious field. who. Dissolved on earth. Alone. the fruits Of painful superstition and blind zeal. Abortive.

pardons. The stairs were then let down. and now at foot Of Heaven's ascent they lift their feet. nor stood There always. or by shading pencil. when he from Esau fled To Padan-Aram. put on the weeds of Dominick. till at last a gleam Of dawning light turned thither-ward in haste His travelled steps: far distant he descries Ascending by degrees magnificent Up to the wall of Heaven a structure high. and that first moved. And they. since called The Paradise of Fools.In Golgotha him dead. whereon Who after came from earth. This is the gate of Heaven. who to be sure of Paradise. beads. failing arrived Wafted by Angels. Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised. These stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. The sport of winds: All these. Each stair mysteriously was meant. dispenses. appeared The work as of a kingly palace-gate. drawn. now unpeopled. All this dark globe the Fiend found as he passed. or aggravate His sad exclusion from the doors of bliss: Direct against which opened from beneath. tost And fluttered into rags. Indulgences. and underneath a bright sea flowed Of jasper. hoods. At top whereof. to few unknown Long after. inimitable on earth By model. and untrod. but drawn up to Heaven sometimes Viewless. With frontispiece of diamond and gold Embellished. 47 . or flew o'er the lake Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. And that crystalling sphere whose balance weighs The trepidation talked. Just o'er the blissful seat of Paradise. bulls. or of liquid pearl. and pass the fixed. upwhirled aloft. when lo A violent cross wind from either coast Blows them transverse. who lives in Heaven. They pass the planets seven. thick with sparkling orient gems The portal shone. Fly o'er the backside of the world far off Into a Limbo large and broad. whether to dare The Fiend by easy ascent. And long he wandered. with their wearers. in the field of Luz Dreaming by night under the open sky And waking cried. bands Of guardians bright. Dying. then reliques. ten thousand leagues awry Into the devious air: Then might ye see Cowls. but far more rich. And now Saint Peter at Heaven's wicket seems To wait them with his keys. and habits.

So wide the opening seemed. such as bound the ocean wave.?. the fount of Jordan's flood.) where the great luminary Aloof the vulgar constellations thick. Like those Hesperian gardens famed of old. that shone Stars distant. Or longitude. then from pole to pole He views in breadth. a passage wide.A passage down to the Earth.nd desart ways with?oeril gone All?might. though that were large. At sight of all this world beheld so fair. and without longer pause Down right into the world's first region throws His flight precipitant. where bounds were set To darkness. Wider by far than that of after-times Over mount Sion. and groves. where he stood So high above the circling canopy Of night's extended shade. To Beersaba. As when a scout. now on the lower stair. to visit oft those happy tribes. (but up or down. Or other worlds they seemed. The Spirit malign. By which. Fortunate fields. hard to tell. in splendour likest Heaven.) from eastern point Of Libra to the fleecy star that bears Andromeda far off Atlantick seas Beyond the horizon. or happy isles. and winds with ease Through the pure marble air his oblique way Amongst innumerable stars. Thrice happy isles. Over the Promised Land to God so dear. but who dwelt happy there He staid not to inquire: Above them all The golden sun. Which to his eye discovers unaware The goodly prospect of some foreign land First seen. Through dark?. Which now the rising sun gilds with his beams: Such wonder seised. or some renowned metropolis With glistering spires and pinnacles adorned. and. and flowery vales. but much more envy seised. That from his lordly eye keep distance due. though after Heaven seen. Satan from hence. and his eye with choice regard From Paneas. On high behests his angels to and fro Passed frequent. Round he surveys (and well might. By center. but nigh hand seemed other worlds.t?kast by break of cheerful dawn Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill. where the Holy Land Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore. 48 . That scaled by steps of gold to Heaven-gate. Looks down with wonder at the sudden view Of all this world at once. or eccentrick. Allured his eye. thither his course he bends Through the calm firmament.

For sight no obstacle found here. and to each inward part With gentle penetration. If stone. 49 . and effect so rare? Here matter new to gaze the Devil met Undazzled. towards his all-cheering lamp Turn swift their various motions. The place he found beyond expression bright. that gently warms The universe. with terrestrial humour mixed. when with one virtuous touch The arch-chemick sun. on some great charge employed He seemed. and a stone besides Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen. and years. Compared with aught on earth. a spot like which perhaps Astronomer in the sun's lucent orb Through his glazed optick tube yet never saw. and the air. or like to that which here below Philosophers in vain so long have sought. or are turned By his magnetick beam. but not his brightness hid. That stone. nor shade. So wonderously was set his station bright. and rivers run Potable gold. though unseen. sharpened his visual ray To objects distant far. part seemed gold. and call up unbound In various shapes old Proteus from the sea. Ruby or topaz. as when his beams at noon Culminate from the equator. Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep. to the twelve that shone In Aaron's breast-plate. carbuncle most or chrysolite. part silver clear. as glowing iron with fire. but all alike informed With radiant light. Of beaming sunny rays a golden tiar Circled his head. Drained through a limbeck to his native form. nor less his locks behind Illustrious on his shoulders fledge with wings Lay waving round. or fixed in cogitation deep. What wonder then if fields and regions here Breathe forth Elixir pure.Dispenses light from far. If metal. Produces. as they move Their starry dance in numbers that compute Days. though by their powerful art they bind Volatile Hermes. There lands the Fiend. No where so clear. so far from us remote. whence no way round Shadow from body opaque can fall. In vain. The same whom John saw also in the sun: His back was turned. months. they. Not all parts like. whereby he soon Saw within ken a glorious Angel stand. Here in the dark so many precious things Of colour glorious. metal or stone. But all sun-shine. as they now Shot upward still direct. far and wide his eye commands.

His journey's end and our beginning woe. Brightest Seraph. Hath brought me from the quires of Cherubim Alone thus wandering. On whom the great Creator hath bestowed Worlds. for thou of those seven Spirits that stand In sight of God's high throne. and are his eyes That run through all the Heavens. The universal Maker we may praise. Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes To deepest Hell. and to every limb Suitable grace diffused. He drew not nigh unheard. sprinkled with gold. and know All these his wonderous works. the happy seat of Man. Unspeakable desire to see. so well he feigned: Under a coronet his flowing hair In curls on either cheek played. and on whom hath all these graces poured. him for whom All these his works so wonderous he ordained. and as his eye To visit oft this new creation round. That I may find him. The first art wont his great authentick will Interpreter through highest Heaven to bring. as now in hope To find who might direct his wandering flight To Paradise. wings he wore Of many a coloured plume. Not of the prime. one of the seven Who in God's presence. Created this new happy race of Men To serve him better: Wise are all his ways. But all these shining orbs his choice to dwell. His habit fit for speed succinct. gloriously bright. nearest to his throne. Uriel. His chief delight and favour. and. Stand ready at command. But first he casts to change his proper shape. and straight was known The Arch-Angel Uriel. And here art likeliest by supreme decree Like honour to obtain. O'er sea and land: him Satan thus accosts. tell In which of all these shining orbs hath Man His fixed seat. That both in him and all things. or fixed seat hath none. the Angel bright. 50 . and held Before his decent steps a silver wand. to repair that loss.Glad was the Spirit impure. as is meet. or down to the Earth Bear his swift errands over moist and dry. yet such as in his face Youth smiled celestial. his radiant visage turned. but chiefly Man. Admonished by his ear. Which else might work him danger or delay: And now a stripling Cherub he appears. Where all his sons thy embassy attend. Ere he drew nigh. and with secret gaze Or open admiration him behold.

Light shone. By his permissive will. as thou seest. In his uprightness. and held The sharpest-sighted Spirit of all in Heaven. except to God alone. while goodness thinks no ill Where no ill seems: Which now for once beguiled Uriel. 51 . leads to no excess That reaches blame. though regent of the sun. Fair Angel. thy desire. but hid their causes deep? I saw when at his word the formless mass. hear only in Heaven: For wonderful indeed are all his works. though but reflected. Pleasant to know. stood vast infinitude confined. With borrowed light her countenance triform Hence fills and empties to enlighten the Earth. came to a heap: Confusion heard his voice. To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps. That rolled orbicular. Contented with report. earth. Look downward on that globe. Each had his place appointed. thereby to glorify The great Work-master. though wisdom wake. as the other hemisphere. fire. still renewing. the seat of Man. Till at his second bidding Darkness fled. But what created mind can comprehend Their number. Who to the fraudulent impostor foul. whose hither side With light from hence. through mid Heaven. suspicion sleeps At wisdom's gate. and worthiest to be all Had in remembrance always with delight. through Heaven and Earth: And oft. and turned to stars Numberless. spirited with various forms. Night would invade. For neither Man nor Angel can discern Hypocrisy. which tends to know The works of God. and wild uproar Stood ruled. that light His day. the only evil that walks Invisible. or the wisdom infinite That brought them forth. but rather merits praise The more it seems excess. and order from disorder sprung: Swift to their several quarters hasted then The cumbrous elements. that led thee hither From thy empyreal mansion thus alone. answer thus returned.So spake the false dissembler unperceived. This world's material mould. which else. shines. And this ethereal quintessence of Heaven Flew upward. but there the neighbouring moon So call that opposite fair star) her aid Timely interposes. flood. and to simplicity Resigns her charge. and her monthly round Still ending. and how they move. That place is Earth. air. each his course. The rest in circuit walls this universe.

While time was. and 'scaped. To wreak on innocent frail Man his loss Of that first battle. now first inflamed with rage. to which I point. wakes the bitter memory Of what he was. to thee I call. and Satan. Nor staid. nor with cause to boast. and toward the coast of earth beneath. heard cry in Heaven aloud. horrour and doubt distract His troubled thoughts. he turned. who saw The Apocalypse. and from the bottom stir The Hell within him. Throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel. for within him Hell He brings. That slumbered. thus in sighs began. Where honour due and reverence none neglects. Thus said. Sometimes towards Heaven. O thou. That spot. those lofty shades. for that warning voice. me mine requires. Came furious down to be revenged on men. bowing low. nor from Hell One step. and the full-blazing sun. sped with hoped success. and what must be Worse. and his flight to Hell: Yet. his grieved look he fixes sad. of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. can fly By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair. Then when the Dragon. with surpassing glory crowned. As to superiour Spirits is wont in Heaven. put to second rout. Down from the ecliptick. and add thy name. our first parents had been warned The coming of their secret foe. 52 . Book IV O. that. which nigh the birth Now rolling boils in his tumultuous breast. which he. Sometimes towards Eden. though bold Far off and fearless. his bower. But with no friendly voice.And in her pale dominion checks the night. is Paradise. And like a devilish engine back recoils Upon himself. what is. much revolving. Begins his dire attempt. Woe to the inhabitants on earth! that now. Adam's abode. not rejoicing in his speed. Which now sat high in his meridian tower: Then. no more than from himself. came down. The tempter ere the accuser of mankind. Took leave. at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads. Thy way thou canst not miss. till on Niphates' top he lights. Lookest from thy sole dominion like the God Of this new world. Haply so 'scaped his mortal snare: For now Satan. and round about him. which now in his view Lay pleasant.

from within Or from without. and pay him thanks. But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all? Be then his love accursed. but still pays. To me alike. Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand? Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse. Me miserable! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath. though mean. wherefore! he deserved no such return From me. And understood not that a grateful mind By owing owes not. and that word Disdain forbids me. then. boasting I could subdue The Omnipotent. since love or hate. nor was his service hard. That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell. had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferiour Angel. lifted up so high I sdeined subjection. at last relent: Is there no place Left for repentance. since against his thy will Chose freely what it now so justly rues. and thought one step higher Would set me highest. Ay me! they little know How dearly I abide that boast so vain. cursed be thou. and with his good Upbraided none. at once Indebted and discharged. whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts Than to submit. What could be less than to afford him praise. O. whom he created what I was In that bright eminence. Forgetful what from him I still received. Nay. How due! yet all his good proved ill in me. To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven. and in a moment quit The debt immense of endless gratitude. to all temptations armed. a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide. none for pardon left? None left but by submission. I had stood Then happy. 53 . myself am Hell. The easiest recompence. it deals eternal woe. And. but stand unshaken.Of Sun! to tell thee how I hate thy beams. And wrought but malice. So burdensome still paying. Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring in Heaven against Heaven's matchless King: Ah. and infinite despair? Which way I fly is Hell. how glorious once above thy sphere. no unbounded hope had raised Ambition! Yet why not some other Power As great might have aspired. Drawn to his part. but other Powers as great Fell not. and my dread of shame Among the Spirits beneath. what burden then O. and me. in the lowest deep. still to owe.

For heavenly minds from such distempers foul Are ever clear. all unobserved. fear. and overhead upgrew Insuperable height of loftiest shade. This knows my Punisher. by thee at least Divided empire with Heaven's King I hold. as the ranks ascend. and was the first That practised falsehood under saintly show. and this new world. envy. whose eye pursued him down The way he went. Farewell. As Man ere long. shall know. then alone. Thus while he spake. and branching palm. With diadem and scepter high advanced. Deep malice to conceal. how soon unsay What feigned submission swore? Ease would recant Vows made in pain. Evil. While they adore me on the throne of Hell. By thee. and fir. Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep: Which would but lead me to a worse relapse And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear Short intermission bought with double smart. Which marred his borrowed visage. if any eye beheld. and betrayed Him counterfeit. But say I could repent. and on the Assyrian mount Saw him disfigured. and could obtain. and with hope farewell. as I from begging. only supreme In misery: Such joy ambition finds. my former state. the champaign head Of a steep wilderness. couched with revenge: Yet not enough had practised to deceive Uriel once warned. As he supposed. more than could befall Spirit of happy sort. be thou my good. unseen. For never can true reconcilement grow. in stead Mankind created. Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm. crowns with her enclosure green. By act of grace. Cedar. his gestures fierce He marked and mad demeanour. how soon Would highth recall high thoughts. 54 . Artificer of fraud. hope. So on he fares. remorse! all good to me is lost. A sylvan scene. and despair. So farewell. each passion dimmed his face Thrice changed with pale. As with a rural mound. Now nearer. where delicious Paradise. therefore as far From granting he. whose hairy sides Access denied. and for him this world. ire. Whereof he soon aware. and pine. and.Under what torments inwardly I groan. peace. behold. All hope excluded thus. and to the border comes Of Eden. The lower still I fall. as violent and void. and more than half perhaps will reign.

loaden with fairest fruit. in contempt. But further way found none. and. so thick entwined. 55 . from the spouse Of Tobit's son. When God hath showered the earth. able to drive All sadness but despair: Now gentle gales. pensive and slow. bent to unhoard the cash Of some rich burgher. though enamoured.Shade above shade. Appeared. Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold: Or as a thief. Fanning their odoriferous wings. As one continued brake. so lovely seemed That landskip: And of pure now purer air Meets his approach. there fast bound. and to the heart inspires Vernal delight and joy. At one flight bound high over-leaped all bound Of hill or highest wall. with gay enamelled colours mixed: On which the sun more glad impressed his beams Than in fair evening cloud. off at sea north-east winds blow Sabean odours from the spicy shore Of Araby the blest. and whisper whence they stole Those balmy spoils. whose substantial doors. As when to them who fail Beyond the Cape of Hope. Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill Satan had journeyed on. and sheer within Lights on his feet. dispense Native perfumes. Who came their bane. Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey. And higher than that wall a circling row Of goodliest trees. Due entrance he disdained. 00081429 Which to our general sire gave prospect large Into his nether empire neighbouring round. One gate there only was. As when a prowling wolf. a woody theatre Of stateliest view. Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue. and many a league Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles: So entertained those odorous sweets the Fiend. Yet higher than their tops The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung. or humid bow. the undergrowth Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplexed All path of man or beast that passed that way. with such delay Well pleased they slack their course. Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve In hurdled cotes amid the field secure. though with them better pleased Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume That drove him. and that looked east On the other side: which when the arch-felon saw. and with a vengeance sent From Media post to Egypt. and now are past Mozambick.

So little knows Any. for God had thrown That mountain as his garden-mould high raised Upon the rapid current. To all delight of human sense exposed. yea more. yet not true life Thereby regained. and next to life. Thence up he flew. or to their meanest use. But rather to tell how. Southward through Eden went a river large. The middle tree and highest there that grew. Eden stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of great Seleucia. to value right The good before him. what well used had been the pledge Of immortality. A Heaven on Earth: For blissful Paradise Of God the garden was. wandering many a famous realm And country. whereof here needs no account.Cross-barred and bolted fast. and fed 56 . taste. And now. and met the nether flood. but only used For prospect. thence united fell Down the steep glade. and with many a rill Watered the garden. Which from his darksome passage now appears. Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing ill. High eminent. but sat devising death To them who lived. blooming ambrosial fruit Of vegetable gold. Runs diverse. by him in the east Of Eden planted. Of where the sons of Eden long before Dwelt in Telassar: In this pleasant soil His far more pleasant garden God ordained. Nor changed his course. but through the shaggy hill Passed underneath ingulfed. How from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks. or o'er the tiles: So clomb this first grand thief into God's fold. but perverts best things To worst abuse. and on the tree of life. In narrow room. through veins Of porous earth with kindly thirst up-drawn. With mazy errour under pendant shades Ran nectar. grew fast by. if Art could tell. nor on the virtue thought Of that life-giving plant. Rose a fresh fountain. fear no assault. Sat like a cormorant. the tree of knowledge. And all amid them stood the tree of life. divided into four main streams. Out of the fertile ground he caused to grow All trees of noblest kind for sight. So since into his church lewd hirelings climb. which. smell. Beneath him with new wonder now he views. Our death. Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold. Nature's whole wealth. visiting each plant. but God alone. In at the window climbs. built by Grecian kings.

all kind Of living creatures. Hesperian fables true. A whole day's journey high. nor that Nyseian isle Girt with the river Triton. and where the unpierced shade Imbrowned the noontide bowers: Thus was this place A happy rural seat of various view. which cost Ceres all that pain To seek her through the world. Hid Amalthea. attune The trembling leaves. or the flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spread her store. Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance. new to sight. here only. Not that fair field Of Enna.Flowers worthy of Paradise. mean while murmuring waters fall Down the slope hills. and strange Two of far nobler shape. Or palmy hillock. undelighted. but wide remote From this Assyrian garden. Flowers of all hue. The birds their quire apply. or level downs. where Proserpine gathering flowers. were interposed. umbrageous grots and caves Of cool recess. Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm. Mount Amara. while universal Pan. and her florid son Young Bacchus. Hung amiable. and dale. Nor where Abassin kings their issue guard. unite their streams. though this by some supposed True Paradise under the Ethiop line By Nilus' head. Breathing the smell of field and grove. nor that sweet grove Of Daphne by Orontes. which not nice Art In beds and curious knots. If true. and flocks Grazing the tender herb. airs. all delight. and without thorn the rose: Another side. where old Cham. with native honour clad In naked majesty seemed lords of all: And worthy seemed. dispersed. Others whose fruit. burnished with golden rind. Herself a fairer flower by gloomy Dis Was gathered. where the Fiend Saw. from his stepdame Rhea's eye. for in their looks divine 57 . o'er which the mantling vine Lays forth her purple grape. might with this Paradise Of Eden strive. and plain. vernal airs. and gently creeps Luxuriant. Both where the morning sun first warmly smote The open field. and of delicious taste: Betwixt them lawns. That to the fringed bank with myrtle crowned Her crystal mirrour holds. enclosed with shining rock. but Nature boon Poured forth profuse on hill. or in a lake. Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Libyan Jove. erect and tall. and the inspired Castalian spring. Led on the eternal Spring. Godlike erect.

Truth. wisdom. how have ye troubled all mankind With shows instead. wholesome thirst and appetite More grateful. and of all chase In wood or wilderness. Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs Yielded them. she for God in him: His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute rule. modest pride. though both Not equal. side-long as they sat recline On the soft downy bank damasked with flowers: The savoury pulp they chew. as beseems Fair couple. Nor gentle purpose. dishonest shame Of nature's works. And sweet. to their supper-fruits they fell. About them frisking played All beasts of the earth. but in wanton ringlets waved As the vine curls her tendrils. mere shows of seeming pure. the fairest of her daughters Eve. which implied Subjection. and in the rind. nor youthful dalliance. Still as they thirsted. forest or den. Then was not guilty shame. For contemplation he and valour formed. reluctant. Alone as they. scoop the brimming stream. Adam the goodliest man of men since born His sons. linked in happy nuptial league. Under a tuft of shade that on a green Stood whispering soft. and.The image of their glorious Maker shone. by a fresh fountain side They sat them down. And by her yielded. and hyacinthine locks Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clustering. And banished from man's life his happiest life. (Severe. the loveliest pair. but not beneath his shoulders broad: She. by him best received. and made ease More easy. for they thought no ill: So hand in hand they passed. Sin-bred.) Whence true authority in men. nor endearing smiles Wanted. Yielded with coy submission. but required with gentle sway. sanctitude severe and pure. Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed. He for God only. but in true filial freedom placed. 58 . For softness she and sweet attractive grace. since wild. down to the slender waist Her unadorned golden tresses wore Dishevelled. honour dishonourable. Simplicity and spotless innocence! So passed they naked on. nor shunned the sight Of God or Angel. That ever since in love's embraces met. as a veil. amorous delay. as their sex not equal seemed. after no more toil Of their sweet gardening labour than sufficed To recommend cool Zephyr.

Sporting the lion ramped. And send forth all her kings. Like this fair Paradise. was hasting now with prone career To the ocean isles. the more your taste is now of joy. her widest gates. That I with you must dwell. bears. for the sun. and this high seat your Heaven Ill fenced for Heaven to keep out such a foe As now is entered. the unwieldy elephant. and deliver ye to woe. Insinuating. if no better place. yet to heavenly Spirits bright Little inferiour. ounces. though damned. tigers. Thank him who puts me loth to this revenge On you who wrong me not for him who wronged. whom my thoughts pursue With wonder. Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad. and such grace The hand that formed them on their shape hath poured. O Hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold! Into our room of bliss thus high advanced Creatures of other mould. Not Spirits. as I do. my dwelling haply may not please. yet such Accept your Maker's work. More woe. to receive Your numerous offspring. Or bedward ruminating. Honour and empire with revenge enlarged. so close. when all these delights Will vanish. And should I at your harmless innocence Melt. earth-born perhaps. or you with me Henceforth. pards. and could love. and in his paw Dandled the kid. compels me now To do what else. 59 . And mutual amity. To entertain you two. Happy. and with necessity. and of his fatal guile Gave proof unheeded. Though I unpitied: League with you I seek. So spake the Fiend. and wreathed His?kithetmroboscis. wove with Gordian twine His braided train. ye little think how nigh Your change approaches. Ah! gentle pair. so strait. whom I could pity thus forlorn. and now filled with pasture gazing sat. To make them mirth. yet no purposed foe To you. others on the grass Couched. close the serpent sly. Not like these narrow limits. he gave it me. I should abhor. Which I as freely give: Hell shall unfold. your sense. used all his might. as first he stood. and in the ascending scale Of Heaven the stars that usher evening rose: When Satan still in gaze. there will be room. so lively shines In them divine resemblance. By conquering this new world. yet publick reason just. Gambolled before them. Declined. but for so happy ill secured Long to continue.

The only sign of our obedience left. unespied. And without whom am to no end. Dearer thyself than all. who enjoy Free leave so large to all things else. of all these joys. this easy charge. who by chance hath spied In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play. he might surest seize them both. Straight couches close. For we to him indeed all praises owe. Sole partner. and dominion given Over all other creatures that possess Earth. needs must the Power That made us. Whence rushing. himself now one. air. rising. yet with thee were sweet. not to taste that only tree Of knowledge. changes oft His couchant watch. of all the trees In Paradise that bear delicious fruit So various. for well thou knowest God hath pronounced it death to taste that tree. all ear to hear new utterance flow. and choice Unlimited of manifold delights: But let us ever praise him. By word or action marked. and of his good As liberal and free as infinite. and sole part. 60 . That raised us from the dust. Then from his lofty stand on that high tree Down he alights among the sportful herd Of those four-footed kinds. To whom thus Eve replied. To mark what of their state he more might learn. Which were it toilsome. So near grows death to life. Griped in each paw: when. and tend these flowers. Then as a tiger. Now other. flesh of thy flesh. Then let us not think hard One easy prohibition. following our delightful task. O thou for whom And from whom I was formed. nor can perform Aught whereof he hath need. he who requires From us no other service than to keep This one. Among so many signs of power and rule Conferred upon us. Some dreadful thing no doubt. whate'er death is. my guide And head! what thou hast said is just and right. then. and sea. as one who chose his ground. planted by the tree of life. and. Adam first of men To first of women Eve thus moving speech. and placed us here In all this happiness. Be infinitely good. as their shape served best his end Nearer to view his prey. To prune these growing plants. who at his hand Have nothing merited.The tyrant's plea. and extol His bounty. About them round A lion now he stalks with fiery glare. Turned him. and for us this ample world. excused his devilish deeds.

his bone. And meek surrender. 'And I will bring thee where no shadow stays 'Thy coming. I thither went With unexperienced thought. and laid me down On the green bank. much wondering where And what I was. he 'Whose image thou art. So spake our general mother. 'What there thou seest. to look into the clear Smooth lake. half-embracing leaned On our first father. As I bent down to look. when from sleep I first awaked. to him shalt bear 'Multitudes like thyself. while thou Like consort to thyself canst no where find. Under a platane. Thou following cryedst aloud. 'Part of my soul I seek thee. But follow straight. whence thither brought. 'With thee it came and goes: but follow me. and found myself reposed Under a shade on flowers.and from that time see How beauty is excelled by manly grace. fair Creature. It started back. 'Substantial life. Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks Of sympathy and love: There I had fixed Mine eyes till now. and pined with vain desire.' What could I do. Than that smooth watery image: Back I turned. and thee claim 'My other half:' With that thy gentle hand Seised mine: I yielded. Bending to look on me: I started back. just opposite A shape within the watery gleam appeared. that to me seemed another sky. and spread Into a liquid plain. enjoying thee Pre-eminent by so much odds. to have thee by my side 'Henceforth an individual solace dear. which alone is truly fair. to give thee being I lent 'Out of my side to thee. then stood unmoved Pure as the expanse of Heaven.And daily thanks. who enjoy So far the happier lot. That day I oft remember. nearest my heart. is thyself. And wisdom. Less winning soft. half her swelling breast 61 . but pleased I soon returned. 'What thou seest. of him thou art. Had not a voice thus warned me. 'Return. less amiably mild. fair indeed and tall. I chiefly. and thy soft embraces. and thence be called 'Mother of human race. invisibly thus led? Till I espied thee. 'Whom flyest thou? whom thou flyest. fair Eve. him thou shalt enjoy 'Inseparably thine. Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound Of waters issued from a cave. and with eyes Of conjugal attraction unreproved. and how. 'His flesh. yet methought less fair.

o'er dale. One fatal tree there stands. while I to Hell am thrust. as Jupiter On Juno smiles. reasonless. and no corner leave unspied. of knowledge called. Or in thick shade retired. and began Through wood. where Heaven With earth and ocean meets. sight tormenting! thus these two. the setting sun Slowly descended. through waste. Imparadised in one another's arms. when he impregns the clouds That shed Mayflowers. but fierce desire. and to reject Envious commands. invented with design To keep them low. shall enjoy their fill Of bliss on bliss. Still unfulfilled with pain of longing pines. Where neither joy nor love. yet with jealous leer malign Eyed them askance. one entrance high. under the flowing gold Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight Both of her beauty. Yet happy pair. o'er hill. Short pleasures. Why should their Lord Envy them that? Can it be sin to know? Can it be death? And do they only stand By ignorance? Is that their happy state. Live while ye may. 62 . The proof of their obedience and their faith? O fair foundation laid whereon to build Their ruin! hence I will excite their minds With more desire to know. A chance but chance may lead where I may meet Some wandering Spirit of Heaven by fountain side. Yet let me not forget what I have gained From their own mouths: All is not theirs. Conspicuous far. whom knowledge might exalt Equal with Gods: aspiring to be such. enjoy. and with right aspect Against the eastern gate of Paradise Levelled his evening rays: It was a rock Of alabaster. and to himself thus plained. Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidden Suspicious. They taste and die: What likelier can ensue But first with narrow search I must walk round This garden. from him to draw What further would be learned. Sight hateful. Among our other torments not the least. winding with one ascent Accessible from earth. it seems. Smiled with superiour love. and pressed her matron lip With kisses pure: Aside the Devil turned For envy. for long woes are to succeed! So saying. piled up to the clouds. The happier Eden. and submissive charms. till I return.Naked met his. But with sly circumspection. his roam Mean while in utmost longitude. his proud step he scornful turned.

See far and wide: In at this gate none pass The vigilance here placed. But in the mount that lies from Eden north. with passions foul obscured: Mine eye pursued him still. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds: He thus began in haste. had thither rolled Diurnal. no wonder if thy perfect sight. when vapours fired Impress the air. and Uriel to his charge Returned on that bright beam. hath ventured from the deep. that to this happy place No evil thing approach or enter in. So minded. But if within the circuit of these walks. and spears. shields. Incredible how swift. to know More of the Almighty's works. to raise New troubles. and chiefly Man. him thy care must be to find. whose point now raised Bore him slope downward to the sun now fallen Beneath the Azores. gliding through the even On a sun-beam. 63 . helms. hard thou knowest it to exclude Spiritual substance with corporeal bar. I fear. or this less volubil earth. Amid the sun's bright circle where thou sitst. Thither came Uriel. have o'er-leaped these earthly bounds On purpose. that overhung Still as it rose. Uriel. zealous. awaiting night. In whatsoever shape he lurk. and with gold. and since meridian hour No creature thence: If Spirit of other sort. This day at highth of noon came to my sphere A Spirit. Gabriel. but nigh at hand Celestial armoury. soon discerned his looks Alien from Heaven. but under shade Lost sight of him: One of the banished crew. Chief of the angelick guards. to thee thy course by lot hath given Charge and strict watch. Hung high with diamond flaming. impossible to climb. To whom the winged warriour thus returned.The rest was craggy cliff. Betwixt these rocky pillars Gabriel sat. had left him there Arraying with reflected purple and gold The clouds that on his western throne attend. by morrow dawning I shall know. About him exercised heroick games The unarmed youth of Heaven. as he seemed. Where he first lighted. whether the prime orb. By shorter flight to the east. of whom Thou tellest. So promised he. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. and marked his aery gait. but such as come Well known from Heaven. God's latest image: I described his way Bent all on speed.

Now came still Evening on. Sweet is the breath of Morn. Silence was pleased: Now glowed the firmament With living sapphires: Hesperus. unemployed. what thou bidst Unargued I obey: So God ordains. fragrant the fertile earth After soft showers. and all things now retired to rest. When first on this delightful land he spreads His orient beams. She all night long her amorous descant sung. we must be risen. and this fair moon. They to their grassy couch. and require More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth: Those blossoms also. inclines Our eye-lids: Other creatures all day long Rove idle. as day and night. thou mine: To know no more Is woman's happiest knowledge. When Adam thus to Eve. ere fresh morning streak the east With first approach of light. fruit. night bids us rest. at length Apparent queen unveiled her peerless light. as Nature wills. to reform Yon flowery arbours. if we mean to tread with ease. till the moon. yonder alleys green. Silence accompanied. and less need rest. these to their nests Were slunk. Fair Consort. To-morrow. That lie bestrown. With thee conversing I forget all time. Mind us of like repose. and those dropping gums. unsightly and unsmooth. that led The starry host. all please alike. With this her solemn bird. which declares his dignity. Glistering with dew. And at our pleasant labour. the hour Of night. all but the wakeful nightingale. Man hath his daily work of body or mind Appointed. And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw. and the timely dew of sleep. to men Successive. With charm of earliest birds: pleasant the sun. and her praise. Now falling with soft slumbrous weight. since God hath set Labour and rest. for beast and bird. While other animals unactive range. and their change. Our walk at noon. tree. her rising sweet. God is thy law. All seasons. with perfect beauty adorned My Author and Disposer. on herb. Rising in clouded majesty. That mock our scant manuring. To whom thus Eve. and flower. then silent Night. Mean while. And the regard of Heaven on all his ways. and sweet the coming on Of grateful Evening mild. rode brightest. and Twilight gray Had in her sober livery all things clad. 64 . And of their doings God takes no account. Ask riddance. with branches overgrown.

roses. without thee is sweet. Thus talking. With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds In full harmonick number joined. nor think. accomplished Eve. and each odorous bushy shrub. and when we sleep: All these with ceaseless praise his works behold Both day and night: How often from the steep Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard Celestial voices to the midnight air. Temper or nourish. These then. flower. Daughter of God and Man. fruit. and from land to land In order. Nor grateful Evening mild. and wrought 65 . or nightly rounding walk.And these the gems of Heaven. These have their course to finish round the earth. nor silent Night. Ministring light prepared. though to nations yet unborn. on either side Acanthus. though unbeheld in deep of night. nor walk by moon. nor fragrance after showers. the roof Of thickest covert was inwoven shade Laurel and myrtle. or in part shed down Their stellar virtue on all kinds that grow On earth. Shine not in vain. their songs Divide the night. both when we wake. By morrow evening. Fenced up the verdant wall. when he framed All things to Man's delightful use. Reared high their flourished heads between. Sole. Iris all hues. her starry train: But neither breath of Morn. or responsive each to others note. which these soft fires Not only enlighten. hand in hand alone they passed On to their blissful bower: it was a place Chosen by the sovran Planter. nor rising sun On this delightful land. With this her solemn bird. Or glittering star-light. when sleep hath shut all eyes? To whom our general ancestor replied. That Heaven would want spectators. But wherefore all night long shine these? for whom This glorious sight. and what higher grew Of firm and fragrant leaf. and jessamin. Singing their great Creator? oft in bands While they keep watch. and lift our thoughts to Heaven. they set and rise. nor herb. and extinguish life In Nature and all things. made hereby apter to receive Perfection from the sun's more potent ray. when she ascends With charm of earliest birds. Glistering with dew. Lest total Darkness should by night regain Her old possession. God want praise: Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth Unseen. each beauteous flower. but with kindly heat Of various influence foment and warm. though men were none.

nor Nymph Nor Faunus haunted. whom the Gods Endowed with all their gifts. both stood. and thou the day. she ensnared Mankind with her fair looks. Bird. underfoot the violet. thy gift of sleep. And starry pole: Thou also madest the night. as now. Have finished. happy in our mutual help And mutual love. in close recess. and commands to some. but adoration pure Which God likes best. more coloured than with stone Of costliest emblem: Other creature here. than Pandora. I ween. nor Eve the rites Mysterious of connubial love refused: Whatever hypocrites austerely talk Of purity. and other rites Observing none. or worm. Such was their awe of Man. eased the putting off These troublesome disguises which we wear. What day the genial Angel to our sire Brought her in naked beauty more adorned. and innocence. Straight side by side were laid. leaves free to all. though but feigned. and this delicious place For us too large. Defaming as impure what God declares Pure. in our appointed work employed. But thou hast promised from us two a race To fill the earth. Both turned. In shadier bower More sacred and sequestered. Maker Omnipotent. and under open sky adored The God that made both sky. when to the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes. and sweet-smelling herbs. And when we seek. garlands. into their inmost bower Handed they went. true source 66 . and place. where thy abundance wants Partakers. wedded Love. Pan or Sylvanus never slept. at their shady lodge arrived. Thus. the crown of all our bliss Ordained by thee. This said unanimous. mysterious law. durst enter none. Espoused Eve decked first her nuptial bed. to be avenged On him who had stole Jove's authentick fire. the moon's resplendent globe. and uncropt falls to the ground. and hyacinth. insect. Here. And heavenly quires the hymenaean sung. Our Maker bids encrease. Which they beheld. earth.Mosaick. With flowers. Crocus. and. More lovely. both when we wake. beast. Which we. who bids abstain But our Destroyer. foe to God and Man? Hail. who shall with us extol Thy goodness infinite. nor turned. and O! too like In sad event. and heaven. with rich inlay Broidered the ground. Adam from his fair spouse. air.

Present. loveless. if ye seek No happier state. But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge. Or think thee unbefitting holiest place. that I should write thee sin or blame. half to the spear. or wanton mask. secure of harm. and brother. lulled by nightingales. This evening from the sun's decline arrived. which the starved lover sings To his proud fair. Assaying by his devilish art to reach 67 . and waves his purple wings. and coast the south With strictest watch. Here Love his golden shafts employs. son. These. nor in court-amours. and all the charities Of father. Far be it. and gave them thus in charge. just. stood armed To their night watches in warlike parade. Sleep on. And from their ivory port the Cherubim. Our circuit meets full west. When Gabriel to his next in power thus spake. with winged speed Search through this garden. embracing slept. best quitted with disdain. and hither bring. or past. two strong and subtle Spirits he called That near him stood. And on their naked limbs the flowery roof Showered roses. as saints and patriarchs used. Who tells of some infernal Spirit seen Hitherward bent (who could have thought?) escaped The bars of Hell. by thee Founded in reason. joyless. leave unsearched no nook. So saying. Dazzling the moon. Uzziel. these to the bower direct In search of whom they sought: Him there they found Squat like a toad. close at the ear of Eve. Forth issuing at the accustomed hour. where ye find. these other wheel the north. on errand bad no doubt: Such. not in the bought smile Of harlots. loyal. and pure. half these draw off. From these. Relations dear. here lights His constant lamp. Half wheeling to the shield. Now laid perhaps asleep. first were known.Of human offspring. Blest pair. on he led his radiant files. Perpetual fountain of domestick sweets. Ithuriel and Zephon. Reigns here and revels. sole propriety In Paradise of all things common else! By thee adulterous Lust was driven from men Among the bestial herds to range. Casual fruition. seise fast. Now had night measured with her shadowy cone Half way up hill this vast sublunar vault. and O!yet happiest. As flame they part. or midnight ball. unendeared. and know to know no more. Or serenate. which the morn repaired. Mixed dance. Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced.

Know ye not me? ye knew me once no mate For you. revolted Spirit. and thou resemblest now Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foul. Think not. 68 . Which of those rebel Spirits adjudged to Hell Comest thou. yet seemed Undaunted. whose charge is to keep This place inviolable. So started up in his own shape the Fiend. inspiring venom. like to end as much in vain? To whom thus Zephon. As when thou stoodest in Heaven upright and pure. and these from harm. Or if. filled with scorn. Why ask ye. said he. or. thence raise At least distempered. but chiefly to find here observed His lustre visibly impaired. Back stept those two fair Angels. Why sat'st thou like an enemy in wait. Or undiminished brightness to be known. Here watching at the head of these that sleep? Know ye not then said Satan. and pined His loss. inflames the air. And felt how awful goodness is. Departed from thee. be sure. if ye know. the smutty grain. That glory then. inordinate desires. he might taint The animal spirits. accost him soon. saw. for thou. With sudden blaze diffused. as he list. and his grave rebuke. and saw Virtue in her shape how lovely. and superfluous begin Your message. vain aims. Vain hopes. escaped thy prison? and. The lowest of your throng. Blown up with high conceits ingendering pride. there sitting where ye durst not soar: Not to know me argues yourselves unknown. transformed. unmoved with fear. discontented thoughts. thy shape the same. So spake the Cherub. not the sent. but returns Of force to its own likeness: Up he starts Discovered and surprised. Severe in youthful beauty. phantasms and dreams. As when a spark Lights on a heap of nitrous powder. answering scorn with scorn. If I must contend. Him thus intent Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly. and with them forge Illusions. shalt give account To him who sent us.The organs of her fancy. half amazed So sudden to behold the grisly king. laid Fit for the tun some magazine to store Against a rumoured war. Yet thus. for no falshood can endure Touch of celestial temper. But come. when thou no more wast good. the sender. that from pure blood arise Like gentle breaths from rivers pure. added grace Invincible: Abashed the Devil stood. Best with the best.

where found. where those half-rounding guards Just met. for in his look defiance lours. which in this place I sought. O friends! I hear the tread of nimble feet Hasting this way. Or less be lost. Gabriel? thou hadst in Heaven the esteem of wise. and thence weak. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake. like a proud steed reined. Disdainfully half smiling. went haughty on. And brief related whom they brought. And with them comes a third of regal port. Though thither doomed! Thou wouldst thyself. Not likely to part hence without contest. Gabriel. and those Whose dwelling God hath planted here in bliss! To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. Will save us trial what the least can do Single against thee wicked. and soonest recompense Dole with delight. but this question asked Puts me in doubt. Employed. who knowest only good. 69 . but have power and right To question thy bold entrance on this place. He scarce had ended. Now drew they nigh The western point. who approve not to transgress By thy example. Stand firm. thus replied. and closing stood in squadron joined. awe from above had quelled His heart. The Fiend replied not. where thou mightst hope to change Torment with ease. broke the bounds prescribed To thy transgressions. who by his gait And fierce demeanour seems the Prince of Hell. they found me where they say. And such I held thee. and disturbed the charge Of others. to violate sleep. from the front thus called aloud. Champing his iron curb: To strive or fly He held it vain. But evil hast not tried: and wilt object His will who bounds us! Let him surer bar His iron gates. Thy fear. A waiting next command. Thus he in scorn. How busied. overcome with rage. break loose from Hell. But that implies not violence or harm. finding way. more glory will be won. To thee no reason. Lives there who loves his pain! Who would not. no doubt And boldly venture to whatever place Farthest from pain. Satan. if he intends our stay In that dark durance: Thus much what was asked. The warlike Angel moved. said Zephon bold. But faded splendour wan. not else dismayed. But. when those two approached. in what form and posture couched. To whom their Chief. Why hast thou. and now by glimpse discern Ithuriel and Zephon through the shade. The rest is true.Or all at once. it seems.

Whose easier business were to serve their Lord High up in Heaven. Argue thy inexperience what behoves From hard assays and ill successes past A faithful leader. And now returns him from his prison 'scaped. To which the Fiend thus answered. and spy This new created world. Though for possession put to try once more What thou and thy gay legions dare against. Not that I less endure. meet thy flight Sevenfold. or in mid air. Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive. with songs to hymn his throne. as before. fit body to fit head. pretending first Wise to fly pain. Your military obedience. professing next the spy. whom folly overthrew. Which taught thee yet no better. To say and straight unsay. that no pain Can equal anger infinite provoked. presumptuous! till the wrath. And seconded thy else not dreaded spear. O sacred name of faithfulness profaned! Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew? Army of Fiends. and couldst thou faithful add? O name. not fight. frowning stern. and scourge that wisdom back to Hell. Insulting Angel! well thou knowest I stood Thy fiercest. and my afflicted Powers To settle here on earth. I alone first undertook To wing the desolate abyss. But still thy words at random. Argues no leader but a liear traced. So wise he judges it to fly from pain However. or shrink from pain.O loss of one in Heaven to judge of wise Since Satan fell. and to 'scape his punishment! So judge thou still. when in battle to thy aid The blasting vollied thunder made all speed. therefore. To whom the warriour Angel soon replied. Satan. here in hope to find Better abode. Which thou incurrest by flying. not to hazard all Through ways of danger by himself untried: I. who ask what boldness brought him hither Unlicensed from his bounds in Hell prescribed. And practised distances to cringe. to dissolve 70 . Gravely in doubt whether to hold them wise Or not. Was this your discipline and faith engaged. But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee Came not all hell broke loose? or thou than they Less hardy to endure? Courageous Chief! The first in flight from pain! hadst thou alleged To thy deserted host this cause of flight. whereof in Hell Fame is not silent.

On the other side. but the starry cope Of Heaven perhaps. the careful plowman doubting stands. who now wouldst seem Patron of liberty. Collecting all his might. Avant. 71 . sharpening in mooned horns Their phalanx. So threatened he. had not soon The Eternal. and on his crest Sat Horrour plumed. Battles and realms: In these he put two weights.Allegiance to the acknowledged Power supreme? And thou. I know thy strength. as henceforth not to scorn The facile gates of Hell too slightly barred. but waxing more in rage replied. and thou with thy compeers. While thus he spake. and servily adored Heaven's awful Monarch? wherefore. and cringed. And seal thee so. unremoved: His stature reached the sky. or all the elements At least had gone to wrack. Satan. Then when I am thy captive talk of chains. drawest his triumphant wheels In progress through the road of Heaven star-paved. and thou knowest mine. to prevent such horrid fray. The sequel each of parting and of fight: The latter quick up flew. Which Gabriel spying. though Heaven's King Ride on thy wings. sly hypocrite. alarmed. nor only Paradise In this commotion. Left on the threshing floor his hopeless sheaves Prove chaff. and began to hem him round With ported spears. Hung forth in Heaven his golden scales. dilated stood. but Satan to no threats Gave heed. and thyself to reign? But mark what I arreed thee now. which way the wind Sways them. Fly neither whence thou fledst! If from this hour Within these hallowed limits thou appear. but in hope To dispossess him. the angelick squadron bright Turned fiery red. thus bespake the Fiend. Proud limitary Cherub! but ere then Far heavier load thyself expect to feel From my prevailing arm. now ponders all events. and kicked the beam. Like Teneriff or Atlas. nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield: Now dreadful deeds Might have ensued. Wherein all things created first he weighed. The pendulous round earth with balanced air In counterpoise. Satan. as thick as when a field Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends Her bearded grove of ears. who more than thou Once fawned. yet seen Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign. disturbed and torn With violence of this conflict. Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained. Us'd to the yoke.

or morrow's next design. whether waking or asleep. O sole in whom my thoughts find all repose. Book V Now Morn. and shown how light. for his sleep Was aery-light. as I oft am wont. Close at mine ear one called me forth to walk With gentle voice. though doubled now To trample thee as mire: For proof look up. Lightly dispersed. The Fiend looked up. on his side Leaning half raised. then with voice Mild. but with startled eye On Adam. my latest found. Awake. which my mind Knew never till this irksome night: Methought. sowed the earth with orient pearl. 72 . Shot forth peculiar graces. how blows the citron grove. Her hand soft touching. not. so much the more His wonder was to find unwakened Eve With tresses discomposed. and what the balmy reed. nor mine. for I this night (Such night till this I never passed) have dreamed. Such whispering waked her. my perfection! glad I see Thy face. and the shrill matin song Of birds on every bough. Heaven's last best gift. of thee. how the bee Sits on the bloom extracting liquid sweet. Aurora's fan. which the only sound Of leaves and fuming rills. Where thou art weighed. as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes. and glowing cheek. When Adam waked. my espoused. My glory. Works of day past. If thou resist. whispered thus. 'Why sleepest thou. thus she spake. I thought it thine: It said. and beheld Beauty. But of offence and trouble. but given: What folly then To boast what arms can do? since thine no more Than Heaven permits. and knew His mounted scale aloft: Nor more. to mark how spring Our tender plants. and morn returned. whom embracing. my ever new delight! Awake: The morning shines.Neither our own. we lose the prime. with looks of cordial love Hung over her enamoured. My fairest. And temperate vapours bland. Eve? now is the pleasant time. What drops the myrrh. And read thy lot in yon celestial sign. and the fresh field Calls us. If dreamed.but fled Murmuring. from pure digestion bred. how weak. As through unquiet rest: He. her rosy steps in the eastern clime Advancing. How nature paints her colours. so customed. and with him fled the shades of night. which.

Even to my mouth of that same fruit held part Which he had plucked. Forthwith up to the clouds With him I flew. since good. or what reserve forbids to taste? 'Forbid who will. that now awake 'Tunes sweetest his love-laboured song. as we. alone I passed through ways That brought me on a sudden to the tree Of interdicted knowledge: fair it seemed. 'Sweet of thyself. but much more sweet thus cropt. methought. And on. not to earth confined. more abundant grows. now reigns 'Full-orbed the moon. he tasted. Nature's desire? 'In whose sight all things joy.' said he. yet able to make Gods of Men: 'And why not Gods of Men. and with more pleasing light 'Shadowy sets off the face of things. 'Happier thou mayest be. that I. he drew nigh. on that tree he also gazed. methought. none shall from me withhold 'Longer thy offered good. it seems. but honoured more? 'Here. 'O fruit divine. a prospect wide And various: Wondering at my flight and change 73 . save where silence yields 'To the night-warbling bird. but with venturous arm He plucked. and be henceforth among the Gods 'Thyself a Goddess. To find thee I directed then my walk. 'The author not impaired. 'Whom to behold but thee. Could not but taste. happy though thou art. Heaven wakes with all his eyes. 'Deigns none to ease thy load. and underneath beheld The earth outstretched immense. his dewy locks distilled Ambrosia. in vain. as only fit 'For Gods. the pleasant savoury smell So quickened appetite. and taste thy sweet. and to me held. the more 'Communicated.'The cool. with ravishment 'Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze. sometimes 'Ascend to Heaven. the silent. 'If none regard. happy creature. overjoyed. fair angelick Eve! 'Partake thou also. why else set here? This said. and such live thou!' So saying. by merit thine. and see 'What life the Gods live there. beside it stood One shaped and winged like one of those from Heaven By us oft seen. 'Nor God. he paused not.' I rose as at thy call. as I wondering looked. 'with fruit surcharged. 'Forbidden here. but found thee not. worthier canst not be: 'Taste this. nor Man? Is knowledge so despised? 'Or envy. 'But sometimes in the air. me damp horrour chilled At such bold words vouched with a deed so bold: But he thus. And 'O fair plant. Much fairer to my fancy than by day: And.

nor cloud those looks. So cheered he his fair spouse. and the flowers That open now their choisest bosomed smells. Some such resemblances. and she was cheered. then retires Into her private cell. And fell asleep. the fountains. The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep Affects me equally. Which Reason. how glad I waked To find this but a dream! Thus Eve her night Related. Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. Evil into the mind of God or Man May come and go. Oft in her absence mimick Fancy wakes To imitate her. when nature rests. But know that in the soul Are many lesser faculties. methinks. he ere they fell Kissed. frames All what we affirm or what deny. And let us to our fresh employments rise Among the groves. Two other precious drops that ready stood. of all external things Which the five watchful senses represent. Each in their crystal sluice. of evil sprung. but. and leave No spot or blame behind: Which gives me hope That what in sleep thou didst abhor to dream. Be not disheartened then. With wheels yet hovering o'er the ocean-brim. as the gracious signs of sweet remorse And pious awe. So all was cleared. 74 . and kept for thee in store. methought. scarce up-risen. that feared to have offended. But with addition strange. and I. Waking thou never will consent to do. Yet evil whence? in thee can harbour none. but O.To this high exaltation. and dearer half. who. I find Of our last evening's talk. That wont to be more cheerful and serene. and the sun. and to the field they haste. and most in dreams. Than when fair morning first smiles on the world. aery shapes. Wild work produces oft. Created pure. among these Fancy next Her office holds. misjoining shapes. joining or disjoining. Reserved from night. and wiped them with her hair. so unreproved. She forms imaginations. sunk down. nor can I like This uncouth dream. and call Our knowledge or opinion. in this thy dream. from under shady arborous roof Soon as they forth were come to open sight Of day-spring. Best image of myself. suddenly My guide was gone. yet be not sad. that serve Reason as chief. But silently a gentle tear let fall From either eye. I fear. and thus Adam answered sad. But first.

Thou Sun. Parent of good. ye who best can tell. Acknowledge him thy greater. the eldest birth Of Nature's womb. Sure pledge of day. and power divine. 75 . While day arises. each morning duly paid In various style. and without end. Thyself how wonderous then! Unspeakable. resound His praise. day without night. now flyest. him midst. praise him in thy sphere. multiform. and ye Elements. that now rise From hill or steaming lake. yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought. last in the train of night. or dimly seen In these thy lowest works. Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers. who out of darkness called up light. If better thou belong not to the dawn. Almighty! Thine this universal frame. These are thy glorious works. ye sons of light. Thus wonderous fair. And when high noon hast gained. Discovering in wide landskip all the east Of Paradise and Eden's happy plains. or sung Unmeditated. who sitst above these heavens To us invisible. and with songs And choral symphonies. of this great world both eye and soul. both when thou climbest. in prose or numerous verse. And ye five other wandering Fires. that sweet hour of prime. and when thou fallest.Shot parallel to the earth his dewy ray. that now meetest the orient sun. Rising or falling still advance his praise. such prompt eloquence Flowed from their lips. Fairest of stars. him last. fixed in their orb that flies. Speak. and mix And nourish all things. Moon. and began Their orisons. Circle his throne rejoicing. and they thus began. that crownest the smiling morn With thy bright circlet. ye in Heaven On Earth join all ye Creatures to extol Him first. Lowly they bowed adoring. Air. in fit strains pronounced. for ye behold him. Angels. dusky or gray. sound his praise In thy eternal course. let your ceaseless change Vary to our great Maker still new praise. In honour to the world's great Author rise. for neither various style Nor holy rapture wanted they to praise Their Maker. that move In mystick dance not without song. More tuneable than needed lute or harp To add more sweetness. With the fixed Stars. that in quaternion run Perpetual circle. Ye Mists and Exhalations. Whether to deck with clouds the uncoloured sky. Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold.

His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud; and, wave your tops, ye Pines, With every plant, in sign of worship wave. Fountains, and ye that warble, as ye flow, Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. Join voices, all ye living Souls: Ye Birds, That singing up to Heaven-gate ascend, Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep; Witness if I be silent, morn or even, To hill, or valley, fountain, or fresh shade, Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise. Hail, universal Lord, be bounteous still To give us only good; and if the night Have gathered aught of evil, or concealed, Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark! So prayed they innocent, and to their thoughts Firm peace recovered soon, and wonted calm. On to their morning's rural work they haste, Among sweet dews and flowers; where any row Of fruit-trees over-woody reached too far Their pampered boughs, and needed hands to check Fruitless embraces: or they led the vine To wed her elm; she, spoused, about him twines Her marriageable arms, and with him brings Her dower, the adopted clusters, to adorn His barren leaves. Them thus employed beheld With pity Heaven's high King, and to him called Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned To travel with Tobias, and secured His marriage with the seventimes-wedded maid. Raphael, said he, thou hearest what stir on Earth Satan, from Hell 'scaped through the darksome gulf, Hath raised in Paradise; and how disturbed This night the human pair; how he designs In them at once to ruin all mankind. Go therefore, half this day as friend with friend Converse with Adam, in what bower or shade Thou findest him from the heat of noon retired, To respite his day-labour with repast, Or with repose; and such discourse bring on, As may advise him of his happy state, Happiness in his power left free to will, Left to his own free will, his will though free, Yet mutable; whence warn him to beware He swerve not, too secure: Tell him withal His danger, and from whom; what enemy, Late fallen himself from Heaven, is plotting now The fall of others from like state of bliss; By violence? no, for that shall be withstood; 76

But by deceit and lies: This let him know, Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pretend Surprisal, unadmonished, unforewarned. So spake the Eternal Father, and fulfilled All justice: Nor delayed the winged Saint After his charge received; but from among Thousand celestial Ardours, where he stood Veiled with his gorgeous wings, up springing light, Flew through the midst of Heaven; the angelick quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all the empyreal road; till, at the gate Of Heaven arrived, the gate self-opened wide On golden hinges turning, as by work Divine the sovran Architect had framed. From hence no cloud, or, to obstruct his sight, Star interposed, however small he sees, Not unconformed to other shining globes, Earth, and the garden of God, with cedars crowned Above all hills. As when by night the glass Of Galileo, less assured, observes Imagined lands and regions in the moon: Or pilot, from amidst the Cyclades Delos or Samos first appearing, kens A cloudy spot. Down thither prone in flight He speeds, and through the vast ethereal sky Sails between worlds and worlds, with steady wing Now on the polar winds, then with quick fan Winnows the buxom air; till, within soar Of towering eagles, to all the fowls he seems A phoenix, gazed by all as that sole bird, When, to enshrine his reliques in the Sun's Bright temple, to Egyptian Thebes he flies. At once on the eastern cliff of Paradise He lights, and to his proper shape returns A Seraph winged: Six wings he wore, to shade His lineaments divine; the pair that clad Each shoulder broad, came mantling o'er his breast With regal ornament; the middle pair Girt like a starry zone his waist, and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold And colours dipt in Heaven; the third his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail, Sky-tinctured grain. Like Maia's son he stood, And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled The circuit wide. Straight knew him all the bands Of Angels under watch; and to his state, And to his message high, in honour rise; For on some message high they guessed him bound. Their glittering tents he passed, and now is come Into the blissful field, through groves of myrrh, And flowering odours, cassia, nard, and balm; 77

A wilderness of sweets; for Nature here Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will Her virgin fancies pouring forth more sweet, Wild above rule or art, enormous bliss. Him through the spicy forest onward come Adam discerned, as in the door he sat Of his cool bower, while now the mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays to warm Earth's inmost womb, more warmth than Adam needs: And Eve within, due at her hour prepared For dinner savoury fruits, of taste to please True appetite, and not disrelish thirst Of nectarous draughts between, from milky stream, Berry or grape: To whom thus Adam called. Haste hither, Eve, and worth thy sight behold Eastward among those trees, what glorious shape Comes this way moving; seems another morn Risen on mid-noon; some great behest from Heaven To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchsafe This day to be our guest. But go with speed, And, what thy stores contain, bring forth, and pour Abundance, fit to honour and receive Our heavenly stranger: Well we may afford Our givers their own gifts, and large bestow From large bestowed, where Nature multiplies Her fertile growth, and by disburthening grows More fruitful, which instructs us not to spare. To whom thus Eve. Adam, earth's hallowed mould, Of God inspired! small store will serve, where store, All seasons, ripe for use hangs on the stalk; Save what by frugal storing firmness gains To nourish, and superfluous moist consumes: But I will haste, and from each bough and brake, Each plant and juciest gourd, will pluck such choice To entertain our Angel-guest, as he Beholding shall confess, that here on Earth God hath dispensed his bounties as in Heaven. So saying, with dispatchful looks in haste She turns, on hospitable thoughts intent What choice to choose for delicacy best, What order, so contrived as not to mix Tastes, not well joined, inelegant, but bring Taste after taste upheld with kindliest change; Bestirs her then, and from each tender stalk Whatever Earth, all-bearing mother, yields In India East or West, or middle shore In Pontus or the Punick coast, or where Alcinous reigned, fruit of all kinds, in coat Rough, or smooth rind, or bearded husk, or shell, She gathers, tribute large, and on the board Heaps with unsparing hand; for drink the grape 78

She crushes, inoffensive must, and meaths From many a berry, and from sweet kernels pressed She tempers dulcet creams; nor these to hold Wants her fit vessels pure; then strows the ground With rose and odours from the shrub unfumed. Mean while our primitive great sire, to meet His God-like guest, walks forth, without more train Accompanied than with his own complete Perfections; in himself was all his state, More solemn than the tedious pomp that waits On princes, when their rich retinue long Of horses led, and grooms besmeared with gold, Dazzles the croud, and sets them all agape. Nearer his presence Adam, though not awed, Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek, As to a superiour nature bowing low, Thus said. Native of Heaven, for other place None can than Heaven such glorious shape contain; Since, by descending from the thrones above, Those happy places thou hast deigned a while To want, and honour these, vouchsafe with us Two only, who yet by sovran gift possess This spacious ground, in yonder shady bower To rest; and what the garden choicest bears To sit and taste, till this meridian heat Be over, and the sun more cool decline. Whom thus the angelick Virtue answered mild. Adam, I therefore came; nor art thou such Created, or such place hast here to dwell, As may not oft invite, though Spirits of Heaven, To visit thee; lead on then where thy bower O'ershades; for these mid-hours, till evening rise, I have at will. So to the sylvan lodge They came, that like Pomona's arbour smiled, With flowerets decked, and fragrant smells; but Eve, Undecked save with herself, more lovely fair Than Wood-Nymph, or the fairest Goddess feigned Of three that in mount Ida naked strove, Stood to entertain her guest from Heaven; no veil She needed, virtue-proof; no thought infirm Altered her cheek. On whom the Angel Hail Bestowed, the holy salutation used Long after to blest Mary, second Eve. Hail, Mother of Mankind, whose fruitful womb Shall fill the world more numerous with thy sons, Than with these various fruits the trees of God Have heaped this table!--Raised of grassy turf Their table was, and mossy seats had round, And on her ample square from side to side All autumn piled, though spring and autumn here Danced hand in hand. A while discourse they hold; 79

earth the sea. unpurged Vapours not yet into her substance turned. when thus began Our author. The sun that light imparts to all. 80 . and concoctive heat To transubstantiate: What redounds. assimilate. whereby they hear. Therefore what he gives (Whose praise be ever sung) to Man in part Spiritual. nor in mist. which our Nourisher. then. and to taste Think not I shall be nice.if by fire Of sooty coal the empirick alchemist Can turn. the air those fires Ethereal. That one celestial Father gives to all. Metals of drossiest ore to perfect gold. Mean while at table Eve Ministered naked. but with keen dispatch Of real hunger. Nor doth the moon no nourishment exhale From her moist continent to higher orbs. and both contain Within them every lower faculty Of sense. unmeasured out. from whom All perfect good. whatever was created. As may compare with Heaven. As doth your rational. unsavoury food perhaps To spiritual natures. may of purest Spirits be found No ingrateful food: And food alike those pure Intelligential substances require. And to their viands fell. receives From all his alimental recompence In humid exhalations. And corporeal to incorporeal turn. So down they sat. see. though from off the boughs each morn We brush mellifluous dews. and at even Sups with the ocean. For know. nor seemingly The Angel. As from the mine. To whom the Angel. only this I know. nor wonder. and their flowing cups With pleasant liquours crowned: O innocence Deserving Paradise! if ever. Whence in her visage round those spots. transpires Through Spirits with ease. Earth and the sea feed air. or holds it possible to turn. and find the ground Covered with pearly grain: Yet God hath here Varied his bounty so with new delights. To us for food and for delight hath caused The earth to yield.No fear lest dinner cool. digest. needs To be sustained and fed: Of elements The grosser feeds the purer. Though in Heaven the trees Of life ambrosial fruitage bear. descends. smell. taste. touch. and vines Yield nectar. please to taste These bounties. and as lowest first the moon. Tasting concoct. Heavenly stranger. the common gloss Of Theologians.

But more refined. of life. or nearer tending Each in their several active spheres assigned. more spiritous. Under whose lowly roof thou hast vouchsafed To enter. Time may come. and these earthly fruits to taste. So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk.Then had the sons of God excuse to have been Enamoured at that sight. Divine effulgence. when Men With Angels may participate. Differing but in degree. Food not of Angels. To intellectual. Not burdened nature. whose excellence he saw Transcend his own so far. sudden mind arose In Adam. To vital spirits aspire. and up to him return. yet accepted so. from whom All things proceed. in this honour done to Man. not to let the occasion pass Given him by this great conference to know Of things above his world. Inhabitant with God. but convert. and his wary speech Thus to the empyreal minister he framed. the latter most is ours. last the bright consummate flower Spirits odorous breathes: flowers and their fruit. and pure. As nearer to him placed. Endued with various forms. 81 . If not depraved from good. Thus when with meats and drinks they had sufficed. of kind the same. O Adam. by gradual scale sublimed. but in those hearts Love unlibidinous reigned. whose high power. whose radiant forms. created all Such to perfection. Discursive. to animal. or intuitive. and of their being Who dwell in Heaven. in things that live. now know I well Thy favour. nor jealousy Was understood. and find No inconvenient diet. Till body up to spirit work. nor too light fare. One Almighty is. one first matter all. as you To proper substance. whence the soul Reason receives. Man's nourishment. and. various degrees Of substance. what God for you saw good If I refuse not. the injured lover's hell. from thence the leaves More aery. And from these corporal nutriments perhaps Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit. As that more willingly thou couldst not seem At Heaven's high feasts to have fed: yet what compare To whom the winged Hierarch replied. Wonder not then. discourse Is oftest yours. in bounds Proportioned to each kind. so far Exceeded human. give both life and sense. and reason is her being. Fancy and understanding.

and all the angelick host. not over-ruled by fate Inextricable. that stand In sight of God. or may. incapable of more. That is. at choice. In contemplation of created things. Thy words Attentive. or strict necessity: Our voluntary service he requires. whereon. enthroned. O favourable Spirit. not immutable. therein stand. Son of Heaven and Earth. Who formed us from the dust and placed us here Full to the utmost measure of what bliss Human desires can seek or apprehend? To whom the Angel. to thy obedience. To whom the patriarch of mankind replied. be tried whether they serve Willing or no. Divine instructer. who will but what they must By destiny. as we. Mean while enjoy Your fill what happiness this happy state Can comprehend. By steps we may ascend to God. in this we stand or fall: And some are fallen. Here or in heavenly Paradises dwell. nor can find. But say. winged. and with more delighted ear. and the scale of nature set From center to circumference. as in our will To love or not. or possibly his love desert. I have heard. than when Cherubick songs by night from neighbouring hills Aereal musick send: Nor knew I not 82 . Well hast thou taught the way that might direct Our knowledge. and retain Unalterably firm his love entire. our happy state Hold. Not our necessitated. as you yours. not free. and can no other choose? Myself. Attend! That thou art happy. be advised. What meant that caution joined.Improved by tract of time. such with him Finds no acceptance. owe to God. Because we freely love. to disobedience fallen. for how Can hearts. propitious guest. And good he made thee. while our obedience holds. And so from Heaven to deepest Hell. owe to thyself. On other surety none: Freely we serve. If ye be found obedient. This was that caution given thee. ascend Ethereal. but to persevere He left it in thy power. If ye be found Obedient? Can we want obedience then To him. ordained thy will By nature free. That thou continuest such. God made thee perfect. O fall From what high state of bliss. and. into what woe! To whom our great progenitor. Whose progeny you are.

Orb within orb. Thus when in orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood.To be both will and deed created free. Worthy of sacred silence to be heard. and what surmounts the reach Of human sense. perhaps Not lawful to reveal? yet for thy good This is dispensed. and future. measures all things durable By present. Yet that we never shall forget to love Our Maker. I shall delineate so. when on a day (For time. thus spake. and degrees. the empyreal host Of Angels by imperial summons called. from all the ends of Heaven. Standards and gonfalons 'twixt van and rear Stream in the air. 83 . without remorse. and still assure: Though what thou tellest Hath passed in Heaven. Amidst as from a flaming mount. though what if Earth Be but a shadow of Heaven. some doubt within me move. High matter thou enjoinest me. more than on earth is thought? As yet this world was not. thus began.) on such day As Heaven's great year brings forth. Sad task and hard: For how shall I relate To human sense the invisible exploits Of warring Spirits? how. and Raphael. whose top Brightness had made invisible. Innumerable before the Almighty's throne Forthwith. appeared Under their Hierarchs in orders bright: Ten thousand thousand ensigns high advanced. which must needs be strange. O prime of men. where Earth now rests Upon her center poised. and obey him whose command Single is yet so just. applied To motion. the Father Infinite. By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son. and things therein Each to other like. my constant thoughts Assured me. As may express them best. Thus Adam made request. acts of zeal and love Recorded eminent. and scarce begins His other half in the great zone of Heaven. if thou consent. After short pause assenting. for scarce the sun Hath finished half his journey. By likening spiritual to corporal forms. of orders. Or in their glittering tissues bear imblazed Holy memorials. though in eternity. The ruin of so many glorious once And perfect while they stood? how last unfold The secrets of another world. past. and for distinction serve Of hierarchies. And we have yet large day. But more desire to hear. The full relation. and Chaos wild Reigned where these Heavens now roll.

mazes intricate. who showered With copious hand. And in their motions harmony divine So smooths her charming tones. progeny of light. his place Ordained without redemption. before the all-bounteous King. that God's own ear Listens delighted. and with fresh flowerets crowned. Virtues. Dominations. and on this holy hill Him have anointed. Me disobeys. Mystical dance. intervolved. Hear my decree. and wider far Than all this globous earth in plain outspread. Wide over all the plain. (Such are the courts of God) the angelick throng. deep ingulfed.) Forthwith from dance to sweet repast they turn Desirous. yet regular Then most. the face of brightest Heaven had changed To grateful twilight. On flowers reposed. and shall confess him Lord: Under his great vice-gerent reign abide United. and massy gold. 84 . breaks union. the growth of Heaven. Fruit of delicious vines. and on a sudden piled With Angels food. rejoicing in their joy. as other solemn days. Eccentrick. and in communion sweet Quaff immortality and joy. which yonder starry sphere Of planets. not need. Tables are set. falls Into utter darkness. as one individual soul. they spent In song and dance about the sacred hill. Now when ambrosial night with clouds exhaled From that high mount of God. all ye Angels. and rubied nectar flows In pearl. (for night comes not there In darker veil. They eat. secure Of surfeit. all in circles as they stood. whence light and shade Spring both. whom ye now behold At my right hand. your head I him appoint. For ever happy: Him who disobeys. Powers. in all her wheels Resembles nearest. when most irregular they seem. Princedoms. This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son. where full measure only bounds Excess. and that day. Evening now approached. That day. they drink. Thrones. and of fixed. Cast out from God and blessed vision. to him shall bow All knees in Heaven. all seemed.Hear. (For we have also our evening and our morn. without end. and with his words All seemed well pleased. which unrevoked shall stand. but were not all. We ours for change delectable. And by myself have sworn. in diamond.) and roseat dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. So spake the Omnipotent.

Dispersed in bands and files. so late hath passed the lips Of Heaven's Almighty. and leave Unworshipt. And all who under me their banners wave. 85 . tells. Now ere dim night had disincumbered Heaven. that day Honoured by his great Father. there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King. yet fraught With envy against the Son of God. and proclaimed Messiah King anointed. Assemble thou Of all those myriads which we lead the chief. and his new commands. new counsels to debate What doubtful may ensue: More in this place To utter is not safe. where they slept Fanned with cool winds. and give laws. I mine to thee was wont to impart. he of the first. his former name Is heard no more in Heaven. the regent Powers. That the Most High commanding. Homeward. and thought himself impaired. unobeyed. The great hierarchal standard was to move. Both waking we were one. and infused Bad influence into the unwary breast Of his associate: He together calls. Or several one by one. could not bear Through pride that sight. Pavilions numberless. ere yet dim night Her shadowy cloud withdraws. that by command. who. with flying march. Thou to me thy thoughts Wast wont. Melodious hymns about the sovran throne Alternate all night long: but not so waked Satan. now ere night. Companion dear? What sleep can close Thy eye-lids? and rememberest what decree Of yesterday. Soon as midnight brought on the dusky hour Friendliest to sleep and silence. New laws from him who reigns. as he was taught. The great Messiah. in their course. Contemptuous. Celestial tabernacles. new minds may raise In us who serve. Sleepest thou. and sudden reared. he resolved With all his legions to dislodge. how then can now Thy sleep dissent? New laws thou seest imposed. Who speedily through all the hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant. In favour and pre-eminence. their camp extend By living streams among the trees of life. great in power. the throne supreme. so call him now. Under him Regent. and his next subordinate Awakening. Deep malice thence conceiving and disdain. where we possess The quarters of the north. thus to him in secret spake. If not the first Arch-Angel. So spake the false Arch-Angel. Tell them. I am to haste. save those.

thou in whom my glory I behold In full resplendence. saw in whom. and to this hazard draw With speed what force is left. or be found the worst in Heaven. Mighty Father. and Thrones. ineffable. Laughest at their vain designs and tumults vain. what our power is. and all employ In our defence. And. and high was his degree in Heaven. Or stars of morning. Far was advanced on winged speed. throughout the spacious north. which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower. our sanctuary. Son. lest unawares we lose This our high place. and in event Know whether I be dextrous to subdue Thy rebels. and casts between Ambiguous words and jealousies. to his only Son thus said.Tells the suggested cause. who intends to erect his throne Equal to ours. And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him. smiling. Heir of all my might. Matter to me of glory. Mean while the Eternal eye. Nearly it now concerns us to be sure Of our Omnipotence. serene. dew-drops. Regions they passed. with his Powers. and superiour voice Of their great Potentate. to sound Or taint integrity: But all obeyed The wonted signal. His countenance. Lightning divine. Let us advise. 86 . secure. when they see all regal power Given me to quell their pride. saw without their light Rebellion rising. but Satan. Made answer. is no more Than what this garden is to all the earth. Adam. Nor so content. as the morning-star that guides The starry flock. whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts. and with lies Drew after him the third part of Heaven's host. To whom the Son with calm aspect and clear. regions to which All thy dominion. and with what arms We mean to hold what anciently we claim Of deity or empire: Such a foe Is rising. an host Innumerable as the stars of night. hath in his thought to try In battle. thou thy foes Justly hast in derision. our hill. whom their hate Illustrates. or our right. and. what multitudes Were banded to oppose his high decree. allured them. So spake the Son. how spread Among the sons of morn. for great indeed His name. In their triple degrees. and Potentates. from forth his holy mount. the mighty regencies Of Seraphim.

Who can in reason then. Receive him coming to receive from us Knee-tribute yet unpaid. and choose to bend The supple knee? Ye will not. or if ye know yourselves Natives and sons of Heaven possessed before By none. for whom all this haste Of midnight-march. With what may be devised of honours new. Pretending so commanded to consult About the great reception of their King. For thither he assembled all his train. In imitation of that mount whereon Messiah was declared in sight of Heaven.) which not long after. to the abuse Of those imperial titles. To one. but well consist. Virtues. who without law Err not? much less for this to be our Lord. and hurried meeting here.And all the sea. and rocks of gold. or right. with pyramids and towers From diamond quarries hewn. and if not equal all. if in power and splendour less. and us eclipsed under the name Of King anointed. (so call That structure in the dialect of men Interpreted. which having passed. The Mountain of the Congregation called. Thrones. if I trust To know ye right. yet free. assume Monarchy over such as live by right His equals. Princedoms. from one entire globose Stretched into longitude. Dominations. not to serve. Thus far his bold discourse without controul 87 . since by decree Another now hath to himself engrossed All power. and with calumnious art Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears. If these magnifick titles yet remain Not merely titular. Equally free. and teach us to cast off this yoke? Will ye submit your necks. far blazing. and Satan to his royal seat High on a hill. At length into the limits of the north They came. This only to consult how we may best. prostration vile! Too much to one! but double how endured. The palace of great Lucifer. as a mount Raised on a mount. Powers. and to his image now proclaimed? But what if better counsels might erect Our minds. for orders and degrees Jar not with liberty. which assert Our being ordained to govern. Thither to come. And look for adoration. he Affecting all equality with God. In freedom equal? or can introduce Law and edict on us.

and circumscribed their being? Yet. One over all with unsucceeded power. and the incensed Son. when among the Seraphim Abdiel. and in a flame of zeal severe The current of his fury thus opposed. O argument blasphemous. Or all angelick nature joined in one. and to their glory named Thrones. Princedoms. but his zeal None seconded. all honour to him done Returns our own. thou sayest. That to his only Son. Cease then this impious rage. bent rather to exalt Our happy state. Powers. though great and glorious. than whom none with more zeal adored The Deity. false. every soul in Heaven Shall bend the knee. by task transferred 88 . and. as out of season judged. Dominations. and proud! Words which no ear ever to hear in Heaven Expected. since he the head One of our number thus reduced becomes. least of all from thee. we know how good. Virtues. thus replied. And equal over equals to let reign. more haughty. And tempt not these. And of our good and of our dignity How provident he is. But more illustrious made. who made Thee what thou art. Equal to him begotten Son? by whom. and in that honour due Confess him rightful King? unjust. by experience taught. While pardon may be found in time besought. and divine commands obeyed. how far from thought To make us less. That we were formed then sayest thou? and the work Of secondary hands. Essential Powers. under one head more near United. Crowned them with glory. dost thou count. by right endued With regal scepter. and all the Spirits of Heaven By him created in their bright degrees. Ingrate. the Mighty Father made All things. Stood up. But to grant it thee unjust. even thee. In place thyself so high above thy peers. Or singular and rash: Whereat rejoiced The Apostate. So spake the fervent Angel.Had audience. His laws our laws. That equal over equals monarch reign: Thyself. to bind with laws the free. but hasten to appease The incensed Father. As by his Word. and formed the Powers of Heaven Such as he pleased. Canst thou with impious obloquy condemn The just decree of God. Shalt thou give law to God? shalt thou dispute With him the points of liberty. pronounced and sworn. Flatly unjust. nor by his reign obscured.

and thy hapless crew involved In this perfidious fraud. with him wrought To swerve from truth. faithful only he. other decrees Against thee are gone forth without recall. O alienate from God. Is now an iron rod to bruise and break Thy disobedience. So spake the Seraph Abdiel. He said. thus answered bold. and to begirt the almighty throne Beseeching or besieging. Forsaken of all good! I see thy fall Determined. unmoved. his love. Among innumerable false. Though single. Know none before us.From Father to his Son? strange point and new! Doctrine which we would know whence learned: who saw When this creation was? rememberest thou Thy making. From amidst them forth he passed. Long way through hostile scorn. those indulgent laws Will not be now vouchsafed. unseduced. which he sustained Superiour. raging into sudden flame. These tidings carry to the anointed King. his zeal. Then who created thee lamenting learn. nor less for that The flaming Seraph fearless. self-begot. 89 . And fly. unterrified. That golden scepter. though alone Encompassed round with foes. Unshaken. Our puissance is our own. when fatal course Had circled his full orb. or change his constant mind. O Spirit accursed. ere evil intercept thy flight. which thou didst reject. our own right hand Shall teach us highest deeds. and. Distinguish not: For soon expect to feel His thunder on thy head. His loyalty he kept. devouring fire. nor of violence feared aught. This report. ethereal sons. contagion spread Both of thy crime and punishment: Henceforth No more be troubled how to quit the yoke Of God's Messiah. Yet not for thy advice or threats I fly These wicked tents devoted. nor example. self-raised By our own quickening power. by proof to try Who is our equal: Then thou shalt behold Whether by supplication we intend Address. When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know. Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause Through the infinite host. lest the wrath Impendent. while the Maker gave thee being? We know no time when we were not as now. as the sound of waters deep. the birth mature Of this our native Heaven. Nor number. Well thou didst advise. faithful found Among the faithless.

fast by his throne. in military prowess next. 90 . with rosy hand Unbarred the gates of light. from whence a voice. Waked by the circling Hours. And for the testimony of truth hast borne Universal reproach. in word mightier than they in arms. and at the other door Obsequious darkness enters. who single hast maintained Against revolted multitudes the cause Of truth. till Morn. and for their King Messiah. aided by this host of friends. Through Heaven's wide champain held his way. Reflecting blaze on blaze. from before her vanished Night. who him received With joy and acclamations loud. yet one Returned not lost. thus mild was heard. and present Before the seat supreme. Well done. for this was all thy care To stand approved in sight of God. and to subdue By force. unpursued. of celestial armies prince. when all the plain Covered with thick embattled squadrons bright.And. his back he turned On those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. and fiery steeds. Light issues forth. Shot through with orient beams. There is a cave Within the mount of God. who reason for their law refuse. that one. first met his view: War he perceived. Back on thy foes more glorious to return. Michael. who by right of merit reigns. like day and night. well hast thou fought The better fight. Than scorned thou didst depart. Servant of God. with retorted scorn. Chariots. though worlds Judged thee perverse: The easier conquest now Remains thee. On to the sacred hill They led him high applauded. Right reason for their law. though darkness there might well Seem twilight here: And now went forth the Morn Such as in highest Heaven arrayed in gold Empyreal. far worse to bear Than violence. and flaming arms. Go. That of so many myriads fallen. From midst a golden cloud. war in procinct. which makes through Heaven Grateful vicissitude. till her hour To veil the Heaven. Book VI All night the dreadless Angel. and found Already known what he for news had thought To have reported: Gladly then he mixed Among those friendly Powers. Where light and darkness in perpetual round Lodge and dislodge by turns. And thou.

by fight or by surprise. And in fierce hosting meet. and nearer view Bristled with upright beams innumerable Of rigid spears. That stood for Heaven. as when the total kind Of birds. that breathed Heroick ardour to adventurous deeds Under their God-like leaders. and helmets thronged. The banded Powers of Satan hasting on With furious expedition. Tenfold the length of this terrene: At last. divides Their perfect ranks. reluctant flames. Came summoned over Eden to receive Their names of thee. By thousands and by millions. nor with less dread the loud Ethereal trumpet from on high 'gan blow: At which command the Powers militant. in orderly array on wing. Equal in number to that Godless crew Rebellious: Them with fire and hostile arms Fearless assault. with boastful argument portrayed. the proud Aspirer. drive them out from God and bliss. and many a province wide. lead forth my armed Saints. who wont to meet So oft in festivals of joy and love Unanimous. the sign Of wrath awaked. ranged for fight. that Angel should with Angel war. and. Far in the horizon to the north appeared From skirt to skirt a fiery region. moved on In silence their bright legions. so over many a tract Of Heaven they marched. nor wood. and clouds began To darken all the hill. So spake the Sovran Voice. Into their place of punishment. and on his throne To set the Envier of his state. nor obvious hill. in the cause Of God and his Messiah. for they weened That self-same day. for high above the ground Their march was. and smoke to roll In dusky wreaths. lead forth to battle these my sons Invincible. nor stream. To win the mount of God. Hymning the Eternal Father: But the shout 91 . Nor straitening vale. to the sound Of instrumental harmony. the gulf Of Tartarus. to the brow of Heaven Pursuing. On they move Indissolubly firm. as sons of one great Sire. and the passive air upbore Their nimble tread. which ready opens wide His fiery Chaos to receive their fall. in mighty quadrate joined Of union irresistible. stretched In battailous aspect. but their thoughts proved fond and vain In the mid way: Though strange to us it seemed At first.Gabriel. and shields Various.

Proud. Who out of smallest things could. at this prevention more Incensed. Should win in arms. at the terrour of thy power Or potent tongue: Fool!not to think how vain Against the Omnipotent to rise in arms. Then lighted from his gorgeous throne. who in debate of truth hath won. and front to front Presented stood in terrible array Of hideous length: Before the cloudy van. O Heaven! that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain. and piety to God. though then To thee not visible. A dreadful interval. and rushing sound Of onset ended soon each milder thought. trusting in the Almighty's aid. when I alone Seemed in thy world erroneous to dissent From all: My sect thou seest. half-way he met His daring foe. where faith and realty Remain not: Wherefore should not strength and might There fail where virtue fails. there be. Came towering. could have finished thee. and whelmed Thy legions under darkness: But thou seest All are not of thy train. learn too late 92 . with vast and haughty strides advanced. Unaided. though to fight unconquerable? His puissance. who faith Prefer. So pondering. and his side Abandoned.Of battle now began. though brutish that contest and foul. And thus his own undaunted heart explores. or with solitary hand Reaching beyond all limit. nor is it aught but just. I mean to try. without end. whose reason I have tried Unsound and false. That he. and thus securely him defied. Abdiel that sight endured not. for now "twixt host and host but narrow space was left. yet so Most reason is that reason overcome. The Apostate in his sun-bright chariot sat. bent on highest deeds. enclosed With flaming Cherubim. and golden shields. armed in adamant and gold. where he stood Among the mightiest. High in the midst. in both disputes alike Victor. exalted as a God. or weakest prove Where boldest. Have raised incessant armies to defeat Thy folly. The throne of God unguarded. art thou met? thy hope was to have reached The highth of thy aspiring unopposed. and from his armed peers Forth stepping opposite. Idol of majesty divine. at one blow. On the rough edge of battle ere it joined. When reason hath to deal with force.

When he who rules is worthiest. But well thou comest Before thy fellows. Thus answered. and his divine Behests obey. with scornful eye askance.How few sometimes may know. Ill for thee. since first that tongue. a noble stroke he lifted high. that no sight. expect: Mean while From me returned. Yet chains in Hell. At first I thought that Liberty and Heaven To heavenly souls had been all one. Yet lewdly darest our ministring upbraid. who. ambitious to win From me some plume. Thyself not free. from flight. as thine now serve thee. in synod met Their deities to assert. not realms. when thousands err. Sidelong had pushed a mountain from his seat. This greeting on thy impious crest receive. but to thyself enthralled. To serve the unwise. Amazement seised 93 . thy kingdom. Ministring Spirits. To whom in brief thus Abdiel stern replied. This is servitude. nor end wilt find Of erring. seditious Angel! to receive Thy merited reward. but now I see that most through sloth had rather serve. trained up in feast and song! Such hast thou armed. Half sunk with all his pines. while they feel Vigour divine within them. to serve whom God ordains. that thy success may show Destruction to the rest: This pause between. worthiest to be obeyed. Nor motion of swift thought. Inspired with contradiction. from the path of truth remote: Unjustly thou depravest it with the name Of servitude. Such ruin intercept: Ten paces huge He back recoiled. Which hung not. (Unanswered lest thou boast) to let thee know. Or Nature: God and Nature bid the same. the tenth on bended knee His massy spear upstaid. and excels Them whom he governs. as if on earth Winds under ground. the first assay Of this right hand provoked. or waters forcing way. let me serve In Heaven God ever blest. but so swift with tempest fell On the proud crest of Satan. as erst thou saidst. can allow Omnipotence to none. So saying. Apostate! still thou errest. first sought for. or him who hath rebelled Against his worthier. less could his shield. Reign thou in Hell. As both their deeds compared this day shall prove. the minstrelsy of Heaven. Servility with freedom to contend. durst oppose A third part of the Gods. but in wished hour Of my revenge. thou returnest From flight. Whom the grand foe.

ours joy filled. or turn the sway Of battle. And clamour such as heard in Heaven till now Was never. soaring on main wing. expert When to advance. and fierce desire Of battle: Whereat Michael bid sound The Arch-Angel trumpet. All Heaven Resounded. though numbered such As each divided legion might have seemed A numerous host. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. Now storming fury rose. or stand. all Earth Had to her center shook. over head the dismal hiss Of fiery darts in flaming vollies flew. Long time in even scale The battle hung. ranging through the dire attack Of fighting Seraphim confused. dire was the noise Of conflict. led in fight. then. sometimes on firm ground A standing fight. nor less hideous joined The horrid shock. and disturb. open when. Presage of victory. From his strong hold of Heaven. and arm him with the force Of all their regions: How much more of power Army against army numberless to raise Dreadful combustion warring. and met in arms No equal. Had not the Eternal King Omnipotent. through the vast of Heaven It sounded. with ruinous assault And inextinguishable rage. Though not destroy. at length 94 . but greater rage. So under fiery cope together rushed Both battles main. for wide was spread That war and various. And flying vaulted either host with fire. each on himself relied. and had Earth been then. and when to close The ridges of grim war: No thought of flight. till Satan. high over-ruled And limited their might. to see Thus foiled their mightiest. who that day Prodigious power had shown. yet leader seemed Each warriour single as in chief.The rebel Thrones. in strength each armed hand A legion. arms on armour clashing brayed Horrible discord. and the madding wheels Of brazen chariots raged. the least of whom could wield These elements. and shout. As only in his arm the moment lay Of victory: Deeds of eternal fame Were done. What wonder? when Millions of fierce encountering Angels fought On either side. Tormented all the air. None of retreat. all air seemed then Conflicting fire. and the faithful armies rung Hosanna to the Highest: Nor stood at gaze The adverse legions. but infinite. their happy native seat.

Or turn this Heaven itself into the Hell Thou fablest. that so shall end The strife which thou callest evil. the seat of bliss. Hast thou turned the least of these To flight. and felled Squadrons at once. with huge two-handed sway Brandished aloft. the arch-foe subdued Or captive dragged in chains. Hell. I fly not. for who. to the place of evil. So spake the Prince of Angels. and evil go with thee along. which we mean to win. once upright And faithful. though with the tongue Of Angels. And join him named Almighty to thy aid. to whom thus The Adversary. Thou and thy wicked crew! there mingle broils. but have sought thee far and nigh. And thy adherents: How hast thou disturbed Heaven's blessed peace. A vast circumference. and into nature brought Misery. Thy offspring. Hence then. with hostile frown And visage all inflamed first thus began. Heaven. Nor think thou with wind Of aery threats to awe whom yet with deeds Thou canst not. imperious. uncreated till the crime Of thy rebellion! how hast thou instilled Thy malice into thousands. and with threats To chase me hence? err not. Heaven casts thee out From all her confines. now plenteous as thou seest These acts of hateful strife. that may lift Human imagination to such highth 95 . winged from God.Saw where the sword of Michael smote. Brooks not the works of violence and war. or if to fall. Ere this avenging sword begin thy doom. but we style The strife of glory. If not to reign: Mean while thy utmost force. Or some more sudden vengeance. his ample shield. as hoping here to end Intestine war in Heaven. the horrid edge came down Wide-wasting. now proved false! But think not here To trouble holy rest. unknown till thy revolt. can relate. easier to transact with me That thou shouldst hope. here however to dwell free. hateful to all. such destruction to withstand He hasted. and glad. and both addressed for fight Unspeakable. and opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant. They ended parle. or to what things Liken on earth conspicuous. At his approach The great Arch-Angel from his warlike toil Surceased. Author of evil. but that they rise Unvanquished. Precipitate thee with augmented pain. Though heaviest by just measure on thyself. Unnamed in Heaven.

not as frail man In entrails. all head. in mid sky Should combat. To find himself not matchless. so far beneath His confidence to equal God in power. 96 . all sense. nor staid. Cannot but by annihilating die. And writhed him to and fro convolved. and his pride Humbled by such rebuke. two broad suns their shields Blazed opposite. and in the air Made horrid circles. Together both with next to almighty arm Up-lifted imminent. and.Of Godlike power? for likest Gods they seemed. rushing from aspect malign Of fiercest opposition. liver or reins. And left large field. Not long divisible. all eye. And all his armour stained. if. Stood they or moved. and from the gash A stream of necturous humour issuing flowed Sanguine. all ear. and despite. such as celestial Spirits may bleed. Yet soon he healed. as they please. nor odds appeared In might or swift prevention: But the sword Of Michael from the armoury of God Was given him tempered so. in stature. Now waved their fiery swords. and in half cut sheer. ere while so bright. and their jarring spheres confound. and not need repeat. that neither keen Nor solid might resist that edge: it met The sword of Satan. Among the constellations war were sprung. All intellect. who interposed Defence. Two planets. motion. But with swift wheel reverse. deep entering. Where erst was thickest fight. and shame. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. the angelick throng. arms. no more than can the fluid air: All heart they live. while Expectation stood In horrour: From each hand with speed retired. heart of head. shared All his right side: Then Satan first knew pain. to set forth Great things by small. for Spirits that live throughout Vital in every part. such as. so sore The griding sword with discontinuous wound Passed through him: But the ethereal substance closed. Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By Angels many and strong. one stroke they aimed That might determine. nature's concord broke. As not of power at once. where it stood retired From off the files of war: There they him laid Gnashing for anguish. unsafe within the wind Of such commotion. Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven. with steep force to smite Descending. Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound Receive.

Fled ignominious. 97 . advanced entire. but meaner thoughts learned in their flight. With many an inroad gored. On each wing Uriel. contented with their fame in Heaven. Vanquished Adramelech. For strength from truth divided. And fiery-foaming steeds. and through infamy seeks fame: Therefore eternal silence be their doom. to such evil brought By sin of disobedience. and from just. all the ground With shivered armour strown. Then first with fear surprised. but anon Down cloven to the waist. nor from the Holy One of Heaven Refrained his tongue blasphemous. Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy The atheist crew. overthrew. In cubick phalanx firm. Invulnerable. who him defied. Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. and their names Eternize here on earth. Two potent Thrones. And at his chariot-wheels to drag him bound Threatened. yet to glory aspires Vain-glorious. but those elect Angels. what stood. or size Assume. impenetrably armed. their mightiest quelled. deformed rout Entered. Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail. furious king. his vaunting foe. till that hour Not liable to fear. Illaudable. and on a heap Chariot and charioteer lay overturned. and colour. and Asmadai. and the violence Of Ramiel scorched and blasted. through the faint Satanick host Defensive scarce. I might relate of thousands. Nor of renown less eager. as?kikes them best. Mean while in other parts like deeds deserved Memorial. Such high advantages their innocence Gave them above their foes. with shattered arms And uncouth pain fled bellowing. not to have sinned. and in a rock of diamond armed. that to be less than Gods Disdained. yet by doom Cancelled from Heaven and sacred memory. And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array Of Moloch. or with pale fear surprised. and foul disorder. Far otherwise the inviolable Saints. or pain. the battle swerved.They limb themselves. or flight. shape. condense or rare. and Raphael. Though huge. and Arioch. but with redoubled blow Ariel. In might though wonderous and in acts of war. And now. recoiled O'er-wearied. Seek not the praise of men: The other sort. where the might of Gabriel fought. nought merits but dispraise And ignominy. and sense of pain.

But proves not so: Then fallible. Sore toiled. placed in guard their watches round. Victor and vanquished: On the foughten field Michael and his Angels prevalent Encamping. As one he stood escaped from cruel fight. Cherubick waving fires: On the other part. in fight they stood Unwearied. 98 . May serve to better us. And in the midst thus undismayed began. Far in the dark dislodged. leader to free Enjoyment of our right as Gods. (And if one day. dominion. and in the assembly next upstood Nisroch. less firmly armed. though pierced with wound. And cloudy in aspect thus answering spake. Till now not known. He sat. and too unequal work we find. while we can preserve Unhurt our minds. Soon closing. and. Companions dear. when next we meet. and. now known in arms Not to be overpowered. known. why not eternal days?) What Heaven's Lord had powerfullest to send Against us from about his throne. His potentates to council called by night. Due search and consultation will disclose. and by native vigour healed. perhaps more valid arms. and renown. grateful truce imposed. and understanding sound. Now Night her course began. yet hard For Gods. unobnoxious to be pained By wound. and. Deliverer from new Lords. And silence on the odious din of war: Under her cloudy covert both retired. of Principalities the prime. his riven arms to havock hewn. Found worthy not of liberty alone. Some disadvantage we endured and pain. Satan with his rebellious disappeared. though from their place by violence moved. and worse our foes. void of rest. and judged Sufficient to subdue us to his will. as soon contemned. Who have sustained one day in doubtful fight. over Heaven Inducing darkness. though till now Omniscient thought. Of future we may deem him. but. True is. O now in danger tried. Imperishable. Of evil then so small as easy think The remedy. In nature none: If other hidden cause Left them superiour. Since now we find this our empyreal form Incapable of mortal injury. Weapons more violent.Not to have disobeyed. Too mean pretence! but what we more affect. glory. it seems. Honour. Or equal what between us made the odds.

opening to the ambient light? These in their dark nativity the deep Shall yield us. Whose eye so superficially surveys These things. Which of us who beholds the bright surface Of this ethereous mould whereon we stand. He. with thundering noise. adorned With plant. to strength and counsel joined Think nothing hard. Nor long shall be our labour. that they shall fear we have disarmed The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt. which is the calmest life: But pain is perfect misery. and his words their drooping cheer Enlightened. or inspired With devilish machination. so easy it seemed Once found.Against unequal arms to fight in pain. Some one intent on mischief. Whereto with look composed Satan replied. till touched With Heaven's ray. I bring. though matchless. He ended. haply. and gold. and makes remiss the hands Of mightiest? Sense of pleasure we may well Spare out of life perhaps. Abandon fear. Against unpained. and tempered. who therefore can invent With what more forcible we may offend Our yet unwounded enemies. if malice should abound. and. which thou aright Believest so main to our success. and their languished hope revived. which yet unfound most would have thought Impossible: Yet. for what avails Valour or strength. from which evil Ruin must needs ensue. of thy race In future days. overturns All patience. pregnant with infernal flame. Which. and not repine. Thick rammed. might devise 99 . how he To be the inventer missed. materials dark and crude. and o'erwhelm whatever stands Adverse. or arm Ourselves with like defence. much less to be despaired. impassive. at the other bore with touch of fire Dilated and infuriate. to me deserves No less than for deliverance what we owe. they shoot forth So beauteous. Of spiritous and fiery spume. fruit. among our foes Such implements of mischief. Effect shall end our wish. into hollow engines. long and round. Not uninvented that. as not to mind from whence they grow Deep under ground. shall send forth From far. flower ambrosial. But live content. Mean while revive. the worst Of evils. The invention all admired. and each. yet ere dawn. This continent of spacious Heaven. gems. as shall dash To pieces. quelled with pain Which all subdues. excessive.

and in order set. and scouts each coast light-armed scour. on war and mutual slaughter bent. Instant without disturb they took alarm. At interview both stood 100 . no drizzling shower. they mingled. Secret they finished. for this day will pour down. and settled in his face I see Sad resolution. And onward moved embattled: When behold! Not distant far with heavy pace the foe Approaching gross and huge. or if for fight. Each quarter to descry the distant foe. With silent circumspection. under conscious night. sulphurous and nitrous foam They found.Like instrument to plague the sons of men For sin. If I conjecture aught. Whom fled we thought. Came flying. Up rose the victor-Angels. in hollow cube Training his devilish enginery. and secure: Let each His adamantine coat gird well. thick a cloud He comes. impaled On every side with shadowing squadrons deep. Concocted and adusted they reduced To blackest grain. So warned he them. refulgent host. None arguing stood. Where lodged. aware themselves. and each Fit well his helm. Arm. and. or whither fled. pernicious with one touch to fire. Warriours. in a moment up they turned Wide the celestial soil. with subtle art. quit of all impediment. Soon banded. others from the dawning hills Look round. But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire. the foe at hand. To hide the fraud. In motion or in halt: Him soon they met Under spread ensigns moving nigh. and in mid air aloud thus cried. arm for fight. back with speediest sail Zophiel. So all ere day-spring. and soon In order. will save us long pursuit This day. Whereof to found their engines and their balls Of missive ruin. Borne even or high. innumerable hands Were ready. and into store conveyed: Part hidden veins digged up (nor hath this earth Entrails unlike) of mineral and stone. and saw beneath The originals of nature in their crude Conception. Now when fair morn orient in Heaven appeared. part incentive reed Provide. Forthwith from council to the work they flew. and to arms The matin trumpet sung: In arms they stood Of golden panoply. of Cherubim the swiftest wing. fear not his flight. in slow But firm battalion. gripe fast his orbed shield.

Vanguard. and in his hand a reed Stood waving tipt with fire. to right and left the front unfold.) Brass. in wood or mountain felled. iron. whom they hit. From those deep-throated engines belched. Not long. but now Foul dissipation followed. Collected stood within our thoughts amused. for in view Stood ranked of Seraphim another row. In posture to displode their second tire Of thunder: Back defeated to return 101 . disgorging foul Their devilish glut. evaded swift By quick contraction or remove. would render them yet more despised. stony mould. And to their foes a laughter. who appointed stand Do as you have in charge. The sooner for their arms. and briefly touch What we propound. witness thou anon! while we discharge Freely our part: ye. and forced rout. new and strange.A while. he scarce Had ended. unarmed. Immediate in a flame. none on their feet might stand. Heaven! Heaven. they might Have easily. for sudden all at once their reeds Put forth. whose roar Embowelled with outrageous noise the air. Though standing else as rocks. That all may see who hate us. and indecent overthrow Doubled. chained thunderbolts and hail Of iron globes. with such impetuous fury smote. all Heaven appeared. and to a narrow vent applied With nicest touch. and thus was heard commanding loud. With branches lopt. suspense. which. That. What should they do? if on they rushed. and turn not back perverse: But that I doubt. how we seek Peace and composure. if they like Our overture. when to right and left the front Divided. on the victor host Levelled. and to either flank retired: Which to our eyes discovered. Portending hollow truce: At each behind A Seraph stood. but down they fell By thousands. as Spirits. Nor served it to relax their serried files. And all her entrails tore. while we. repulse Repeated. however witness. and with open breast Stand ready to receive them. and loud that all may hear! So scoffing in ambiguous words. A triple mounted row of pillars laid On wheels (for like to pillars most they seemed. But soon obscured with smoke. Angel on Arch-Angel rolled. but suddenly at head appeared Satan. Or hollowed bodies made of oak or fir. had not their mouths With hideous orifice gaped on us wide.

Rocks. Themselves invaded next. O Friends! why come not on these victors proud Ere while they fierce were coming. If our proposals once again were heard. and by the shaggy tops Up-lifting bore them in their hands: Amaze. As they would dance. crushed in and bruised Into their substance pent. which in the air Came shadowing. and of his thunder made a scorn. waters. Be sure. To entertain them fair with open front And breast. hightened in their thoughts beyond All doubt of victory: Eternal Might To match with their inventions they presumed So easy. Such as we might perceive amused them all. To whom thus Belial. Their armour helped their harm. When coming towards them so dread they saw The bottom of the mountains upward turned. Rage prompted them at length.They worse abhorred. perhaps For joy of offered peace: But I suppose. Not understood. and into strange vagaries fell. and found them arms Against such hellish mischief fit to oppose. (what could we more?) propounded terms Of composition. seized the rebel host. yet for a dance they seemed Somewhat extravagant and wild. and all their confidence Under the weight of mountains buried deep. with all their load. So they among themselves in pleasant vein Stood scoffing. the power. they flew. Forthwith (behold the excellence. Leader! the terms we sent were terms of weight. And all his host derided. Had need from head to foot well understand. and terrour. woods. while they stood A while in trouble: But they stood not long. and when we. in like gamesome mood. and to the hills (For Earth hath this variety from Heaven Of pleasure situate in hill and dale. and oppressed whole legions armed. and on their heads Main promontories flung. Flew off. They plucked the seated hills. They show us when our foes walk not upright. this gift they have besides. straight they changed their minds. We should compel them to a quick result. Till on those cursed engines' triple-row They saw them whelmed. Of hard contents. Satan beheld their plight. and full of force urged home. And stumbled many: Who receives them right. And to his mates thus in derision called. From their foundations loosening to and fro. which wrought them pain 102 . Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed!) Their arms away they threw.) Light as the lightning glimpse they ran.

to be Heir. and no solution will be found: War wearied hath performed what war can do. as with weapons. Two days are therefore past. Save what sin hath impaired. As likeliest was. Son beloved. and thus far Have suffered. for I suspend their doom. The Assessour of his throne. where he sits Shrined in his sanctuary of Heaven secure. with ruin overspread. though Spirits of purest light. Purest at first. That under ground they fought in dismal shade.Implacable. in whose face invisible is beheld Visibly. And to disordered rage let loose the reins With mountains. Equal in their creation they were formed. he thus began. and the neighbouring hills uptore: So hills amid the air encountered hills. The rest. And in whose hand what by decree I do. now gross by sinning grown. Since Michael and his Powers went forth to tame These disobedient: Sore hath been their fight. ere they could wind Out of such prison. Long struggling underneath. what by Deity I am. Had not the Almighty Father. and dangerous to the main. and to be King 103 . To honour his anointed Son avenged Upon his enemies. to like arms Betook them. and to declare All power on him transferred: Whence to his Son. Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. which makes Wild work in Heaven. horrid confusion heaped Upon confusion rose: And now all Heaven Had gone to wrack. in imitation. since none but Thou Can end it. Consulting on the sum of things. as we compute the days of Heaven. that all may know In Heaven and Hell thy power above compare. Son. and permitted all. And. Infernal noise! war seemed a civil game To this uproar. which yet hath wrought Insensibly. foreseen This tumult. when two such foes met armed. that the glory may be thine Of ending this great war. advised: That his great purpose he might so fulfil. Two days. Whence in perpetual fight they needs must last Endless. and many a dolorous groan. For thee I have ordained it. For to themselves I left them. armed. Effulgence of my glory. the third is thine. To manifest thee worthiest to be Heir Of all things. and thou knowest. Second Omnipotence! two days are past. Into thee such virtue and grace Immense I have transfused. this perverse commotion governed thus.

Pursue these sons of darkness. Go then. and my whole delight. and the undying worm. I always thee. And the third sacred morn began to shine. Scepter and power. Dawning through Heaven. Thou Mightiest. to despise God. thy deserved right. Forth rushed with whirlwind sound The chariot of Paternal Deity. And gladlier shall resign. Armed with thy might. Holiest. four faces each Had wonderous. Image of thee in all things. and sword upon thy puissant thigh. That from thy just obedience could revolt. thy giving. my almighty arms Gird on. when in the end Thou shalt be all in all. as with stars. He said. and I in thee For ever. and in me all whom thou lovest: But whom thou hatest. As is most just: This I my glory account. declarest thy will Fulfilled. To their prepared ill mansion driven down. Unfeigned Halleluiahs to thee sing. thou always seek'st To glorify thy Son. and careering fires between. So said. Itself instinct with Spirit. That thou. o'er his scepter bowing. rose From the right hand of Glory where he sat. in me well pleased. rid Heaven of these rebelled. he all his Father full expressed Ineffably into his face received. bring forth all my war. Over their heads a crystal firmament. as likes them. their bodies all And wings were set with eyes. inlaid with pure Amber. but convoyed By four Cherubick shapes. and on his Son with rays direct Shone full. Ascend my chariot. My exaltation. wheel within wheel undrawn. Highest. First.By sacred unction. in thy Father's might. as I put thy mildness on. Whom to obey is happiness entire. And thus the Filial Godhead answering spake. and can put on Thy terrours. Flashing thick flames. I hate. Best. Hymns of high praise. drive them out From all Heaven's bounds into the utter deep: There let them learn. guide the rapid wheels That shake Heaven's basis. Whereon a sapphire throne. circling thy holy mount. and colours of the showery arch. which to fulfil is all my bliss. with eyes the wheels Of beryl. and shall soon. 104 . and from the impure Far separate. and Messiah his anointed King. To chains of darkness. O Supreme of heavenly Thrones. I assume. Then shall thy Saints unmixed. he. and I among them Chief. O Father. My bow and thunder.

in celestial panoply all armed Of radiant Urim. Nor multitude. at the sight Took envy. they heard his voice. Ye Angels armed. Invincibly: But of this cursed crew The punishment to other hand belongs. He on the wings of Cherub rode sublime On the crystalline sky. And to rebellious fight rallied their Powers. And with fresh flowerets hill and valley smiled. hope conceiving from despair. here stand. And as ye have received. fearless in his righteous cause. disdaining flight. in sapphire throned. And from about him fierce effusion rolled Of smoke. this day from battle rest: Faithful hath been your warfare. and at length prevail Against God and Messiah. Stood re-embattled fierce. or whose he sole appoints: Number to this day's work is not ordained. circumfused on either wing. and now To final battle drew. stand only. or to fall In universal ruin last. and sparkles dire: Attended with ten thousand thousand Saints. Insensate. This saw his hapless foes. half on each hand. Under whose conduct Michael soon reduced His army. In heavenly Spirits could such perverseness dwell? But to convince the proud what signs avail. at his right hand Victory Sat eagle-winged. and bickering flame. Or faint retreat. and went Obsequious. but stood obdured. Vengeance is his. were seen. Heaven his wonted face renewed. hardened more by what might most reclaim. beside him hung his bow And quiver with three-bolted thunder stored. He onward came. so have ye done. his sign in Heaven. Before him Power Divine his way prepared. When the great ensign of Messiah blazed Aloft by Angels borne. Ascended. Stand still in bright array. by force or fraud Weening to prosper. far off his coming shone. Illustrious far and wide. and. And twenty thousand (I their number heard) Chariots of God. and of God Accepted. ye Saints. At his command the uprooted hills retired Each to his place. Grieving to see his glory. Or wonders move the obdurate to relent? They. and behold 105 .He. aspiring to his highth. Under their Head imbodied all in one. when the great Son of God To all his host on either hand thus spake. work divinely wrought. but by his own First seen: Them unexpected joy surprised.

but me. Full soon Among them he arrived. At once the Four spread out their starry wings With dreadful shade contiguous. and glory appertains. Rolled inward. and helms. but checked His thunder in mid volley. under his burning wheels The stedfast empyrean shook throughout. to the bounds And crystal wall of Heaven. And of their wonted vigour left them drained. Because the Father. Or I alone against them. and power. and from the living wheels Distinct alike with multitude of eyes. So spake the Son. All courage. All but the throne itself of God. they have despised. And full of wrath bent on his enemies. such as in their souls infixed Plagues: They. and a spacious gap disclosed 106 . nor care who them excels. afflicted. which he sent Before him. and every eye Glared lightning. all resistance lost. from the fourfold-visaged Four Distinct with eyes. and shot forth pernicious fire Among the accursed. for he meant Not to destroy. but root them out of Heaven: The overthrown he raised. Nor less on either side tempestuous fell His arrows. not you. and the orbs Of his fierce chariot rolled. since by strength They measure all. as a shelter from his ire. Gloomy as night. and helmed heads he rode Of Thrones and mighty Seraphim prostrate. Yet half his strength he put not forth. opening wide.God's indignation on these godless poured By me. That they may have their wish. as with the sound Of torrent floods. pursued With terrours. He on his impious foes right onward drove. Therefore to me their doom he hath assigned. and into terrour changed His countenance too severe to be beheld. Yet envied. and with furies. One Spirit in them ruled. fallen. and as a herd Of goats or timorous flock together thronged Drove them before him thunder-struck. down their idle weapons dropt: O'er shields. astonished. to try with me In battle which the stronger proves. That wished the mountains now might be again Thrown on them. to whom in Heaven s'preme Kingdom. which. against me is all their rage. that withered all their strength. they all. Hath honoured me. or of a numerous host. according to his will. in his right hand Grasping ten thousand thunders. of other excellence Not emulous. Exhausted. Nor other strife with them do I vouchsafe. spiritless.

Nine days they fell: Confounded Chaos roared. And felt tenfold confusion in their fall Through his wild anarchy. Sung triumph. Shaded with branching palm. and would have fled Affrighted. But listen not to his temptations. Disburdened Heaven rejoiced. Thee once to gain companion of his woe. At thy request. and that thou mayest beware By what is past. As a despite done against the Most High. and fear to transgress. into the courts And temple of his Mighty Father throned On high. Thus. so huge a rout Incumbered him with ruin: Hell at last Yawning received them whole. and war in Heaven Among the angelick Powers. and soon repaired Her mural breach. and Lord. warn Thy weaker. but strict Fate had cast too deep Her dark foundations. Worthiest to reign: He. and the deep fall Of those too high aspiring. eternal misery. firm they might have stood. remember. Who now is plotting how he may seduce Thee also from obedience. who silent stood Eye-witnesses of his almighty acts. let it profit thee to have heard. Sole victor. The discord which befel. Which would be all his solace and revenge. and. Hell heard the unsufferable noise. rode Triumphant through mid Heaven. measuring things in Heaven by things on Earth. that. Hell saw Heaven ruining from Heaven. Son. 107 . to him dominion given. thou mayest partake His punishment. Messiah his triumphal chariot turned: To meet him all his Saints. By terrible example. their fit habitation.Into the wasteful deep: The monstrous sight Struck them with horrour backward. as they went. returning whence it rolled. to thee I have revealed What might have else to human race been hid. the reward Of disobedience. from the expulsion of his foes. but far worse Urged them behind: Headlong themselves they threw Down from the verge of Heaven. and on them closed. and too fast had bound. With jubilee advanced. with him Bereaved of happiness. each Order bright. fraught with fire Unquenchable. Heir. who rebelled With Satan. and him sung victorious King. Where now he sits at the right hand of bliss. he who envies now thy state. celebrated. Yet fell. eternal wrath Burnt after them to the bottomless pit. Hell. the house of woe and pain. who into glory him received.

by what befel in Heaven To those apostates. Half yet remains unsung. the race Of that wild rout that tore the Thracian bard In Rhodope. who thee implores: For thou art heavenly. and drawn empyreal air. So easily obeyed amid the choice 108 . Thy tempering: with like safety guided down Return me to my native element: Lest from this flying steed unreined. where woods and rocks had ears To rapture. And solitude. and evil tongues. though fallen on evil days. Up led by thee Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed. while thou Visitest my slumbers nightly. (as once Bellerophon. The affable Arch-Angel. Say. Wisdom thy sister. and forlorn. whose voice divine Following. though from a lower clime. nor on the top Of old Olympus dwellest. pleased With thy celestial song. nor could the Muse defend Her son. An earthly guest. above the Olympian hill I soar. but.Book VII Descend from Heaven. Before the hills appeared. by dire example. not the name. and fit audience find. Charged not to touch the interdicted tree. Erroneous there to wander. and with dangers compassed round. If they transgress. I call: for thou Nor of the Muses nine. Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse. to beware Apostasy. or when morn Purples the east: still govern thou my song.) Dismounted. though few. Above the flight of Pegasean wing! The meaning. Goddess. she an empty dream. In darkness. by that name If rightly thou art called. lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race. till the savage clamour drowned Both harp and voice. and with her didst play In presence of the Almighty Father. what ensued when Raphael. and slight that sole command. unchanged To hoarse or mute. Standing on earth. Urania. On evil days though fallen. So fail not thou. had forewarned Adam. heavenly-born. yet not alone. on the Aleian field I fall. But drive far off the barbarous dissonance Of Bacchus and his revellers. not rapt above the pole. but narrower bound Within the visible diurnal sphere. Urania. or fountain flowed. More safe I sing with mortal voice.

Of all tastes else to please their appetite. But since thou hast vouchsafed Gently. was done Before his memory. so late to build In Chaos. to hear Of things so high and strange. with moving fires adorned Innumerable. with desire to know What nearer might concern him. as to highest wisdom seemed. as hate in Heaven. suspense in Heaven. what cause Moved the Creator. and this which yields or fills All space. When. and was filled With admiration and deep muse. yet sinless. the ambient air wide interfused Embracing round this floried Earth. Far differing from this world. with his consorted Eve. in his holy rest Through all eternity. the more we know. Proceeded thus to ask his heavenly guest. redounded as a flood on those From whom it sprung. how soon Absolved. to their thought So unimaginable. What within Eden. which yet concerned Our knowing. How first began this Heaven which we behold Distant so high. The story heard attentive. the end Of what we are. For which to the infinitely Good we owe Immortal thanks. to impart Things above earthly thought. not to explore the secrets ask Of his eternal empire. to forewarn Us timely of what might else have been our loss. Unknown. 109 . and full of wonder in our ears. thou hast revealed. or without. And war so near the peace of God in bliss. for our instruction. which human knowledge could not reach. with solemn purpose to observe Immutably his sovran will. Divine interpreter! by favour sent Down from the empyrean. for what cause. and the work begun. but the more To magnify his works. as one whose drouth Yet scarce allayed still eyes the current stream. and relate What may no less perhaps avail us known. Whence Adam soon repealed The doubts that in his heart arose: and now Led on. if unforbid thou mayest unfold What we. impossible to mix With blessedness. things. And the great light of day yet wants to run Much of his race though steep. Whose liquid murmur heard new thirst excites. how this world Of Heaven and Earth conspicuous first began. Though wandering. soon Driven back. Great things. With such confusion: but the evil. and whereof created. He. and his admonishment Receive. Deign to descend now lower.

lest his heart exalt him in the harm 110 . Or we can bid his absence. with caution asked. and needs no less Her temperance over appetite. and infer Thee also happier. thy potent voice. hath suppressed in night. Their station. which the invisible King. and the great Son returned Victorious with his Saints. Heaven. To none communicable in Earth or Heaven: Enough is left besides to search and know. us dispossessed. Or heart of man suffice to comprehend? Yet what thou canst attain.Held by thy voice. yet populous. I see. though to recount almighty works What words or tongue of Seraph can suffice. to know In measure what the mind may well contain. Silence. Only Omniscient. and solemn rites: But. He trusted to have seised. Oppresses else with surfeit. by whose aid This inaccessible high strength. But knowledge is as food. who thought All like himself rebellious. and this high temple to frequent With ministeries due. which best may serve To glorify the Maker. retains Number sufficient to possess her realms Though wide. Know then. brighter once amidst the host Of Angels. and soon turns Wisdom to folly. and Sleep. shall not be withheld Thy hearing. and the rising birth Of Nature from the unapparent Deep: Or if the star of evening and the moon Haste to thy audience. nor let thine own inventions hope Things not revealed. and into fraud Drew many. the seat Of Deity supreme. the Omnipotent Eternal Father from his throne beheld Their multitude. abstain To ask. will watch. as nourishment to wind. and to his Son thus spake. Night with her will bring. such commission from above I have received. listening to thee. Thus Adam his illustrious guest besought: And thus the Godlike Angel answered mild. And longer will delay to hear thee tell His generation. This also thy request. he hears. beyond. whom their place knows here no more: Yet far the greater part have kept. and dismiss thee ere the morning shine.) Fell with his flaming legions through the deep Into his place. till thy song End. to answer thy desire Of knowledge within bounds. At least our envious Foe hath failed. than that star the stars among. Obtain. after Lucifer from Heaven (So call him. that.

ye Powers of Heaven. Mean while inhabit lax. whose wisdom had ordained Good out of evil to create. and to what he spake His Word. Though I. and thence diffuse His good to worlds and ages infinite. One kingdom.Already done. And Earth be changed to Heaven. and chariots winged From the armoury of God. So told as earthly notion can receive. under long obedience tried. And put not forth my goodness. So spake the Almighty. which is free To act or not. Glory to Him. and Heaven to Earth. I can repair That detriment. to Him Glory and praise. and all his Father in him shone. instead Of Spirits malign. sapience and love Immense. They open to themselves at length the way Up hither. between two brazen mountains lodged 111 . So sang the Hierarchies: Mean while the Son On his great expedition now appeared. nor vacuous the space. where stand of old Myriads. because I Am who fill Infinitude. a better race to bring Into their vacant room. Necessity and Chance Approach not me. more swift Than time or motion. Glory they sung to the Most High. winged Spirits. till. When such was heard declared the Almighty's will. the Filial Godhead. and in a moment will create Another world. speak thou. good will To future men. and in their dwellings peace. My damage fondly deemed. and Seraph. uncircumscribed myself. Girt with Omnipotence. And Virtues. and bid the Deep Within appointed bounds be Heaven and Earth. About his chariot numberless were poured Cherub. by thee This I perform. but to human ears Cannot without process of speech be told. And thou my Word. gave effect. there to dwell. Not here. out of one man a race Of men innumerable. Boundless the Deep. joy and union without end. ride forth. by degrees of merit raised. Potentates. Immediate are the acts of God. and be it done! My overshadowing Spirit and Might with thee I send along. retire. Great triumph and rejoicing was in Heaven. whose just avenging ire Had driven out the ungodly from his sight And the habitations of the just. and what I will is Fate. to have dispeopled Heaven. and Thrones. if such it be to lose Self-lost. with radiance crowned Of Majesty Divine. begotten Son.

on the wings of Cherubim Uplifted. she in a cloudy tabernacle Sojourned the while. ye troubled Waves. coming to create new worlds. and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure. prepared In God's eternal store. thus far thy bounds. first of things. and the wonders of his might. God saw the light was good. Then staid the fervid wheels. And light from darkness by the hemisphere Divided: light the Day. and in his hand He took the golden compasses. He named. For Chaos heard his voice: Him all his train Followed in bright procession. Matter unformed and void: Darkness profound Covered the abyss: but on the watery calm His brooding wings the Spirit of God outspread. Attendant on their Lord: Heaven opened wide Her ever-during gates. thus the Earth. dark. and thou Deep. said God. then conglobed Like things to like. and from her native east To journey through the aery gloom began. On heavenly ground they stood. but downward purged The black tartareous cold infernal dregs. Up from the bottom turned by furious winds And surging waves. And said. Sprung from the deep. for within them Spirit lived. the rest to several place Disparted. and vital warmth Throughout the fluid mass. to circumscribe This universe. to behold Creation. to assault Heaven's highth. harnessed at hand. wasteful. harmonious sound On golden hinges moving. and now came forth Spontaneous. and all created things: One foot he centered. and forthwith Light Ethereal. and between spun out the air. Sphered in a radiant cloud. and from the shore They viewed the vast immeasurable abyss Outrageous as a sea. quintessence pure. and the world unborn. as mountains. and with the center mix the pole. in his powerful Word And Spirit. Celestial equipage. And Earth self-balanced on her center hung. and darkness Night. And vital virtue infused. but. to let forth The King of Glory. O World! Thus God the Heaven created. your discord end! Nor staid. Let there be light. for yet the sun Was not. Said then the Omnifick Word. Thus far extend.Against a solemn day. Adverse to life: then founded. wild. This be thy just circumference. Thus was the first day even and morn: 112 . peace. in paternal glory rode Far into Chaos. Silence.

diffused In circuit to the uttermost convex Of this great round. and let dry land appear. Satiate with genial moisture. Immediately the mountains huge appear Emergent. partition firm and sure. The Earth was formed. For haste. and hymning praised God and his works. nor withstood them rock or hill. where way they found. Appeared not: over all the face of Earth Main ocean flowed. And on the washy oose deep channels wore. Again. If steep. And touched their golden harps. and God made The firmament. Be gathered now ye waters under Heaven Into one place. not idle. expanse of liquid. God said. when God said. and when first morn. and let it divide The waters from the waters. Let there be firmament Amid the waters. Wave rolling after wave. But they. nor unsung By the celestial quires. when orient light Exhaling first from darkness they beheld. so the watery throng. so low Down sunk a hollow bottom broad and deep. in wide Crystalline ocean. As drops on dust conglobing from the dry: Part rise in crystal wall. lest fierce extremes Contiguous might distemper the whole frame: And Heaven he named the Firmament: So even And morning chorus sung the second day. so he the world Built on circumfluous waters calm. with torrent rapture. and their broad bare backs upheave Into the clouds. elemental air. embryon immature involved. Both when first evening was. with joy and shout The hollow universal orb they filled. with warm Prolifick humour softening all her globe. Transparent. their tops ascend the sky: So high as heaved the tumid hills. or ridge direct. and the loud misrule Of Chaos far removed. or under ground. or circuit wide With serpent errour wandering. Fermented the great mother to conceive. uprolled. Capacious bed of waters: Thither they Hasted with glad precipitance. but. but in the womb as yet Of waters.Nor past uncelebrated. Soft-ebbing. such flight the great command impressed On the swift floods: As armies at the call Of trumpet (for of armies thou hast heard) Troop to their standard. The waters underneath from those above Dividing: for as earth. if through plain. pure. Creator him they sung. 113 . Birth-day of Heaven and Earth. found their way.

forth crept The swelling gourd. when the bare Earth. smelling sweet: and. herb yielding seed. Let the Earth Put forth the verdant grass. till then Desart and bare. And bush with frizzled hair implicit: Last Rose. Earth. and rule the night. and made the stars. Brought forth the tender grass. the stately trees. The less by night. Forth flourished thick the clustering vine. the greater to have rule by day. And God made two great lights.Easy. unadorned. great for their use To Man. and the great receptacle Of congregated waters. to divide The day from night. God made. and every herb. altern. To give light on the Earth. that sudden flowered Opening their various colours. God saw. unsightly. With tufts the valleys. he called Seas: And saw that it was good. and each fountain side. as I ordain Their office in the firmament of Heaven. Let there be lights High in the expanse of Heaven. He scarce had said. these scarce blown. Surveying his great work. and perpetual draw their humid train. And set them in the firmament of Heaven To illuminate the Earth. and said. before it grew On the green stem: God saw that it was good: So even and morn recorded the third day. Whose seed is in herself upon the Earth. whose verdure clad Her universal face with pleasant green. and the humble shrub. and love to haunt Her sacred shades: though God had yet not rained Upon the Earth. All but within those banks. and man to till the ground None was. and let them be for signs. ere it was in the Earth. And let them be for lights. but from the Earth a dewy mist Went up. And light from darkness to divide. and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit. and each Plant of the field. With borders long the rivers: that Earth now Seemed like to Heaven. and for days. and made gay Her bosom. And fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind. where rivers now Stream. Again the Almighty spake. that it was good: For of celestial bodies first the sun 114 . For seasons. and watered all the ground. Or wander with delight. ere God had bid the ground be dry. Then herbs of every leaf. and rule the day In their vicissitude. or gemmed Their blossoms: With high woods the hills were crowned. a seat where Gods might dwell. which. and circling years. The dry land. and it was so. as in dance. up stood the corny reed Embattled in her field.

the waters fill. before him danced. the gray Dawn. with full face borrowing her light From him. With fry innumerable swarm. other stars Repairing. And let the fowl be multiplied. with wings Displayed on the open firmament of Heaven. Regent of day. 115 . and in the seas. then in the east her turn she shines. and every magnitude of stars. thick as a field: Of light by far the greater part he took. By tincture or reflection they augment Their small peculiar. And God said. Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day. each creek and bay. and the Pleiades. Shedding sweet influence: Less bright the moon. and placed In the sun's orb. unlightsome first. And hence the morning-planet gilds her horns. on the Earth. sporting with quick glance. and still that distance keeps Till night. Be fruitful. And God created the great whales. And lakes. jocund to run His longitude through Heaven's high road. Transplanted from her cloudy shrine. saying. and through groves Of coral stray. multiply. And saw that it was good. as to their fountain. With thousand thousand stars. in their golden urns draw light. Forthwith the sounds and seas. And sowed with stars the Heaven. made porous to receive And drink the liquid light. living soul: And let fowl fly above the Earth. firm to retain Her gathered beams. with diminution seen. and each Soul living. Though of ethereal mould: then formed the moon Globose. Revolved on Heaven's great axle. that then appeared Spangling the hemisphere: Then first adorned With their bright luminaries that set and rose. or. for other light she needed none In that aspect. And every bird of wing after his kind. Glide under the green wave. But opposite in levelled west was set. First in his east the glorious lamp was seen. and her reign With thousand lesser lights dividual holds. and shining scales. and running streams.A mighty sphere he framed. in sculls that oft Bank the mid sea: part single. each that crept. which plenteously The waters generated by their kinds. and all the horizon round Invested with bright rays. His mirrour. Hither. and blessed them. great palace now of light. Graze the sea-weed their pasture. or with mate. though from human sight So far remote. Let the waters generate Reptile with spawn abundant. and shoals Of fish that with their fins.

The sixth. wedge their way. tower The mid aereal sky: Others on ground Walked firm. on the deep Stretched like a promontory sleeps or swims. Cattle. Mean while the tepid caves. The Earth obeyed. and of creation last. Intelligent of seasons. Limbed and full grown: Out of the ground up rose. and fens. the crested cock whose clarion sounds The silent hours. nor then the solemn nightingale Ceased warbling. the air Floats as they pass. and. And seems a moving land. The waters thus With fish replenished. and. and at his gills Draws in. bathed Their downy breast. with mutual wing Easing their flight. arose With evening harps and matin.Show to the sun their waved coats dropt with gold. Their brood as numerous hatch. part more wise In common. and the air with fowl. in their pearly shells at ease. and the other whose gay train Adorns him. the swan with arched neck. and shores. attend Moist nutriment. a sea. and over lands. on silver lakes and rivers. rising on stiff pennons. yet oft they quit The dank. Evening and morn solemnized the fifth day. and beast of the Earth. high over seas Flying. borne on winds. under a cloud In prospect. Hugest of living creatures. soaring the air sublime. and at his trunk spouts out. With clang despised the ground. coloured with the florid hue Of rainbows and starry eyes. perfect forms. and straight Opening her fertile womb teemed at a birth Innumerous living creatures. Tempest the ocean: there leviathan. ranged in figure. but feathered soon and fledge They summed their pens. and set forth Their aery caravan. from the egg that soon Bursting with kindly rupture forth disclosed Their callow young. so steers the prudent crane Her annual voyage. Or. Between her white wings mantling proudly. enormous in their gait. and creeping things. when God said. rows Her state with oary feet. there the eagle and the stork On cliffs and cedar tops their eyries build: Part loosely wing the region. 116 . fanned with unnumbered plumes: From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Solaced the woods. but all night tun'd her soft lays: Others. and spread their painted wings Till even. Let the Earth bring forth soul living in her kind. or under rocks their food In jointed armour watch: on smooth the seal And bended dolphins play: part huge of bulk Wallowing unwieldy. Each in their kind.

and smallest lineaments exact In all the liveries decked of summer's pride With spots of gold and purple. the ounce. Wonderous in length and corpulence. their long dimension drew. involved Their snaky folds. air. And rampant shakes his brinded mane. Pattern of just equality perhaps Hereafter. the crumbled earth above them threw In hillocks: The swift stag from under ground Bore up his branching head: Scarce from his mould Behemoth biggest born of earth upheaved His vastness: Fleeced the flocks and bleating rose. the wild beast where he wons In forest wild. and builds her waxen cells With honey stored: The rest are numberless. azure and green: These. By fowl. but obedient at thy call. provident Of future. and of the sixth day yet remained: There wanted yet the master-work. beast. First crept The parsimonious emmet. as the mole Rising. some of serpent-kind. with brazen eyes And hairy mane terrifick. that feeds her husband drone Deliciously. now half appeared The tawny lion. As plants: Ambiguous between sea and land The river-horse. fish. Frequent. joined in her popular tribes Of commonalty: Swarming next appeared The female bee. in small room large heart enclosed. and gavest them names. and the tiger.As from his lair. but endued 117 . the end Of all yet done. these in flocks Pasturing at once. brake. as the great first Mover's hand First wheeled their course: Earth in her rich attire Consummate lovely smiled. earth. Needless to thee repeated. Now Heaven in all her glory shone. though to thee Not noxious. who. as a line. Insect or worm: those waved their limber fans For wings. and scaly crocodile. then springs as broke from bonds. not all Minims of nature. in thicket. Of huge extent sometimes. and in broad herds upsprung. was walked. and added wings. subtlest beast of all the field. was swum. and rolled Her motions. The libbard. was flown. At once came forth whatever creeps the ground. nor unknown The serpent. water. not prone And brute as other creatures. they walked: The cattle in the fields and meadows green: Those rare and solitary. Streaking the ground with sinuous trace. a creature. Among the trees in pairs they rose. The grassy clods now calved. or den. pawing to get free His hinder parts. And thou their natures knowest.

Beast of the field. multiply. for no place Is yet distinct by name. works knowledge of good and evil. And govern well thy appetite. and in thy nostrils breathed The breath of life. but of the tree. Here finished he. and thou becamest a living soul. Let us make now Man in our image. and upright with front serene Govern the rest. Man In our similitude. This garden. lest Sin Surprise thee. Which. and fowl of the air. Thence to behold this new created world. Wherever thus created. Up to the Heaven of Heavens. O Man. self-knowing. how it showed In prospect from his throne. thee. Thou mayest not. how good. and throughout dominion hold Over fish of the sea. Delectable both to behold and taste. and behold all was entirely good. And every living thing that moves on the Earth. Male he created thee. and the sound 118 . planted with the trees of God. Be fruitful. and all that he had made Viewed. then blessed mankind. Subdue it. thence. though unwearied. Dust of the ground. up returned. Answering his great idea. he formed thee. And every creeping thing that creeps the ground. and said. his high abode. and over all the Earth. Variety without end. thou diest. all sorts are here that all the Earth yields. Death is the penalty imposed. who made him chief Of all his works: therefore the Omnipotent Eternal Father (for where is not he Present?) thus to his Son audibly spake. and voice. in his own image he Created thee. as thou knowest.With sanctity of reason. Up he rode Followed with acclamation. beware. to adore And worship God Supreme. He brought thee into this delicious grove. but thy consort Female. and from thence Magnanimous to correspond with Heaven. and her black attendant Death. The addition of his empire. and eyes Directed in devotion. and let them rule Over the fish and fowl of sea and air. in the day thou eatest. thither with heart. tasted. in the image of God Express. And freely all their pleasant fruit for food Gave thee. So even and morn accomplished the sixth day: Yet not till the Creator from his work Desisting. Adam. for race. how fair. and fill the Earth. This said. But grateful to acknowledge whence his good Descends. might erect His stature.

And dulcimer. yet staid. Seen in the galaxy. And now on Earth the seventh Evening arose in Eden. from work Now resting. or bound Thy empire! Easily the proud attempt 119 . all organs of sweet stop. for God will deign To visit oft the dwellings of just men. led To God's eternal house direct the way. blessed and hallowed the seventh day. hid the mount. Creation and the six days acts they sung: Great are thy works. Tempered soft tunings. Open. his six days work. Author and End of all things. for the sun Was set. Jehovah! infinite Thy power! what thought can measure thee. Fuming from golden censers. Delighted. for thou heardst. that tuned Angelick harmonies: The earth. fixed for ever firm and sure. ye Heavens! your living doors. when at the holy mount Of Heaven's high-seated top. So sung The glorious train ascending: He through Heaven. Which nightly. All sounds on fret by string or golden wire. as stars to thee appear. Open. and henceforth oft. and. whose dust is gold And pavement stars. as a circling zone. (such privilege Hath Omnipresence) and the work ordained. and sat him down With his great Father.Symphonious of ten thousand harps. that milky way. and twilight from the east came on. for he also went Invisible.) The heavens and all the constellations rung. the air Resounded. That opened wide her blazing portals. A broad and ample road. and with frequent intercourse Thither will send his winged messengers On errands of supernal grace. Open. Who can impair thee. the imperial throne Of Godhead. As resting on that day from all his work. Forerunning night. Mighty King. or tongue Relate thee! Greater now in thy return Than from the giant Angels: Thee that day Thy thunders magnified. intermixed with voice Choral or unison: of incense clouds. a World. The planets in their station listening stood. The Filial Power arrived. ye everlasting gates! they sung. thou seest Powdered with stars. (thou rememberest. While the bright pomp ascended jubilant.let in The great Creator from his work returned Magnificent. the solemn pipe. But not in silence holy kept: the harp Had work and rested not. but to create Is greater than created to destroy.

still stood fixed to hear. whom God hath thus advanced! Created in his image. Thrice happy Men. that he a while Thought him still speaking. Then. while impiously they thought Thee to diminish. and in reward to rule Over his works. another Heaven From Heaven-gate not far. Book VIII The Angel ended. What thanks sufficient. founded in view On the clear hyaline. the glassy sea. on earth. but thou knowest Their seasons: among these the seat of Men. now heard With wonder. Thou hast repelled. and the empyrean rung With halleluiahs: Thus was sabbath kept. thus gratefully replied. With glory attributed to the high Creator! Something yet of doubt remains. and. that posterity. and persevere upright! So sung they. And thy request think now fulfilled. and every star perhaps a world Of destined habitation. and from thee withdraw The number of thy worshippers. as is due. divine Historian. and their counsels vain. Which only thy solution can resolve. might know: If else thou seekest Aught. And multiply a race of worshippers Holy and just: Thrice happy. with stars Numerous. with her nether ocean circumfused. Their pleasant dwelling-place.Of Spirits apostate. Earth. Who seeks To lessen thee. and from thence createst more good. but delight. When I behold this goodly frame. if they know Their happiness. And sons of Men. else by me unsearchable. there to dwell And worship him. say. or air. Of amplitude almost immense. as new waked. And what before thy memory was done From the beginning. that asked How first this world and face of things began. Informed by thee. Witness this new-made world. have I to render thee. who thus largely hast allayed The thirst I had of knowledge. this world. and in Adam's ear So charming left his voice. and compute 120 . or what recompence Equal. in sea. not surpassing human measure. and vouchsafed This friendly condescension to relate Things. against his purpose serves To manifest the more thy might: his evil Thou usest. Of Heaven and Earth consisting.

reasoning I oft admire. That better might with far less compass move. Speed. Not unattended. which Eve Perceiving. Greater so manifold. touched by her fair tendance. and by his countenance seemed Entering on studious thoughts abstruse. he. And from about her shot darts of desire Into all eyes. To visit how they prospered. a grain. and their swift return Diurnal. she knew. to this one use. For aught appears. O! when meet now Such pairs. where she sat retired in sight. to Adam's doubt proposed. a spot. this Earth. An atom. and on their orbs impose Such restless revolution day by day Repeated. And Raphael now. would intermix Grateful digressions. bud and bloom. Adam relating. Yet went she not. I blame thee not. and receives. to wish her still in sight. as Queen. One day and night. To ask or search. Served by more noble than herself. that seem to roll Spaces incomprehensible. And.) merely to officiate light Round this opacous Earth. she sole auditress. as not with such discourse Delighted. With lowliness majestick from her seat. gladlier grew. Rose. Her nursery. with superfluous hand So many nobler bodies to create. Benevolent and facile thus replied. How Nature wise and frugal could commit Such disproportions. while the sedentary Earth. and solve high dispute With conjugal caresses: from his lip Not words alone pleased her. they at her coming sprung. with the firmament compared And all her numbered stars. in love and mutual honour joined? With Goddess-like demeanour forth she went. A pomp of winning Graces waited still. attains Her end without least motion. for on her. or not capable her ear Of what was high: such pleasure she reserved. and of him to ask Chose rather. So spake our sire. Her husband the relater she preferred Before the Angel. and went forth among her fruits and flowers. 121 . As tribute. And grace that won who saw to wish her stay. her warmth and light. such a sumless journey brought Of incorporeal speed. for Heaven Is as the book of God before thee set. to describe whose swiftness number fails. this punctual spot. in all her vast survey Useless besides.Their magnitudes. (for such Their distance argues.

Lodged in a small partition. The swiftness of those circles attribute. and supposest That bodies bright and greater should not serve The less not bright. their vigour find. hours. or. there first received. the rest From Man or Angel the great Architect Did wisely to conceal. distance inexpressible By numbers that have name. but to thee. and the rest Ordained for uses to his Lord best known. when they come to model Heaven And calculate the stars. Earth sitting still. or months. Not that I so affirm. An edifice too large for him to fill. Whose virtue on itself works no effect.Wherein to read his wonderous works. so small. if thou reckon right. who built So spacious. Earth's habitant. Yet not to Earth are those bright luminaries Officious. in comparison of Heaven. when she alone receives The benefit: Consider first. though so it seem To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth. Imports not. But this I urge. contrive To save appearances. Though numberless. that great Or bright infers not excellence: the Earth Though. may of solid good contain More plenty than the sun that barren shines. if they list to try Conjecture. he his fabrick of the Heavens Hath left to their disputes. His beams. 122 . or days. and ere mid-day arrived In Eden. Admitting motion in the Heavens. let it speak The Maker's high magnificence. how gird the sphere With centrick and eccentrick scribbled o'er. orb in orb: Already by thy reasoning this I guess. And for the Heaven's wide circuit. and learn His seasons. perhaps to move His laughter at their quaint opinions wide Hereafter. whether Heaven move or Earth. unbuild. But in the fruitful Earth. That to corporeal substances could add Speed almost spiritual: Me thou thinkest not slow. and not divulge His secrets to be scanned by them who ought Rather admire. how build. Who art to lead thy offspring. or years: This to attain. nor Heaven such journeys run. That Man may know he dwells not in his own. to show Invalid that which thee to doubt it moved. unactive else. how they will wield The mighty frame. to his Omnipotence. Who since the morning-hour set out from Heaven Where God resides. Nor glistering. Cycle and epicycle. and his line stretched out so far.

Enlightening her by day. might err in things too high. Sollicit not thy thoughts with matters hid. and other stars. Sent from her through the wide transpicuous air. Placed Heaven from Earth so far. If earth. industrious of herself. as him pleases best. conveyed so far Down to this habitable. while she paces even. He from the east his flaming road begin. Stored in each orb perhaps with some that live.God. fetch day Travelling east. then hid. But whether the sun. Leave them to God above. which returns Light back to them. which needs not thy belief. or whether not. and what if seventh to these The planet earth. or standing still. him serve. to remove his ways from human sense. and fear! Of other creatures. so stedfast though she seem. and that swift Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb supposed. And no advantage gain. By his attractive virtue and their own Incited. To the terrestrial moon be as a star. Moved contrary with thwart obliquities. her other part Still luminous by his ray. 123 . Which two great sexes animate the world. yet scarce to contribute Each orb a glimpse of light. and rain produce Fruits in her softened soil for some to eat Allotted there. Invisible else above all stars. For such vast room in Nature unpossessed By living soul. predominant in Heaven. that earthly sight. desart and desolate. In six thou seest. the wheel Of day and night. And bears thee soft with the smooth hair along. and with her part averse From the sun's beam meet night. Insensibly three different motions move? Which else to several spheres thou must ascribe. if land be there. or earth rise on the sun. What if the sun Be center to the world. as she by night This earth? reciprocal. Or save the sun his labour. Fields and inhabitants: Her spots thou seest As clouds. dance about him various rounds? Their wandering course now high. now low. retrograde. Progressive. Only to shine. and clouds may rain. Rise on the earth. What if that light. is obvious to dispute. Or she from west her silent course advance. With inoffensive pace that spinning sleeps On her soft axle. But whether thus these things. thou wilt descry. With their attendant moons. and other suns perhaps. Communicating male and female light. If it presume.

unprepared. deigned. Sire of men. obscure and subtle. is fume. But apt the mind or fancy is to rove Unchecked. at the hour Of sweet repast. which perhaps thou hast not heard. By sufferance. Is the prime wisdom: What is more. Fond! were it not in hope of thy reply: For. Angel serene! And. in what state. and speak of things at hand Useful. in things that most concern. And not molest us. To whom thus Raphael answered heavenly meek. Therefore from this high pitch let us descend A lower flight. they satiate.Wherever placed. To whom thus Adam. unless we ourselves Seek them with wandering thoughts. freed from intricacies. for God on thee Abundantly his gifts hath also poured 124 . Nor tongue ineloquent. with grace divine Imbued. Though pleasant. How fully hast thou satisfied me. and soon fill. Heaven is for thee too high To know what passes there. and of her roving is no end. from labour. let him dispose. mention may arise Of something not unseasonable to ask. nor with perplexing thoughts To interrupt the sweet of life. and thy wonted favour. this Paradise And thy fair Eve. and notions vain. condition. or fond impertinence: And renders us. what creatures there Live. hear me relate My story. or by experience taught. while I sit with thee. Or emptiness. replied. Dream not of other worlds. from which God hath bid dwell far off all anxious cares. haply. bring to their sweetness no satiety. Inviting thee to hear while I relate. taught to live The easiest way. I seem in Heaven. Nor are thy lips ungraceful. Till warned. she learn. but thy words. and still to seek. or degree. be lowly wise: Think only what concerns thee. Unpractised. And sweeter thy discourse is to my ear Than fruits of palm-tree pleasantest to thirst And hunger both. Thee I have heard relating what was done Ere my remembrance: now. pure Intelligence of Heaven. whence. and thy being. And day is not yet spent. till then thou seest How subtly to detain thee I devise. to know That which before us lies in daily life. Contented that thus far hath been revealed Not of Earth only. That. cleared of doubt. but of highest Heaven. not to know at large of things remote From use. joy thou In what he gives to thee. but.

and furious rage. or flew. and set On Man his equal love: Say therefore on. Not that they durst without his leave attempt. But thy relation now. as lively vigour led: But who I was. Nor less think we in Heaven of thee on Earth Than of our fellow-servant. and each word. and thus our Sire. by these. or from what cause. incensed at such eruption bold. for I attend. For Man to tell how human life began Is hard. or mute. Straight toward Heaven my wondering eyes I turned. all comeliness and grace Attends thee. Creatures that lived and moved. or where. Or enemy. each motion. Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure. hath honoured thee. Fast we found. and loud lament. to speak I tried. and shady woods. Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid. Pleased with thy words no less than thou with mine. till. As new waked from soundest sleep. forms. and sunny plains. for who himself beginning knew Desire with thee still longer to converse Induced me. Far on excursion toward the gates of Hell. 125 . other than the sound of dance or song. dale. Squared in full legion (such command we had) To see that none thence issued forth a spy. In balmy sweat. and inquire Gladly into the ways of God with Man: For God. his image fair: Speaking. Myself I then perused. With fragrance and with joy my heart o'erflowed. and to inure Our prompt obedience. and sometimes ran With supple joints. fast shut. Glad we returned up to the coasts of light Ere sabbath-evening: so we had in charge. Torment. Knew not. As thitherward endeavouring. But us he sends upon his high behests For state. and forthwith spake.Inward and outward both. Birds on the branches warbling. which with his beams the sun Soon dried. and limb by limb Surveyed. as befel. up I sprung. The dismal gates. as Sovran King. And liquid lapse of murmuring streams. But long ere our approaching heard within Noise. all things smiled. So spake the Godlike Power. For I that day was absent. and upright Stood on my feet: about me round I saw Hill. And gazed a while the ample sky. and on the reeking moisture fed. Destruction with creation might have mixed. and walked. and sometimes went. while God was in his work. we see. and barricadoed strong. raised By quick instinctive motion. Lest he.

how I came thus.' So saying. from among the trees appeared. that what I saw Of Earth before scarce pleasant seemed. fair Creatures. as in air Smooth-sliding without step. fair light.-While thus I called. thy seat prepared. And thou enlightened Earth. I come thy guide 'To the garden of bliss. Each tree. though I thought I then was passing to my former state Insensible. From whom I have that thus I move and live.' Said mildly. how here?-Not of myself. with walks. And over fields and waters. count it thine 'To till and keep. A circuit wide. In adoration at his feet I fell Submiss: He reared me. said I. rise. how adore. and with soft oppression seised My droused sense. methought. Thou Sun. fear here no dearth: 126 . And feel that I am happier than I know. or round about thee. And ye that live and move. Pensive I sat me down: There gentle sleep First found me. ye Rivers. who was my guide Up hither. stirred in me sudden appetite To pluck and eat. Loaden with fairest fruit that hung to the eye Tempting. Woods. And lived: One came. and found Before mine eyes all real. tell. how may I know him. 'First Man. if ye saw. 'Author of all this thou seest 'Above. by the hand he took me raised.My tongue obeyed. had not he. whereat I waked. enclosed. of shape divine. when. In goodness and in power pre-eminent: Tell me. but with awe. and first beheld This happy light. as the dream Had lively shadowed: Here had new begun My wandering. answer none returned. so fresh and gay. and Dales. and of the fruit to eat: 'Of every tree that in the garden grows 'Eat freely with glad heart. 'This Paradise I give thee. or beneath. with goodliest trees Planted. From where I first drew air. And said. and bowers. whose high top was plain. On a green shady bank. and 'Whom thou soughtest I am. Rejoicing. and forthwith to dissolve: When suddenly stood at my head a dream. last led me up A woody mountain. Tell. profuse of flowers. Presence Divine. and strayed I knew not whither. 'Thy mansion wants thee.--by some great Maker then. and readily could name Whate'er I saw. untroubled. of men innumerable ordained 'First Father! called by thee. and Plains. Ye Hills. Whose inward apparition gently moved My fancy to believe I yet had being. Adam.

and the Vision bright. though in my choice Not to incur. In solitude What happiness. or aught than mankind higher. Or. what contentment find? Thus I presumptuous. thus replied. I bring them to receive 'From thee their names. my sole command 'Transgressed. Surpassest far my naming. for thou above all these. and with hands so liberal. which I have set 'The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith. I named them. O. since they cannot change 'Their element. which resounds Yet dreadful in mine ear. 'In sign whereof. each bird and beast behold 'After their kinds. each bird and beast behold Approaching two and two. to draw the thinner air. as they passed. inevitably thou shalt die. and pay thee fealty 'With low subjection. and fowl. as lords 'Possess it. with such knowledge God endued My sudden apprehension: But in these I found not what methought I wanted still. by what name. and all these at thy command To come and play before thee? Knowest thou not Their language and their ways? They also know. Above mankind. As with a smile more brightened. What callest thou solitude? Is not the Earth With various living creatures. how may I Adore thee. and understood Their nature. 127 . understand the same 'Of fish within their watery residence. and the air Replenished. 'Not hither summoned. Thou hast provided all things: But with me I see not who partakes. fish. and gracious purpose thus renewed.'But of the tree whose operation brings 'Knowledge of good and ill. or air. Author of this universe. but soon his clear aspect Returned. And to the heavenly Vision thus presumed. all enjoying. And all this good to man? for whose well being So amply. 'Not only these fair bounds. 'Or live in sea. these cowering low With blandishment. and all things that therein live. each bird stooped on his wing. 'From that day mortal.' Sternly he pronounced The rigid interdiction. expelled from hence into a world 'Of woe and sorrow. 'The day thou eatest thereof. who can enjoy alone.' As thus he spake. beast. but all the Earth 'To thee and to thy race I give. 'And shun the bitter consequence: for know. and this happy state 'Shalt lose. 'Remember what I warn thee. 'Amid the garden by the tree of life. shun to taste.

be propitious while I speak. and this my state? Seem I to thee sufficiently possessed Of happiness. though in pleasure. So fitly them in pairs thou hast combined: Much less can bird with beast. but. lion with lioness. I lowly answered. and in thee Is no deficience found: Not so is Man. not displeased. infinite descents Beneath what other creatures are to thee? He ceased. for none I know Second to me or like. Worse then can man with beast. Let not my words offend thee. 128 . And these inferiour far beneath me set? Among unequals what society Can sort. or fish with fowl So well converse. What thinkest thou then of me. with leave of speech implored. and beget Like of his like. Save with the creatures which I made. equal much less. How have I then with whom to hold converse. and least of all. in the choice Of thy associates. And humble deprecation. So spake the Universal Lord. fit to participate All rational delight: wherein the brute Cannot be human consort: They rejoice Each with their kind. and those To me inferiour. I see. in proportion due Given and received. and bear rule. Heavenly Power. No need that thou Shouldst propagate. And through all numbers absolute. But in degree. or not? who am alone From all eternity. the other still remiss. A nice and subtle happiness. solitary. Hast thou not made me here thy substitute. already Infinite. or true delight? Which must be mutual. thy realm is large. what harmony. his image multiplied. Cannot well suit with either. though One: But Man by number is to manifest His single imperfection. Adam! and wilt taste No pleasure. the cause of his desire By conversation with his like to help Or solace his defects. nor with the ox the ape. thus replied.And reason not contemptibly: With these Find pastime. and seemed So ordering: I. Supreme of things! Thou in thyself art perfect. in disparity The one intense. but soon prove Tedious alike: Of fellowship I speak Such as I seek. Whereto the Almighty answered. Thou to thyself proposest. To attain The highth and depth of thy eternal ways All human thoughts come short. My Maker.

Expressing well the spirit within thee free. Whose fellowship therefore unmeet for thee Good reason was thou freely shouldst dislike. And be so minded still: I. And find thee knowing. wide was the wound. thy other self. or I heard no more. with cordial spirits warm. but different sex. And life-blood streaming fresh. Thou in thy secresy although alone. nor in their ways complacence find. To see how thou couldest judge of fit and meet: What next I bring shall please thee. and acceptance found. Canst raise thy creature to what highth thou wilt Of union or communion. Mine eyes he closed. for now My earthly by his heavenly overpowered. and sought repair Of sleep. and closed mine eyes. Under his forming hands a creature grew. for trial only brought. He ended. not of beasts alone. Which it had long stood under. Adam. And no such company as then thou sawest Intended thee. Thy wish exactly to thy heart's desire. and freedom used Permissive. where I lay. but of thyself. so pleased. be assured. in her contained And in her looks. methought I saw. But suddenly with flesh filled up and healed: The rib he formed and fashioned with his hands. Man-like. thy fit help.In unity defective. Thy likeness. That what seemed fair in all the world. seekest not Social communication. by which. ere thou spakest. not imparted to the brute. Though sleeping. and dearest amity. 129 . or in her summed up. which requires Collateral love. called By Nature as in aid. deified: I. and took From thence a rib. Thus I emboldened spake. Abstract as in a trance. so lovely fair. I was pleased. unfelt before. seemed now Mean. As with an object that excels the sense Dazzled and spent. and saw the shape Still glorious before whom awake I stood: Who stooping opened my left side. yet. sunk down. which from that time infused Sweetness into my heart. which gained This answer from the gracious Voice Divine. by conversing. my internal sight. Thus far to try thee. but open left the cell Of fancy. My image. Best with thyself accompanied. strained to the highth In that celestial colloquy sublime. which instantly fell on me. Knew it not good for Man to be alone. cannot these erect From prone. Which thou hast rightly named.

And into all things from her air inspired The spirit of love and amorous delight. She disappeared, and left me dark; I waked To find her, or for ever to deplore Her loss, and other pleasures all abjure: When out of hope, behold her, not far off, Such as I saw her in my dream, adorned With what all Earth or Heaven could bestow To make her amiable: On she came, Led by her heavenly Maker, though unseen, And guided by his voice; nor uninformed Of nuptial sanctity, and marriage rites: Grace was in all her steps, Heaven in her eye, In every gesture dignity and love. I, overjoyed, could not forbear aloud. This turn hath made amends; thou hast fulfilled Thy words, Creator bounteous and benign, Giver of all things fair! but fairest this Of all thy gifts! nor enviest. I now see Bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh, myself Before me: Woman is her name;of Man Extracted: for this cause he shall forego Father and mother, and to his wife adhere; And they shall be one flesh, one heart, one soul. She heard me thus; and though divinely brought, Yet innocence, and virgin modesty, Her virtue, and the conscience of her worth, That would be wooed, and not unsought be won, Not obvious, not obtrusive, but, retired, The more desirable; or, to say all, Nature herself, though pure of sinful thought, Wrought in her so, that, seeing me, she turned: I followed her; she what was honour knew, And with obsequious majesty approved My pleaded reason. To the nuptial bower I led her blushing like the morn: All Heaven, And happy constellations, on that hour Shed their selectest influence; the Earth Gave sign of gratulation, and each hill; Joyous the birds; fresh gales and gentle airs Whispered it to the woods, and from their wings Flung rose, flung odours from the spicy shrub, Disporting, till the amorous bird of night Sung spousal, and bid haste the evening-star On his hill top, to light the bridal lamp. Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss, Which I enjoy; and must confess to find In all things else delight indeed, but such As, used or not, works in the mind no change, Nor vehement desire; these delicacies 130

I mean of taste, sight, smell, herbs, fruits, and flowers, Walks, and the melody of birds: but here Far otherwise, transported I behold, Transported touch; here passion first I felt, Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else Superiour and unmoved; here only weak Against the charm of Beauty's powerful glance. Or Nature failed in me, and left some part Not proof enough such object to sustain; Or, from my side subducting, took perhaps More than enough; at least on her bestowed Too much of ornament, in outward show Elaborate, of inward less exact. For well I understand in the prime end Of Nature her the inferiour, in the mind And inward faculties, which most excel; In outward also her resembling less His image who made both, and less expressing The character of that dominion given O'er other creatures: Yet when I approach Her loveliness, so absolute she seems And in herself complete, so well to know Her own, that what she wills to do or say, Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best: All higher knowledge in her presence falls Degraded; Wisdom in discourse with her Loses discountenanced, and like Folly shows; Authority and Reason on her wait, As one intended first, not after made Occasionally; and, to consummate all, Greatness of mind and Nobleness their seat Build in her loveliest, and create an awe About her, as a guard angelick placed. To whom the Angel with contracted brow. Accuse not Nature, she hath done her part; Do thou but thine; and be not diffident Of Wisdom; she deserts thee not, if thou Dismiss not her, when most thou needest her nigh, By attributing overmuch to things Less excellent, as thou thyself perceivest. For, what admirest thou, what transports thee so, An outside? fair, no doubt, and worthy well Thy cherishing, thy honouring, and thy love; Not thy subjection: Weigh with her thyself; Then value: Oft-times nothing profits more Than self-esteem, grounded on just and right Well managed; of that skill the more thou knowest, The more she will acknowledge thee her head, And to realities yield all her shows: Made so adorn for thy delight the more, So awful, that with honour thou mayest love 131

Thy mate, who sees when thou art seen least wise. But if the sense of touch, whereby mankind Is propagated, seem such dear delight Beyond all other; think the same vouchsafed To cattle and each beast; which would not be To them made common and divulged, if aught Therein enjoyed were worthy to subdue The soul of man, or passion in him move. What higher in her society thou findest Attractive, human, rational, love still; In loving thou dost well, in passion not, Wherein true love consists not: Love refines The thoughts, and heart enlarges; hath his seat In reason, and is judicious; is the scale By which to heavenly love thou mayest ascend, Not sunk in carnal pleasure; for which cause, Among the beasts no mate for thee was found. To whom thus, half abashed, Adam replied. Neither her outside formed so fair, nor aught In procreation common to all kinds, (Though higher of the genial bed by far, And with mysterious reverence I deem,) So much delights me, as those graceful acts, Those thousand decencies, that daily flow From all her words and actions mixed with love And sweet compliance, which declare unfeigned Union of mind, or in us both one soul; Harmony to behold in wedded pair More grateful than harmonious sound to the ear. Yet these subject not; I to thee disclose What inward thence I feel, not therefore foiled, Who meet with various objects, from the sense Variously representing; yet, still free, Approve the best, and follow what I approve. To love, thou blamest me not; for Love, thou sayest, Leads up to Heaven, is both the way and guide; Bear with me then, if lawful what I ask: Love not the heavenly Spirits, and how their love Express they? by looks only? or do they mix Irradiance, virtual or immediate touch? To whom the Angel, with a smile that glowed Celestial rosy red, Love's proper hue, Answered. Let it suffice thee that thou knowest Us happy, and without love no happiness. Whatever pure thou in the body enjoyest, (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy In eminence; and obstacle find none Of membrane, joint, or limb, exclusive bars; Easier than air with air, if Spirits embrace, Total they mix, union of pure with pure Desiring, nor restrained conveyance need, 132

As flesh to mix with flesh, or soul with soul. But I can now no more; the parting sun Beyond the Earth's green Cape and verdant Isles Hesperian sets, my signal to depart. Be strong, live happy, and love! But, first of all, Him, whom to love is to obey, and keep His great command; take heed lest passion sway Thy judgement to do aught, which else free will Would not admit: thine, and of all thy sons, The weal or woe in thee is placed; beware! I in thy persevering shall rejoice, And all the Blest: Stand fast;to stand or fall Free in thine own arbitrement it lies. Perfect within, no outward aid require; And all temptation to transgress repel. So saying, he arose; whom Adam thus Followed with benediction. Since to part, Go, heavenly guest, ethereal Messenger, Sent from whose sovran goodness I adore! Gentle to me and affable hath been Thy condescension, and shall be honoured ever With grateful memory: Thou to mankind Be good and friendly still, and oft return! So parted they; the Angel up to Heaven From the thick shade, and Adam to his bower. Book IX No more of talk where God or Angel guest With Man, as with his friend, familiar us'd, To sit indulgent, and with him partake Rural repast; permitting him the while Venial discourse unblam'd. I now must change Those notes to tragick; foul distrust, and breach Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt, And disobedience: on the part of Heaven Now alienated, distance and distaste, Anger and just rebuke, and judgement given, That brought into this world a world of woe, Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery Death's harbinger: Sad talk!yet argument Not less but more heroick than the wrath Of stern Achilles on his foe pursued Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous'd; Or Neptune's ire, or Juno's, that so long Perplexed the Greek, and Cytherea's son: 00482129 If answerable style I can obtain 133

or inspires Easy my unpremeditated verse: Since first this subject for heroick song Pleas'd me long choosing. the better fortitude Of patience and heroick martyrdom Unsung. regent of the sun. There was a place. Now not. Or tilting furniture. imblazon'd shields.Of my celestial patroness. Since Uriel. unless an age too late. gorgeous knights At joust and tournament. at the foot of Paradise. traversing each colure. short arbiter "twixt day and night. sufficient of itself to raise That name. Impresses quaint. maugre what might hap Of heavier on himself. cautious of day. then marshall'd feast Serv'd up in hall with sewers and seneshals. fearless returned From compassing the earth. hitherto the only argument Heroick deem'd chief mastery to dissect With long and tedious havock fabled knights In battles feign'd. on the coast averse From entrance or Cherubick watch. or cold Climate. four times crossed the car of night From pole to pole. if all be mine. by stealth Found unsuspected way. Bases and tinsel trappings. and now from end to end Night's hemisphere had veil'd the horizon round: When satan. thrice the equinoctial line He circled. Not sedulous by nature to indite Wars. Into a gulf shot under ground. The sun was sunk. now improv'd In meditated fraud and malice. till part 134 . who brings it nightly to my ear. or to describe races and games. and much they may. Me. or to poem. descried His entrance. On the eighth returned. higher argument Remains. of these Nor skill'd nor studious. and. And dictates to me slumbering. not time. first wrought the change. Not hers. who late fled before the threats Of Gabriel out of Eden. The skill of artifice or office mean. who deigns Her nightly visitation unimplor'd. Where Tigris. and foreworned the Cherubim That kept their watch. caparisons and steeds. The space of seven continued nights he rode With darkness. bent On Man's destruction. whose office is to bring Twilight upon the earth. or years. damp my intended wing Depress'd. and beginning late. and after him the star Of Hesperus. thence full of anguish driven. Not that which justly gives heroick name To person. though sin.

plant. all their known virtue appears Productive in herb. up beyond the river Ob. and in length. and in Heaven much worse would be my state. Him after long debate. receivest from all those orbs: in thee. none would suspicious mark. seat worthier of Gods. in whom To enter. thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus: Thus the orb he roamed With narrow search. yet bear their bright officious lamps. and his dark suggestions hide From sharpest sight: for. reason. so much more I feel Torment within me. rivers. danced round by other Heavens That shine. Now land. sea he had searched. all summed up in Man. if not preferred For what God. and found The Serpent subtlest beast of all the field. then sought Where to lie hid. after better. which of all Most opportune might serve his wiles. worse would build? Terrestrial Heaven. fittest imp of fraud. but first from inward grief His bursting passion into plaints thus poured. With what delight could I have walked thee round. as seems. From Eden over Pontus and the pool Maeotis. now sea and shores with forest crowned. More justly. and caves! But I in none of these Find place or refuge. Not in themselves. irresolute Of thoughts revolved. West from Orontes to the ocean barred At Darien .Rose up a fountain by the tree of life: In with the river sunk. In thee concentring all their precious beams Of sacred influence! As God in Heaven Is center. so thou. As from his wit and native subtlety Proceeding. and with it rose Satan. and land. Light above light. 135 . and valley. which. how like to Heaven. as from the hateful siege Of contraries: all good to me becomes Bane. Downward as far antarctick. sweet interchange Of hill. If I could joy in aught. and nobler birth Of creatures animate with gradual life Of growth. reforming what was old! O Earth. woods. his final sentence chose Fit vessel. in other beasts observed. Centring. dens. and with inspection deep Considered every creature. Thus he resolved. and the more I see Pleasures about me. involved in rising mist. for thee alone. yet extends to all. in the wily snake Whatever sleights. Doubt might beget of diabolick power Active within. and plains. beyond the sense of brute. as built With second thoughts. sense. Rocks.

To basest things. to spite us more. Revenge. O indignity! Subjected to his service angel-wings. With heavenly spoils. first or last. six nights and days Continued making. though thereby worse to me redound: For only in destroying I find ease To my relentless thoughts. at first though sweet. And flaming ministers to watch and tend Their earthly charge: Of these the vigilance I dread. in one night. and the dark intent I bring. He effected. who erst contended With Gods to sit the highest. in one day to have marred What he. That to the highth of Deity aspired! But what will not ambition and revenge Descend to? Who aspires. Whether such virtue spent of old now failed More Angels to create. and him endow. back on itself recoils: Let it. Since higher I fall short. mixed with bestial slime. in whose mazy folds To hide me. O foul descent! that I. our spoils: What he decreed. I reck not. and who knows how long Before had been contriving? though perhaps Not longer than since I. Determined to advance into our room A creature formed of earth. no nor in Heaven To dwell. unless by mastering Heaven's Supreme. Exalted from so base original. thus wrapt in mist Of midnight vapour glide obscure. and. and earth his seat. In woe then. where hap may find The serpent sleeping. and thinner left the throng Of his adorers: He. Him lord pronounced. and. and pry In every bush and brake. him destroyed. as to him linked in weal or woe. And to repair his numbers thus impaired.But neither here seek I. obnoxious. on him who next 136 . Or won to what may work his utter loss. to be avenged. but others to make such As I. if they at least Are his created. freed From servitude inglorious well nigh half The angelick name. or. Almighty styled. This essence to incarnate and imbrute. Man he made. and. so it light well aimed. all this will soon Follow. Nor hope to be myself less miserable By what I seek. to elude. and. am now constrained Into a beast. that destruction wide may range: To me shall be the glory sole among The infernal Powers. For whom all this was made. must down as low As high he soared. Bitter ere long. and for him built Magnificent this world.

and the hour of supper comes unearned? 137 . Or bear what to my mind first thoughts present: Let us divide our labours. while so near each other thus all day Our task we choose. what wonder if so near Looks intervene and smiles. Adam. Luxurious by restraint. this new favourite Of Heaven. Whom. on the grassy herb. or object new Casual discourse draw on. thou. And Eve first to her husband thus began. but his sleep Disturbed not. this man of clay. still to tend plant. In heart or head. His head the midst. when as sacred light began to dawn In Eden on the humid flowers. find what to redress till noon: For. or prune. well may we labour still to dress This garden. the work under our labour grows. though begun Early. what we by day Lop overgrown. but. In yonder spring of roses intermixed With myrtle. soon inspired With act intelligential. that breathed Their morning incense. and his brutal sense. waiting close the approach of morn. whether to wind The woodbine round this arbour. while I. where soonest he might find The serpent. And joined their vocal worship to the quire Of creatures wanting voice. Like a black mist low-creeping. Now. where choice Leads thee. us the more to spite. and his nostrils fill With grateful smell. partake The season prime for sweetest scents and airs: Then commune. him fast-sleeping soon he found In labyrinth of many a round self-rolled. Our pleasant task enjoined. well stored with subtile wiles: Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den. his Maker raised From dust: Spite then with spite is best repaid. One night or two with wanton growth derides Tending to wild. or prop. till more hands Aid us. and flower. when all things. but. which intermits Our day's work. or bind. that breathe. So saying.Provokes my envy. Fearless unfeared he slept: in at his mouth The Devil entered. brought to little. herb. son of despite. Thou therefore now advise. or direct The clasping ivy where to climb. he held on His midnight-search. Nor nocent yet. how that day they best may ply Their growing work: for much their work out-grew The hands' dispatch of two gardening so wide. through each thicket dank or dry. that done. forth came the human pair. From the Earth's great altar send up silent praise To the Creator. possessing. or where most needs.

or to disturb Conjugal love. How we might best fulfil the work which here God hath assigned us. The wife. and protects. He made us. For not to irksome toil. Yet not so strictly hath our Lord imposed Labour. not the lowest end of human life. as wide As we need walk. still shades thee. than to study houshold good. Who guards her. to short absence I could yield: For solitude sometimes is best society. what malicious foe Envying our happiness. Sole Eve. for thou knowest What hath been warned us. But other doubt possesses me. or this sweet intercourse Of looks and smiles. And short retirement urges sweet return. to me beyond Compare above all living creatures dear! Well hast thou motioned. and of his own Despairing. lest harm Befall thee severed from me. well thy thoughts employed. 138 . where danger or dishonour lurks. These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands Will keep from wilderness with ease. or with her the worst endures. with greedy hope to find His wish and best advantage. if much converse perhaps Thee satiate.To whom mild answer Adam thus returned. or worse. To whom the virgin majesty of Eve. and all Earth's Lord! That such an enemy we have. leave not the faithful side That gave thee being. whether food. where each To other speedy aid might lend at need: Whether his first design be to withdraw Our fealty from God. as to debar us when we need Refreshment. associate sole. and delight to reason joined. With sweet austere composure thus replied. or talk between. And from the parting Angel over-heard. Safest and seemliest by her husband stays. and somewhere nigh at hand Watches. but to delight. and are of love the food. seeks to work us woe and shame By sly assault. Or this. To brute denied. no doubt. Food of the mind. And good works in her husband to promote. Love. and some unkindness meets. who seeks Our ruin. nor of me shalt pass Unpraised: for nothing lovelier can be found In woman. than which perhaps no bliss Enjoyed by us excites his envy more. Offspring of Heaven and Earth. As one who loves. But. for smiles from reason flow. both by thee informed I learn. till younger hands ere long Assist us. us asunder. Hopeless to circumvent us joined.

more watchful. though bold. supposed Not incorruptible of faith. in thy sight More wise. wherever met. Thoughts. If this be our condition. mis-thought of her to thee so dear? To whom with healing words Adam replied. while shame. and raised unite. not proof Against temptation: Thou thyself with scorn And anger wouldst resent the offered wrong. Would utmost vigour raise. Subtle he needs must be. thou looking on. nor think superfluous other's aid.As in a shady nook I stood behind. thus to dwell In narrow circuit straitened by a foe. Daughter of God and Man. Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel When I am present. I. which how found they harbour in thy breast. Adam. Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed. Just then returned at shut of evening flowers. best witness of thy virtue tried? So spake domestick Adam in his care And matrimonial love. Shame to be overcome or over-reached. still in fear of harm? But harm precedes not sin: only our foe. that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt To God or thee. Can either not receive. If such affront I labour to avert From thee alone. who could seduce Angels. receive Access in every virtue. if need were Of outward strength. Though ineffectual found: misdeem not then. and thy trial choose With me. immortal Eve! For such thou art. which plain infers Thy equal fear. Subtle or violent. How are we happy. stronger. but to avoid The attempt itself. which on us both at once The enemy. from sin and blame entire: Not diffident of thee do I dissuade Thy absence from my sight. because we have a foe May tempt it. who thought Less attributed to her faith sincere. But. though in vain. first on me the assault shall light. but Eve. we not endued Single with like defence. that my firm faith and love Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced. not capable of death or pain. from the influence of thy looks. or can repel. 139 . intended by our foe. being such As we. Or daring. His fraud is then thy fear. For he who tempts. His violence thou fearest not. I expected not to hear. at least asperses The tempted with dishonour foul. Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn. will hardly dare.

much less Man. O Woman. yet possible to swerve. Go. for thy stay. And what is faith. That I should mind thee oft. Seek not temptation then. Frail is our happiness. within himself The danger lies. and mis-inform the will To do what God expressly hath forbid. So spake the patriarch of mankind. and thus forewarned 140 . Not keeping strictest watch. To whom thus Adam fervently replied. from the event. And Eden were no Eden. not free. Firm we subsist. without exteriour help sustained? Let us not then suspect our happy state Left so imperfect by the Maker wise. our witness. Not seeing thee attempted. She dictate false. But God left free the will. As not secure to single or combined. approve First thy obedience. if this be so. Secure from outward force. thus exposed. unassayed Alone. With thy permission then. Favour from Heaven. by some fair-appearing good surprised. yet lies within his power: Against his will he can receive no harm. summon all! For God towards thee hath done his part. as she was warned. replied. But bid her well be ware. love. who attest? But. virtue. if thou think. which to avoid Were better. and Reason he made right. but turns Foul on himself. Wouldst thou approve thy constancy. Go in thy native innocence. yet submiss. absents thee more. rely On what thou hast of virtue. but Eve Persisted. and still erect.Tempting. Not then mistrust. and mind thou me. trial unsought may find Us both securer than thus warned thou seemest. find peace within. but tender love. Lest. enjoins. best are all things as the will Of God ordained them: His creating hand Nothing imperfect or deficient left Of all that he created. for what obeys Reason. is free. And fall into deception unaware. do thine. the other who can know. Or aught that might his happy state secure. affronts us with his foul esteem Of our integrity: his foul esteem Sticks no dishonour on our front. though last. then wherefore shunned or feared By us? who rather double honour gain From his surmise proved false. and most likely if from me Thou sever not: Trial will come unsought. Since Reason not impossibly may meet Some specious object by the foe suborned.

or plantation for delight. Though not as she with bow and quiver armed. or afternoon's repose. and since first break of dawn. Pomona when she fled Vertumnus. nor much expect A foe so proud will first the weaker seek. the Fiend. much failing. Mere serpent in appearance. purple. Beyond his hope. and. In bower and field he sought. had formed.Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words Touched only. where likeliest he might find The only two of mankind. she to him as oft engaged To be returned by noon amid the bower. Oread or Dryad. Such ambush. or Pomona. To Pales. Waited with hellish rancour imminent To intercept thy way. but desiring more her stay. but wished his hap might find Eve separate. but not with hope Of what so seldom chanced. but in them The whole included race. where she stood. or specked with gold. So bent. he wished. or sound repose. forth was come. Betook her to the groves. that our trial. and Goddess-like deport. though gay Carnation. of faith. Half spied. hapless Eve. or to Ceres in her prime. May find us both perhaps far less prepared. whose head. from her husband's hand her hand Soft she withdrew. like a Wood-Nymph light. Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove. where any tuft Of grove or garden-plot more pleasant lay. Of thy presumed return! event perverse! Thou never from that hour in Paradise Foundst either sweet repast. By fountain or by shady rivulet He sought them both. when least sought. Eve separate he spies. 141 . his purposed prey. but Delia's self In gait surpassed. Veiled in a cloud of fragrance. Her long with ardent look his eye pursued Delighted. Thus saying. or Angels brought. oft stooping to support Each flower of slender stalk. Their tendance. so thick the roses blushing round About her glowed. Oft he to her his charge of quick return Repeated. O much deceived. thus adorned. And on his quest. or of Delia's train. of bliss! For now. the more shall shame him his repulse. or send thee back Despoiled of innocence. But with such gardening tools as Art yet rude. azure. when to his wish. And all things in best order to invite Noontide repast. hid among sweet flowers and shades. Guiltless of fire. Likest she seemed. The willinger I go.

of revenge: But the hot Hell that always in him burns. now hid. or tedded grass. Her graceful innocence. soon ended his delight. or least action. or renowned Alcinous. her every air Of gesture. Then. Save what is in destroying. each rural sight. of enmity disarmed.Hung drooping unsustained. hope here to taste Of pleasure. Or that. them she upstays Gently with myrtle band. for her now pleases more. and for the time remained Stupidly good. the person more. Much he the place admired. but more soft. Among thick-woven arborets.nor hope Of Paradise for Hell. She most. the more he sees Of pleasure. other joy To me is lost. What pleasing seemed. pine. host of old Laertes' son. If chance. the sweet recess of Eve Thus early. with nymph-like step. of hate. Though in mid Heaven. behold alone 142 . not love. from each thing met conceives delight. cedar. Thoughts. and many a walk traversed Of stateliest covert. or kine. though fairest unsupported flower. and with rapine sweet bereaved His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought: That space the Evil-one abstracted stood From his own evil. Then voluble and bold. thus excites. or palm. Nearer he drew. Or dairy. Forth issuing on a summer's morn. now seen. the hand of Eve: Spot more delicious than those gardens feigned Or of revived Adonis. where the sapient king Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse. but all pleasure to destroy. and all his thoughts Of mischief. not mystick. Of guile. to breathe Among the pleasant villages and farms Adjoined. fair virgin pass. And tortures him now more. overawed His malice. gratulating. each rural sound. and storm so nigh. not for him ordained: then soon Fierce hate he recollects. and in her look sums all delight: Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold This flowery plat. and feminine. of envy. Where houses thick and sewers annoy the air. whither have ye led me! with what sweet Compulsion thus transported. mindless the while Herself. As one who long in populous city pent. The smell of grain. let me not let pass Occasion which now smiles. to forget What hither brought us! hate. From her best prop so far. and flowers Imbordered on each bank. thus alone: Her heavenly form Angelick.

I not. opportune to all attempts. though of terrestrial mould. as used To such disport before her through the field. With burnished neck of verdant gold. heard the sound Of rusling leaves. bolder now. and pain Enfeebled me. with serpent-tongue Organick. where the wind Veers oft. She fair. he. His fraudulent temptation thus began. under show of love well feigned. and of limb Heroick built. Whose higher intellectual more I shun. He. With tract oblique At first. From every beast. or Capitoline. for I view far round. Hermione and Cadmus. was seen. this with her who bore Scipio. To lure her eye.The woman. But as in gaze admiring: oft he bowed His turret crest. As when a ship. Her husband. Circular base of rising folds. fit love for Gods! Not terrible. not those that in Illyria changed. The way which to her ruin now I tend. So spake the enemy of mankind. to what I was in Heaven. Foe not informidable! exempt from wound. and shifts her sail: So varied he. that on the grass Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape And lovely. as since. not approached by stronger hate. or the god In Epidaurus. or impulse of vocal air. but feared To interrupt. of courage haughty. glad Of her attention gained. 143 . divinely fair. not nigh. And strength. Hate stronger. more duteous at her call. as oft so steers. inmate bad! and toward Eve Addressed his way: not with indented wave. and licked the ground whereon she trod. so much hath Hell debased. Than at Circean call the herd disguised. He with Olympias. Prone on the ground. the highth of Rome. but on his rear. and of his tortuous train Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve. erect Amidst his circling spires. though terrour be in love And beauty. Fawning. nor to which transformed Ammonian Jove. but minded not. a surging maze! his head Crested aloft. as one who sought access. by skilful steersmen wrought Nigh river's mouth or foreland. she. never since of serpent-kind Lovelier. and sleek enamelled neck. enclosed In serpent. busied. His gentle dumb expression turned at length The eye of Eve to mark his play. uncalled before her stood. side-long he works his way. that towered Fold above fold. and carbuncle his eyes.

I chanced A goodly tree far distant to behold Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mixed. but not with human voice endued. at least. of abject thoughts and low. and human sense expressed? The first. Though at the voice much marvelling. Serpent. and gaze Insatiate. or the teats Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at even. As was my food. that daily are in sight? Say. the Heaven of mildness. What may this mean? language of man pronounced By tongue of brute. she thus in answer spake. Displeased that I approach thee thus. Empress of this fair world. resplendent Eve! Easy to me it is to tell thee all What thou commandest. When from the boughs a savoury odour blown. more awful thus retired. and how To me so friendly grown above the rest Of brutal kind. these beasts among. and right thou shouldst be obeyed: I was at first as other beasts that graze The trodden herb. for such wonder claims attention due. and say. oft appears. Thee all things living gaze on. How camest thou speakable of mute.nor have feared Thy awful brow. on a day roving the field. who art sole wonder! much less arm Thy looks. Grateful to appetite. Ruddy and gold: I nearer drew to gaze. Where universally admired. on their creation-day. 144 . nor aught but food discerned Or sex. I thus single. whom God. To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied. Who sees thee? and what is one? who should be seen A Goddess among Gods. at length. adored and served By Angels numberless. and his proem tuned: Into the heart of Eve his words made way. of these I thought denied To beasts. Redouble then this miracle. So glozed the Tempter. and apprehended nothing high: Till. all things thine By gift. more pleased my sense Than smell of sweetest fennel. for in their looks Much reason. with disdain. if perhaps Thou canst. and in their actions. Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair.Wonder not. Thee. but here In this enclosure wild. Not unamazed. Created mute to all articulate sound: The latter I demur. sovran Mistress. and shallow to discern Half what in thee is fair. one man except. and thy celestial beauty adore With ravishment beheld! there best beheld. thy daily train. Beholders rude. subtlest beast of all the field I knew.

ere long I might perceive Strange alteration in me. where plenty hung Tempting so nigh. no fair to thine Equivalent or second! which compelled Me thus. and joy 145 . and in thy beauty's heavenly ray. all things fair and good: But all that fair and good in thy divine Semblance. quickened at the scent Of that alluring fruit. to degree Of reason in my inward powers. and worship thee of right declared Sovran of creatures. but could not reach. Thenceforth to speculations high or deep I turned my thoughts. Still hanging incorruptible. in thee first proved: But say. I resolved Not to defer. said Eve. He. Serpent. with like desire Longing and envying stood. leading. thy overpraising leaves in doubt The virtue of that fruit. Empress. swiftly rolled In tangles. to come And gaze. such pleasure till that hour. and not long. To satisfy the sharp desire I had Of tasting those fair apples. Sated at length. hunger and thirst at once. I can bring thee thither soon Lead then. universal Dame! So talked the spirited sly Snake. To whom the wily Adder.Unsucked of lamb or kid. and various. Hope elevates. United I beheld. that tend their play. Yet more amazed. yet unknown To us. unwary thus replied. and made intricate seem straight. for. one small thicket past Of blowing myrrh and balm: if thou accept My conduct. and more hands Help to disburden Nature of her birth. Beyond a row of myrtles. To mischief swift. For. blithe and glad. on a flat. the way is ready. never had I found. the branches would require Thy utmost reach or Adam's: Round the tree All other beasts that saw. though importune perhaps. or Middle. As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched. and Eve. urged me so keen. About the mossy trunk I wound me soon. where grows the tree? from hence how far? For many are the trees of God that grow In Paradise. high from ground. and speech Wanted not long. and with capacious mind Considered all things visible in Heaven. till men Grow up to their provision. to pluck and eat my fill I spared not. in such abundance lies our choice. At feed or fountain. Amid the tree now got. Or Earth. though to this shape retained. Powerful persuaders. Fast by a fountain.

from succour far. Wonderous indeed. Ye shall not eat Thereof. as no delay Of preface brooking. since mute! to some great cause addressed. Fruitless to me. Indeed! hath God then said that of the fruit Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat. and wisdom-giving Plant. our reason is our law. moving. God so commanded.Brightens his crest. As when of old some orator renowned. through his zeal of right: So standing. So glistered the dire Snake. or to highth up grown. O sacred. though brief. root of all our woe. while each part. all impassioned. Mother of science! now I feel thy power Within me clear. as to passion moved. God hath said. each act. She scarce had said. they say. won audience ere the tongue. Serpent. and left that command Sole daughter of his voice. Motion. thus to her guide she spake. Hovering and blazing with delusive light. and into fraud Led Eve. The credit of whose virtue rest with thee. Which when she saw. and the cold environs round. But of the fruit of this fair tree amidst The garden. where eloquence Flourished. and oft through pond or pool. Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way To bogs and mires. Queen of this universe! do not believe 146 . deemed however wise. which the night Condenses. as of some great matter to begin. Stood in himself collected. There swallowed up and lost. yet sinless. not only to discern Things in their causes. Sometimes in highth began. and indignation at his wrong. we live Law to ourselves. though fruit be here to excess. and. Kindled through agitation to a flame. thus began. But of this tree we may not taste nor touch. when now more bold The Tempter. Compact of unctuous vapour. The Tempter. yet comely and in act Raised. nor shall ye touch it. In Athens or free Rome. lest ye die. New part puts on. Which oft. Yet Lords declared of all in earth or air$? To whom thus Eve. the rest. our credulous mother. we might have spared our coming hither. To whom the Tempter guilefully replied. Fluctuates disturbed. if cause of such effects. as when a wandering fire. to the tree Of prohibition. but with show of zeal and love To Man. but to trace the ways Of highest agents. Of the fruit Of each tree in the garden we may eat. some evil Spirit attends. wise.

That whoso eats thereof. as they know. to put on Gods. That ye shall be as Gods. and be just. Warmed by the sun. human. since I as Man. that Man should thus attain to know? What can your knowledge hurt him. nothing: if they all things. I. Yet are but dim. nor obeyed: Your fear itself of death removes the fear. yet both live. Though threatened. how just? of evil. Not just. who have touched and tasted. Goddess humane. and his words. And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. Me. or this tree Impart against his will. that all from them proceeds: I question it. And what are Gods. which to behold 147 . why not known. ye. and freely taste! He ended. by putting off Human. participating God-like food? The Gods are first. reach then. is but proportion meet. Gods. these. which no worse than this can bring. not God. your eyes that seem so clear. but to keep ye low and ignorant. and ye shall be as Gods. by venturing higher than my lot. knowledge of good and evil. producing every kind. Them. not feared then. by the threatener? look on me. whom the pain Of death denounced. Into her heart too easy entrance won: Fixed on the fruit she gazed. that Man may not become As they. Internal Man. who enclosed Knowledge of good and evil in this tree. Of good. which to the Beast Is open? or will God incense his ire For such a petty trespass? and not praise Rather your dauntless virtue. Shall that be shut to Man. death to be wished. Why then was this forbid? Why. for this fair earth I see. whatever thing death be. but to awe. Deterred not from achieving what might lead To happier life. if what is evil Be real. of brute. and that advantage use On our belief. Why. replete with guile.Those rigid threats of death: ye shall not die: How should you? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. and many more Causes import your need of this fair fruit. of human. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These. Knowing both good and evil. His worshippers? He knows that in the day Ye eat thereof. forthwith attains Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies The offence. So ye shall die perhaps. since easier shunned? God therefore cannot hurt ye. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared.

best of fruits. In plain then. Friendly to man. inviting to the taste. and well might. too long forborn. doubtless. and worthy to be admired. of law or penalty? Here grows the cure of all. For us alone Was death invented? or to us denied This intellectual food. Sighing through all her works. thus to herself she mused. at first assay Gave elocution to the mute. to her seeming. Of God or death. far from deceit or guile. what forbids he but to know. nought else 148 . and reasons. and our want: For good unknown sure is not had. which with desire. author unsuspect. Irrational till then. Inclinable now grown to touch or taste. Forbids us then to taste! but his forbidding Commends thee more. and discerns. Back to the thicket slunk The guilty Serpent. our doom is. and Nature from her seat. and feed at once both body and mind? So saying. and waked An eager appetite. raised by the smell So savoury of that fruit. Intent now wholly on her taste. this fruit divine. Forbids us good. yet first Pausing a while. Fair to the eye. had And yet unknown. and with truth: Mean while the hour of noon drew on. Great are thy virtues. Of virtue to make wise: What hinders then To reach.for Eve. what profits then Our inward freedom? In the day we eat Of this fair fruit. if death Bind us with after-bands. gave signs of woe. and speaks.Might tempt alone. we shall die! How dies the Serpent? he hath eaten and lives. while it infers the good By thee communicated. But. who forbids thy use. she plucked. and in her ears the sound Yet rung of his persuasive words. What fear I then? rather. but brings with joy The good befallen him. That all was lost. impregned With reason. naming thee the tree Of knowledge. Whose taste. Though kept from man. is as not had at all. and taught The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise: Thy praise he also. forbids us to be wise? Such prohibitions bind not. she eat! Earth felt the wound. And knows. her rash hand in evil hour Forth reaching to the fruit. Conceals not from us. what know to fear Under this ignorance of good and evil. Solicited her longing eye. for beasts reserved? For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first Hath tasted envies not. or. knowledge both of good and evil.

whose presence had infused Into the plant sciential sap. as to no end Created. and other care perhaps May have diverted from continual watch Our great Forbidder. had the gift been theirs. for. And render me more equal. it had not here Thus grown. Not without song. whether true Or fancied so. thou openest wisdom's way. A thing not undesirable. And givest access. jocund and boon. A death to think! Confirmed then I resolve. from the tree her step she turned. as the Gods. not following thee. And hightened as with wine. the more to draw his love. and due praise. But to Adam in what sort Shall I appear? shall I to him make known As yet my change. derived 149 . or rather not. And knew not eating death: Satiate at length. Experience. I extinct. through expectation high Of knowledge. Thus to herself she pleasingly began. not was Godhead from her thought. who all things know. So saying. next. Shall live with her enjoying. And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high. dieted by thee. And death ensue? then I shall be no more! And Adam. as to the Power That dwelt within. who is free This may be well: But what if God have seen. though secret she retire.Regarded. precious of all trees In Paradise! of operation blest To sapience. sometime Superiour. that with him all deaths I could endure. But keeps the odds of knowledge in my power Without copartner? so to add what wants In female sex. I had remained In ignorance. wedded to another Eve. Till. Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe: So dear I love him. and give him to partake Full happiness with me. Though others envy what they cannot give: For. such delight till then. In fruit she never tasted. as seemed. and the fertile burden ease Of thy full branches offered free to all. and perhaps. And thy fair fruit let hang. but henceforth my early care. to thee I owe. Best guide. High. But first low reverence done. without him live no life. inferiour. virtuous. O sovran. infamed. each morning. hitherto obscured. safe with all his spies About him. I grow mature In knowledge. Greedily she ingorged without restraint. and remote to see from thence distinct Each thing on Earth. Shall tend thee.

Tedious. what rash untried I sought. And hath been tasted such: The serpent wise. to adorn Her tresses. For bliss. that downy smiled. And forth to meet her went. and I then too late renounce Deity for thee. Scarce from the tree returning. Adam. Hast thou not wondered. agony of love till now Not felt. and wonderful to hear: This tree is not. but of divine effect To open eyes. that equal lot May join us. Misgave him. unshared with thee. and have also found The effects to correspond. and odious soon. or not obeying. Or not restrained as we. But strange Hath been the cause. that I Have also tasted. But in her cheek distemper flushing glowed. as we are told. thou not tasting. to me is bliss. Thou therefore also taste.From nectar. and new Solace in her return. and make them Gods who taste. different degree Disjoin us. ampler heart. as equal love. as we are threatened. On the other side Adam. and is become. at my stay? Thee I have missed. she thus addressed. divine of something ill. for never more Mean I to try. but thenceforth Endued with human voice and human sense. nor shall be twice. Not dead. dilated spirits. The pain of absence from thy sight. drink of Gods. when Fate will not permit. in her hand A bough of fairest fruit. To him she hasted. Adam the while. And growing up to Godhead. Hath eaten of the fruit. Which. opener mine eyes. As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen. in her face excuse Came prologue. New gathered. Reasoning to admiration. so long delayed: Yet oft his heart. and her rural labours crown. Waiting desirous her return. nor to evil unknown Opening the way. Thus Eve with countenance blithe her story told. and apology too prompt. equal joy. with bland words at will. and with me Persuasively hath so prevailed. a tree Of danger tasted. and thought it long. soon as he heard 150 . he the faltering measure felt. deprived Thy presence. without thee can despise. Great joy he promised to his thoughts. as thou hast part. Lest. the way she took That morn when first they parted: by the tree Of knowledge he must pass. which for thee Chiefly I sought. there he her met. had wove Of choicest flowers a garland. and ambrosial smell diffused. Dim erst.

how hast thou yielded to transgress The strict forbiddance. how to violate The sacred fruit forbidden! Some cursed fraud Of enemy hath beguiled thee. as thou saidst. or Angels. as likely tasting to attain Proportional ascent. nor Fate. or sweet! How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost. To live again in these wild woods forlorn! Should God create another Eve. Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned. Though threatening. amiable. and I Another rib afford. who thus hast dared. and all his joints relaxed. bliss or woe. as one from sad dismay Recomforted. Bone of my bone thou art. Astonied stood and blank. And peril great provoked. yet unknown. yet loss of thee Would never from my heart: no. good. yet so Perhaps thou shalt not die. for with thee Certain my resolution is to die: How can I live without thee! how forego Thy sweet converse. or done undo? Not God Omnipotent. and love so dearly joined. Had it been only coveting to eye That sacred fruit. last and best Of all God's works. Much more to taste it under ban to touch. will in earnest so destroy 151 . and after thoughts disturbed Submitting to what seemed remediless. and gains to live. while horrour chill Ran through his veins. Nor yet on him found deadly. So having said. Nor can I think that God. From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve Down dropt. Higher degree of life. till thus at length First to himself he inward silence broke. no!I feel The link of Nature draw me: flesh of flesh. adventurous Eve. foretasted fruit. perhaps the fact Is not so heinous now. and unhallowed. and now to death devote! Rather. Bold deed thou hast presumed. Profaned first by the serpent. Defaced. sacred to abstinence. amazed. divine. Creator wise. demi-Gods. Creature in whom excelled Whatever can to sight or thought be formed. and all the faded roses shed: Speechless he stood and pale. deflowered. which cannot be But to be Gods. O fairest of Creation. as Man. by him first Made common. inducement strong To us.The fatal trespass done by Eve. But past who can recall. And me with thee hath ruined. and from thy state Mine never shall be parted. Lives. yet he lives. ere our taste. Holy.

Certain to undergo like doom: If death Consort with thee. linked in love so dear. who can please him long? Me first "He ruined. Not well conceived of God. Our state cannot be severed. new hopes. And gladly of our union hear thee speak. Direct. and not persuade thee. whom will he next?" Matter of scorn. and harsh. though his power Creation could repeat. to lose thee were to lose myself. for what thou art is mine. hath presented This happy trial of thy love. freely taste. Whose virtue for of good still good proceeds. undo. now Mankind. needs with us must fail. or by occasion. And fear of death deliver to the winds. So saying. yet would be loth Us to abolish. new joys. So forcible within my heart I feel The bond of Nature draw me to my own. "Fickle their state whom God "Most favours. O glorious trial of exceeding love. flat seems to this. My own in thee. One heart. On my experience. who. we are one. Adam. which else So eminently never had been known? Were it I thought death menaced would ensue This my attempt. than oblige thee with a fact Pernicious to thy peace. lest the Adversary Triumph. Be frustrate. so God shall uncreate. one soul in both. I would sustain alone The worst. one crime. Set over all his works. and thus Eve to him replied. So Adam. To undergo with me one guilt. Adam. short Of thy perfection. and for joy 152 . or aught than death more dread.Us his prime creatures. not to be given the Foe. opened eyes. However I with thee have fixed my lot. For us created. If any be. not death. Shall separate us. she embraced him. death is to me as life. rather die Deserted. example high! Engaging me to emulate. Illustrious evidence. how shall I attain. whereof good proof This day affords. So faithful. do. Rather than death. that what of sweet before Hath touched my sense. chiefly assured Remarkably so late of thy so true. and labour lose. which in our fall. from whose dear side I boast me sprung. but. dignified so high. declaring thee resolved. Taste so divine. but life Augmented. Dependant made. One flesh. love unequalled: but I feel Far otherwise the event. and say. of tasting this fair fruit.

and fancy that they feel Divinity within them breeding wings. I the praise Yield thee. and violets. Wherewith to scorn the earth: But that false fruit Far other operation first displayed. flowers were the couch. in lust they burn: Till Adam thus 'gan Eve to dalliance move. some sad drops Wept at completing of the mortal sin Original: while Adam took no thought. Much pleasure we have lost. Sky loured. Carnal desire inflaming. Eating his fill. if such pleasure be In things to us forbidden. As with new wine intoxicated both. muttering thunder. much won. Since to each meaning savour we apply. And hyacinth. 153 . Eve. Pansies. And elegant. and forbore not glance or toy Of amorous intent. so well this day thou hast purveyed. Earth trembled from her entrails. or death. of sapience no small part. as of choice to incur Divine displeasure for her sake. For this one tree had been forbidden ten. But fondly overcome with female charm. tasting. so well refreshed. since the day I saw thee first and wedded thee. and. well understood Of Eve. that now. fairer now Than ever. now I see thou art exact of taste. Her hand he seised. Against his better knowledge. Earth's freshest softest lap. Thick over-head with verdant roof imbowered. And palate call judicious. In recompence for such compliance bad Such recompence best merits from the bough She gave him of that fair enticing fruit With liberal hand: he scrupled not to eat. after such delicious fare. He led her nothing loth. he on Eve Began to cast lascivious eyes. and asphodel. the more to sooth Him with her loved society. nor known till now True relish. now let us play. and to a shady bank. and Nature gave a second groan.Tenderly wept. For never did thy beauty. that he his love Had so ennobled. They swim in mirth. whose eye darted contagious fire. adorned With all perfections. while we abstained From this delightful fruit. nor Eve to iterate Her former trespass feared. it might be wished. As meet is. But come. bounty of this virtuous tree! So said he. she him As wantonly repaid. not deceived. so inflame my sense With ardour to enjoy thee. as again In pangs.

and find we know Both good and evil. as strucken mute: Till Adam. of honour void. as in bad plight.--How shall I behold the face Henceforth of God or Angel. Even shame. he covered. Which leaves us naked thus. and native righteousness. Herculean Samson. and inmost powers Made err. O Eve. of their mutual guilt the seal. Of innocence. At length gave utterance to these words constrained. They destitute and bare Of all their virtue: Silent. devise What best may for the present serve to hide 154 . And in our faces evident the signs Of foul concupiscence. and evil got. And honour. each the other viewing. Just confidence. from the harlot-lap Of Philistean Dalilah. impenetrable To star or sun-light. was now exhaled. whence evil store. O! might I here In solitude live savage. and grosser sleep. long they sat. erst with joy And rapture so oft beheld? Those heavenly shapes Will dazzle now this earthly with their blaze Insufferably bright. but his robe Uncovered more. Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained. and waked Shorn of his strength.There they their fill of love and love's disport Took largely. true in our fall. The solace of their sin. and their minds How darkened. naked left To guilty Shame. with conscious dreams Incumbered. wearied with their amorous play. spread their umbrage broad And brown as evening: Cover me. if this be to know. That with exhilarating vapour bland About their spirits had played. of faith. False in our promised rising. of purity. from about them. since our eyes Opened we find indeed. Bred of unkindly fumes. innocence. in evil hour thou didst give ear To that false worm. that as a veil Had shadowed them from knowing ill. in some glade Obscured. up they rose As from unrest. the last of evils. was gone. Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit. So rose the Danite strong. good lost. Bad fruit of knowledge. now had left them. of whomsoever taught To counterfeit Man's voice. and. ye Pines! Ye Cedars. till dewy sleep Oppressed them. where highest woods. though not less than Eve abashed. and in face Confounded. Soon found their eyes how opened. where I may never see them more!-But let us now. with innumerable boughs Hide me. of the first Be sure then.

how unlike To that first naked glory! Such of late Columbus found the American. both in subjection now To sensual Appetite. a pillared shade High over-arched. And girded on our loins. if to hide Their guilt and dreaded shame! O. soon moved with touch of blame. but not at rest or ease of mind. together sewed. Shelters in cool. who from beneath Usurping over sovran Reason claimed Superiour sway: From thus distempered breast. and wild Among the trees on isles and woody shores. not. Shame. that in the ground The bended twigs take root. that seem most To shame obnoxious. So counselled he. not that kind for fruit renowned. now tost and turbulent: For Understanding ruled not. To gird their waist. and. Adam. hate. naked else. they then begin to fail. nor only tears Rained at their eyes. and shook sore Their inward state of mind. I know not whence possessed thee. Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewed. but high winds worse within Began to rise. thus Eve. whose broad smooth leaves together sewed. conclude. that this new comer. as now. may cover round Those middle parts. Thus fenced. and both together went Into the thickest wood. 155 . we had then Remained still happy. their shame in part Covered. and staid With me. naked. They sat them down to weep. suspicion. as I besought thee. miserable! Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve The faith they owe. and the Will Heard not her lore. and unseemliest seen. despoiled Of all our good. and echoing walks between: There oft the Indian herdsman. there soon they chose The fig-tree. high passions. vain covering. with what skill they had. as they thought. this unhappy morn. Would thou hadst hearkened to my words. There sit not. when earnestly they seek Such proof. broad as Amazonian targe. anger. But such as at this day. and daughters grow About the mother tree. To whom.The parts of each from other. And. Mistrust. estranged in look and altered style. to Indians known. when that strange Desire of wandering. so girt With feathered cincture. and tends his pasturing herds At loop-holes cut through thickest shade: Those leaves They gathered. shamed. calm region once And full of peace. Some tree. discord. In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms Branching so broad and long. and reproach us as unclean. shunning heat.

And. didst permit. and perhaps I also erred. approve. but I rue The errour now. I admonished thee. foretold The danger. Who might have lived. thou couldst not have discerned Fraud in the Serpent. why didst not thou. that I thought No evil durst attempt thee. Why he should mean me ill. Hadst thou been firm and fixed in thy dissent. It seems. and fair dismiss. if evil thence ensue. No ground of enmity between us known. Was I to have never parted from thy side? As good have grown there still a lifeless rib. Neither had I transgressed. Command me absolutely not to go. secure Either to meet no danger. Yet willingly chose rather death with thee? And am I now upbraided as the cause Of thy transgressing? Not enough severe. who. not I. and joyed immortal bliss. Adam replied. She first his weak indulgence will accuse. nor thou with me. Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act 156 . But confidence then bore thee on. And thou the accuser. then first incensed. Being as I am. when thou wert lost. And force upon free will hath here no place. Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there. or will Of wandering. Going into such danger. Is this the love. or to find Matter of glorious trial. To whom. Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours. in thy restraint: What could I more I warned thee. as thou callest it. which is become my crime. the head. And of their vain contest appeared no end. had been force. which who knows But might as ill have happened thou being by. to worth in women overtrusting. thou didst not much gainsay. as thou saidst? Too facile then. Nay. left to herself. Thus it shall befall Him. is this the recompence Of mine to thee. speaking as he spake. Or here the attempt.What words have passed thy lips. but neither self-condemning. beyond this. ingrateful Eve! expressed Immutable. Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook. in overmuch admiring What seemed in thee so perfect. and the lurking enemy That lay in wait. Adam severe! Imputest thou that to my default. or seek to harm.

Assembled Angels. in multitudes The ethereal people ran. but that the mortal sentence pass On his transgression. Because not yet inflicted. Soon as the unwelcome news From Earth arrived at Heaven-gate. For still they knew. And flattered out of all. and how He. which they not obeying. dim sadness did not spare That time celestial visages. yet. had perverted Eve. and sad. from his secret cloud. and now What rests. manifold in sin. to her own inclining left In even scale. Whoever tempted. Her husband she. Which your sincerest care could not prevent. and ought to have still remembered. mixed With pity. believing lies Against his Maker. displeased All were who heard. with strength entire and free will armed. to taste the fatal fruit.--death denounced that day? Which he presumes already vain and void. done in Paradise. Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind Of Man. when the Most High Eternal Father. for what can 'scape the eye Of God all-seeing. Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice. Was known in Heaven. as he feared. And. Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth. I told ye then he should prevail. be not dismayed. not to taste that fruit. no decree of mine Concurring to necessitate his fall. in all things wise and just.Of Satan. Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen Entrance unseen. Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste The angelick guards ascended. their utmost vigilance And easily approved. in the serpent. and ye Powers returned From unsuccessful charge. (Incurred what could they less?) the penalty. made haste. for of his state by this they knew. violated not their bliss. or deceive his heart Omniscient? who. but soon shall find 157 . to hear and know How all befel: They towards the throne supreme. When first this tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. to make appear. and speed On his bad errand. Man should be seduced. Complete to have discovered and repulsed Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend. But fallen he is. By some immediate stroke. deserved to fall. mute. Accountable. The high injunction. About the new-arrived. With righteous plea. Or touch with lightest moment of impulse His free will. For Man. Foretold so lately what would come to pass.

Now was the sun in western cadence low From noon. on the Son Blazed forth unclouded Deity: He full Resplendent all his Father manifest Expressed. Attendance none shall need. Those two. the worst on me must light. Mine. to do thy will Supreme. the speed of Gods Time counts not. ere day end. though with swiftest minutes winged. where none Are to behold the judgement. in prospect lay. sending thee Man's friend. as may illustrate most Them fully satisfied. and. Father Eternal. till God. due at their hour. not repenting. Princedoms. Justice shall not return as bounty scorned. his designed Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary. and all the coast. when he. But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee. Where art thou. And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen. from wrath more cool. and thus divinely answered mild. Adam. but the judged. To sentence Man: The voice of God they heard Now walking in the garden. both man and wife. whether in Heaven. and Dominations ministrant. Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred All judgement. Whoever judged. Mayest ever rest well pleased. and gentle airs. but thou knowest. while day declined. I go to judge On earth these thy transgressours. both in Heaven and Earth. and Intercessour both. and usher in The evening cool. that I may mitigate their doom On me derived. and rebel to all law: Conviction to the serpent none belongs. Approaching. thus to Adam called aloud. from whence Eden. this obtain Of right. or Hell. and thee appease. unfolding bright Toward the right hand his glory. yet I shall temper so Justice with mercy. or Earth. the third best absent is condemned. Accompanied to Heaven-gate.Forbearance no acquittance. Thus saying. nor train. And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. Came the mild Judge. and Powers. that thou in me. his Mediator. thy Son beloved. wont with joy to meet 158 . they heard. Easy it may be seen that I intend Mercy colleague with justice. Down he descended straight. To fan the earth now waked. thine is to decree. from his radiant seat he rose Of high collateral glory: Him Thrones. and. by soft winds Brought to their ears. Convict by flight. for so I undertook Before thee. So spake the Father. When time shall be.

more loth. To whom The gracious Judge without revile replied. though should I hold my peace. being naked. That from her hand I could suspect no ill. and despair. and obstinacy. the partner of my life. and perturbation. but apparent guilt. so acceptable. thus entertained with solitude. to attract Thy love. and the place Wherein God set thee above her made of thee.My coming seen far off? I miss thee here. or but equal. whatever in itself.-This Woman. and discomposed. and with him Eve. Whose failing. as under government well seemed. that to her Thou didst resign thy manhood. be all Devolved. and I did eat. though first To offend. hid myself. 159 . Whence Adam. faltering long. Or to each other. and hate. how is it now become So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked. so divine. O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand Before my Judge. while her faith to me remains. Lest on my head both sin and punishment. and calamitous constraint. or what change Absents thee. And for thee. My voice thou oft hast heard. Anger. So fit. either to undergo Myself the total crime. or what chance detains?--Come forth! He came. And shame. But still rejoiced. and guile. or to accuse My other self. and not expose to blame By my complaint: but strict necessity Subdues me. Whereof I gave thee charge thou shouldst not eat? To whom thus Adam sore beset replied. And what she did. and her gifts Were such. I should conceal. I heard thee in the garden. that her thou didst obey Before his voice? or was she made thy guide. and lovely. who Hath told thee? Hast thou eaten of the tree. However insupportable. not thy subjection. so good. and hast not feared. And gavest me as thy perfect gift. whom thou madest to be my help. yet thou Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. Was she thy God. To whom the Sovran Presence thus replied. Not pleased. Her doing seemed to justify the deed. Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I less conspicuous. She gave me of the tree. either to God. thus answered brief. whose perfection far excelled Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed. and of thy voice Afraid. Superiour. Love was not in their looks. discountenanced both.

and. Which when the Lord God heard. The realm itself of Satan. which was thy part And person. who made him instrument Of mischief. hadst thou known thyself aright. he over thee shall rule. and I did eat. Son of Mary. triumphed In open show. thou bruise his heel. justly then accursed. down from Heaven. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. rising from his grave Spoiled Principalities and Powers. Confessing soon. then. without delay To judgement he proceeded on the accused Serpent. Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth Unbid. Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception. Prince of the air. Because thou hast done this. And dust shalt eat all the days of thy life. though brute. And to the Woman thus his sentence turned. and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. On Adam last thus judgement he pronounced. Her seed shall bruise thy head. and between thine and her seed. And eaten of the tree. Though in mysterious terms. As vitiated in nature: More to know Concerned not Man. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. The Serpent me beguiled. Say. Thou shalt not eat thereof: Cursed is the ground for thy sake. So spake this oracle. yet God at last To Satan first in sin his doom applied. long usurped. 160 . thou art accursed Above all cattle. each beast of the field. So having said. he thus to Eve in few. then verified When Jesus. children thou shalt bring In sorrow forth. yet not before her Judge Bold or loquacious. who now foretold his fatal bruise. with shame nigh overwhelmed. and to thy husband's will Thine shall submit. with ascension bright. thus abashed replied. thou in sorrow Shalt eat thereof. Between thee and the woman I will put Enmity. judged as then best: And on the Serpent thus his curse let fall. saying. (since he no further knew) Nor altered his offence. Even he. what is this which thou hast done? To whom sad Eve. and polluted from the end Of his creation. Upon thy belly groveling thou shalt go. all the days of thy life. unable to transfer The guilt on him. like lightning.Unseemly to bear rule. Woman. second Eve. Captivity led captive through the air. Saw Satan fall. concerning which I charged thee. Whom he shall tread at last under our feet.

that now Stood open wide. ere thus was sinned and judged on Earth. to found a path 161 . or their revenge. So judged he Man. while Satan. Wings growing. As father of his family. he clad Their nakedness with skins of beasts. must with me along. with fury driven By his avengers. know thy birth. With secret amity. pitying how they stood Before him naked to the air. if mishap. yet to thy power and mine Not unagreeable. Or sympathy. disdained not to begin Thenceforth the form of servant to assume. to him appeased All. why sit we here each other viewing Idly. and happier seat provides For us. since no place like this Can fit his punishment. thrives In other worlds. his offspring dear? It cannot be But that success attends him. For Death from Sin no power can separate. since the Fiend passed through. As when he washed his servants feet. impervious. our great author. In counterview within the gates. let us try Adventurous work. belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos. and shalt to dust return. things of like kind. But. Ere this he had returned. Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid. To him with swift ascent he up returned. Arraying. as of old. both Judge and Saviour sent. my shade Inseparable. Nor he their outward only with the skins Of beasts. Removed far off. Within the gates of Hell sat Sin and Death. lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable. for thou Out of the ground wast taken. O Son. whatever draws me on. that now Must suffer change. or some connatural force. denounced that day. Sin opening. Thou. Into his blissful bosom reassumed In glory. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise. Powerful at greatest distance to unite. or slain. though all-knowing. For dust thou art. and dominion given me large Beyond this deep. but inward nakedness. And the instant stroke of death. then. Mean while. with his robe of righteousness. what had passed with Man Recounted. By secretest conveyance. mixing intercession sweet. And thought not much to clothe his enemies. who thus now to Death began. Opprobrious. much more.Till thou return unto the ground. so now. covered from his Father's sight.

So saying. as in raging sea Tost up and down. the rest his look Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move. and inclination strong. so strongly drawn By this new-felt attraction and instinct. a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host. Smooth. Or transmigration. together drive Mountains of ice. As with a trident. Where armies lie encamped. and taste The savour of death from all things there that live: Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest Be wanting. and with power (their power was great) Hovering upon the waters. to a field. Deep to the roots of Hell the gathered beach They fastened. Whom thus the meager Shadow answered soon. I shall not lag behind. though many a league remote. Leads thee. into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos. Nor can I miss the way. cold and dry. blowing adverse Upon the Cronian sea. smote. And with Asphaltick slime. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl. for intercourse. nor err The way. Sagacious of his quarry from so far. floating once. whither Fate. From each side shoaling towards the mouth of Hell. Against the day of battle. with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. such a scent I draw Of carnage. what they met Solid or slimy. broad as the gate. to the rich Cathaian coast. and the mole immense wrought on Over the foaming deep high-arched. together crouded drove. down to Hell. Easing their passage hence. from hence a passage broad. the following day. Then both from out Hell-gates. prey innumerable. Forfeit to Death. and fixed as firm As Delos. inoffensive. Go. So. As when two polar winds. damp and dark. if great things to small may be compared. thou leading. a bridge Of length prodigious. in bloody fight: So scented the grim Feature. joining to the wall Immoveable of this now fenceless world. the liberty of Greece to yoke. and upturned His nostril wide into the murky air. Flew diverse. come flying. Where Satan now prevails. but afford thee equal aid.Over this main from Hell to that new world. 162 . as their lot shall lead. Xerxes. easy. lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death. The aggregated soil Death with his mace petrifick. that stop the imagined way Beyond Petsora eastward.

which by a secret harmony 163 . but those his children dear Their parent soon discerned. He. And now their way to Earth they had descried. and landed safe From out of Chaos. guilty. his fair Enchanting daughter. too fast they made And durable! And now in little space The confines met of empyrean Heaven. and. these are thy magnifick deeds. who to meet him came. My heart. returned By night. Hell With long reach interposed. Now had they brought the work by wonderous art Pontifical. after Eve seduced. his offspring dear. Europe with Asia joined. seconded Upon her husband. near the foot Of this new wonderous pontifice. while the sun in Aries rose: Disguised he came. though in disguise. but of future time.From Susa. his Memnonian palace high. three several ways In sight. Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering His zenith. Great joy was at their meeting. behold! Satan. to each of these three places led. in likeness of an Angel bright. unhoped Met. not hoping to escape. and listening where the hapless pair Sat in their sad discourse. And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves. when. To observe the sequel. And at the brink of Chaos. though all unweeting. saw his guileful act By Eve. to the outside bare Of this round world: With pins of adamant And chains they made all fast. fearing. thus the silence broke. over Hellespont Bridging his way. Over the vexed abyss. that past. To Paradise first tending. and prime architect: For I no sooner in my heart divined. Thou art their author. and at sight Of that stupendious bridge his joy encreased. changing shape. Thence gathered his own doom. O Parent. unminded slunk Into the wood fast by. till Sin. and. Long he admiring stood. what his wrath Might suddenly inflict. And of this World. with joy And tidings fraught. and various plaint. but shun The present. which understood Not instant. saw their shame that sought Vain covertures. terrified He fled. Came to the sea: and. following the track Of Satan to the self-same place where he First lighted from his wing. a ridge of pendant rock. Thy trophies! which thou viewest as not thine own. to Hell he now returned. on the left hand. but when he saw descend The Son of God to judge them.

one realm. yet felt. sole lord of all declared. there let him still victor sway. with this glorious work. parted by the empyreal bounds. If your joint power prevail. which thy looks Now also evidence. and be strong! 164 . and with them rejoice. Whom thus the Prince of darkness answered glad. Such fatal consequence unites us three! Hell could no longer hold us in our bounds. Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure Detain from following thy illustrious track. on your road with ease. thou us impowered To fortify thus far.Still moves with thine. You two this way. of matchless might Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now My hold of this new kingdom all depends. confined Within Hell-gates till now. and fully avenged Our foil in Heaven. and overlay. Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne. Chiefly on Man. among these numerous orbs. All yours. thy virtue hath won What thy hands builded not. And henceforth monarchy with thee divide Of all things. There dwell. Him first make sure your thrall. Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit. Antagonist of Heaven's Almighty King. go. and thou Son and Grandchild both. right down to Paradise descend. while I Descend through darkness. of all The infernal empire. Fair Daughter. Hell and this world. and reign in bliss.) Amply have merited of me. from thy orbicular world. by his own doom alienated. Though distant from thee worlds between. one continent Of easy thorough-fare. the affairs of Hell No detriment need fear. Thine now is all this world. To my associate Powers. and create Plenipotent on earth. As battle hath adjudged. thy wisdom gained With odds what war hath lost. thence on the earth Dominion exercise and in the air. them to acquaint With these successes. That thou on earth hadst prospered. from this new world Retiring. but straight I felt. and made one realm. Therefore. Mine. that so near Heaven's door Triumphal with triumphal act have met. Thou hast achieved our liberty. the dark abyss. That I must after thee. With this portentous bridge. here thou shalt monarch reign. There didst not. joined in connexion sweet. and lastly kill. with this thy son. High proof ye now have given to be the race Of Satan (for I glory in the name. My substitutes I send ye. His quadrature.

won. clad With what permissive glory since his fall Was left him. Flown to the upper world. at the upper end Was placed in regal lustre. Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim: Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers. and from the door Of that Plutonian hall. or Bactrin Sophi. As when the Tartar from his Russian foe. Down a while He sat. so he Departing gave command. and now expecting Each hour their great adventurer. The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate: On either side Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed. from the search Of foreign worlds: He through the midst unmarked. so by allusion called Of that bright star to Satan paragoned. Dominations. for those. Princedoms. There kept their watch the legions. and whom they wished beheld. By Astracan. while the Grand In council sat. and they observed. and with these words attention. real eclipse Then suffered. had left their charge. Satan passed. under state Of richest texture spread. about the walls Of Pandemonium. or brighter. in his retreat To Tauris or Casbeen: So these. Virtues. leaves all waste beyond The realm of Aladule. reduced in careful watch Round their metropolis. planet-struck. the blasted stars looked wan. Appointed to sit there. Raised from their dark Divan. his fulgent head And shape star-bright appeared. which. the rest were all Far to the inland retired. passed. And all about found desolate. as from a cloud. city and proud seat Of Lucifer. over the snowy plains. Powers. or false glitter: All amazed At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throng Bent their aspect. from the horns Of Turkish crescent.So saying he dismissed them. Spreading their bane. invisible Ascended his high throne. And with rebounding surge the bars assailed. Thrones. and round about him saw unseen: At last. Retires. they with speed Their course through thickest constellations held. and with like joy Congratulant approached him. In show plebeian Angel militant Of lowest order. That scorned his indignation: Through the gate. the late Heaven-banished host. solicitous what chance Might intercept their emperour sent. 165 . Wide open and unguarded. And planets. left desart utmost Hell Many a dark league. who with hand Silence.

For in possession such, not only of right, I call ye, and declare ye now; returned Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth Triumphant out of this infernal pit Abominable, accursed, the house of woe, And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess, As Lords, a spacious world, to our native Heaven Little inferiour, by my adventure hard With peril great achieved. Long were to tell What I have done; what suffered;with what pain Voyaged th' unreal, vast, unbounded deep Of horrible confusion; over which By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved, To expedite your glorious march; but I Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride The untractable abyss, plunged in the womb Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild; That, jealous of their secrets, fiercely opposed My journey strange, with clamorous uproar Protesting Fate supreme; thence how I found The new created world, which fame in Heaven Long had foretold, a fabrick wonderful Of absolute perfection! therein Man Placed in a Paradise, by our exile Made happy: Him by fraud I have seduced From his Creator; and, the more to encrease Your wonder, with an apple; he, thereat Offended, worth your laughter! hath given up Both his beloved Man, and all his world, To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us, Without our hazard, labour, or alarm; To range in, and to dwell, and over Man To rule, as over all he should have ruled. True is, me also he hath judged, or rather Me not, but the brute serpent in whose shape Man I deceived: that which to me belongs, Is enmity which he will put between Me and mankind; I am to bruise his heel; His seed, when is not set, shall bruise my head: A world who would not purchase with a bruise, Or much more grievous pain?--Ye have the account Of my performance: What remains, ye Gods, But up, and enter now into full bliss? So having said, a while he stood, expecting Their universal shout, and high applause, To fill his ear; when, contrary, he hears On all sides, from innumerable tongues, A dismal universal hiss, the sound Of publick scorn; he wondered, but not long Had leisure, wondering at himself now more, His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare; 166

His arms clung to his ribs; his legs entwining Each other, till supplanted down he fell A monstrous serpent on his belly prone, Reluctant, but in vain; a greater power Now ruled him, punished in the shape he sinned, According to his doom: he would have spoke, But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue To forked tongue; for now were all transformed Alike, to serpents all, as accessories To his bold riot: Dreadful was the din Of hissing through the hall, thick swarming now With complicated monsters head and tail, Scorpion, and Asp, and Amphisbaena dire, Cerastes horned, Hydrus, and Elops drear, And Dipsas; (not so thick swarmed once the soil Bedropt with blood of Gorgon, or the isle Ophiusa,) but still greatest he the midst, Now Dragon grown, larger than whom the sun Ingendered in the Pythian vale or slime, Huge Python, and his power no less he seemed Above the rest still to retain; they all Him followed, issuing forth to the open field, Where all yet left of that revolted rout, Heaven-fallen, in station stood or just array; Sublime with expectation when to see In triumph issuing forth their glorious Chief; They saw, but other sight instead! a croud Of ugly serpents; horrour on them fell, And horrid sympathy; for, what they saw, They felt themselves, now changing; down their arms, Down fell both spear and shield; down they as fast; And the dire hiss renewed, and the dire form Catched, by contagion; like in punishment, As in their crime. Thus was the applause they meant, Turned to exploding hiss, triumph to shame Cast on themselves from their own mouths. There stood A grove hard by, sprung up with this their change, His will who reigns above, to aggravate Their penance, laden with fair fruit, like that Which grew in Paradise, the bait of Eve Used by the Tempter: on that prospect strange Their earnest eyes they fixed, imagining For one forbidden tree a multitude Now risen, to work them further woe or shame; Yet, parched with scalding thirst and hunger fierce, Though to delude them sent, could not abstain; But on they rolled in heaps, and, up the trees Climbing, sat thicker than the snaky locks That curled Megaera: greedily they plucked The fruitage fair to sight, like that which grew Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed; 167

This more delusive, not the touch, but taste Deceived; they, fondly thinking to allay Their appetite with gust, instead of fruit Chewed bitter ashes, which the offended taste With spattering noise rejected: oft they assayed, Hunger and thirst constraining; drugged as oft, With hatefullest disrelish writhed their jaws, With soot and cinders filled; so oft they fell Into the same illusion, not as Man Whom they triumphed once lapsed. Thus were they plagued And worn with famine, long and ceaseless hiss, Till their lost shape, permitted, they resumed; Yearly enjoined, some say, to undergo, This annual humbling certain numbered days, To dash their pride, and joy, for Man seduced. However, some tradition they dispersed Among the Heathen, of their purchase got, And fabled how the Serpent, whom they called Ophion, with Eurynome, the wide-Encroaching Eve perhaps, had first the rule Of high Olympus; thence by Saturn driven And Ops, ere yet Dictaean Jove was born. Mean while in Paradise the hellish pair Too soon arrived; Sin, there in power before, Once actual; now in body, and to dwell Habitual habitant; behind her Death, Close following pace for pace, not mounted yet On his pale horse: to whom Sin thus began. Second of Satan sprung, all-conquering Death! What thinkest thou of our empire now, though earned With travel difficult, not better far Than still at Hell's dark threshold to have sat watch, Unnamed, undreaded, and thyself half starved? Whom thus the Sin-born monster answered soon. To me, who with eternal famine pine, Alike is Hell, or Paradise, or Heaven; There best, where most with ravine I may meet; Which here, though plenteous, all too little seems To stuff this maw, this vast unhide-bound corps. To whom the incestuous mother thus replied. Thou therefore on these herbs, and fruits, and flowers, Feed first; on each beast next, and fish, and fowl; No homely morsels! and, whatever thing The sithe of Time mows down, devour unspared; Till I, in Man residing, through the race, His thoughts, his looks, words, actions, all infect; And season him thy last and sweetest prey. This said, they both betook them several ways, Both to destroy, or unimmortal make All kinds, and for destruction to mature Sooner or later; which the Almighty seeing, 168

From his transcendent seat the Saints among, To those bright Orders uttered thus his voice. See, with what heat these dogs of Hell advance To waste and havock yonder world, which I So fair and good created; and had still Kept in that state, had not the folly of Man Let in these wasteful furies, who impute Folly to me; so doth the Prince of Hell And his adherents, that with so much ease I suffer them to enter and possess A place so heavenly; and, conniving, seem To gratify my scornful enemies, That laugh, as if, transported with some fit Of passion, I to them had quitted all, At random yielded up to their misrule; And know not that I called, and drew them thither, My Hell-hounds, to lick up the draff and filth Which Man's polluting sin with taint hath shed On what was pure; til, crammed and gorged, nigh burst With sucked and glutted offal, at one sling Of thy victorious arm, well-pleasing Son, Both Sin, and Death, and yawning Grave, at last, Through Chaos hurled, obstruct the mouth of Hell For ever, and seal up his ravenous jaws. Then Heaven and Earth renewed shall be made pure To sanctity, that shall receive no stain: Till then, the curse pronounced on both precedes. He ended, and the heavenly audience loud Sung Halleluiah, as the sound of seas, Through multitude that sung: Just are thy ways, Righteous are thy decrees on all thy works; Who can extenuate thee? Next, to the Son, Destined Restorer of mankind, by whom New Heaven and Earth shall to the ages rise, Or down from Heaven descend.--Such was their song; While the Creator, calling forth by name His mighty Angels, gave them several charge, As sorted best with present things. The sun Had first his precept so to move, so shine, As might affect the earth with cold and heat Scarce tolerable; and from the north to call Decrepit winter; from the south to bring Solstitial summer's heat. To the blanc moon Her office they prescribed; to the other five Their planetary motions, and aspects, In sextile, square, and trine, and opposite, Of noxious efficacy, and when to join In synod unbenign; and taught the fixed Their influence malignant when to shower, Which of them rising with the sun, or falling, Should prove tempestuous: To the winds they set 169

which had forbid the snow From cold Estotiland. in their sight Had rounded still the horizon. Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat? These changes in the Heavens. and seas upturn. though sinless. Bursting their brazen dungeon. armed with ice. or. as from Thyestean banquet. and fowl with fowl. but fled him. but Discord first. Equal in days and nights. And Thrascias. to them day Had unbenighted shone. and shore. while the low sun. and not known Or east or west. else. Sirocco and Libecchio. among the irrational Death introduced. how had the world Inhabited. and stormy gust and flaw. Vapour. with their lateral noise. he bid his Angels turn ascanse The poles of earth. they with labour pushed Oblique the centrick globe: Some say. Boreas. And snow. to graze the herb all leaving. And fish with fish. and the Samoed shore. Glared on him passing. produced Like change on sea and land. Eurus and Zephyr. Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds. except to those Beyond the polar circles. sideral blast. At that tasted fruit The sun. to bring in change Of seasons to each clime. and Caecias. These were from without The growing miseries. From the sun's axle. Daughter of Sin. and exhalation hot. else had the spring Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers. the sun Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road Like distant breadth to Taurus with the seven Atlantick Sisters. and the Virgin. twice ten degrees and more. more than now. Some say. As deep as Capricorn. and Afer black with thunderous clouds From Serraliona. With adverse blast upturns them from the south Notus. Thus began Outrage from lifeless things. though slow. thwart of these. the thunder when to roll With terrour through the dark aereal hall. and the Spartan Twins. when with bluster to confound Sea. with countenance grim. and Argestes loud. Corrupt and pestilent: Now from the north Of Norumbega.Their corners. through fierce antipathy: Beast now with beast 'gan war. turned His course intended. Up to the Tropick Crab: thence down amain By Leo. To recompense his distance. as fierce. and south as far Beneath Magellan. Devoured each other. and the Scales. nor stood much in awe Of Man. which Adam saw 170 . air. and mist. and hail. rend the woods.

and be earth Insensible! How glad would lay me down As in my mother's lap! There I should rest. would torment me With cruel expectation. who now become Accursed. all from me Shall with a fierce reflux on me rebound. O fleeting joys Of Paradise. and to my offspring. unable to perform Thy terms too hard. by which I was to hold The good I sought not. though hid in gloomiest shade. Maker. For this we may thank Adam! but his thanks Shall be the execration: so. light Heavy. will curse My head? Ill fare our ancestor impure. Is propagated curse. On me. but worse felt within. lest all I cannot die. Sufficient penalty. the spirit of Man Which God inspired. of blessed? hide me from the face Of God. but curses on my head? Who of all ages to succeed. I deserved it. O miserable of happy! Is this the end Of this new glorious world. if here would end The misery. besides Mine own that bide upon me. To the loss of that. And. as on their natural center. Lest that pure breath of life. once heard Delightfully. Encrease and multiply. Thus to disburden sought with sad complaint. Now death to hear! for what can I encrease. To sorrow abandoned.Already in part. whom to behold was then my highth Of happiness!--Yet well. in a troubled sea of passion tost. why hast thou added The sense of endless woes? Inexplicable Why am I mocked with death. though in their place. but. or here place In this delicious garden? As my will Concurred not to my being. Yet one doubt Pursues me still. but this will not serve: All that I eat or drink. no fear of worse To me. from my clay To mould me Man? did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me. cannot together perish 171 . and would bear My own deservings. Or multiply. feeling The evil on him brought by me. and me so late The glory of that glory. it were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust. his dreadful voice no more Would thunder in my ears. O voice. dear bought with lasting woes! Did I request thee. and lengthened out To deathless pain? How gladly would I meet Mortality my sentence. And sleep secure. or shall beget. Desirous to resign and render back All I received.

So might the wrath! Fond wish!couldst thou support That burden. For anger's sake. to satisfy his rigour. In punished Man. And reasonings. if true! Yet why? It was but breath Of life that sinned.With this corporeal clod. who knows But I shall die a living death? O thought Horrid. but to will the same With me? How can they then acquitted stand In sight of God? Him. why should all mankind. How can he exercise Wrath without end on Man. All of me then shall die: let this appease The doubt. Not to the extent of their own sphere. but endless misery From this day onward. lead me still But to my own conviction: first and last On me. as the source and spring Of all corruption. Satisfied never? That were to extend His sentence beyond dust and Nature's law.--Ay me!that fear Comes thundering back with dreadful revolution On my defenceless head. But all corrupt. Bereaving sense. Than all the world much heavier. Sons! O. thus guiltless be condemned. Man is not so. which I feel begun Both in me. For one man's fault. Will he draw out. Forced I absolve: all my evasions vain. It guiltless? But from me what can proceed. which to God himself Impossible is held. as I supposed. For though the Lord of all be infinite. after all disputes. what dies but what had life And sin? The body properly had neither. heavier than the earth to bear. then. whom death must end? Can he make deathless death? That were to make Strange contradiction. But mortal doomed. me only. as argument Of weakness. and incorporate both. though divided 172 . Or in some other dismal place. and without me. both mind and will depraved Not to do only. not of power. act. how would you bless Me. in me all Posterity stands cursed: Fair patrimony That I must leave ye. But say That death be not one stroke. Is his wrath also? Be it. all the blame lights due. in the grave. both Death and I Am found eternal. and leave ye none! So disinherited. finite to infinite. By which all causes else. and so last To perpetuity. though through mazes. Nor I on my part single. were I able To waste it all myself. now your curse! Ah. since human reach no further knows. according still To the reception of their matter.

but that thy shape. alike destroys all hope Of refuge.-Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld. and concludes thee miserable Beyond all past example and future. Desolate where she sat. may show Thy inward fraud. Out of my sight. and mild. Though by the Devil himself. by him thou. since denounced The day of his offence. To Satan only like both crime and doom. and resound far other song.With that bad Woman? Thus. and bowers! With other echo late I taught your shades To answer. as ere Man fell. as now appears. to warn all creatures from thee Henceforth. bent. More to the part sinister. on the cold ground. O fountains. when least was safe. and dreadful gloom. approaching nigh. thyself as false And hateful. Rather than solid virtue. And understood not all was but a show. Through the still night. with damps. but with black air Accompanied. out of which I find no way. lest that too heavenly form. Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed: But her with stern regard he thus repelled. O Conscience! into what abyss of fears And horrours hast thou driven me. Death as oft accused Of tardy execution. Rejected my forewarning. with one thrice-acceptable stroke To end me? Shall Truth fail to keep her word. pretended To hellish falshood. Fooled and beguiled. Like his. Justice Divine Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries. And what thou fearest. Well if thrown out. from me drawn. all but a rib Crooked by nature. Which to his evil conscience represented All things with double terrour: On the ground Outstretched he lay. proof against all assaults. imagined wise. as supernumerary 173 . what thou desirest. hillocks. him overweening To over-reach. thou Serpent! That name best Befits thee with him leagued. and colour serpentine. mature. Why comes not Death. had not thy pride And wandering vanity. longing to be seen. Justice Divine not hasten to be just? But Death comes not at call. snare them! But for thee I had persisted happy. Constant. and cool. nothing wants. Said he. O woods. from deep to deeper plunged! Thus Adam to himself lamented loud. Wholesome. with the serpent meeting. and oft Cursed his creation. not now. dales. but. I by thee To trust thee from my side. and disdained Not to be trusted.

and. besought His peace. from thy head removed. but shall see her gained By a far worse. Me. O! why did God. Creator wise. where subsist? While yet we live. me than thyself More miserable! Both have sinned. sole cause to thee of all this woe. Between us two let there be peace. innumerable Disturbances on earth through female snares. already linked and wedlock-bound To a fell adversary. thy gentle looks. On me already lost. Adam! witness Heaven What love sincere. thy aid. and unweeting have offended. at his feet Fell humble. this fair defect Of nature. Forsake me not thus. Unhappily deceived! Thy suppliant I beg. that all The sentence. My only strength and stay: Forlorn of thee. There with my cries importune Heaven. both joining. as Angels. And to the place of judgement will return. I against God and thee. Thy counsel. and clasp thy knees. scarce one short hour perhaps. That cruel Serpent: On me exercise not Thy hatred for this misery befallen. Or find some other way to generate Mankind? This mischief had not been befallen. or mistake. in this uttermost distress. and houshold peace confound. Whereon I live. one enmity Against a foe by doom express assigned us. me only. bereave me not. and reverence in my heart I bear thee. and her lowly plight. or his happiest choice too late Shall meet. And more that shall befall. Immoveable. till peace obtained from fault 174 . but Eve. Whither shall I betake me. his hate or shame: Which infinite calamity shall cause To human life. Not so repulsed. or. may light On me. just object of his ire! She ended weeping. and from her turned. And strait conjunction with this sex: for either He never shall find out fit mate. with tears that ceased not flowing And tresses all disordered. create at last This novelty on earth.To my just number found.but thou Against God only. without feminine. withheld By parents. As joined in injuries. embracing them. but such As some misfortune brings him. and thus proceeded in her plaint. and not fill the world at once With Men. He added not. if she love. Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Through her perverseness. that peopled highest Heaven With Spirits masculine.

Or end. Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking. That on my head all might be visited. to place Of new acceptance. his anger all he lost. But rise. As in our evils. and of our loins to bring Into this cursed world a woeful race. I to that place Would speed before thee. That after wretched life must be at last Food for so foul a monster. in our share of woe. If care of our descent perplex us most. and sole delight. but a slow-paced evil. Our own begotten. Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven. if aught I see. alas! Bear thine own first.Acknowledged and deplored. Childless thou art. nor blame Each other. how we may lighten Each other's burden. So now of what thou knowest not. whose thou feelest as yet least part. and of easier choice. from thee I will not hide What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen. as before. devoured By Death at last. childless remain: so Death 175 . by sad experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can find. If prayers Could alter high decrees. To whom thus Eve. Unwary. to being yet unbegot. Which must be born to certain woe. Now at his feet submissive in distress. ill able to sustain His full wrath. but strive In offices of love. in Adam wrought Commiseration: Soon his heart relented Towards her. And to our seed (O hapless seed!) derived. To me committed. and be louder heard. Since this day's death denounced. though sharp and sad. and miserable it is To be to others cause of misery. his aid: As one disarmed. vile as I am. Tending to some relief of our extremes. A long day's dying. the sole contentment of my heart Living or dying. recovering heart. His counsel. his life so late.--let us no more contend. hopeful to regain Thy love. Adam. and too desirous. blamed enough elsewhere. replied. Will prove no sudden. Restored by thee. And my displeasure bearest so ill. And thus with peaceful words upraised her soon. in thy power It lies. Found so erroneous. whom she had displeased. thence by just event Found so unfortunate: Nevertheless. yet tolerable. and by me exposed. yet ere conception to prevent The race unblest. who desirest The punishment all on thyself. to augment our pain.

Shall be deceived his glut, and with us two Be forced to satisfy his ravenous maw. But if thou judge it hard and difficult, Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain From love's due rights, nuptial embraces sweet; And with desire to languish without hope, Before the present object languishing With like desire; which would be misery And torment less than none of what we dread; Then, both ourselves and seed at once to free From what we fear for both, let us make short, -Let us seek Death; -- or, he not found, supply With our own hands his office on ourselves: Why stand we longer shivering under fears, That show no end but death, and have the power, Of many ways to die the shortest choosing, Destruction with destruction to destroy? -She ended here, or vehement despair Broke off the rest: so much of death her thoughts Had entertained, as dyed her cheeks with pale. But Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed, To better hopes his more attentive mind Labouring had raised; and thus to Eve replied. Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems To argue in thee something more sublime And excellent, than what thy mind contemns; But self-destruction therefore sought, refutes That excellence thought in thee; and implies, Not thy contempt, but anguish and regret For loss of life and pleasure overloved. Or if thou covet death, as utmost end Of misery, so thinking to evade The penalty pronounced; doubt not but God Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire, than so To be forestalled; much more I fear lest death, So snatched, will not exempt us from the pain We are by doom to pay; rather, such acts Of contumacy will provoke the Highest To make death in us live: Then let us seek Some safer resolution, which methinks I have in view, calling to mind with heed Part of our sentence, that thy seed shall bruise The Serpent's head; piteous amends! unless Be meant, whom I conjecture, our grand foe, Satan; who, in the serpent, hath contrived Against us this deceit: To crush his head Would be revenge indeed! which will be lost By death brought on ourselves, or childless days Resolved, as thou proposest; so our foe Shal 'scape his punishment ordained, and we Instead shall double ours upon our heads. 176

No more be mentioned then of violence Against ourselves; and wilful barrenness, That cuts us off from hope; and savours only Rancour and pride, impatience and despite, Reluctance against God and his just yoke Laid on our necks. Remember with what mild And gracious temper he both heard, and judged, Without wrath or reviling; we expected Immediate dissolution, which we thought Was meant by death that day; when lo!to thee Pains only in child-bearing were foretold, And bringing forth; soon recompensed with joy, Fruit of thy womb: On me the curse aslope Glanced on the ground; with labour I must earn My bread; what harm? Idleness had been worse; My labour will sustain me; and, lest cold Or heat should injure us, his timely care Hath, unbesought, provided; and his hands Clothed us unworthy, pitying while he judged; How much more, if we pray him, will his ear Be open, and his heart to pity incline, And teach us further by what means to shun The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow! Which now the sky, with various face, begins To show us in this mountain; while the winds Blow moist and keen, shattering the graceful locks Of these fair spreading trees; which bids us seek Some better shroud, some better warmth to cherish Our limbs benummed, ere this diurnal star Leave cold the night, how we his gathered beams Reflected may with matter sere foment; Or, by collision of two bodies, grind The air attrite to fire; as late the clouds Justling, or pushed with winds, rude in their shock, Tine the slant lightning; whose thwart flame, driven down Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine; And sends a comfortable heat from far, Which might supply the sun: Such fire to use, And what may else be remedy or cure To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought, He will instruct us praying, and of grace Beseeching him; so as we need not fear To pass commodiously this life, sustained By him with many comforts, till we end In dust, our final rest and native home. What better can we do, than, to the place Repairing where he judged us, prostrate fall Before him reverent; and there confess Humbly our faults, and pardon beg; with tears Watering the ground, and with our sighs the air


Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek Book XI Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn From his displeasure; in whose look serene, When angry most he seemed and most severe, What else but favour, grace, and mercy, shone? So spake our father penitent; nor Eve Felt less remorse: they, forthwith to the place Repairing where he judged them, prostrate fell Before him reverent; and both confessed Humbly their faults, and pardon begged; with tears Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek. Thus they, in lowliest plight, repentant stood Praying; for from the mercy-seat above Prevenient grace descending had removed The stony from their hearts, and made new flesh Regenerate grow instead; that sighs now breathed Unutterable; which the Spirit of prayer Inspired, and winged for Heaven with speedier flight Than loudest oratory: Yet their port Not of mean suitors; nor important less Seemed their petition, than when the ancient pair In fables old, less ancient yet than these, Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore The race of mankind drowned, before the shrine Of Themis stood devout. To Heaven their prayers Flew up, nor missed the way, by envious winds Blown vagabond or frustrate: in they passed Dimensionless through heavenly doors; then clad With incense, where the golden altar fumed, By their great intercessour, came in sight Before the Father's throne: them the glad Son Presenting, thus to intercede began. See$ Father, what first-fruits on earth are sprung From thy implanted grace in Man; these sighs And prayers, which in this golden censer mixed With incense, I thy priest before thee bring; Fruits of more pleasing savour, from thy seed Sown with contrition in his heart, than those Which, his own hand manuring, all the trees Of Paradise could have produced, ere fallen From innocence. Now therefore, bend thine ear To supplication; hear his sighs, though mute; Unskilful with what words to pray, let me Interpret for him; me, his advocate 178

And propitiation; all his works on me, Good, or not good, ingraft; my merit those Shall perfect, and for these my death shall pay. Accept me; and, in me, from these receive The smell of peace toward mankind: let him live Before thee reconciled, at least his days Numbered, though sad; till death, his doom, (which I To mitigate thus plead, not to reverse,) To better life shall yield him: where with me All my redeemed may dwell in joy and bliss; Made one with me, as I with thee am one. To whom the Father, without cloud, serene. All thy request for Man, accepted Son, Obtain; all thy request was my decree: But, longer in that Paradise to dwell, The law I gave to Nature him forbids: Those pure immortal elements, that know, No gross, no unharmonious mixture foul, Eject him, tainted now; and purge him off, As a distemper, gross, to air as gross, And mortal food; as may dispose him best For dissolution wrought by sin, that first Distempered all things, and of incorrupt Corrupted. I, at first, with two fair gifts Created him endowed; with happiness, And immortality: that fondly lost, This other served but to eternize woe; Till I provided death: so death becomes His final remedy; and, after life, Tried in sharp tribulation, and refined By faith and faithful works, to second life, Waked in the renovation of the just, Resigns him up with Heaven and Earth renewed. But let us call to synod all the Blest, Through Heaven's wide bounds: from them I will not hide My judgements; how with mankind I proceed, As how with peccant Angels late they saw, And in their state, though firm, stood more confirmed. He ended, and the Son gave signal high To the bright minister that watched; he blew His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps When God descended, and perhaps once more To sound at general doom. The angelick blast Filled all the regions: from their blisful bowers Of amarantine shade, fountain or spring, By the waters of life, where'er they sat In fellowships of joy, the sons of light Hasted, resorting to the summons high; And took their seats; till from his throne supreme The Almighty thus pronounced his sovran will. O Sons, like one of us Man is become 179

My motions in him. Or in behalf of Man. all their shape Spangled with eyes more numerous than those Of Argus. Happier! had it sufficed him to have known Good by itself. Self-left. Charmed with Arcadian pipe. and evil got. but let him boast His knowledge of good lost. and prays contrite. Take to thee from among the Cherubim Thy choice of flaming warriours. His heart I know. the pastoral reed Of Hermes.) all terrour hide. and evil not at all. like a double Janus. And guard all passage to the tree of life: Lest Paradise a receptacle prove To Spirits foul. Michael. and denounce To them. (For I behold them softened. From hallowed ground the unholy. and eat. and the arch-angelick Power prepared For swift descent. with him the cohort bright Of watchful Cherubim: four faces each Had. and more wakeful than to drouse. He sorrows now. lest the Fiend. Yet. all approach far off to fright. dream at least to live For ever. and to their progeny. Leucothea waked. how variable and vain. though sorrowing. fitter soil. and with tears Bewailing their excess. So send them forth. or his opiate rod. since his taste Of that defended fruit. intermix My covenant in the Woman's seed renewed. this my behest have thou in charge. some new trouble raise: Haste thee. With whose stolen fruit Man once more to delude. Cherubick watch. If patiently thy bidding they obey. and all my trees their prey. As I shall thee enlighten. from thence Perpetual banishment. He ceased. Lest therefore his now bolder hand Reach also of the tree of life. to remove him I decree. lest they faint At the sad sentence rigorously urged. And send him from the garden forth to till The ground whence he was taken. yet in peace: And on the east side of the garden place. Dismiss them not disconsolate. or to invade Vacant possession. And live for ever. reveal To Adam what shall come in future days. and of a sword the flame Wide-waving.To know both good and evil. To re-salute the world with sacred light. Mean while. longer than they move. and from the Paradise of God Without remorse drive out the sinful pair. Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs. repents. and with fresh dews imbalmed 180 .

that thy seed shall bruise our foe. I never from thy side henceforth to stray. Ill-worthy I such title should belong To me transgressour. upborne Even to the seat of God. so wished much humbled Eve. Hard to belief may seem. who. To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek. Mother of all things living. and before him humbled all my heart. For since I sought By prayer the offended Deity to appease. and found Strength added from above. though now enjoined Laborious. stooped from his aery tour. Eve. Two birds of gayest plume before him drove. But. and we shall live. and to my memory His promise. Whence hail to thee. and all things live for Man. content.The earth. But the field To labour calls us. nigh in her sight The bird of Jove. when Adam and first matron Eve Had ended now their orisons. Who highly thus to entitle me vouchsaf'st. but with fear yet linked. After short blush of morn. What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? Here let us live. though in fallen state. next favourable thou. easily my faith admit. Which thus to Eve his welcome words renewed. till day droop. am graced The source of life. That I. Methought I saw him placable and mild. air suddenly eclipsed. then not minded in dismay. since by thee Man is to live. air. Eve rightly called. distrust. new hope to spring Out of despair. and all dispraise: But infinite in pardon was my Judge. that from us aught should ascend to Heaven So prevalent as to concern the mind Of God high-blest. that all The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends. for thee ordained A help. All unconcerned with our unrest. persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favour. impressed On bird. yet this will prayer Or one short sigh of human breath. joy. peace returned Home to my breast. Far other name deserving. became thy snare. Bending his ear. mother of all mankind. 181 . now with sweat imposed. for see!the morn. while here we dwell. Where'er our day's work lies. begins Her rosy progress smiling: let us forth. but Fate Subscribed not: Nature first gave signs. who first brought death on all. to me reproach Rather belongs. Which. beast. Though after sleepless night. or to incline his will. Kneeled. So spake. yet now Assures me that the bitterness of death Is past.

hart and hind. One of the heavenly host. that I should much confide. or impose New laws to be observed. thus spake. And slow descends with something heavenly fraught? He erred not. and o'er the ground. To find where Adam sheltered. had not doubt And carnal fear that day dimmed Adam's eye. of our discharge From penalty. Not unperceived of Adam. took his way. which on the flaming mount appeared In Dothan. From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill. Nor that. and morning-light More orient in yon western cloud. for I descry. by his gait. when the Angels met Jacob in Mahanaim. And thither must return. O Eve. But solemn and sublime. War unproclaimed. such majesty Invests him coming! yet not terrible. Which Heaven. pursued a gentle brace. whom not to offend. assassin-like. and on a hill made halt. One way the self-same hour? why in the east Darkness ere day's mid-course. 182 . Goodliest of all the forest. who to surprise One man. and thou retire. Who knows? or more than this. not unmoved. As Raphael. Not that more glorious. to seise Possession of the garden. covered with a camp of fire. shows Forerunners of his purpose. to Eve thus spake. or to warn Us. where he saw The field pavilioned with his guardians bright. With reverence I must meet. that we are dust. some great Potentate Or of the Thrones above. because from death released Some days: how long. First hunter then. which perhaps Of us will soon determine. he alone. and with his eye the chase Pursuing. Direct to the eastern gate was bent their flight. Adam observed. and be no more? Why else this double object in our sight Of flight pursued in the air.Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods. and. Against the Syrian king. The princely Hierarch In their bright stand there left his Powers. That I should fear. for by this the heavenly bands Down from a sky of jasper lighted now In Paradise. and what till then our life. some further change awaits us nigh. None of the meanest. Eve$ now expect great tidings. While the great visitant approached. haply too secure. A glorious apparition. that draws O'er the blue firmament a radiant white. by these mute signs in Nature. nor sociably mild. had levied war. who to Eve.

O flowers. wherein thou mayest repent. His starry helm unbuckled showed him prime In manhood where youth ended. or the grain Of Sarra. which I bred up with tender hand From the first opening bud. over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flowed. My early visitation. And send thee from the garden forth to till The ground whence thou wast taken. Fit haunt of Gods? where I had hope to spend. from his state Inclined not. but as man Clad to meet man. Heaven's high behest no preface needs: Sufficient that thy prayers are heard.He ended: and the Arch-Angel soon drew nigh. native soil! these happy walks and shades. Adam. or rank Your tribes. That never will in other climate grow. and in his hand the spear. Satan's dire dread. he. Not in his shape celestial. 183 . nor set thy heart. O unexpected stroke. Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress. And one bad act with many deeds well done Mayest cover: Well may then thy Lord. fitter soil. As in a glistering zodiack. the respite of that day That must be mortal to us both. and gave ye names! Who now shall rear ye to the sun. That all his senses bound. kingly. Quiet though sad. He added not. but his coming thus declared. Defeated of his seisure many days Given thee of grace. Lament not. Adam bowed low. and Death. worn by kings and heroes old In time of truce. who unseen Yet all had heard. appeased. for Adam at the news Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood. but patiently resign What justly thou hast lost. by his side. But longer in this Paradise to dwell Permits not: to remove thee I am come. Livelier than Meliboean. Eve. and my last . Eve. hung the sword. nuptial bower! by me adorned With what to sight or smell was sweet! from thee How shall I part. with audible lament Discovered soon the place of her retire. and whither wander down Into a lower world. to this obscure And wild? how shall we breathe in other air Less pure. worse than of Death! Must I thus leave thee$ Paradise? thus leave Thee. and water from the ambrosial fount? Thee lastly. Redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim.t even. Iris had dipt the woof. accustomed to immortal fruits? Whom thus the Angel interrupted mild.

As from his face I shall be hid. with thee goes Thy husband. Nor knowing us. sea. Adam. and despair. by this from the cold sudden damp Recovering. think there thy native soil. Not this rock only. deprived His blessed countenance: Here I could frequent With worship place by place where he vouchsafed Presence Divine. and flowers: In yonder nether world where shall I seek His bright appearances. 184 . Fomented by his virtual power and warmed: All the earth he gave thee to possess and rule. thou knowest Heaven his. or foot-step trace? For though I fled him angry. And in performing end us. in memory. and far off his steps adore. whether among the Thrones. whom to follow thou art bound. and theron Offer sweet-smelling gums. thy tidings bring. Celestial. Where he abides. Blown stifling back on him that breathes it forth: Therefore to his great bidding I submit. our sweet Recess. and every kind that lives. that. I now Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts Of glory. I would not cease To weary him with my assiduous cries: But prayer against his absolute decree No more avails than breath against the wind. here with him at this fountain talked: So many grateful altars I would rear Of grassy turf. Departure from this happy place. what besides Of sorrow. To whom thus Michael with regard benign.Thus over-fond. nor known: And. on that which is not thine: Thy going is not lonely. and all the Earth. and only consolation left Familiar to our eyes! all places else Inhospitable appear. and his scattered spirits returned. which might else in telling wound. Our frailty can sustain. for such of shape may seem Prince above princes! gently hast thou told Thy message. if by prayer Incessant I could hope to change the will Of Him who all things can. his Omnipresence fills Land. and fruits. Or monument to ages. among these pines his voice 'I heard. departing hence. and air. To Michael thus his humble words addressed. and pile up every stone Of lustre from the brook. under this tree 'Stood visible. yet recalled To life prolonged and promised race. and dejection. This most afflicts me. and desolate. Adam. and to my sons relate. or named Of them the highest. 'On this mount he appeared.

the Tempter set Our second Adam. and earn rest from labour won. Ascend. as here. from whence had spread All generations. It was a hill. If so I may attain. in the wilderness. Which that thou mayest believe. arming to overcome By suffering. equally inured By moderation either state to bear. I follow thee. I am sent To show thee what shall come in future days To thee. let Eve (for I have drenched her eyes) Here sleep below. their great progenitor. Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead Safest thy life. However chastening. to celebrate And reverence thee. and their glory. from the destined walls Of Cambalu. Stretched out to the amplest reach of prospect lay. and be confirmed Ere thou from hence depart. But this pre-eminence thou hast lost. His eye might there command wherever stood City of old or modern fame. the path Thou leadest me. Whereon. supernal grace contending With sinfulness of men. To whom thus Adam gratefully replied. nor wider looking round. or Eden: this had been Perhaps thy capital seat. in clearest ken. from whose top The hemisphere of earth. seat of Cathaian Can. for different cause. the seat Of mightiest empire. Temir's throne.--Ascend This hill. and best prepared endure Thy mortal passage when it comes. and to thy offspring: good with bad Expect to hear. brought down To dwell on even ground now with thy sons: Yet doubt not but in valley. know.No despicable gift. his face Express.So both ascend In the visions of God. and will be found alike Present. and in plain. To Paquin of Sinaean kings. and of his steps the track divine. Of Paradise the highest. -. And Samarchand by Oxus. still compassing thee round With goodness and paternal love. while she to life was formed. To show him all Earth's kingdoms. and thence 185 . surmise not then His presence to these narrow bounds confined Of Paradise. and to temper joy with fear And pious sorrow. As once thou sleptst. to the evil turn My obvious breast. and had hither come From all the ends of the earth. God is. and of his presence many a sign Still following thee. and to the hand of Heaven submit. safe Guide. while thou to foresight wakest. Not higher that hill. thereby to learn True patience.

for he had much to see. and first behold The effects. His eyes he opened. and Algiers. Unculled. Morocco. Fez and Sus. And Cusco in Peru. Which that false fruit that promised clearer sight Had bred. nor could his eye not ken The empire of Negus to his utmost port Ercoco. So deep the power of these ingredients pierced. thither anon A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits. Or thence from Niger flood to Atlas mount The kingdoms of Almansor. On the cleft wood. and the less maritim kings Mombaza. whose great city Geryon's sons Call El Dorado. and his attention thus recalled. Part arable and tilth. And Sofala. or the Sultan in Bizance. and all due rights performed: His offering soon propitious fire from Heaven 186 . Turchestan-born. But him the gentle Angel by the hand Soon raised. whereon were sheaves New reaped. Choicest and best. and Melind. the green ear.To Agra and Lahor of great Mogul. Adam. now ope thine eyes. and Quiloa. yet from that sin derive Corruption. which thy original crime hath wrought In some to spring from thee. laid The inwards and their fat. More meek. as came to hand. and beheld a field. and Angola farthest south. nor with the snake conspired. to bring forth more violent deeds. a shepherd next. Rustick. or where the Russian Ksar In Mosco. But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. I' the midst an altar as the land-mark stood. Sunk down. and yet unspoiled Guiana. and the yellow sheaf. the other part sheep-walks and folds. of grassy sord. or since In Hispahan. the richer seat Of Atabalipa. Down to the golden Chersonese. and all his spirits became entranced. On Europe thence. then. That Adam. with incense strowed. and Tremisen. the seat of Montezume. who never touched The excepted tree. Even to the inmost seat of mental sight. to the realm Of Congo. now enforced to close his eyes. And from the well of life three drops instilled. sacrificing. then purged with euphrasy and rue The visual nerve. and where Rome was to sway The world: in spirit perhaps he also saw Rich Mexico. came with the firstlings of his flock. or where The Persian in Ecbatan sat. Nor sinned thy sin. thought Ophir.

flood. Convulsions. Death thou hast seen In his first shape on Man. though oft invoked 187 . and the other's faith. though here thou see him die. but delayed to strike. Smote him into the midriff with a stone That beat out life. A lazar-house it seemed. as they talked. but the bloody fact Will be avenged. Dire was the tossing. he also moved. for his was not sincere. dark. Alas! both for the deed. Groaned out his soul with gushing blood effused. which on the earth shall bring Diseases dire. By fire. approved. and for the cause! But have I now seen Death? Is this the way I must return to native dust? O sight Of terrour. of which a monstrous crew Before thee shall appear. Rolling in dust and gore. and joint-racking rheums. he fell. Whereat he inly raged. and many are the ways that lead To his grim cave. some great mischief hath befallen To that meek man. pining atrophy. moaping melancholy. or racking torture. all dismal. epilepsies. The other's not. Adam. but many shapes Of Death. Horrid to think. and wide-wasting pestilence.Consumed with nimble glance. that thou mayest know What misery the inabstinence of Eve Shall bring on Men. yet to sense More terrible at the entrance. Is piety thus and pure devotion paid? To whom Michael thus. as thou sawest. Demoniack phrenzy. foul and ugly to behold. Immediately a place Before his eyes appeared. Lose no reward. by violent stroke shall die. For envy that his brother's offering found From Heaven acceptance. And over them triumphant Death his dart Shook. the unjust the just hath slain. and to come Out of thy loins. fierce catarrhs. colick-pangs. Dropsies. sad. Despair Tended the sick busiest from couch to couch. famine. who well had sacrificed. To which our sire. Intestine stone and ulcer. These two are brethren. replied.and. And moon-struck madness. than within. and thus in haste to the Angel cried. Marasmus. and asthmas. and. Much at that sight was Adam in his heart Dismayed. qualms Of heart-sick agony. deadly pale. by intemperance more In meats and drinks. and grateful steam. all maladies Of ghastly spasm. how horrible to feel! To whom thus Michael. Some. deep the groans. noisome. all feverous kinds. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseased. O Teacher.

said Michael. Disfiguring not God's likeness. or be with ease Gathered. as their chief good. thy beauty. created once So goodly and erect. and gave him up to tears A space. if thou well observe The rule of Not too much. In what thou eatest and drinkest. and gray. not gluttonous delight. when themselves they vilified To serve ungoverned Appetite. Retaining still divine similitude In part. Obtuse. which will change To withered. for his Maker's image sake. Why is life given To be thus wrested from us? rather. by temperance taught. to what fall Degraded. till. exempt? Their Maker's image. like ripe fruit. thou must outlive Thy youth. and submit. Or if his likeness. Therefore so abject is their punishment. thy strength. Can thus The image of God in Man. worthily. for death mature: This is Old Age. and took His image whom they served. for the air of youth. till firmer thoughts restrained excess. from such deformities be free. And. And. But is there yet no other way. scarce recovering words. Till many years over thy head return: So mayest thou live. and. though faulty since. O miserable mankind. why Obtruded on us thus? who. nor harshly plucked. and final hope.With vows. Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve. since they God's image did not reverence in themselves. Hopeful and cheerful. While they pervert pure Nature's healthful rules To loathsome sickness. how we may come To death. but wept. Though not of woman born. thou drop Into thy mother's lap. but then. his plaint renewed. seeking from thence Due nourishment. weak. Glad to be so dismissed in peace. compassion quelled His best of man. but their own. answered Michael. or soon beg to lay it down. and mix with our connatural dust? There is. in thy blood will reign 188 . I yield it just. then Forsook them. To what thou hast. thy senses then. all taste of pleasure must forego. to what wretched state reserved! Better end here unborn. if we knew What we receive. Sight so deform what heart of rock could long Dry-eyed behold? Adam could not. would either no accept Life offered. besides These painful passages. said Adam. To such unsightly sufferings be debased Under inhuman pains? Why should not Man. by themselves defaced. a brutish vice.

in the amorous net Fast caught.) the liquid ore he drained Into fit moulds prepared. others. how long. He looked. though grave. till the evening-star. whence the sound Of instruments. To whom our ancestor. or whether washed by stream From underground.A melancholy damp of cold and dry To weigh thy spirits down. bent rather. nor would prolong Life much. whereon Were tents of various hue. Nor love thy life. from which he formed First his own tools. and let their eyes Rove without rein. and fair event Of love and youth not lost. Michael replied. 189 . a different sort From the high neighbouring hills. songs. what might else be wrought Fusil or graven in metal. garlands. was seen. till. or short. and. when from the tents. of harp and organ. Down to the plain descended. Such happy interview. were herds Of cattle grazing. low and high. all in heat They light the nuptial torch. but what thou livest Live well. by some. and last consume The balm of life. Instinct through all proportions. And now of love they treat. After these. of this cumbrous charge. Down to the veins of earth. and each his liking chose. appeared. In other part stood one who. at the forge Labouring. behold! A bevy of fair women. which might preserve Freedom and peace to Men. Was heard. Fairest and easiest. they on the plain Long had not walked. permit to Heaven: And now prepare thee for another sight. flowers. and know his works Not hid. thence gliding hot To some cave's mouth. Which I must keep till my appointed day Of rendering up. and in dance came on: The men. and patiently attend My dissolution. But on the hither side. who moved Their stops and chords. his volant touch. nor those things last. (whether found where casual fire Had wasted woods on mountain or in vale. two massy clods of iron and brass Had melted. then. to the harp they sung Soft amorous ditties. Henceforth I fly not death. by their guise Just men they seemed. Love's harbinger. and bid invoke Hymen. then. nor hate. and saw a spacious plain. which was their seat. eyed them. richly gay In gems and wanton dress. and all their study bent To worship God aright. then first to marriage rites invoked: With feast and musick all the tents resound. that made melodious chime. they liked. Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue. how I may be quit.

or in the mid way faint! But still I see the tenour of Man's woe Holds on the same. Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget. that they. Judge not what is best By pleasure. part curb the foaming steed. 190 . and laugh. Those were of hate and death. To dress. whose lives Religious titled them the sons of God. to the trains and to the smiles Of these fair atheists. To whom thus Adam. Bred only and completed to the taste Of lustful appetence. To whom thus Michael. Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her ends. Yet empty of all good wherein consists Woman's domestick honour and chief praise. soon inclined to admit delight. and rural works between. Cities of men with lofty gates and towers. inventers rare. and saw wide territory spread Before him. to dance. or pain much worse. towns. which he thus expressed. so smooth. but they his gifts acknowledged none. He looked. Part wield their arms. who to live well Entered so fair. as thou art. Shall yield up all their virtue. Those tents thou sawest so pleasant. conformity divine. From Man's effeminate slackness it begins. Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise. of short joy bereft. Erelong to swim at large. that seemed Of Goddesses. nor idly mustering stood. who should better hold his place By wisdom. all their fame Ignobly. wherein shall dwell his race Who slew his brother. O pity and shame. than those two past. Said the Angel. and more hope Of peaceful days portends. For that fair female troop thou sawest. so gay. should turn aside to tread Paths indirect. to sing. Unmindful of their Maker. True opener of mine eyes. for which The world erelong a world of tears must weep. were the tents Of wickedness. to nobler end Holy and pure. from Woman to begin. Created. fierce faces threatening war. and superiour gifts received. Concourse in arms. Much better seems this vision. studious they appear Of arts that polish life. The bent of nature. Single or in array of battle ranged Both horse and foot. and now swim in joy. attached the heart Of Adam. though to nature seeming meet.And charming symphonies. prime Angel blest. and roll the eye: To these that sober race of men. though his Spirit Taught them. so blithe. But now prepare thee for another scene. and troll the tongue.

men of men But who was that just man. till at last. but soon. In factious opposition. For in those days might only shall be admired. and sulphurous fire. Produce prodigious births of body or mind. with warriours mixed. not men? who thus deal death Inhumanly to men. Death's ministers. and sons of Gods. In other part the sceptered heralds call To council. which makes a bloody fray. truth. Where cattle pastured late. Deserted: Others to a city strong Lay siege. Their booty.One way a band select from forage drives A herd of beeves. And judgement from above: him old and young Exploded. shall be held the highest pitch Of human glory. and had seized with violent hands. but of their brethren. and refuge none was found. fair oxen and fair kine. or fleecy flock. scarce with life the shepherds fly. On each hand slaughter. encamped. men of high renown. To overcome in battle. and subdue Nations. These are the product Of those ill-mated marriages thou sawest. stones. and sword-law. And valour and heroick virtue called. anon Gray-headed men and grave. Adam was all in tears. Ewes and their bleating lambs over the plain. With cruel tournament the squadrons join. whom had not Heaven Rescued. Assemble. and to his guide Lamenting turned full sad. and bring home spoils with infinite Man-slaughter. 191 . in the city-gates. by imprudence mixed. to be styled great conquerours Patrons of mankind. and gigantick deeds. who of themselves Abhor to join. Through all the plain. eminent In wise deport. and harangues are heard. O!what are these. Such were these giants. or religion. But call in aid. had in his righteousness been lost? To whom thus Michael. others from the wall defend With dart and javelin. and oppression. and multiply Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew His brother: for of whom such massacre Make they. by battery. Assaulting. now scattered lies With carcasses and arms the ensanguined field. scale. From a fat meadow ground. Of middle age one rising. Of justice. and. Had not a cloud descending snatched him thence Unseen amid the throng: so violence Proceeded. spake much of right and wrong. Where good with bad were matched. and mine. and peace. Gods. and for glory done Of triumph.

The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar. with black wings Wide-hovering. he oft Frequented their assemblies. He looked. and pairs. And utter odious truth. Rape or adultery. him the Most High Rapt in a balmy cloud with winged steeds Did. whereso met. as to souls In prison. that God would come To judge them with his Saints. as befel. thence from cups to civil broils. to walk with God High in salvation and the climes of bliss. Sent up amain. Exempt from death. he ceased Contending. all dwellings else 192 . Measured by cubit. and in the side a door Contrived. and removed his tents far off. renown on earth. and insect small. and breadth. and now the thickened sky Like a dark cieling stood. and highth. Came sevens. All now was turned to jollity and game. At length a reverend sire among them came. therefore so beset With foes. and of provisions laid in large. Smeared round with pitch. And what most merits fame. the seventh from thee. and God made fast the door. Which now direct thine eyes and soon behold. Then. and secure with beaked prow Rode tilting o'er the waves. For man and beast: when lo. And of their doings great dislike declared. But he. down rushed the rain Impetuous. all the clouds together drove From under Heaven. the hills to their supply Vapour. and plagues of men. Thus fame shall be achieved. and bird. till the earth No more was seen: the floating vessel swum Uplifted. Triumphs or festivals. length. the rest what punishment. and. where passing fair Allured them. and continued. from the mountain hewing timber tall. under judgements imminent: But all in vain: which when he saw. a wonder strange! Of every beast. With their four wives. and exhalation dusk and moist. and entered in as taught Their order: last the sire and his three sons. To luxury and riot. And testified against their ways. whom thou beheldst The only righteous in a world preverse. Marrying or prostituting. Began to build a vessel of huge bulk. and saw the face of things quite changed. as thou sawest. for daring single to be just. in silence hid. to show thee what reward Awaits the good. receive. feast and dance.Destroyers rightlier called. And therefore hated. and to them preached Conversion and repentance. Mean while the south-wind rose.

of mankind. having spilt much blood. and enslaved by war. but of true virtue void. Of tears and sorrow a flood. To whom thus Michael. sea-monsters whelped And stabled. whom last thou sawest In triumph and luxurious wealth. what shall befall Him or his children. Shall change their course to pleasure. How comes it thus? unfold. to behold The end of all thy offspring. Which neither his foreknowing can prevent. and achieved thereby Fame in the world. with their freedom lost. celestial Guide. Though comfortless. And he the future evil shall no less In apprehension than in substance feel. on thy feet thou stoodest at last. Let no man seek Henceforth to be foretold. All would have then gone well. so numerous late. high titles. And whether here the race of Man will end. all in view destroyed at once. The conquered also. And scarce to the Angel utter'dst thus thy plaint. Depopulation! Thee another flood. All left. till. Man is not whom to warn: those few escaped Famine and anguish will at last consume. and war on earth. are they First seen in acts of prowess eminent And great exploits. How didst thou grieve then. end so sad. Grievous to bear: but that care now is past. till wantonness and pride Raise out of friendship hostile deeds in peace. and sloth. for now I see Peace to corrupt no less than war to waste. With thought that they must be. as when a father mourns His children. Where luxury late reigned.Flood overwhelmed. those now. gently reared By the Angel. that were dispensed The burden of many ages. Wandering that watery desart: I had hope. Adam. Shall. Those. each day's lot Enough to bear. Surfeit. But I was far deceived. all virtue lose 193 . and rich prey. peace would have crowned With length of happy days the race of Man. evil he may be sure. When violence was ceased. on me light At once. and them with all their pomp Deep under water rolled. sea covered sea. ease. to torment me ere their being. and done much wast Subduing nations. thee also drowned. And sunk thee as thy sons. Sea without shore. O visions ill foreseen! Better had I Lived ignorant of future! so had borne My part of evil only. and lust. Who. in one small bottom swum imbarked. and in their palaces. by my foreknowledge gaining birth Abortive.

cooled in zeal. And sheltered round. shall heave the ocean to usurp Beyond all bounds. Justice and temperance. he of their wicked ways Shall them admonish. from whom their piety feigned In sharp contest of battle found no aid Against invaders. departs From Canaan. Down the great river to the opening gulf. therefore. and sea-mews' clang: To teach thee that God attributes to place No sanctity. but of God observed The one just man alive. to a land hereafter called Egypt. One man except. The haunt of seals. divided by the river Nile. by his command Shall build a wonderous ark. with them of man and beast Select for life. the only son of light In a dark age. and shall return Of them derided. from amidst A world devote to universal wrack. that temperance may be tried: So all shall turn degenerate. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. but all the cataracts Of Heaven set open on the Earth shall pour Rain. shall in the ark be lodged.And fear of God. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh: There he dies. Against allurement. all fountains of the deep. and before them set The paths of righteousness. custom. and a world Offended: fearless of reproach and scorn. day and night. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. And there take root an island salt and bare. and houshold. denouncing wrath to come On their impenitence. as inmate guests Or violence. Thenceforth shall practice how to live secure. The grand-child. Broke up. To save himself. and orcs. with twelve sons encreased. till inundation rise Above the highest hills: Then shall this mount Of Paradise by might of waves be moved Out of his place. for the earth shall bear More than enough. pushed by the horned flood. and trees adrift. against example good. truth and faith. No sooner he. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea: To sojourn in that land He comes. as thou beheldst. With all his verdure spoiled. if none be thither brought 194 . forgot. on what their lords Shall leave them to enjoy. all depraved. See where it flows. a son. Worldly or dissolute. how much more safe And full of peace.

as decayed. So willingly doth God remit his ire. Fast on the top of some high mountain fixed. Grieved at his heart. pacifick sign: Anon dry ground appears. Whereat the heart of Adam. and shower the earth? To whom the Arch-Angel. Towards the retreating sea. who now had stopt His sluces. and all flesh 195 . and covenant new. He looked. which made their flowing shrink From standing lake to tripping ebb. Greatly rejoiced. And now. A dove sent forth once and again to spy Green tree or ground. than I rejoice For one man found so perfect. as rocks. and from his ark The ancient sire descends. the surer messenger. As after thirst. and their seed preserve. The ark no more now floats. what further shall ensue. Driven by a keen north-wind. and of the fresh wave largely drew. what mean those coloured streaks in Heaven Distended. Then with uplifted hands. that stole With soft foot towards the deep. and thus his joy broke forth. And the clear sun on his wide watery glass Gazed hot. when looking down he saw The whole earth filled with violence. Wrinkled the face of deluge. as the Heaven his windows shut. or therein dwell. Though late repenting him of Man depraved. heavenly Instructer! I revive At this last sight. Dextrously thou aimest. and eyes devout. but seems on ground. and in the cloud a bow Conspicuous with three lifted colours gay. with all his train. Forthwith from out the ark a raven flies. to bind The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud. for the clouds were fled. and all his anger to forget. behold. Betokening peace from God. whereon his foot may light: The second time returning. in his bill An olive-leaf he brings. as a flowery verge. That God vouchsafes to raise another world From him. over his head beholds A dewy cloud. and so just. assured that Man shall live. who future things canst represent As present. With clamour thence the rapid currents drive.By men who there frequent. And now the tops of hills. blowing dry. O thou. their furious tide. Grateful to Heaven. that. Which now abated. But say. Far less I now lament for one whole world Of wicked sons destroyed. Lest it again dissolve. With all the creatures. and saw the ark hull on the flood. erst so sad. as the brow of God appeased? Or serve they. appear. And after him.

Thou therefore give due audience. Such grace shall one just man find in his sight. objects divine Must needs impair and weary human sense: Henceforth what is to come I will relate. and. fearing the Deity. And call to mind his covenant: Day and night. such as refuse Subjection to his empire tyrannous: A mighty hunter thence he shall be styled Before the Lord. nor let the sea Surpass his bounds. and oil. wine. not content With fair equality. yet. from the herd or flock. And makes a covenant never to destroy The earth again by flood. Seed-time and harvest. 196 . Under paternal rule: till one shall rise Of proud ambitious heart. And Man. If Adam aught perhaps might interpose. and dwell Long time in peace. or kid. Labouring the soil. Both Heaven and Earth. fraternal state. That he relents. and hostile snare. and end. as from a second stock. when he brings Over the earth a cloud. and multiply apace. and sacred feast. Then. Will arrogate dominion undeserved Over his brethren. as in despite of Heaven. proceed. not to blot out mankind. lamb. will therein set His triple-coloured bow. those removed. and attend. Oft sacrificing bullock. Hunting (and men not beasts shall be his game) With war. nor rain to drown the world. new speech resumes. And while the dread of judgement past remains Fresh in their minds. but. Much thou hast yet to see.Corrupting each their way. With large wine-offerings poured. whereon to look. but I perceive Thy mortal sight to fail. heat and hoary frost. With man therein or beast. Book XII As one who in his journey bates at noon. by families and tribes. Shall hold their course. wherein the just shall dwell. and reaping plenteous crop. Corn. Shall spend their days in joy unblamed. This second source of Men. till fire purge all things new. Though bent on speed. With some regard to what is just and right Shall lead their lives. so here the Arch-Angel paused Betwixt the world destroyed and world restored. Thus thou hast seen one world begin. who. with transition sweet. and quite dispossess Concord and law of nature from the earth. while yet but few.

As mocked they storm: great laughter was in Heaven. But God. true liberty Is lost. where thin air Above the clouds will pine his entrails gross. whom like ambition joins With him or under him to tyrannize. and all in rage. Dominion absolute. And hear the din: Thus was the building left Ridiculous. if not of bread? To whom thus Michael. till hoarse. And from rebellion shall derive his name. fish. from God not given: He gave us only over beast. their memory be lost. but man over men He made not lord. to God his tower intends Siege and defiance: Wretched man!what food Will he convey up thither. they cast to build A city and tower. To sow a jangling noise of words unknown: Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud. Marching from Eden towards the west. far dispersed In foreign lands. and from her hath no dividual being: 197 . He with a crew. lest. whose top may reach to Heaven. to himself assuming Authority usurped. the mouth of Hell: Of brick. fowl. And looking down. and. and in derision sets Upon their tongues a various spirit. ere the tower Obstruct Heaven-towers. wherein a black bituminous gurge Boils out from under ground. them beholding soon. and through their habitations walks To mark their doings. Since thy original lapse. And get themselves a name. each to other calls Not understood. shall find The plain. which always with right reason dwells Twinned. human left from human free. such title to himself Reserving. who on the quiet state of men Such trouble brought. to rase Quite out their native language. But this usurper his encroachment proud Stays not on Man. Whereto thus Adam. Justly thou abhorrest That son. and of that stuff. O execrable son! so to aspire Above his brethren. that right we hold By his donation. instead. who oft descends to visit men Unseen. claiming second sovranty.Or from Heaven. fatherly displeased. Regardless whether good or evil fame. and the work Confusion named. Comes down to see their city. yet know withal. Among the builders. Though of rebellion others he accuse. And famish him of breath. affecting to subdue Rational liberty. to sustain Himself and his rash army. to see the hubbub strange.

Still tend from bad to worse. And one peculiar nation to select From all the rest. and upon him shower His benediction so. Therefore. and false Gods. Immediately inordinate desires. and some fatal curse annexed. Ur of Chaldaea. I see his tents Pitched about Sechem. in judgement just. in a land unknown. And upstart passions. who. A nation from one faithful man to spring: Him on this side Euphrates yet residing. as the former world. and fall To worship their own work in wood and stone For Gods! Yet him God the Most High vouchsafes To call by vision. Servant of servants. who 'scaped the flood. his friends. and from him will raise A mighty nation. after him a cumbrous train Of herds and flocks. Who oft as undeservedly enthrall His outward freedom: Tyranny must be. Their inward lost: Witness the irreverent son Of him who built the ark. but trusting all his wealth With God. into a land Which he will show him. Yet sometimes nations will decline so low From virtue. Not knowing to what land. who called him. Canaan he now attains. As to forsake the living God. for the shame Done to his father. catch the government From reason. Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse. but thou canst not. which is reason. passing now the ford To Haran. till then free. His kindred. God. resolving from thenceforth To leave them to their own polluted ways. Bred up in idol-worship: O. with what faith He leaves his Gods. that no wrong. While yet the patriarch lived. Deprives them of their outward liberty. withdraw His presence from among them. yet firm believes: I see him. that men (Canst thou believe?) should be so stupid grown. Thus will this latter. that in his seed All nations shall be blest: he straight obeys. till God at last. and avert His holy eyes. and native soil. heard this heavy curse. But justice. or not obeyed. of whom to be invoked. and to servitude reduce Man. and numerous servitude. Subjects him from without to violent lords. on his vicious race. Not wandering poor. since he permits Within himself unworthy powers to reign Over free reason. and the neighbouring plain 198 . from his father's house. Wearied with their iniquities.Reason in man obscured.

thunder mixed with hail. as I point them. each place behold In prospect. Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call.Of Moreh. whereof to thee anon Plainlier shall be revealed. as inmate guests Too numerous. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. and kills their infant males: Till by two brethren (these two brethren call Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim His people from enthralment. there by promise he receives Gift to his progeny of all that land. and of his son a grand-child. but his sons Shall dwell to Senir. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. lice. Must be compelled by signs and judgements dire. they return. His cattle must of rot and murren die. with twelve sons increased. devouring where it rolls. Hail mixed with fire. From Hameth northward to the Desart south. and flies. that long ridge of hills. There he dies. With glory and spoil. But first. true limit eastward. herb. Jordan. (Things by their names I call. or grain. the double-founted stream. whence of guests he makes them slaves Inhospitably. who shall bruise The Serpent's head. or fruit. in wisdom. here. This patriarch blest. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea. A son. must all his palace fill With loathed intrusion. Frogs. Darkness must overshadow all his bounds. Mount Hermon. departs From Canaan to a land hereafter called Egypt. This ponder. What it devours not. yonder sea. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. the lawless tyrant. 199 . must rend the Egyptians sky. or message to regard.) From Hermon east to the great western Sea. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down Must eat. Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss. To sojourn in that land He comes. And all his people. that all nations of the earth Shall in his seed be blessed: By that seed Is meant thy great Deliverer. divided by the river Nile See where it flows. and on the ground leave nothing green. and renown: The grandchild. back to their promised land. And wheel on the earth. and fill all the land. leaves. though yet unnamed. a son whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh. on the shore Mount Carmel. To blood unshed the rivers must be turned. Like him in faith. who denies To know their God.

will himself In thunder. between two crystal walls. and the cloud. but them lets pass. God looking forth will trouble all his host. 200 . and remove Behind them. by types And shadows. to rule by laws ordained: God from the mount of Sinai. lightning. By day a cloud. but still. who shall go Before them in a cloud. As on dry land. entering on the Canaanite alarmed. Lest. Though present in his Angel. there they shall found Their government. And craze their chariot-wheels: when by command Moses once more his potent rod extends Over the sea. till his rescued gain their shore: Such wondrous power God to his saint will lend. but his approach Darkness defends between till morning watch. such as appertain To civil justice. part. But the voice of God To mortal ear is dreadful: They beseech That Moses might report to them his will. where rashness leads not on. while the obdurate king pursues: All night he will pursue. for life To noble and ignoble is more sweet Untrained in arms. and fear Return them back to Egypt. with one midnight stroke. This also shall they gain by their delay In the wide wilderness. religious rites Of sacrifice. he grants what they besought. whose gray top Shall tremble. the sea his rod obeys. Awed by the rod of Moses so to stand Divided. choosing rather Inglorious life with servitude. all the first-born Of Egypt must lie dead.Palpable darkness. War terrify them inexpert. the sea Swallows him with his host. by night a pillar of fire. And terrour cease. Thus with ten wounds The river-dragon tamed at length submits To let his sojourners depart. Ordain them laws. he descending. not the readiest way. And overwhelm their war: The race elect Safe toward Canaan from the shore advance Through the wild Desart. as ice More hardened after thaw. part. of that destined Seed to bruise The Serpent. and loud trumpets' sound. On their embattled ranks the waves return. in his rage Pursuing whom he late dismissed. To guide them in their journey. till. Then through the fiery pillar. informing them. Last. by what means he shall achieve Mankind's deliverance. and blot out three days. and pillar of fire. and their great senate choose Through the twelve tribes. and oft Humbles his stubborn heart.

between the wings Of two bright Cherubim. And all the Prophets in their age the times Of great Messiah shall sing. who thus shall Canaan win. This yet I apprehend not. in whom all nations shall be blest. 'Sun. O sent from Heaven. laws and rites Established. what would become Of me and all mankind: But now I see His day. 'And thou moon in the vale of Aialon. and my heart much eased. of whose day he shall foretel. So many laws argue so many sins Among them. to evince Their natural pravity. how many battles fought How many kings destroyed. Man's voice commanding. and kingdoms won. and at length they come. by stirring up Sin against law to fight: that when they see 201 . to the land Promised to Abraham and his seed:--The rest Were long to tell. that he vouchsafes Among them to set up his tabernacle.Instructed that to God is no access Without Mediator. Conducted by his Angel. son of Isaac. Here Adam interposed. Favour unmerited by me. who sought Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. The records of his covenant. and from him His whole descent. Enlightener of my darkness. 'Till Israel overcome! so call the third From Abraham. Doubt not but that sin Will reign among them. Or how the sun shall in mid Heaven stand still A day entire. in Gibeon stand. gracious things Thou hast revealed. over the tent a cloud Shall rest by day. And therefore was law given them. and in the ark his testimony. before him burn Seven lamps as in a zodiack representing The heavenly fires. and night's due course adjourn. as of thee begot. a fiery gleam by night. overlaid with gold. to introduce One greater. over these A mercy-seat of gold. Erewhile perplexed with thoughts. which concern Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Mine eyes true-opening. those chiefly. Thus. therein An ark. whose high office now Moses in figure bears. how can God with such reside? To whom thus Michael. why to those Among whom God will deign to dwell on earth So many and so various laws are given. The Holy One with mortal Men to dwell: By his prescript a sanctuary is framed Of cedar. Save when they journey. such delight hath God in Men Obedient to his will.

works of law to works of faith. disciplined From shadowy types to truth. his temple. Save by those shadowy expiations weak. that his regal throne For ever shall endure. of bad the longer scroll. and bring back Through the world's wilderness long-wandered Man Safe to eternal Paradise of rest. the like shall sing All Prophecy. but when sins National interrupt their publick peace. And therefore shall not Moses. as shall be registered Part good.Law can discover sin. Mean while they. But first. as to leave them. and other faults Heaped to the popular sum. from servile fear To filial. not performing. 202 . both for piety renowned And puissant deeds. they may conclude Some blood more precious must be paid for Man. Just for unjust. whom the Gentiles Jesus call. in such righteousness To them by faith imputed. and peace Of conscience. a promise shall receive Irrevocable. and. part bad. being but the minister Of law. Whose foul idolatries. and to kings foretold. and expose their land. in full time. that of the royal stock Of David (so I name this king) shall rise A Son. till then in tents Wandering. but not remove. as in whom shall trust All nations. The clouded ark of God. his people into Canaan lead. So law appears imperfect. and but given With purpose to resign them. though of God Highly beloved. for of his reign shall be no end. nor Man the mortal part Perform. From whom as oft he saves them penitent By Judges first. a long succession must ensue. The blood of bulls and goats. cannot live. that. Up to a better covenant. for wealth and wisdom famed. But Joshua. And his next son. shall in a glorious temple enshrine. Their city. from flesh to spirit. and his holy ark. the Woman's seed to thee foretold. which the law by ceremonies Cannot appease. Long time shall dwell and prosper. in their earthly Canaan placed. His name and office bearing. Provoking God to raise them enemies. who shall quell The adversary-Serpent. of kings The last. then under Kings. Such follow him. will so incense God. they may find Justification towards God. Foretold to Abraham. of whom The second. From imposition of strict laws to free Acceptance of large grace.

finisher Of utmost hope! now clear I understand What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in vain. nor so is overcome Satan. To whom thus Michael. or the local wounds Of head or heel: Not therefore joins the Son Manhood to Godhead. hail. Unseen before in Heaven. grown In wealth and multitude. whom God disposed. and should most Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings Upon the temple itself: at last they seise The scepter. Dream not of their fight. but his sire The power of the Most High: He shall ascend The throne hereditary. But first among the priests dissention springs. discerning Adam with such joy Surcharged. And guides the eastern sages. myrrh. High in the love of Heaven. Without the vent of words. and for a while In mean estate live moderate. as had like grief been dewed in tears. proclaims him come. and gold: His place of birth a solemn Angel tells To simple shepherds. the house of God They first re-edify. till. which these he breathed. As of a duel. They gladly thither haste. whose fall from Heaven. Returned from Babylon by leave of kings Their lords. factious they grow. There in captivity he lets them dwell The space of seventy years. then brings them back. and regard not David's sons. Remembering mercy. 203 . O prophet of glad tidings. He ceased. what stroke shall bruise the victor's heel. and bound his reign With Earth's wide bounds. and from thy womb the Son Of God Most High: so God with Man unites! Needs must the Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain: Say where and when Their fight. with more strength to foil Thy enemy. Men who attend the altar. and his covenant sworn To David. his glory with the Heavens. A virgin is his mother. Why our great Expectation should be called The seed of Woman: Virgin Mother. keeping watch by night. a deadlier bruise. yet at his birth a star. to offer incense. yet from my loins Thou shalt proceed. that the true Anointed King Messiah might be born Barred of his right. Babylon thence called. Then lose it to a stranger.With all his sacred things. who inquire His place. whose high walls thou sawest Left in confusion. and by a quire Of squadroned Angels hear his carol sung. a scorn and prey To that proud city. stablished as the days of Heaven.

the death thou shouldest have died. The law of God exact he shall fulfil Both by obedience and by love. Or theirs whom he redeems. who comes thy Saviour. his two main arms. and suffering death. The law that is against thee. and in thy seed: Nor can this be. the sign 204 . imposed On penalty of death.Disabled. the stars of morn shall see him rise Out of his grave. like sleep. Proclaiming life to all who shall believe In his redemption. men who in his life Still followed him. And due to theirs which out of thine will grow: So only can high Justice rest appaid. than certain times to appear To his disciples. nailed to the cross By his own nation. Seised on by force. not their own. becomes theirs by faith. judged. In sin for ever lost from life. A gentle wafting to immortal life. and to death condemned A shameful and accursed. with him there crucified. Nor after resurrection shall he stay Longer on earth. crush his strength. Death over him no power Shall long usurp. shall recure. so he dies. Imputed. a death. fresh as the dawning light. thy punishment He shall endure. For this he shall live hated. but his works In thee. not to give thee thy death's wound: Which he. this act Shall bruise the head of Satan. But soon revives. The penalty to thy transgression due. Thy ransom paid. Defeating Sin and Death. works. Never to hurt them more who rightly trust In this his satisfaction. and the sins Of all mankind. slain for bringing life: But to the cross he nails thy enemies. them who shall believe Baptizing in the profluent stream. which Man from death redeems. though love Alone fulfil the law. Obedience to the law of God. and that his obedience. though legal. And fix far deeper in his head their stings Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's heel. and cursed death. by coming in the flesh To a reproachful life. Not by destroying Satan. But by fulfilling that which thou didst want. and the benefit embrace By faith not void of works: This God-like act Annuls thy doom. as many as offered life Neglect not. his merits To save them. His death for Man. to them shall leave in charge To teach all nations what of him they learned And his salvation. be blasphemed. ere the third dawning light Return.

O Goodness infinite. and also arm With spiritual armour. like that which the Redeemer died. more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand. All nations they shall teach. Then enter into glory. for. more good-will to Men From God. prince of air. and quench his fiery darts. Whether in Heaven or Earth. for then the Earth Shall all be Paradise. So in his seed all nations shall be blest. Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend With victory. Replete with joy and wonder. from that day. To God more glory. Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce. and over wrath grace shall abound. To judge the unfaithful dead. but from Heaven He to his own a Comforter will send. and our sire. upon their hearts shall write. far happier place Than this of Eden. When this world's dissolution shall be ripe. and receive them into bliss. and resume His seat at God's right hand. if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend. and drag in chains Through all his realm. thus replied. The promise of the Father. But say. and occasioned. For death. With glory and power to judge both quick and dead. and thence shall come. To guide them in all truth. And evil turn to good. or rejoice Much more. who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt? Be sure they will. triumphing through the air Over his foes and thine. said the Angel. As at the world's great period. not afraid. there shall surprise The Serpent. left among the unfaithful herd. Working through love. So spake the Arch-Angel Michael. 205 . that much more good thereof shall spring. and the law of faith.Of washing them from guilt of sin to life Pure. exalted high Above all names in Heaven. and in mind prepared. then paused. Whether I should repent me now of sin By me done. if so befall. Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins Salvation shall be preached. what will betide the few His faithful. What man can do against them. but to the sons Of Abraham's faith wherever through the world. but to reward His faithful. able to resist Satan's assaults. and there confounded leave. and far happier days. The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people. who shall dwell His Spirit within them.

Though not but by the Spirit understood. The Woman's Seed. shall them with wonderous gifts endue To speak all tongues. Places. who in the worship persevere Of spirit and truth. And vengeance to the wicked. Thus they win Great numbers of each nation to receive With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: At length Their ministry performed. grievous wolves. and the truth With superstitions and traditions taint. Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force On every conscience. not another's? for.Though to the death. whom he sends To evangelize the nations. Truth shall retire Bestuck with slanderous darts. and race well run. and do all miracles. from that pretence. till the day Appear of respiration to the just. though feigning still to act By spiritual. Left only in those written records pure. Under her own weight groaning. Their doctrine and their story written left. To good malignant. laws which none shall find Left them inrolled. on earth. Now ampler known thy Saviour and thy Lord. Their own faith. Then shall they seek to avail themselves of names. as they forewarn. but unbuild His living temples. but in their room. at return Of him so lately promised to thy aid. They die. obscurely then foretold. far greater part. What will they then But force the Spirit of Grace itself. against such cruelties With inward consolations recompensed. or what the Spirit within Shall on the heart engrave. built by faith to stand. to bad men benign. and. Wolves shall succeed for teachers. and bind His consort Liberty? what. then on all Baptized. and with these to join Secular power. the rest. Poured first on his Apostles. and titles. to themselves appropriating The Spirit of God. Who against faith and conscience can be heard Infallible? yet many will presume: Whence heavy persecution shall arise On all. Will deem in outward rites and specious forms Religion satisfied. 206 . And oft supported so as shall amaze Their proudest persecutors: For the Spirit. Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven To their own vile advantages shall turn Of lucre and ambition. and works of faith Rarely be found: So shall the world go on. promised alike and given To all believers. As did their Lord before them.

and all the ethereal powers. To bring forth fruits. Greatly in peace of thought. And love with fear the only God. only add Deeds to thy knowledge answerable. new Earth. Henceforth I learn. Seer blest. and see!the guards. waves fiercely round: We may no longer stay: go. all Nature's works. and love. purged and refined. or sea. and on him sole depend. what this vessel can contain. add faith. thou hast attained the sum Of wisdom. at whose front a flaming sword. and by small Accomplishing great things. one empire. expect Their motion. joy and eternal bliss. Greatly-instructed I shall hence depart. And. waken Eve. New Heavens. that to obey is best. Add virtue. to the faithful. patience. whose end no eye can reach. then raise From the conflagrant mass. by things deemed weak Subverting worldly strong. All secrets of the deep. Merciful over all his works. Taught this by his example. And all the rule. This having learned. Till time stand fixed! Beyond is all abyss. And all the riches of this world enjoyedst. By name to come called charity. the race of time. to dissolve Satan with his perverted world. death the gate of life. the soul Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth To leave this Paradise. and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Is fortitude to highest victory. earth.Last. To whom thus also the Angel last replied. and thus Adam last replied. in the clouds. with good Still overcoming evil. Founded in righteousness. Her also I with gentle dreams have calmed 207 . By me encamped on yonder hill. and have my fill Of knowledge. Beyond which was my folly to aspire. Eternity. add love. for the hour precise Exacts our parting hence. In signal of remove. ages of endless date. to walk As in his presence. from Heaven to be revealed In glory of the Father. whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest. air. hope no higher. He ended. though all the stars Thou knewest by name. How soon hath thy prediction.-Let us descend now therefore from this top Of speculation. ever to observe His providence. temperance. Measured this transient world. happier far. Or works of God in Heaven. and peace. but shalt possess A Paradise within thee.

all places thou. since with sorrow and heart's distress Wearied I fell asleep: But now lead on. and dreams advise. For God is also in sleep. Adam to the bower. He ended. Waved over by that flaming brand. at season fit. Which he hath sent propitious.Portending good. all in bright array The Cherubim descended. Both in one faith unanimous. with thee to go. so late their happy seat. Such favour I unworthy am vouchsafed. And thus with words not sad she him received. And vapour as the Libyan air adust. and down the cliff as fast To the subjected plain. High in front advanced. And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel Homeward returning. Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. as evening-mist Risen from a river o'er the marish glides. yet much more cheered With meditation on the happy end. They. and Adam heard Well pleased. and they both descend the hill. Who for my wilful crime art banished hence. By me the Promised Seed shall all restore. This further consolation yet secure I carry hence. Descended. So spake our mother Eve. where to choose 208 . for evils past. which will be many days. In me is no delay. but found her waked. too nigh The Arch-Angel stood. though all by me is lost. The great deliverance by her seed to come (For by the Woman's seed) on all mankind: That ye may live. looking back. and to the eastern gate Led them direct. Began to parch that temperate clime. thou to me Art all things under $Heaven. With cause. and. and whither wentest. Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard. Is to stay here. ran before. all the eastern side beheld Of Paradise. and fiery arms: Some natural tears they dropt. but wiped them soon. Fierce as a comet. the gate With dreadful faces thronged. Is to go hence unwilling. on the ground Gliding meteorous. some great good Presaging. then disappeared. Whence thou returnest. from the other hill To their fixed station. and all her spirits composed To meek submission: thou. The brandished sword of God before them blazed. whereat In either hand the hastening Angel caught Our lingering parents. where Eve Lay sleeping. though sad. I know. which with torrid heat. The world was all before them. without thee here to stay. but answered not: For now.

hand in hand.Their place of rest. Through Eden took their solitary way. [The End] 209 . and Providence their guide: They. with wandering steps and slow.

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