PARADISE LOST Book I Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste

Brought death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful seat, Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed In the beginning how the heavens and earth Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed Fast by the oracle of God, I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. And chiefly thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th' upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for thou know'st; thou from the first Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread, Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss, And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark Illumine, what is low raise and support; That, to the height of this great argument, I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Say first--for Heaven hides nothing from thy view, Nor the deep tract of Hell--say first what cause Moved our grand parents, in that happy state, Favoured of Heaven so highly, to fall off From their Creator, and transgress his will For one restraint, lords of the World besides. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? Th' infernal Serpent; he it was whose guile, Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equalled the Most High, If he opposed, and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong flaming from th' ethereal sky, 1

With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition, there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy th' Omnipotent to arms. Nine times the space that measures day and night To mortal men, he, with his horrid crew, Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf, Confounded, though immortal. But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the thought Both of lost happiness and lasting pain Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay, Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate. At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild. A dungeon horrible, on all sides round, As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all, but torture without end Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed. Such place Eternal Justice has prepared For those rebellious; here their prison ordained In utter darkness, and their portion set, As far removed from God and light of Heaven As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. Oh how unlike the place from whence they fell! There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, He soon discerns; and, weltering by his side, One next himself in power, and next in crime, Long after known in Palestine, and named Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heaven called Satan, with bold words Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:-"If thou beest he--but O how fallen! how changed From him who, in the happy realms of light Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine Myriads, though bright!--if he whom mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise Joined with me once, now misery hath joined In equal ruin; into what pit thou seest From what height fallen: so much the stronger proved He with his thunder; and till then who knew The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, Nor what the potent Victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent, or change, 2

Though changed in outward lustre, that fixed mind, And high disdain from sense of injured merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, And to the fierce contentions brought along Innumerable force of Spirits armed, That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring, His utmost power with adverse power opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, And shook his throne. What though the field be lost? All is not lost--the unconquerable will, And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deify his power Who, from the terror of this arm, so late Doubted his empire--that were low indeed; That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall; since, by fate, the strength of Gods, And this empyreal sybstance, cannot fail; Since, through experience of this great event, In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven." So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair; And him thus answered soon his bold compeer:-"O Prince, O Chief of many throned Powers That led th' embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds Fearless, endangered Heaven's perpetual King, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate, Too well I see and rue the dire event That, with sad overthrow and foul defeat, Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as Gods and heavenly Essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigour soon returns, Though all our glory extinct, and happy state Here swallowed up in endless misery. But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now Of force believe almighty, since no less Than such could have o'erpowered such force as ours) Have left us this our spirit and strength entire, Strongly to suffer and support our pains, 3

That we may so suffice his vengeful ire, Or do him mightier service as his thralls By right of war, whate'er his business be, Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire, Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep? What can it the avail though yet we feel Strength undiminished, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment?" Whereto with speedy words th' Arch-Fiend replied:-"Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable, Doing or suffering: but of this be sure-To do aught good never will be our task, But ever to do ill our sole delight, As being the contrary to his high will Whom we resist. If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labour must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; Which ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb His inmost counsels from their destined aim. But see! the angry Victor hath recalled His ministers of vengeance and pursuit Back to the gates of Heaven: the sulphurous hail, Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid The fiery surge that from the precipice Of Heaven received us falling; and the thunder, Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage, Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, The seat of desolation, void of light, Save what the glimmering of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves; There rest, if any rest can harbour there; And, re-assembling our afflicted powers, Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from hope, If not, what resolution from despair." Thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, With head uplift above the wave, and eyes That sparkling blazed; his other parts besides Prone on the flood, extended long and large, Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge As whom the fables name of monstrous size, Titanian or Earth-born, that warred on Jove, 4

nor ever thence Had risen. and enraged might see How all his malice served but to bring forth Infinite goodness. force hath made supreme Above his equals. wrath. "Is this the region. Farewell. and vengeance poured. and by their own recovered strength. as seamen tell. or heaved his head. this the soil. which God of all his works Created hugest that swim th' ocean-stream. Both glorying to have scaped the Stygian flood As gods. grace. Then with expanded wings he steers his flight Aloft. Chained on the burning lake. Sublimed with mineral fury. Deeming some island. or that sea-beast Leviathan. since he Who now is sovereign can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from him is best Whom reason hath equalled. incumbent on the dusky air. on each hand the flames Driven backward slope their pointing spires. With fixed anchor in his scaly rind. or the shattered side Of thundering Etna. whom the den By ancient Tarsus held. Not by the sufferance of supernal Power." Said then the lost Archangel. So stretched out huge in length the Arch-fiend lay. Moors by his side under the lee. That felt unusual weight. while night Invests the sea. Such resting found the sole Of unblest feet. thence conceiving fire. leave i' th' midst a horrid vale. Him followed his next mate. the clime.Briareos or Typhon. Forthwith upright he rears from off the pool His mighty stature. and mercy. haply slumbering on the Norway foam. "this the seat That we must change for Heaven?--this mournful gloom For that celestial light? Be it so.rolled In billows. Him. and wished morn delays. And leave a singed bottom all involved With stench and smoke. as the lake with liquid fire. happy fields. and. shewn On Man by him seduced. but that the will And high permission of all-ruling Heaven Left him at large to his own dark designs. whose combustible And fuelled entrails. That with reiterated crimes he might Heap on himself damnation. till on dry land He lights--if it were land that ever burned With solid. oft. aid the winds. 5 . but on himself Treble confusion. while he sought Evil to others. The pilot of some small night-foundered skiff. And such appeared in hue as when the force Of subterranean wind transprots a hill Torn from Pelorus.

to be the mast Of some great ammiral. but th' Omnipotent. not like those steps On Heaven's azure. Lie thus astonished on th' oblivious pool. and called 6 . if I be still the same. To reign is worth ambition. th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy. none could have foiled! If once they hear that voice. when it raged. And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion. and on the perilous edge Of battle. whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening. or mountains. But wherefore let we then our faithful friends. large. horrors! hail. though now they lie Grovelling and prostrate on yon lake of fire. a Hell of Heaven. Receive thy new possessor--one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. Ethereal temper. in my choice. in her spotty globe. His spear--to equal which the tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills. till on the beach Of that inflamed sea he stood. fallen such a pernicious height!" He scare had ceased when the superior Fiend Was moving toward the shore. their liveliest pledge Of hope in fears and dangers--heard so oft In worst extremes. astounded and amazed. his ponderous shield. and him Beelzebub Thus answered:--"Leader of those armies bright Which. though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. The mind is its own place. As we erewhile. or what more lost in Hell?" So Satan spake. And what I should be. and round. will not drive us hence: Here we may reigh secure. massy. Rivers. all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free. What matter where. in all assaults Their surest signal--they will soon resume New courage and revive. and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell. or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet Regained in Heaven. Nathless he so endured. to descry new lands. to support uneasy steps Over the burning marl. The broad circumference Hung on his shoulders like the moon.Where joy for ever dwells! Hail. profoundest Hell. and the torrid clime Smote on him sore besides. vaulted with fire. Th' associates and co-partners of our loss. Infernal world! and thou. were but a wand-He walked with. from the top of Fesole. Or in Valdarno. Behind him cast. and. No wonder.

That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung Like Night. and were abashed. arise. when with fierce winds Orion armed Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast. Warriors. and darkened all the land of Nile. warping on the eastern wind. as in the vales of Heaven? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the Conqueror. who beheld From the safe shore their floating carcases And broken chariot-wheels. whose waves o'erthrew Busiris and his Memphian chivalry. or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf? Awake. descending. in Egypt's evil day. Waved round the coast. So numberless were those bad Angels seen Hovering on wing under the cope of Hell. So thick bestrown. as a signal given. th' uplifted spear Of their great Sultan waving to direct Their course. as when men wont to watch On duty. the Flower of Heaven--once yours. in even balance down they light On the firm brimstone. or the fierce pains not feel. who lay entranced Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks In Vallombrosa. covering the flood. till anon His swift pursuers from Heaven-gates discern Th' advantage. Under amazement of their hideous change. or scattered sedge Afloat. and surrounding fires. and fill all the plain: A multitude like which the populous North 7 . He called so loud that all the hollow deep Of Hell resounded:--"Princes.His legions--Angel Forms. Potentates. where th' Etrurian shades High over-arched embower. If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal Spirits! Or have ye chosen this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight In which they were. As when the potent rod Of Amram's son. sleeping found by whom they dread. While with perfidious hatred they pursued The sojourners of Goshen. nether. now lost. 'Twixt upper. and up they sprung Upon the wing. up-called a pitchy cloud Of locusts. Yet to their General's voice they soon obeyed Innumerable. lay these. Abject and lost. and. for the ease you find To slumber here. tread us down Thus drooping. who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood With scattered arms and ensigns. Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. Till. or be for ever fallen!" They heard.

At their great Emperor's call. And with their darkness durst affront his light. and with cursed things His holy rites and solemn feasts profaned. yea. long after. gods adored Among the nations round. Their children's cries unheard that passed through fire To his grim idol. Moloch. Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve Got them new names. throned Between the Cherubim. and Forms Excelling human. as next in worth Came singly where he stood on the bare strand.Poured never from her frozen loins to pass Rhene or the Danaw. Though on their names in Heavenly records now Be no memorial. till. Roused from the slumber on that fiery couch. In Argob and in Basan. Abominations. next the seat of God. Through God's high sufferance for the trial of man. Forthwith. the wisest heart Of Solomon he led by fraoud to build His temple right against the temple of God 8 . to the stream Of utmost Arnon. Though. when her barbarous sons Came like a deluge on the South. often placed Within his sanctuary itself their shrines. who last. and th' invisible Glory of him that made them to transform Oft to the image of a brute. and durst abide Jehovah thundering out of Sion. from the pit of Hell Roaming to seek their prey on Earth. princely Dignities. The heads and leaders thither haste where stood Their great Commander--godlike Shapes. By falsities and lies the greatest part Of mankind they corrupted to forsake God their Creator. for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. and parents' tears. and spread Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands. form every squadron and each band. Him the Ammonite Worshiped in Rabba and her watery plain. Muse. blotted out and rased By their rebellion from the Books of Life. First. who first. And various idols through the heathen world. durst fix Their seats. Say. adorned With gay religions full of pomp and gold. horrid king. wandering o'er the earth. Their altars by his altar. Nor content with such Audacious neighbourhood. And devils to adore for deities: Then were they known to men by various names. While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof? The chief were those who. besmeared with blood Of human sacrifice. And Powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones. their names then known.

whom the Phoenicians called Astarte. In Sion also not unsung. but. For Spirits. the type of Hell. th' obscene dread of Moab's sons. While smooth Adonis from his native rock Ran purple to the sea. Can execute their airy purposes. From Aroar to Nebo and the wild Of southmost Abarim. supposed with blood Of Thammuz yearly wounded: the love-tale Infected Sion's daughters with like heat. With these came they who. To do him wanton rites. Like cumbrous flesh. bowing lowly down To bestial gods. These feminine. and made his grove The pleasant valley of Hinnom. which cost them woe. To whose bright image nigntly by the moon Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs. Next Chemos. With these in troop Came Astoreth. 9 . For those the race of Israel oft forsook Their Living Strength. on their march from Nile. Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones. had general names Of Baalim and Ashtaroth--those male. Beguiled by fair idolatresses. queen of heaven. sunk before the spear Of despicable foes. Seon's real. And Eleale to th' Asphaltic Pool: Peor his other name. with crescent horns.On that opprobrious hill. Not tried or manacled with joint or limb. Dilated or condensed. by the grove Of Moloch homicide. built By that uxorious king whose heart. though large. lust hard by hate. in Hesebon And Horonaim. Can either sex assume. for which their heads as low Bowed down in battle. Tophet thence And black Gehenna called. from the bordering flood Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian ground. in what shape they choose. And works of love or enmity fulfil. Thammuz came next behind. when he enticed Israel in Sittim. so soft And uncompounded is their essence pure. or both. Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. where stood Her temple on th' offensive mountain. Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged Even to that hill of scandal. when they please. fell To idols foul. and unfrequented left His righteous altar. bright or obscure. beyond The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines. Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer's day.

when night Darkens the streets. His eye surveyed the dark idolatries Of alienated Judah. To him no temple stood Or altar smoked. whom he drew God's altar to disparage and displace For one of Syrian mode. whose delightful seat Was fair Damascus. After these appeared A crew who. under names of old renown-Osiris. Him followed Rimmon. Next came one Who mourned in earnest. who. where the noise Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers. than whom a Spirit more lewd Fell not from Heaven. flown with insolence and wine. and. on the grunsel-edge. in Gath and Ascalon. when the hospitable door 10 . He also against the house of God was bold: A leper once he lost. or more gross to love Vice for itself. Orus. and their train-With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms Rather than human. yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars. lucid streams. Witness the streets of Sodom.upward man And downward fish. when the captive ark Maimed his brute image. sea-monster. Likening his Maker to the grazed ox-Jehovah. Nor did Israel scape Th' infection. Isis. when. yet had his temple high Reared in Azotus. Where he fell flat and shamed his worshippers: Dagon his name. and gained a king-Ahaz. when their borrowed gold composed The calf in Oreb. and adore the gods Whom he had vanquished. In his own temple. Belial came last. and the rebel king Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan. in one night. equalled with one stroke Both her first-born and all her bleating gods. on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Pharphar. whereon to burn His odious offerings. when the priest Turns atheist.Whose wanton passions in the sacred proch Ezekiel saw. by the vision led. then wander forth the sons Of Belial. who filled With lust and violence the house of God? In courts and palaces he also reigns. And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds. dreaded through the coast Of Palestine. And in luxurious cities. And injury and outrage. as did Eli's sons. head and hands lopt off. and that night In Gibeah. his sottish conqueror. when he passed From Egypt marching.

though far renowned Th' Ionian gods--of Javan's issue held Gods. That proud honour claimed Azazel as his right. Seraphic arms and trophies. and birthright seized By younger Saturn: he from mightier Jove. first in Crete And Ida known. and serried shields in thick array Of depth immeasurable. all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: At which the universal host up-sent A shout that tore Hell's concave. and instead of rage Deliberate valour breathed. to avoid worse rape. like measure found. With his enormous brood.Exposed a matron. With orient colours waving: with them rose A forest huge of spears. Their highest heaven. All in a moment through the gloom were seen Ten thousand banners rise into the air. be upreared His mighty standard. full high advanced. All these and more came flocking. that bore Semblance of worth. which on his countenance cast Like doubtful hue. his wonted pride Soon recollecting. But he. Or in Dodona. These were the prime in order and in might: The rest were long to tell. to have found themselves not lost In loss itself. gently raised Their fainting courage. Then straight commands that. thence on the snowy top Of cold Olympus ruled the middle air. with high words. Anon they move In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood Of flutes and soft recorders--such as raised To height of noblest temper heroes old Arming to battle. at the warlike sound Of trumpets loud and clarions. With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed. but with looks Downcast and damp. yet confessed later than Heaven and Earth. 11 . Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind. His own and Rhea's son. and unmoved With dread of death to flight or foul retreat. and through all the bounds Of Doric land. yet such wherein appeared Obscure some glimpse of joy to have found their Chief Not in despair. firm. not substance. Heaven's first-born. And o'er the Celtic roamed the utmost Isles. and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. These. or on the Delphian cliff. Their boasted parents. which. or who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to th' Hesperian fields. So Jove usurping reigned.--Titan. and dispelled their fears. a Cherub tall: Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled Th' imperial ensign. and thronging helms Appeared.

yet observed Their dread Commander. Moved on in silence to soft pipes that charmed Their painful steps o'er the burnt soil. and th' excess Of glory obscured: as when the sun new-risen Looks through the horizontal misty air Shorn of his beams. Could merit more than that small infantry Warred on by cranes--though all the giant brood Of Phlegra with th' heroic race were joined That fought at Thebes and Ilium. disastrous twilight sheds On half the nations. or Montalban. the followers rather 12 . on each side Mixed with auxiliar gods. and soon traverse The whole battalion views--their order due. in guise Of warriors old. yet shone Above them all th' Archangel: but his face Deep scars of thunder had intrenched. or Marocco. and what resounds In fable or romance of Uther's son. Thus far these beyond Compare of mortal prowess. Begirt with British and Armoric knights. And now Advanced in view they stand--a horrid front Of dreadful length and dazzling arms. baptized or infidel. but cast Signs of remorse and passion. from behind the moon. Jousted in Aspramont. with ordered spear and shield. Their number last he sums. And now his heart Distends with pride. Cruel his eye. to behold The fellows of his crime. above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent. He. Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore When Charlemain with all his peerage fell By Fontarabbia. but under brows Of dauntless courage. since created Man. and chase Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow and pain From mortal or immortal minds. and care Sat on his faded cheek. nor appeared Less than Archangel ruined. and considerate pride Waiting revenge. and. Damasco. Awaiting what command their mighty Chief Had to impose. And all who since. Breathing united force with fixed thought. Darkened so. hardening in his strength. Glories: for never. In dim eclipse. His form had yet not lost All her original brightness.Nor wanting power to mitigate and swage With solemn touches troubled thoughts. and with fear of change Perplexes monarchs. or. Met such embodied force as. named with these. Their visages and stature as of gods. Stood like a tower. He through the armed files Darts his experienced eye. Thus they. or Trebisond.

Space may produce new Worlds. if but to pry. But what power of mind. shall fail to re-ascend. as. He now prepared To speak. So as not either to provoke. Tears. and thrice. Hateful to utter. burst forth: at last Words interwove with sighs found out their way:-"O myriads of immortal Spirits! O Powers Matchless. but still his strength concealed-Which tempted our attempt. If counsels different. and know our own. be witness all the host of Heaven. Thither. condemned For ever now to have their lot in pain-Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. or danger shunned By me. and wrought our fall. how such As stood like these. Self-raised. Their glory withered. could ever know repulse? For who can yet believe. As this place testifies. and therein plant A generation whom his choice regard Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven. though bare. by fraud or guile. whereat their doubled ranks they bend From wing to wing. Forseeing or presaging. Henceforth his might we know. and this dire change. Thrice he assayed. and repossess their native seat? For me. who overcomes By force hath overcome but half his foe. But he who reigns Monarch in Heaven till then as one secure Sat on his throne. and his regal state Put forth at full. have lost our hopes. though after loss. Stands on the blasted heath. What force effected not. in spite of scorn. or elsewhere. from the depth Of knowledge past or present. shall be perhaps Our first eruption--thither. whose exile Hath emptied Heaven. could have feared How such united force of gods. and half enclose him round With all his peers: attention held them mute. upheld by old repute. whereof so rife There went a fame in Heaven that he ere long Intended to create. though th' event was dire. That all these puissant legions. that he no less At length from us may find. Consent or custom. With singed top their stately growth. For this infernal pit shall never hold 13 . but with th' Almighth!--and that strife Was not inglorious.(Far other once beheld in bliss). when heaven's fire Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. such as Angels weep. or dread New war provoked: our better part remains To work in close design. and from eteranl splendours flung For his revolt--yet faithful how they stood.

By him first Men also. are easily outdone By Spirits reprobate. outflew Millions of flaming swords. for even in Heaven his looks and thoughts Were always downward bent. that soil may best Deserve the precious bane. Mammon led them on-Mammon. with spade and pickaxe armed. then. the least erected Spirit that fell From Heaven. Highly they raged Against the Highest. nor th' Abyss Long under darkness cover. Ransacked the centre. scarce perform. As in an organ. And digged out ribs of gold. Forerun the royal camp. admiring more The riches of heaven's pavement. The work of sulphur. A third as soon had formed within the ground A various mould. trodden gold. 14 . Learn how their greatest monuments of fame And strength. war Open or understood. But these thoughts Full counsel must mature. Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed In vision beatific. with incessant toil And hands innumerable. whose grisly top Belched fire and rolling smoke. Let none admire That riches grow in Hell. drawn from the thighs Of mighty Cherubim. Or cast a rampart. and wondering tell Of Babel. And here let those Who boast in mortal things. to trench a field. winged with speed. There stood a hill not far. and by his suggestion taught. and scummed the bullion-dross. A numerous brigade hastened: as when bands Of pioneers. and fierce with grasped arms Clashed on their sounding shields the din of war. the sudden blaze Far round illumined Hell. and the works of Memphian kings. the rest entire Shone with a glossy scurf--undoubted sign That in his womb was hid metallic ore. Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heaven. and with impious hands Rifled the bowels of their mother Earth For treasures better hid. Soon had his crew Opened into the hill a spacious wound." He spake. in many cells prepared. and in an hour What in an age they. That underneath had veins of liquid fire Sluiced from the lake. For who can think submission? War.Celestial Spirits in bondage. from one blast of wind. and. Thither. a second multitude With wondrous art founded the massy ore. and art. and from the boiling cells By strange conveyance filled each hollow nook. Peace is despaired. must be resolved. to confirm his words. Nigh on the plain. Severing each kind.

Not Babylon Nor great Alcairo such magnificence Equalled in all their glories. many a row Of starry lamps and blazing cressets. with bossy sculptures graven. With his industrious crew. wide Within. with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound.To many a row of pipes the sound-board breathes. fed With naptha and asphaltus. Where sceptred Angels held their residence. His hand was known In Heaven by many a towered structure high. th' Aegaean isle. and how he fell From Heaven they fabled. and straight the doors. nor did he scape By all his engines. The roof was fretted gold. Pendent by subtle magic. or seat Their kings. Opening their brazen folds. and with the setting sun Dropt from the zenith. from noon to dewy eve. the high capital Of Satan and his peers. and gave to rule. and in Ausonian land Men called him Mulciber. but was headlong sent. And sat as Princes. like a falling star. A summer's day. Anon out of the earth a fabric huge Rose like an exhalation. to enshrine Belus or Serapis their gods. And some the architect. throughout the host proclaim A solemn council forthwith to be held At Pandemonium. where pilasters round Were set. discover. Each in his Hierarchy. her ample spaces o'er the smooth And level pavement: from the arched roof. the Orders bright. Meanwhile the winged Heralds. The hasty multitude Admiring entered. Erring. nor did there want Cornice or frieze. whom the supreme King Exalted to such power. with the sound Of dulcet symphonies and voices sweet-Built like a temple. for he with this rebellious rout Fell long before. when Egypt with Assyria strove In wealth and luxury. and the work some praise. nor aught aviled him now To have built in Heaven high towers. Their summons called From every band and squared regiment By place or choice the worthiest: they anon 15 . Thus they relate. to build in Hell. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements: from morn To noon he fell. Th' ascending pile Stood fixed her stately height. yielded light As from a sky. Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. by command Of sovereign power. and Doric pillars overlaid With golden architrave. On Lemnos.

After short silence then. expatiate. Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. The suburb of their straw-built citadel. Now less than smallest dwarfs. the gates And porches wide. when the Sun with Taurus rides. till. And summons read. the signal given. some belated peasant sees. The great Seraphic Lords and Cherubim In close recess and secret conclave sat. Satan exalted sat. while overhead the Moon Sits arbitress. by a forest-side Or fountain. or on the smoothed plank.With hundreds and with thousands trooping came Attended. and at the Soldan's chair Defied the best of Paynim chivalry To mortal combat. Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms Reduced their shapes immense. both on the ground and in the air. A thousand demi-gods on golden seats. and confer Their state-affairs: so thick the airy crowd Swarmed and were straitened. from despair Thus high uplifted beyond hope. and were at large. Though without number still. the great consult began. Whose midnight revels. on their mirth and dance Intent. Or dreams he sees. insatiate to pursue 16 . Thick swarmed. amidst the hall Of that infernal court. At once with joy and fear his heart rebounds. and nearer to the Earth Wheels her pale course: they. which far Outshone the wealth or Ormus and of Ind. But far within. New rubbed with balm. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. by merit raised To that bad eminence. in narrow room Throng numberless--like that pygmean race Beyond the Indian mount. but chief the spacious hall (Though like a covered field. aspires Beyond thus high. where champions bold Wont ride in armed. Frequent and full. As bees In spring-time. and. Behold a wonder! They but now who seemed In bigness to surpass Earth's giant sons. or career with lance). Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. And in their own dimensions like themselves. with jocund music charm his ear. Book II High on a throne of royal state. or faery elves. All access was thronged.

and. with that care lost Went all his fear: of God. or Hell. Thus far at least recovered. The happier state In Heaven. He recked not. Who can advise may speak. while they sit contriving. shall the rest-Millions that stand in arms. I give not Heaven for lost: from this descent Celestial Virtues rising will appear More glorious and more dread than from no fall. and these words thereafter spake:-"My sentence is for open war. which follows dignity. hath much more Established in a safe. though oppressed and fallen. More than can be in Heaven. Heaven's fugitives. Stood up--the strongest and the fiercest Spirit That fought in Heaven. or when they need. no good For which to strive. The prison of his ryranny who reigns 17 . by success untaught. we now return To claim our just inheritance of old.Vain war with Heaven. Whether of open war or covert guile. but who here Will envy whom the highest place exposes Foremost to stand against the Thunderer's aim Your bulwark. now fiercer by despair. Yielded with full consent. We now debate. not now. I boast not: them let those Contrive who need. and the fixed laws of Heaven. and next him Moloch." He ceased. might draw Envy from each inferior. And trust themselves to fear no second fate!-Me though just right. and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame. unenvied throne. and firm faith. and by what best way. His trust was with th' Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength. and rather than be less Cared not to be at all. and longing wait The signal to ascend--sit lingering here. none whose portion is so small Of present pain that with ambitious mind Will covet more! With this advantage. Surer to prosper than prosperity Could have assured us. then. since no deep within her gulf can hold Immortal vigour. or worse. Of wiles. Deities of Heaven!-For. then. Did first create your leader--next. sceptred king. free choice With what besides in council or in fight Hath been achieved of merit--yet this loss. and firm accord. More unexpert. no strife can grow up there From faction: for none sure will claim in Hell Precedence. and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is. His proud imaginations thus displayed:-"Powers and Dominions. To union. For.

when. and pursued us through the Deep. if not victory. And cannot cease to be. descent and fall To us is adverse. But perhaps The way seems difficult. What fear we then? what doubt we to incense His utmost ire? which. With what compulsion and laborious flight We sunk thus low? Th' ascent is easy. if the sleepy drench Of that forgetful lake benumb not still. and. Will either quite consume us. all at once O'er Heaven's high towers to force resistless way. driven out from bliss. condemned In this abhorred deep to utter woe! Where pain of unextinguishable fire Must exercise us without hope of end The vassals of his anger. and steep to scale With upright wing against a higher foe! Let such bethink them. for lightning. and expire. he shall hear Infernal thunder. and his look denounced Desperate revenge. Turning our tortures into horrid arms Against the Torturer. to meet the noise Of his almighty engine. and the torturing hour. That in our porper motion we ascend Up to our native seat. is yet revenge. in act more graceful and humane. and his throne itself Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire. On th' other side up rose Belial. he seemed 18 . Th' event is feared! Should we again provoke Our stronger. A fairer person lost not Heaven. Though inaccessible. see Black fire and horror shot with equal rage Among his Angels. And with perpetual inroads to alarm. and battle dangerous To less than gods. Calls us to penance? More destroyed than thus. Who but felt of late. and reduce To nothing this essential--happier far Than miserable to have eternal being!-Or. to the height enraged. When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear Insulting. we are at worst On this side nothing. some worse way his wrath may find To our destruction. We should be quite abolished.By our delay? No! let us rather choose. when the scourge Inexorably. if there be in Hell Fear to be worse destroyed! What can be worse Than to dwell here." He ended frowning. if our substance be indeed divine. his fatal throne: Which. His own invented torments. and by proof we feel Our power sufficient to disturb his Heaven. then. Armed with Hell-flames and fury.

that he never will is sure. yet our great Enemy. To give his enemies their wish. so wise. And that must end us. Devoid of sense and motion? And who knows. that render all access Impregnable: oft on the bodering Deep Encamp their legions. let loose at once his ire. Though full of pain. and could make the worse appear The better reason. and purge off the baser fire. When he who most excels in fact of arms. As not behind in hate. Reserved. Let this be good. Belike through impotence or unaware. Those thoughts that wander through eternity.For dignity composed. and destined to eternal woe. Thus repulsed. Will he. or will ever? How he can Is doubtful. but to nobler deeds Timorous and slothful. grounds his courage on despair And utter dissolution. could we break our way By force. Sad cure! for who would lose. if what was urged Main reason to persuade immediate war Did not dissuade me most. this intellectual being. swallowed up and lost In the wide womb of uncreated Night. 'we are decreed. To perish rather. and seem to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success. But all was false and hollow. would on his throne Sit unpolluted. Yet he pleased the ear. though his tongue Dropped manna. And with persuasive accent thus began:-"I should be much for open war. Or. would soon expel Her mischief. and at our heels all Hell should rise With blackest insurrection to confound Heaven's purest light. that must be our cure-To be no more. as the scope Of all his aim. Victorious. after some dire revenge. All incorruptible. what revenge? The towers of Heaven are filled With armed watch. and end Them in his anger whom his anger saves To punish endless? 'Wherefore cease we. First. 19 . to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low-To vice industrious. whether our angry Foe Can give it. and th' ethereal mould. then?' Say they who counsel war. our final hope Is flat despair: we must exasperate Th' Almighty Victor to spend all his rage. Incapable of stain. O Peers. Scorning surprise. or with obscure wing Scout far and wide into the realm of Night. In what he counsels and in what excels Mistrustful. and high exploit.

and besought The Deep to shelter us? This Hell then seemed A refuge from those wounds. thus in arms? What when we fled amain. And plunge us in the flames. satisfied 20 . or igominy. If we were wise. or for ever sunk Under yon boiling ocean. Shall we. To suffer. Each on his rock transfixed. against so great a foe Contending. This was at first resolved. and perhaps. worst-Thus sitting. or from above Should intermitted vengeance arm again His red right hand to plague us? What if all Her stores were opened. open or concealed. Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. War. since fate inevitable Subdues us. then. for what can force or guile With him. Or when we lay Chained on the burning lake? That sure was worse. Designing or exhorting glorious war. and this firmament Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire. pursued and struck With Heaven's afflicting thunder. thus expelled. if that fail them. The Victor's will. thus far removed. then. or pain. By my advice. and so doubtful what might fall. should blow them into sevenfold rage. The sentence of their Conqueror. shrink. to suffer here Chains and these torments? Better these than worse. while we perhaps.Whatever doing. as to do. Not mind us not offending. This is now Our doom. What can we suffer worse?' Is this. Unrespited. the sport and prey Or racking whirlwinds. threatening hideous fall One day upon our heads. and fear What yet they know must follow--to endure Exile. what can we suffer more. or who deceive his mind. unreprieved. alike My voice dissuades. Our strength is equal. or bonds. Awaked. There to converse with everlasting groans. Our Supreme Foe in time may much remit His anger. Caught in a fiery tempest. whose eye Views all things at one view? He from Heaven's height All these our motions vain sees and derides. and omnipotent decree. live thus vile--the race of Heaven Thus trampled. nor the law unjust That so ordains. which if we can sustain and bear. I laugh when those who at the spear are bold And venturous. What if the breath that kindled those grim fires. Impendent horrors. wrapt in chains. shall be hurled. thus consulting. therefore. Ages of hopeless end? This would be worse. unpitied.

This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst 21 . and Chaos judge the strife. void of pain. and receive Strict laws imposed. not feel. inured. and in what place soe'er Thrive under evil. Not peace. Or. or. vain to hope. with words clothed in reason's garb. our state Of splendid vassalage. for ill not worst. Counselled ignoble ease and peaceful sloth. will receive Familiar the fierce heat. Him to unthrone we then May hope. if his breath stir not their flames. This horror will grow mild. and after him thus Mammon spake:-"Either to disenthrone the King of Heaven We war. and from our own Live to ourselves. what change Worth waiting--since our present lot appears For happy though but ill. by leave obtained Unacceptable. Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous when great things of small. Free and to none accountable. prosperous of adverse. when everlasting Fate shall yield To fickle Chance. Besides what hope the never-ending flight Of future days may bring. We can create. while he lordly sits Our envied sovereign. changed at length. and work ease out of pain Through labour and endurance. The former. preferring Hard liberty before the easy yoke Of servile pomp. if war be best. and to the place conformed In temper and in nature. whence these raging fires Will slacken. this darkness light. but rather seek Our own good from ourselves." Thus Belial. for what place can be for us Within Heaven's bound. Our servile offerings? This must be our task In Heaven. on promise made Of new subjection. though in this vast recess. If we procure not to ourselves more woe. How wearisome Eternity so spent in worship paid To whom we hate! Let us not then pursue. By force impossible. with what eyes could we Stand in his presence humble. what chance. argues as vain The latter. Our purer essence then will overcome Their noxious vapour. and to his Godhead sing Forced hallelujahs. to celebrate his throne With warbled hyms. Useful of hurtful. and. or to regain Our own right lost.With what is punished. though in Heaven. this our delight. and his altar breathes Ambrosial odours and ambrosial flowers. unless Heaven's Lord supreme We overpower? Suppose he should relent And publish grace to all.

dismissing quite All thoughts of war. and what can Heaven show more? Our torments also may.Thick clouds and dark doth Heaven's all-ruling Sire Choose to reside. now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatched." He scarce had finished. how in safety best we may Compose our present evils. Become our elements. when such murmur filled Th' assembly as when hollow rocks retain The sound of blustering winds. Satan except. which might rise. and. Offspring of Heaven. and public care. and in his rising seemed A pillar of state. which all night long Had roused the sea. be called Princes of Hell? for so the popular vote Inclines--here to continue. anchors in a craggy bay After the tempest. and his sentence pleased. gems and gold. these piercing fires As soft as now severe. his glory unobscured. Ye have what I advise. though in ruin. from whence deep thunders roar. In emulation opposite to Heaven. which must needs remove The sensible of pain. Nor want we skill or art from whence to raise Magnificence. And princely counsel in his face yet shone. his look Drew audience and attention still as night Or summer's noontide air. in length of time. with regard Of what we are and where. Majestic. and the settled state Of order. By policy and long process of time. while thus he spake:-"Thrones and Imperial Powers. Ethereal Virtues! or these titles now Must we renounce. Mustering their rage. and Heaven resembles Hell! As he our darkness. so much the fear Of thunder and the sword of Michael Wrought still within them. Such applause was heard As Mammon ended. Which when Beelzebub perceived--than whom. and no less desire To found this nether empire. our temper changed Into their temper. And with the majesty of darkness round Covers his throne. Sage he stood With Atlantean shoulders. Advising peace: for such another field They dreaded worse than Hell. fit to bear The weight of mightiest monarchies. Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat. changing style. none higher sat--with grave Aspect he rose. All things invite To peaceful counsels. and build up here 22 . cannot we his light Imitate when we please? This desert soil Wants not her hidden lustre. whose bark by chance Or pinnace.

Or ambush from the Deep. but favoured more Of him who rules above. as with his golden those in Heaven. to be sure. By force of subtlety. so was his will Pronounced among the Gods. reserved His captive multitude. And Heaven's high Arbitrator sit secure In his own strength. What sit we then projecting peace and war? War hath determined us and foiled with loss Irreparable. to learn What creatures there inhabit. or possess 23 . Under th' inevitable curb. and of his kingdom lose no part By our revolt.A growing empire. but custody severe. Yet ever plotting how the Conqueror least May reap his conquest. to our power. though thus far removed. In height or depth. perhaps. but to remain In strictest bondage. And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted? and what peace can we return. But. For he. hostility and hate. The utmost border of his kingdom. still first and last will reign Sole king. and may least rejoice In doing what we most in suffering feel? Nor will occasion want. of what mould Or substance. for what peace will be given To us enslaved. though less In power and excellence. Some advantageous act may be achieved By sudden onset--either with Hell-fire To waste his whole creation. though slow. and with iron sceptre rule Us here. and revenge. the happy seat Of some new race. this place may lie exposed. doubtless! while we dream. And know not that the King of Heaven hath doomed This place our dungeon. nor shall we need With dangerous expedition to invade Heaven. left To their defence who hold it: here. how endued. but over Hell extend His empire. Though Heaven be shut. terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought. What if we find Some easier enterprise? There is a place (If ancient and prophetic fame in Heaven Err not)--another World. in new league Banded against his throne. to live exempt From Heaven's high jurisdiction. not our safe retreat Beyond his potent arm. about this time To be created like to us. and what their power And where their weakness: how attempted best. Thither let us bend all our thoughts. Untamed reluctance. called Man. and by an oath That shook Heaven's whole circumference confirmed. whose high walls fear no assault or siege.

if not drive. when his darling sons. Shall breathe her balm. or to sit in darkness here Hatching vain empires. that their God May prove their foe. unbottomed. which from the lowest deep Will once more lift us up. whom shall we send In search of this new World? whom shall we find Sufficient? who shall tempt with wandering feet The dark. Synod of Gods. or else in some mild zone Dwell. And opportune excursion. infinite Abyss. Seduce them to our party. Through the strict senteries and stations thick Of Angels watching round? Here he had need All circumspection: and we now no less Choice in our suffrage. whence. Nearer our ancient seat--perhaps in view Of those bright confines. But." 24 . or spread his airy flight. and drive. what art. and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve. can then Suffice. and our last hope. for on whom we send The weight of all. Upborne with indefatigable wings Over the vast abrupt. in spite of fate. To heal the scar of these corrosive fires. and in part proposed: for whence. and interrupt his joy In our confusion. relies. and faded bliss-Faded so soon! Advise if this be worth Attempting. and with repenting hand Abolish his own works. to confound the race Of mankind in one root." Thus beelzebub Pleaded his devilish counsel--first devised By Satan. first. or what evasion bear him safe. ere he arrive The happy Isle? What strength. done all to spite The great Creator? But their spite still serves His glory to augment. shall curse Their frail original. not unvisited of Heaven's fair light. and our joy upraise In his disturbance.All as our own. And through the palpable obscure find out His uncouth way. or. Hurled headlong to partake with us. and. Secure. and joy Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent They vote: whereat his speech he thus renews:-"Well have ye judged. like to what ye are. and at the brightening orient beam Purge off this gloom: the soft delicious air. well ended long debate. as we were driven. The puny habitants. This would surpass Common revenge. with neighbouring arms. could spring So deep a malice. we may chance Re-enter Heaven. But from the author of all ill. Great things resolved. The bold design Pleased highly those infernal States.

or deceive. and with utter loss of being Threatens him. the void profound Of unessential Night receives him next. Terror of Heaven. unmoved thus spake:-"O Progeny of Heaven! Empyreal Thrones! With reason hath deep silence and demur Seized us. whom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows. 25 . though undismayed. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. Or unknown region. while I abroad Through all the coasts of dark destruction seek Deliverance for us all. with monarchal pride Conscious of highest worth. if any pass. Outrageous to devour. Barred over us. due alike To him who reigns. and so much to him due Of hazard more as he above the rest High honoured sits? Go. and not refuse to reign. or undertake The perilous attempt. and as hard escape? But I should ill become this throne. at last. though fallen. and render Hell More tolerable. Astonished. and gates of burning adamant. if aught proposed And judged of public moment in the shape Of difficulty or danger. therefore. adorned With splendour. mighty Powers. Wherefore do I assume These royalties. If thence he scape. into whatever world. armed with power. and expectation held His look suspense. This enterprise None shall partake with me. what best may ease The present misery. O Peers. the dreadful voyage. this huge convex of fire. Satan. or oppose. till. immures us round Ninefold. These passed. and prevented all reply.This said. Alone. Our prison strong. Long is the way And hard. And this imperial sovereignty. While here shall be our home. could deter Me from attempting. if there be cure or charm To respite. intend at home. rose The Monarch. awaiting who appeared To second. prohibit all egress. But all sat mute. that out of Hell leads up to light. he sat. None among the choice and prime Of those Heaven-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accept. plunged in that abortive gulf. Pondering the danger with deep thoughts. and each In other's countenance read his own dismay. what remains him less Than unknown dangers. or slack the pain Of this ill mansion: intermit no watch Against a wakeful foe." Thus saying. Wide-gaping.

the hollow Abyss 26 . And. might in opinion stand His rivals. with pomp supreme. And god-like imitated state: him round A globe of fiery Seraphim enclosed With bright emblazonry. But they Dreaded not more th' adventure than his voice Forbidding. each other to destroy: As if (which might induce us to accord) Man had not hellish foes enow besides. while the north wind sleeps. and horrent arms. O shame to men! Devil with devil damned Firm concord holds. which glory excites. Others among the chief might offer now. the fields revive. and at once with him they rose. rejoicing in their matchless Chief: As. what erst they feared. Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote. lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds on earth. Nor failed they to express how much they praised That for the general safety he despised His own: for neither do the Spirits damned Lose all their virtue. God proclaiming peace. and. Yet live in hatred. and forth In order came the grand infernal Peers: Midst came their mighty Paramount. from his resolution raised. Extend his evening beam. and strife Among themselves. and bleating herds Attest their joy. that hill and valley rings. though under hope Of heavenly grace. If chance the radiant sun. men only disagree Of creatures rational. winning cheap the high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn. Then of their session ended they bid cry With trumpet's regal sound the great result: Toward the four winds four speedy Cherubim Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. enmity. and as a God Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. the louring element Scowls o'er the darkened landscape snow or shower. nor less Than Hell's dread Emperor. so refused. The birds their notes renew. That day and night for his destruction wait! The Stygian council thus dissolved. Towards him they bend With awful reverence prone.Prudent lest. Certain to be refused. Or close ambition varnished o'er with zeal. Thus they their doubtful consultations dark Ended. and seemed Alone th' antagonist of Heaven. and levy cruel wars Wasting the earth. o'erspread Heaven's cheerful face. By herald's voice explained. with farewell sweet. when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds Ascending.

Upon the wing or in swift race contend. and all the host of Hell With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim. and took with ravishment The thronging audience. 27 . In thoughts more elevate. or arm th' obdured breast With stubborn patience as with triple steel. war appears Waged in the troubled sky. Of happiness and final misery. with a pleasing sorcery. and. and Fate-Fixed fate. Passion and apathy. Song charms the Sense) Others apart sat on a hill retired. Their song was partial. or shun the goal With rapid wheels. Retreated in a silent valley. felt th' envenomed robe. and excite Fallacious hope. from Oechalia crowned With conquest. and tore Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines. more mild. And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw Into th' Euboic sea. and ride the air In whirlwind. and couch their spears. and reasoned high Of Providence. before each van Prick forth the airy knights. wandering. and entertain The irksome hours. Others. and glory and shame: Vain wisdom all.Heard far adn wide. more fell. and hapless fall By doom of battle. as inclination or sad choice Leads him perplexed. where he may likeliest find Truce to his restless thoughts. but the harmony (What could it less when Spirits immortal sing?) Suspended Hell. sing With notes angelical to many a harp Their own heroic deeds. And found no end. could charm Pain for a while or anguish. in wandering mazes lost. foreknowledge absolute. In discourse more sweet (For Eloquence the Soul. and false philosophy!-Yet. Part on the plain. Will. to warn proud cities. and armies rush To battle in the clouds. till his great Chief return. Part curb their fiery steeds. Of good and evil much they argued then. or fronted brigades form: As when. free will. with vast Typhoean rage. the ranged Powers Disband. each his several way Pursues. and complain that Fate Free Virtue should enthrall to Force or Chance. Hell scarce holds the wild uproar:-As when Alcides. with feats of arms From either end of heaven the welkin burns. and somewhat raised By false presumptuous hope. Rend up both rocks and hills. Foreknowledge. Till thickest legions close. As at th' Olympian games or Pythian fields. or in the air sublime. Thence more at ease their minds. Others.

as once it fled The lip of Tantalus. All in one moment. Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards The ford. which on firm land Thaws not. to reach The tempting stream. beat with perpetual storms Of whirlwind and dire hail. On bold adventure to discover wide That dismal world. and eyes aghast. bend Four ways their flying march. the river of oblivion. extremes by change more fierce. O'er many a frozen. From beds of raging fire to starve in ice Their soft ethereal warmth. and frozen round Periods of time. Viewed first their lamentable lot.Another part. With shuddering horror pale. pleasure and pain. 28 . a slow and silent stream. th' adventurous bands. and found No rest. named of lamentation loud Heard on the rueful stream. in squadrons and gross bands. rolls Her watery labyrinth. A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. and many a region dolorous. Through many a dark and dreary vale They passed. but gathers heap. infixed. But Fate withstands. and ruin seems Of ancient pile. their sorrow to augment. And wish and struggle. the flood of deadly hate. to oppose th' attempt. if any clime perhaps Might yield them easier habitation. Thus roving on In confused march forlorn. Cocytus. all else deep snow and ice. and of itself the water flies All taste of living wight. and so near the brink. Thither. At certain revolutions all the damned Are brought.--thence hurried back to fire. that disgorge Into the burning lake their baleful streams-Abhorred Styx. and feel by turns the bitter change Of fierce extremes. whereof who drinks Forthwith his former state and being forgets-Forgets both joy and grief. Where armies whole have sunk: the parching air Burns frore. and cold performs th' effect of fire. Far off from these. along the banks Of four infernal rivers. black and deep. Lethe. by harpy-footed Furies haled. Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage. and. and there to pine Immovable. They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro. fierce Phlegeton. Beyond this flood a frozen continent Lies dark and wild. many a fiery alp. with one small drop to lose In sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe. Sad Acheron of sorrow. as they pass.

And kennel there. Now shaves with level wing the deep. by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Bengala. three folds were brass. and toward the gates of Hell Explores his solitary flight: sometimes He scours the right hand coast. all monstrous. But ended foul in many a scaly fold. At last appear Hell-bounds. or limb. when they list. Ply stemming nightly toward the pole: so seemed Far off the flying Fiend. terrible as Hell. Lured with the smell of infant blood. If aught disturbed their noise. And thrice threefold the gates. and rung A hideous peal. fens. joint. three of adamantine rock. caves. bogs. they on the trading flood. while the labouring moon Eclipses at their charms. which God by curse Created evil. About her middle round A cry of Hell-hounds never-ceasing barked With wide Cerberean mouths full loud. As when far off at sea a fleet descried Hangs in the clouds. would creep. The one seemed woman to the waist. to dance With Lapland witches. for evil only good. when. high reaching to the horrid roof. impaled with circling fire. Through the wide Ethiopian to the Cape. Puts on swift wings. and Chimeras dire. called In secret. bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore. sometimes the left. Yet unconsumed. 29 . Or substance might be called that shadow seemed. and Hydras. For each seemed either--black it stood as Night. Gorgons. or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore. Impenetrable. Perverse. yet. with thoughts inflamed of highest design. Three iron.Rocks. Nor uglier follow the night-hag. Meanwhile the Adversary of God and Man. and worse Than fables yet have feigned or fear conceived. Where all life dies. riding through the air she comes. and fair. lakes. Voluminous and vast--a serpent armed With mortal sting. Satan. and Nature breeds. Before the gates there sat On either side a formidable Shape. all prodigious things. into her womb. yet there still barked and howled Within unseen. inutterable. Obominable. The other Shape-If shape it might be called that shape had none Distinguishable in member. Far less abhorred than these Vexed Scylla. whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs. and shades of death-A universe of death. Fierce as ten Furies. then soars Up to the fiery concave towering high. dens. death lives.

and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Thy king and lord? Back to thy punishment. and breath'st defiance here and scorn. Where I reign king. So frowned the mighty combatants that Hell Grew darker at their frown. So speaking and so threatening." So spake the grisly Terror. Satan stood Unterrified. Hell-born. not to contend with Spirits of Heaven. and to thy speed add wings. replied:-"Art thou that traitor Angel? art thou he. Hell trembled as he strode. or taste thy folly. Created thing naught valued he nor shunned). without leave asked of thee. With heaven's artillery fraught. grew tenfold. And now great deeds 30 . And with disdainful look thus first began:-"Whence and what art thou. and from his seat The monster moving onward came as fast With horrid strides.--then stand front to front Hovering a space.And shook a dreadful dart: what seemed his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. outcast from God. to enrage thee more. That be assured. and pangs unfelt before. till winds the signal blow To join their dark encounter in mid-air. Conjured against the Highest--for which both thou And they. came rattling on Over the Caspian. Satan was now at hand. and. though grim and terrible." To whom the Goblin. Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue Thy lingering. so matched they stood. More dreadful and deform. That dar'st. Incensed with indignation. execrable Shape. Th' undaunted Fiend what this might be admired-Admired. and like a comet burned. or with one stroke of this dart Strange horror seize thee. advance Thy miscreated front athwart my way To yonder gates? Through them I mean to pass. till then Unbroken. and learn by proof. and in proud rebellious arms Drew after him the third part of Heaven's sons. On th' other side. Each at the head Levelled his deadly aim. full of wrath. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th' arctic sky. and in shape. not feared (God and his Son except. False fugitive. Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith. For never but once more was wither like To meet so great a foe. are here condemned To waste eternal days in woe and pain? And reckon'st thou thyself with Spirits of Heaven Hell-doomed. and such a frown Each cast at th' other as when two black clouds. their fatal hands No second stroke intend. Retire.

whereof all Hell had rung. full oft Thyself in me thy perfect image viewing. Down they fell. "Against thy only son? What fury. then. till first I know of thee What thing thou art. Possesses thee to bend that mortal dart Against thy father's head? And know'st for whom? For him who sits above. Likest to thee in shape and countenance bright. which one day will destroy ye both!" She spake. and with attractive graces won The most averse--thee chiefly. thus double-formed. and for a sign Portentous held me. back they recoiled afraid At first. a goddess armed. Amazement seized All th' host of Heaven. that my sudden hand. and that phantasm call'st my son. All on a sudden miserable pain Surprised thee. while thy head flames thick and fast Threw forth. and thy words so strange Thou interposest. I know thee not. familiar grown. but. that sat Fast by Hell-gate and kept the fatal key. down Into this Deep. I pleased. And fields were fought in Heaven: wherein remained (For what could else?) to our Almighty Foe Clear victory. Risen. and do I seem Now in thine eye so foul?--once deemed so fair In Heaven. and in sight Of all the Seraphim with thee combined In bold conspiracy against Heaven's King. and why. O son. and in the general fall 31 . Becam'st enamoured. and such joy thou took'st With me in secret that my womb conceived A growing burden. Driven headlong from the pitch of Heaven. "O father. what intends thy hand. Had not the snaky Sorceress. who. Prevented. when at th' assembly. to our part loss and rout Through all the Empyrean. bids-His wrath." she cried. and called me Sin. dim thine eyes and dizzy swum In darkness. and laughs the while At thee. Then shining heavenly fair.Had been achieved. till on the left side opening wide. thou call'st Me father." T' whom thus the Portress of Hell-gate replied:-"Hast thou forgot me. spares to tell thee yet by deeds What it intends. which he calls justice. Meanwhile war arose. ordained his drudge to execute Whate'er his wrath. and with hideous outcry rushed between. Out of thy head I sprung. In this infernal vale first met. and at her words the hellish Pest Forbore: then these to her Satan returned:-"So strange thy outcry. nor ever saw till now Sight more detestable than him and thee.

unthought-of--know. none can resist. which none can pass Without my opening. with sorrow infinite To me. and now excessive grown. I come no enemy. through dire change Befallen us unforeseen. would full soon devour For want of other prey. Save he who reigns above. but to set free From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee. that. as thou saw'st--hourly conceived And hourly born. and all the heavenly host 32 . and sighed From all her caves. Whenever that shall be: so Fate pronounced. Thine own begotten. That rest or intermission none I find.I also: at which time this powerful key Into my hands was given. swifter far. At last this odious offspring whom thou seest. for. but long I sat not. shun His deadly arrow. my son and foe. of that rape begot These yelling monsters. for that mortal dint. now milder. Through tempered heavenly. And my fair son here show'st me. and howl. and back resounded Death! I fled. Before mine eyes in opposition sits Grim Death. and joys Then sweet. all my nether shape thus grew Transformed: but he my inbred enemy Forth issued. I fled. But thou. Made to destroy. that with ceaseless cry Surround me." She finished. when they list. Pregnant by thee. their repast. but he pursued (though more. I forewarn thee. and. And me. who set them on. but that he knows His end with mine involved. till my womb. neither vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms. and cried out Death! Hell trembled at the hideous name. into the womb That bred them they return. brandishing his fatal dart. his parent. in embraces forcible and foul Engendering with me. with fear and pain Distorted. and his bane. Inflamed with lust than rage). O father. then. and gnaw My bowels. breaking violent way. and the subtle Fiend his lore Soon learned. the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heaven. And. Tore through my entrails. Pensive here I sat Alone. with conscious terrors vex me round. and thus answered smooth:-"Dear daughter--since thou claim'st me for thy sire. bursting forth Afresh. Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes. now sad to mention. all dismayed. and knows that I Should prove a bitter morsel. with charge to keep These gates for ever shut. his mother. it seems. Me overtook.

among The gods who live at ease. and through the void immense To search. There ye shall be fed and filled Immeasurably. to supply Perhaps our vacant room. and Death Grinned horrible a ghastly smile. I keep. embalmed With odours. but herself. thou my author. and. though more removed. or aught Than this more secret. Be this. surcharged with potent multitude. in our just pretences armed. From them I go This uncouth errand sole. shall soon return. she took. and one for all Myself expose. And bring ye to the place where thou and Death Shall dwell at ease. Fell with us from on high. with lonely steps to tread Th' unfounded Deep. where I shall reign At thy right hand voluptuous. and blessed his maw Destined to that good hour. by him forbidden to unlock These adamantine gates. ere now Created vast and round--a place of bliss In the purlieus of Heaven. And. for both seemed highly pleased. thou My being gav'st me. that on my bowels feed? Thou art my father. to hear His famine should be filled. all things shall be your prey. by concurring signs. and thus bespake her sire:-"The key of this infernal Pit. Who hates me. now designed." Thus saying. Sad instrument of all our woe. I haste To know. this once known. and therein placed A race of upstart creatures. as beseems Thy daughter and thy darling. and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom air. With terrors and with clamours compassed round Of mine own brood. a place foretold Should be--and. Might hap to move new broils. Lest Heaven. towards the gate rolling her bestial train. and hath hither thrust me down Into this gloom of Tartarus profound. To sit in hateful office here confined. No less rejoiced His mother bad. not all the Stygian Powers 33 . without end. from her side the fatal key. with wandering quest. But what owe I to his commands above. Fearless to be o'ermatched by living might.Of Spirits that. against all force Death ready stands to interpose his dart. Which. whom should I obey But thee? whom follow? Thou wilt bring me soon To that new world of light and bliss." He ceased. by due And by command of Heaven's all-powerful King. Inhabitant of Heaven and heavenly born-Here in perpetual agony and pain. Forthwith the huge portcullis high up-drew.

Nor was his ear less pealed With noises loud and ruinous (to compare Great things with small) than when Bellona storms With all her battering engines. then in the key-hole turns Th' intricate wards. mibht pass through With horse and chariots ranked in loose array. Chance governs all. where length. or slow. Without dimension. bent to rase Some capital city. where eldest Night And Chaos. Light-armed or heavy. four champions fierce. nor shore. And by decision more embroils the fray By which he reigns: next him. nor fire. And time. and which thus must ever fight. Th' infernal doors. Under spread ensigns marching. and to battle bring Their embryon atoms: they around the flag Of each his faction. hold Eternal anarchy. She opened. without bound. for no narrow frith He had to cross. On a sudden open fly. that the lowest bottom shook Of Erebus. and like a furnace-mouth Cast forth redounding smoke and ruddy flame. and poise Their lighter wings. Cold. That with extended wings a bannered host. Moist. Of neither sea. Strive here for mastery. and perhaps her grave. and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder. and these elements In mutiny had from her axle torn 34 . Before their eyes in sudden view appear The secrets of the hoary Deep--a dark Illimitable ocean. or less than if this frame Of Heaven were falling. high arbiter. and Dry. So wide they stood. To whom these most adhere He rules a moment: Chaos umpire sits. Levied to side with warring winds. ancestors of Nature. smooth. Swarm populous. breadth.Could once have moved. and by confusion stand. and every bolt and bar Of massy iron or solid rock with ease Unfastens. and height. sharp. But all these in their pregnant causes mixed Confusedly. Pondering his voyage. For Hot. and place. The womb of Nature. but to shut Excelled her power: the gates wide open stood. amidst the noise Of endless wars. Unless th' Almighty Maker them ordain His dark materials to create more worlds-Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while. With impetuous recoil and jarring sound. Into this wild Abyss. nor air. are lost. in their several clans. unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil. swift.

Nor good dry land--nigh foundered. rough. And Discord with a thousand various mouths. in the surging smoke Uplifted. when straight behold the throne Of Chaos. and his dark pavilion spread Wide on the wasteful Deep! With him enthroned Sat sable-vested Night. Alone and without guide. With head. 35 . or flies. Thither he plies Undaunted. And swims. neither sea. o'er hill or moory dale. by constraint Wandering this darksome desert. hands. That fury stayed-Quenched in a boggy Syrtis. turning boldly. I come no spy With purpose to explore or to disturb The secrets of your realm. At last his sail-broad vans He spread for flight. thence many a league. or feet. or wades. wings. Treading the crude consistence. if some other place. plumb-down he drops Ten thousand fathom deep. T' whom Satan. meets A vast vacuity. assaults his ear With loudest vehemence. but. Half flying. and voices all confused. Chaos and ancient Night.The steadfast Earth. thus:--"Ye Powers And Spirtis of this nethermost Abyss. spurns the ground. by ill chance. but. of whom to ask Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies Bordering on light. and. had not. or. ascending rides Audacious. that seat soon failing. and Chance. to meet there whatever Power Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss Might in that noise reside. Fluttering his pennons vain. half lost. eldest of things. or creeps. I seek. Borne through the hollow dark. At length a universal hubbub wild Of stunning sounds. And Tumult. all embroiled. The strong rebuff of some tumultuous cloud. What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds Confine with Heaven. and to this hour Down had been falling. As when a gryphon through the wilderness With winged course. or rare. who by stealth Had from his wakeful custody purloined The guarded gold. Instinct with fire and nitre. on he fares. and by them stood Orcus and Ades. as my way Lies through your spacious empire up to light. and the dreaded name Of Demogorgon. and Confusion. Rumour next. through strait. The consort of his reign. so eagerly the Fiend O'er bog or steep. pursues his way. half on foot. All unawares. or sinks. behoves him now both oar and sail. Pursues the Arimaspian. dense. hurried him As many miles aloft. As in a cloudy chair.

Confusion worse confounded. Havoc. and by th' other whirlpool steered. stranger. Your dungeon. and through the shock Of fighting elements. stretching far and wide beneath. With faltering speech and visage incomposed. Yours be th' advantage all. Into the wild expanse. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence." He ceased. Now lately Heaven and Earth. Hell. Following his track (such was the will of Heaven) Paved after him a broad and beaten way Over the dark Abyss. thither to arrive I travel this profound. Direct my course: Directed. Go. and once more Erect the standard there of ancient Night. and speed. harder beset And more endangered than when Argo passed Through Bosporus betwixt the justling rocks. with difficulty and labour he. if all I can will serve That little which is left so to defend. linked in a golden chain To that side Heaven from whence your legions fell! If that way be your walk. reduce To her original darkness and your sway (Which is my present journey). Or when Ulysses on the larboard shunned Charybdis. he once passed. Answered: "I know thee. and Satan stayed not to reply. 36 . and spoil. glad that now his sea should find a shore. Encroached on still through our intestine broils Weakening the sceptre of old Night: first. With ruin upon ruin. and ruin. So he with difficulty and labour hard Moved on. like a pyramid of fire. and Heaven-gates Poured out by millions her victorious bands. you have not far. Pursuing. But. another world Hung o'er my realm. th' Ethereal King Possesses lately. who thou art-. who of late Made head against Heaven's King. wins his way. no mean recompense it brings To your behoof. on all sides round Environed. But. rout on rout. mine the revenge!" Thus Satan. though overthrown. whose boiling gulf Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length. when Man fell. All usurpation thence expelled. With fresh alacrity and force renewed Springs upward. and him thus the Anarch old. if I that region lost. for such a numerous host Fled not in silence through the frighted Deep. soon after.From your dominion won.*** That mighty leading Angel. Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain. I saw and heard. So much the nearer danger. are my gain.

and from the walls of Heaven Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night A glimmering dawn. Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sung of Chaos and eternal Night. fast by. and Chaos to retire. Or hear"st thou rather pure ethereal stream. holy Light. Whose fountain who shall tell? before the sun. 37 . reaching th' utmost orb Of this frail World. That Satan with less toil. hanging in a golden chain. once his native seat. Or of the Eternal coeternal beam May I express thee unblam'd? since God is light. extended wide In circuit. Before the Heavens thou wert. And. undetermined square or round. at leisure to behold Far off th' empyreal Heaven. Taught by the heavenly Muse to venture down The dark descent. Book III Hail. This pendent World. Accursed. Thither. Here Nature first begins Her farthest verge. offspring of Heaven firstborn. Escap'd the Stygian pool. except whom God and good Angels guard by special grace. didst invest *** The rising world of waters dark and deep. With opal towers and battlements adorned Of living sapphire. And never but in unapproached light Dwelt from eternity. by which the Spirits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro To tempt or punish mortals. Or in the emptier waste. he hies. And. though shrouds and tackle torn. full fraught with mischievous revenge. With tumult less and with less hostile din. Won from the void and formless infinite. As from her outmost works.From Hell continued. dwelt then in thee Bright effluence of bright essence increate. as with a mantle. a broken foe. and up to re-ascend. But now at last the sacred influence Of light appears. and at the voice Of God. Thee I re-visit now with bolder wing. and now with ease. while in my flight Through utter and through middle darkness borne. Weighs his spread wings. resembling air. and in a cursed hour. holds Gladly the port. in bigness as a star Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. though long detain'd In that obscure sojourn. like a weather-beaten vessel.

Clear spring. that voluntary move Harmonious numbers. That wash thy hallow'd feet. on his right The radiant image of his glory sat. or the sweet approach of even or morn. In blissful solitude. and the mind through all her powers Irradiate. he then survey'd Hell and the gulf between. that Man should find grace. there plant eyes. or human face divine. Yet not the more Cease I to wander. bent down his eye His own works and their works at once to view: About him all the Sanctities of Heaven Stood thick as stars. prophets old: Then feed on thoughts. Shine inward. Or sight of vernal bloom. Sion. unrivall'd love. and in shadiest covert hid Tunes her nocturnal note. or herds. and from his sight receiv'd Beatitude past utterance. And feel thy sovran vital lamp. or shady grove. as the wakeful bird Sings darkling. but not to me returns Day. Blind Thamyris. Thy sovran command. and Satan there Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night 38 . but chief Thee. Smit with the love of sacred song. or summer's rose. So thick a drop serene hath quench'd their orbs. and ever-during dark Surrounds me. that roll in vain To find thy piercing ray. And Tiresias. But cloud instead. and blind Maeonides. from the cheerful ways of men Cut off. Uninterrupted joy. and warbling flow. Or dim suffusion veil'd. that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight. Thus with the year Seasons return. where the Muses haunt. and Phineus. Now had the Almighty Father from above. His only son. So much the rather thou. but thou Revisit'st not these eyes.Though hard and rare: Thee I revisit safe. From the pure empyrean where he sits High thron'd above all highth. Or flocks. celestial Light. and the flowery brooks beneath. Nightly I visit: nor sometimes forget So were I equall'd with them in renown. on earth he first beheld Our two first parents. all mist from thence Purge and disperse. yet the only two Of mankind in the happy garden plac'd Reaping immortal fruits of joy and love. or sunny hill. and for the book of knowledge fair Presented with a universal blank Of nature's works to me expung'd and ras'd. and find no dawn. And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out.

Made passive both. so bent he seems On desperate revenge. as to right belong$ 'd. present. and them who fail'd. and willing feet. of freedom both despoil'd. Not free. And now. in the precincts of light. Thus to his only Son foreseeing spake. And easily transgress the sole command. Uncertain which. and ready now To stoop with wearied wings. So without least impulse or shadow of fate. seest thou what rage Transports our Adversary? whom no bounds Prescrib'd no bars of Hell. Freely they stood who stood. I made him just and right. if I foreknew. Such I created all the ethereal Powers And Spirits. nor yet the main abyss Wide interrupt. he wings his way Not far off Heaven. not I. and shall pervert. authors to themselves in all 39 . what proof could they have given sincere Of true allegiance. So were created. that shall redound Upon his own rebellious head. Where only what they needs must do appear'd. with purpose to assay If him by force he can destroy.In the dun air sublime. nor can justly accuse Their Maker. or their fate. nor all the chains Heap'd on him there. Wherein past. or their making. Or aught by me immutably foreseen. Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault. and fell who fell. in ocean or in air. though free to fall. future. When will and reason (reason also is choice) Useless and vain. Not me? they therefore. Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall He and his faithless progeny: Whose fault? Whose but his own? ingrate. without firmament. can hold. had serv'd necessity. Not what they would? what praise could they receive? What pleasure I from such obedience paid. For man will hearken to his glozing lies. he had of me All he could have. Which had no less proved certain unforeknown. constant faith or love. Through all restraint broke loose. Sufficient to have stood. On the bare outside of this world. or. Directly towards the new created world. They trespass. Only begotten Son. both them who stood. worse. he beholds. Him God beholding from his prospect high. And man there plac'd. As if predestination over-rul'd Their will dispos'd by absolute decree Or high foreknowledge they themselves decreed Their own revolt. that seem'd Firm land imbosom'd. By some false guile pervert.

That far be from thee. O son. deceiv'd By the other first: Man therefore shall find grace. The other none: In mercy and justice both. my wisdom. Son who art alone. should Man. in whom my soul hath chief delight. and without measure grace. and unmake For him. Love without end. though join'd With his own folly? that be from thee far. all As my eternal purpose hath decreed. Father. which ordain'd $THeir freedom: they themselves ordain'd their fall. Thy creature late so lov'd. what for thy glory thou hast made? So should thy goodness and thy greatness both Be question'd and blasphem'd without defence. Till they enthrall themselves. shall brightest shine. O Father. Which uttering.Both what they judge. Self-tempted. and judgest only right. For which both Heaven and earth shall high extol Thy praises. first and last. for so I form'd them free: and free they must remain. Through Heaven and Earth. and thy goodness bring to nought. gracious was that word which clos'd Thy sovran command. wherewith thy throne Encompass'd shall resound thee ever blest. Yet with revenge accomplish'd. and to Hell Draw after him the whole race of mankind. who art judge Of all things made. and what they choose. and frustrate thine? shall he fulfill His malice. and in his face Divine compassion visibly appear'd. and revoke the high decree Unchangeable. with the innumerable sound Of hymns and sacred songs. To whom the great Creator thus replied. Or shall the Adversary thus obtain His end. that Man should find grace. though to his heavier doom. By him corrupted? or wilt thou thyself Abolish thy creation. self-deprav'd: Man falls. Or proud return. For should Man finally be lost. Son of my bosom. My word. Thus while God spake. 40 . thus he to his Father spake. But Mercy. and in the blessed Spirits elect Sense of new joy ineffable diffus'd. I else must change Their nature. eternal. ambrosial fragrance fill'd All Heaven. thy youngest son. so shall my glory excel. and effectual might. that Man should find grace. All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are. Beyond compare the Son of God was seen Most glorious. Fall circumvented thus by fraud. The first sort by their own suggestion fell. in him all his Father shone Substantially express'd. .

And I will place within them as a guide. This my long sufferance. but grace in me Freely vouchsaf'd. and as willing. adjudg'd to Death and Hell 41 . and my day of grace. heavenly Powers. and oft be warn'd Their sinful state. death for death. where shall we find such love? Which of you will be mortal. mine eye not shut. That they may stumble on. Say. blind be blinded more. and sins Against the high supremacy of Heaven. And none but such from mercy I exclude. they shall attain.Man shall not quite be lost. for I will clear their senses dark. Light after light. To expiate his treason hath nought left. once more I will renew His lapsed powers. must die. yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe. pay The rigid satisfaction. breaks his fealty. By me upheld. and soften stony hearts To pray. Elect above the rest. safe arrive. Upheld by me. But yet all is not done. and to appease betimes The incensed Deity. that he may know how frail His fallen condition is. Some I have chosen of peculiar grace. But to destruction sacred and devote. well us'd. so is my will: The rest shall hear me call. Affecting God-head. so losing all. but sav'd who will. To prayer. and obedience due. and just the unjust to save? Dwells in all Heaven charity so dear? And silence was in Heaven: $ on Man's behalf He ask'd. shall never taste. and. repentance. and deeper fall. repent. unless for him Some other able. And to the end. Though but endeavour'd with sincere intent. He. Patron or intercessour none appear'd. whom if they will hear. to redeem Man's mortal crime. but all the heavenly quire stood mute. Yet not of will in him. with his whole posterity. But hard be harden'd. What may suffice. My umpire Conscience. and bring obedience due. Die he or justice must. and ransom set. Mine ear shall not be slow. and to me owe All his deliverance. Man disobeying. while offer'd grace Invites. and to none but me. and enthrall'd By sin to foul exorbitant desires. Disloyal. persisting. They who neglect and scorn. And now without redemption all mankind Must have been lost. Much less that durst upon his own head draw The deadly forfeiture. though forfeit.

By doom severe. long absent. of his mortal sting disarmed. Behold me then: me for him. hath none to bring. Death his death's wound shall then receive. by thee raised. by thee I live. life for life I offer: on me let thine anger fall. spoiled of his vaunted spoil. but soon th' Almighty thus replied. Thou. and to all Comes unprevented. he attends the will Of his great Father. and whither tend. Shall enter Heaven. Thou hast given me to possess Life in myself for ever. and return. that debt paid. I for his sake will leave Thy bosom. Father. His words here ended. Though now to Death I yield. so coming. and breathed immortal love To mortal men. To visit all thy creatures. to see thy face. Wondering. Man shall find grace. or offering meet. and lost. All that of me can die. and show The powers of darkness bound. nor suffer my unspotted soul For ever with corruption there to dwell. Then. In whom the fulness dwells of love divine. Admiration seized All Heaven. unimplor'd. I through the ample air in triumph high Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell. and am his due. he her aid Can never seek. at the sight Pleased. Indebted and undone. yet. Death last. but peace assured And reconcilement: wrath shall be no more Thenceforth. and this glory next to thee Freely put off. The speediest of thy winged messengers. $ thou wilt not leave me in the loathsome grave His prey. but in thy presence joy entire. But I shall rise victorious. out of Heaven shalt look down and smile. but his meek aspect Silent yet spake. and subdue My vanquisher. that finds her way. and for him lastly die Well pleased. O thou in Heaven and Earth the only peace 42 . on me let Death wreak all his rage. unsought? Happy for Man. once dead in sins. wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain. Under his gloomy power I shall not long Lie vanquished. thy word is past. and stoop Inglorious. had not the Son of God. Account me Man. and with his carcase glut the grave. And shall grace not find means. with the multitude of my redeemed. Atonement for himself. Father. His dearest mediation thus renew'd. above which only shone Filial obedience: as a sacrifice Glad to be offered. what this might mean. I ruin all my foes. While.

I reduce: All knees to thee shall bow. here shalt reign Both God and Man. the whole race lost. accept not grace. His crime makes guilty all his sons. So heavenly love shall outdo hellish hate. whom thou only canst redeem. shall absolve them who renounce Their own both righteous and unrighteous deeds. Dominions. as is most just. therefore. under thee. when they may. quitted all. And be thyself Man among men on Earth. attended gloriously from Heaven. though Adam's son. by descending to assume Man's nature. Therefore thy humiliation shall exalt With thee thy manhood also to this throne: Here shalt thou sit incarnate. when time shall be. Giving to death. that for him I spare Thee from my bosom and right hand.Found out for mankind under wrath. or Earth. As from a second root. and dying to redeem. 43 . By losing thee a while. and assume Thy merits. Their nature also to thy nature join. Shall satisfy for Man. Powers. ransomed with his own dear life. Far more than great or high. and rising with him raise His brethren. though throned in highest bliss Equal to God. So Man. of them that bide In Heaven. or under Earth in Hell. And live in thee transplanted. Thrones. because in thee Love hath abounded more than glory abounds. and from thee Receive new life. and equally enjoying God-like fruition. lessen or degrade thine own. all power I give thee. 00021053 Thou. reign for ever. so in thee. and hast been found By merit more than birthright Son of God. and still destroys In those who. O thou My sole complacence! Well thou know'st how dear To me are all my works. as head supreme. be thou in Adam's room The head of all mankind. be judged and die. shall be restored As many as are restored. without thee none. As in him perish all men. Though last created. Imputed. And dying rise. When thou. So dearly to redeem what hellish hate So easily destroyed. Found worthiest to be so by being good. Because thou hast. Anointed universal King. to save A world from utter loss. Made flesh. of virgin seed. Son both of God and Man. Princedoms. to save. Nor shalt thou. nor Man the least. By wondrous birth. thy merit.

Mean while The world shall burn. and waken raptures high. But. the bright Pavement. but all The multitude of Angels. that like a sea of jasper shone. And. fruitful of golden deeds. Eternal King. See golden days. Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. they. her numbers full. such a peal shall rouse their sleep. With these that never fade the Spirits elect Bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with beams. Heaven rung With jubilee. all ye Gods. No sooner had the Almighty ceased. uttering joy. Adore him. Then thou thy regal scepter shalt lay by. that glittering by their side Like quivers hung. to the general doom Shall hasten. after all their tribulations long. The living. Infinite. and fair truth. forthwith from all winds. and loud Hosannas filled The eternal regions: Lowly reverent Towards either throne they bow. shall sink Beneath thy sentence. Thee. such concord is in Heaven. Now in loose garlands thick thrown off. all thy saints assembled. their golden harps they took. wherein the just shall dwell. and forthwith the cited dead Of all past ages. Immutable. Began to bloom. Impurpled with celestial roses smiled. a flower which once In Paradise.Shalt in the sky appear. first they sung Omnipotent. where first it grew. crowned again. Father. Immortal. and to the ground With solemn adoration down they cast Their crowns inwove with amarant and gold. and with preamble sweet Of charming symphony they introduce Their sacred song. Hell. Immortal amarant. Then. the Author of all being. With joy and peace triumphing. and honour him as me. fast by the tree of life. and from thee send The summoning Arch-Angels to proclaim Thy dread tribunal. No voice exempt. there grows. who to compass all this dies. For regal scepter then no more shall need. and from her ashes spring New Heaven and Earth. with a shout Loud as from numbers without number. Then. thou shalt judge Bad Men and Angels. Adore the Son. God shall be all in all. but soon for man's offence To Heaven removed. And where the river of bliss through midst of Heaven Rolls o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream. arraigned. 44 . no voice but well could join Melodious part. And flowers aloft shading the fount of life. Harps ever tuned. sweet As from blest voices.

He to appease thy wrath. Son of God. In whose conspicuous countenance. on thee Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides. Back from pursuit thy Powers with loud acclaim Thee only extolled. the Almighty Father shines. Son of thy Father's might. Whom else no creature can behold. O unexampled love. thou didst not doom So strictly. above the starry sphere. Thus they in Heaven. and. Yet dazzle Heaven. but with both wings veil their eyes. Not so on Man: Him through their malice fallen. Father of mercy and grace. Satan alighted walks: A globe far off It seemed. Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear. and never shall my heart thy praise Forget. while o'er the necks Thou drovest of warring Angels disarrayed. To execute fierce vengeance on his foes. waste. and wild. and end the strife Of mercy and justice in thy face discerned. Saviour of Men! Thy name Shall be the copious matter of my song Henceforth. through a cloud Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine. but much more to pity inclined. Their happy hours in joy and hymning spent. and ever-threatening storms 45 . Nor stop thy flaming chariot-wheels. now seems a boundless continent Dark. and by thee threw down The aspiring Dominations: Thou that day Thy Father's dreadful thunder didst not spare. offered himself to die For Man's offence. Divine Similitude. but much more to pity incline: No sooner did thy dear and only Son Perceive thee purposed not to doom frail Man So strictly. but when thou shadest The full blaze of thy beams. under the frown of Night Starless exposed.Fonntain of light. enclosed From Chaos. thyself invisible Amidst the glorious brightness where thou sit'st Throned inaccessible. Transfused on thee his ample Spirit rests. and the inroad of Darkness old. Thee next they sang of all creation first. Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat Second to thee. that brightest Seraphim Approach not. without cloud Made visible. Mean while upon the firm opacous globe Of this round world. Begotten Son. He Heaven of Heavens and all the Powers therein By thee created. nor from thy Father's praise disjoin. Love no where to be found less than Divine! Hail. that shook Heaven's everlasting frame. whose first convex divides The luminous inferiour orbs.

Dislodging from a region scarce of prey To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling kids. New Babels. All the unaccomplished works of Nature's hand. wander here. and in vain. Or happiness in this or the other life. and still with vain design. eremites. Not in the neighbouring moon as some have dreamed. and friars White. on this windy sea of land. Hither of ill-joined sons and daughters born First from the ancient world those giants came With many a vain exploit. inclement sky. As when a vultur on Imaus bred. On hills where flocks are fed. bent on his prey. Living or lifeless. and he. Nought seeking but the praise of men. where Chineses drive With sails and wind their cany waggons light: So. Here pilgrims roam. or unkindly mixed. he. here find Fit retribution. some small reflection gains Of glimmering air less vexed with tempest loud: Here walked the Fiend at large in spacious field. Alone. Those argent fields more likely habitants. to be found was none. Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds. leaped into the sea. Translated Saints. Embryos. Though distant far. Cleombrotus. Dissolved on earth. the fruits Of painful superstition and blind zeal. Till final dissolution. though then renowned: The builders next of Babel on the plain Of Sennaar. with all their trumpery. but store hereafter from the earth Up hither like aereal vapours flew Of all things transitory and vain. None yet. to be deemed A God. Indian streams. flies toward the springs Of Ganges or Hydaspes. Empedocles. or middle Spirits hold Betwixt the angelical and human kind. All who have their reward on earth. black. who. the Fiend Walked up and down alone. fleet hither. and many more too long. But in his way lights on the barren plains Of Sericana. for other creature in this place. monstrous. to enjoy Plato's Elysium. leaped fondly into Aetna flames. would build: Others came single.Of Chaos blustering round. had they wherewithal. and gray. Abortive. and idiots. that strayed so far to seek 46 . Save on that side which from the wall of Heaven. and all who in vain things Built their fond hopes of glory or lasting fame. empty as their deeds. who. when sin With vanity had filled the works of men: Both all things vain.

And now Saint Peter at Heaven's wicket seems To wait them with his keys. With frontispiece of diamond and gold Embellished. and underneath a bright sea flowed Of jasper. or flew o'er the lake Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. whereon Who after came from earth. since called The Paradise of Fools. And long he wandered. and that first moved. or aggravate His sad exclusion from the doors of bliss: Direct against which opened from beneath. Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised. till at last a gleam Of dawning light turned thither-ward in haste His travelled steps: far distant he descries Ascending by degrees magnificent Up to the wall of Heaven a structure high. with their wearers. and habits. ten thousand leagues awry Into the devious air: Then might ye see Cowls. whether to dare The Fiend by easy ascent. bulls. 47 . or by shading pencil. All this dark globe the Fiend found as he passed. appeared The work as of a kingly palace-gate. put on the weeds of Dominick. and now at foot Of Heaven's ascent they lift their feet. upwhirled aloft. drawn. failing arrived Wafted by Angels. but drawn up to Heaven sometimes Viewless. in the field of Luz Dreaming by night under the open sky And waking cried. These stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending. This is the gate of Heaven. thick with sparkling orient gems The portal shone. And that crystalling sphere whose balance weighs The trepidation talked. to few unknown Long after. They pass the planets seven. who to be sure of Paradise. who lives in Heaven. or of liquid pearl. Fly o'er the backside of the world far off Into a Limbo large and broad. pardons. when lo A violent cross wind from either coast Blows them transverse. and untrod. The stairs were then let down. And they. Indulgences. but far more rich. then reliques. now unpeopled. Just o'er the blissful seat of Paradise. bands Of guardians bright. when he from Esau fled To Padan-Aram. hoods. Dying.In Golgotha him dead. and pass the fixed. At top whereof. beads. nor stood There always. tost And fluttered into rags. dispenses. inimitable on earth By model. Each stair mysteriously was meant. The sport of winds: All these.

a passage wide. or some renowned metropolis With glistering spires and pinnacles adorned. At sight of all this world beheld so fair. Satan from hence. but who dwelt happy there He staid not to inquire: Above them all The golden sun. hard to tell. Thrice happy isles. though that were large.t?kast by break of cheerful dawn Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill. Which to his eye discovers unaware The goodly prospect of some foreign land First seen.?. Fortunate fields. to visit oft those happy tribes. such as bound the ocean wave. So wide the opening seemed. where the Holy Land Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore.) where the great luminary Aloof the vulgar constellations thick. and. Over the Promised Land to God so dear. By center. where he stood So high above the circling canopy Of night's extended shade. though after Heaven seen. then from pole to pole He views in breadth. As when a scout. the fount of Jordan's flood. and flowery vales. or eccentrick.) from eastern point Of Libra to the fleecy star that bears Andromeda far off Atlantick seas Beyond the horizon. Wider by far than that of after-times Over mount Sion. but much more envy seised. that shone Stars distant. Allured his eye. but nigh hand seemed other worlds. By which. That from his lordly eye keep distance due. On high behests his angels to and fro Passed frequent. or happy isles. That scaled by steps of gold to Heaven-gate. and winds with ease Through the pure marble air his oblique way Amongst innumerable stars. and his eye with choice regard From Paneas. Looks down with wonder at the sudden view Of all this world at once. Through dark?. where bounds were set To darkness. Round he surveys (and well might. To Beersaba.A passage down to the Earth. Which now the rising sun gilds with his beams: Such wonder seised.nd desart ways with?oeril gone All?might. 48 . now on the lower stair. Like those Hesperian gardens famed of old. Or other worlds they seemed. and without longer pause Down right into the world's first region throws His flight precipitant. and groves. in splendour likest Heaven. Or longitude. thither his course he bends Through the calm firmament. (but up or down. The Spirit malign.

months. Of beaming sunny rays a golden tiar Circled his head. part seemed gold. to the twelve that shone In Aaron's breast-plate. 49 . The place he found beyond expression bright. Produces. and to each inward part With gentle penetration. If metal. far and wide his eye commands. and effect so rare? Here matter new to gaze the Devil met Undazzled. so far from us remote. and years. carbuncle most or chrysolite. as when his beams at noon Culminate from the equator. whereby he soon Saw within ken a glorious Angel stand. or are turned By his magnetick beam. The same whom John saw also in the sun: His back was turned. Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep. and rivers run Potable gold. In vain.Dispenses light from far. and a stone besides Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen. that gently warms The universe. nor shade. but all alike informed With radiant light. metal or stone. but not his brightness hid. There lands the Fiend. Compared with aught on earth. they. towards his all-cheering lamp Turn swift their various motions. That stone. as they move Their starry dance in numbers that compute Days. when with one virtuous touch The arch-chemick sun. No where so clear. But all sun-shine. whence no way round Shadow from body opaque can fall. part silver clear. sharpened his visual ray To objects distant far. For sight no obstacle found here. as glowing iron with fire. a spot like which perhaps Astronomer in the sun's lucent orb Through his glazed optick tube yet never saw. with terrestrial humour mixed. though unseen. as they now Shot upward still direct. nor less his locks behind Illustrious on his shoulders fledge with wings Lay waving round. or fixed in cogitation deep. So wonderously was set his station bright. on some great charge employed He seemed. Ruby or topaz. Not all parts like. If stone. What wonder then if fields and regions here Breathe forth Elixir pure. Here in the dark so many precious things Of colour glorious. and call up unbound In various shapes old Proteus from the sea. and the air. though by their powerful art they bind Volatile Hermes. Drained through a limbeck to his native form. or like to that which here below Philosophers in vain so long have sought.

sprinkled with gold. Hath brought me from the quires of Cherubim Alone thus wandering. That I may find him. Created this new happy race of Men To serve him better: Wise are all his ways. as is meet. Ere he drew nigh. and. the Angel bright. Where all his sons thy embassy attend. That both in him and all things. or down to the Earth Bear his swift errands over moist and dry. His habit fit for speed succinct. He drew not nigh unheard. so well he feigned: Under a coronet his flowing hair In curls on either cheek played. But all these shining orbs his choice to dwell. The universal Maker we may praise. yet such as in his face Youth smiled celestial. and with secret gaze Or open admiration him behold. or fixed seat hath none. his radiant visage turned. and straight was known The Arch-Angel Uriel. and are his eyes That run through all the Heavens. 50 . And here art likeliest by supreme decree Like honour to obtain. Brightest Seraph. and to every limb Suitable grace diffused. but chiefly Man. for thou of those seven Spirits that stand In sight of God's high throne. Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes To deepest Hell. gloriously bright. Admonished by his ear. O'er sea and land: him Satan thus accosts. Not of the prime. Stand ready at command. Uriel. The first art wont his great authentick will Interpreter through highest Heaven to bring. to repair that loss. tell In which of all these shining orbs hath Man His fixed seat. one of the seven Who in God's presence. His chief delight and favour. him for whom All these his works so wonderous he ordained. His journey's end and our beginning woe. On whom the great Creator hath bestowed Worlds. and held Before his decent steps a silver wand. as now in hope To find who might direct his wandering flight To Paradise. But first he casts to change his proper shape. and on whom hath all these graces poured. nearest to his throne. Unspeakable desire to see. Which else might work him danger or delay: And now a stripling Cherub he appears.Glad was the Spirit impure. wings he wore Of many a coloured plume. and as his eye To visit oft this new creation round. the happy seat of Man. and know All these his wonderous works.

Fair Angel. Each had his place appointed. that led thee hither From thy empyreal mansion thus alone. but hid their causes deep? I saw when at his word the formless mass. still renewing. By his permissive will. Who to the fraudulent impostor foul. and turned to stars Numberless. answer thus returned. though wisdom wake. earth. Light shone. or the wisdom infinite That brought them forth. which else. flood. spirited with various forms. hear only in Heaven: For wonderful indeed are all his works. Contented with report. suspicion sleeps At wisdom's gate. and wild uproar Stood ruled. and worthiest to be all Had in remembrance always with delight. That place is Earth. and held The sharpest-sighted Spirit of all in Heaven. whose hither side With light from hence. To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps. Look downward on that globe. The rest in circuit walls this universe. Pleasant to know. And this ethereal quintessence of Heaven Flew upward. shines. In his uprightness. and how they move. air. With borrowed light her countenance triform Hence fills and empties to enlighten the Earth. stood vast infinitude confined. leads to no excess That reaches blame. that light His day. but rather merits praise The more it seems excess. the only evil that walks Invisible. except to God alone. as thou seest. Till at his second bidding Darkness fled. That rolled orbicular. through Heaven and Earth: And oft. 51 . But what created mind can comprehend Their number.So spake the false dissembler unperceived. while goodness thinks no ill Where no ill seems: Which now for once beguiled Uriel. each his course. and order from disorder sprung: Swift to their several quarters hasted then The cumbrous elements. fire. This world's material mould. through mid Heaven. the seat of Man. and her monthly round Still ending. For neither Man nor Angel can discern Hypocrisy. but there the neighbouring moon So call that opposite fair star) her aid Timely interposes. though regent of the sun. thy desire. came to a heap: Confusion heard his voice. thereby to glorify The great Work-master. and to simplicity Resigns her charge. though but reflected. which tends to know The works of God. as the other hemisphere. Night would invade.

As to superiour Spirits is wont in Heaven. and toward the coast of earth beneath. But with no friendly voice. and round about him. Where honour due and reverence none neglects. Lookest from thy sole dominion like the God Of this new world. what is. with surpassing glory crowned. and what must be Worse. bowing low. and add thy name. Down from the ecliptick. which nigh the birth Now rolling boils in his tumultuous breast. though bold Far off and fearless. The tempter ere the accuser of mankind. his grieved look he fixes sad. That slumbered. sped with hoped success. Then when the Dragon. Throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel. and the full-blazing sun. Nor staid. Which now sat high in his meridian tower: Then. that. came down. is Paradise. put to second rout. and his flight to Hell: Yet. who saw The Apocalypse. That spot. nor with cause to boast. his bower. Haply so 'scaped his mortal snare: For now Satan. Woe to the inhabitants on earth! that now. And like a devilish engine back recoils Upon himself.And in her pale dominion checks the night. While time was. can fly By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair. to thee I call. horrour and doubt distract His troubled thoughts. nor from Hell One step. Begins his dire attempt. Thus said. no more than from himself. thus in sighs began. Took leave. to which I point. and Satan. To wreak on innocent frail Man his loss Of that first battle. Book IV O. at whose sight all the stars Hide their diminished heads. Came furious down to be revenged on men. Thy way thou canst not miss. 52 . of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. Adam's abode. me mine requires. Sometimes towards Heaven. which he. for that warning voice. our first parents had been warned The coming of their secret foe. O thou. till on Niphates' top he lights. much revolving. and 'scaped. not rejoicing in his speed. he turned. wakes the bitter memory Of what he was. now first inflamed with rage. those lofty shades. and from the bottom stir The Hell within him. for within him Hell He brings. which now in his view Lay pleasant. Sometimes towards Eden. heard cry in Heaven aloud.

though mean. cursed be thou. no unbounded hope had raised Ambition! Yet why not some other Power As great might have aspired. How due! yet all his good proved ill in me. But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all? Be then his love accursed. how glorious once above thy sphere. boasting I could subdue The Omnipotent. Ay me! they little know How dearly I abide that boast so vain. nor was his service hard. to all temptations armed. a lower deep Still threatening to devour me opens wide. from within Or from without. And wrought but malice. Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand? Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse. and with his good Upbraided none. Nay. had his powerful destiny ordained Me some inferiour Angel. what burden then O. wherefore! he deserved no such return From me. And. And understood not that a grateful mind By owing owes not. since love or hate. That bring to my remembrance from what state I fell. in the lowest deep. Drawn to his part. since against his thy will Chose freely what it now so justly rues. Forgetful what from him I still received. and thought one step higher Would set me highest. whom I seduced With other promises and other vaunts Than to submit. To me alike. then. and in a moment quit The debt immense of endless gratitude. it deals eternal woe. and my dread of shame Among the Spirits beneath. and me. To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven. whom he created what I was In that bright eminence. Me miserable! which way shall I fly Infinite wrath. at last relent: Is there no place Left for repentance. none for pardon left? None left but by submission. but stand unshaken. but still pays. still to owe. The easiest recompence. and that word Disdain forbids me. 53 . and infinite despair? Which way I fly is Hell. lifted up so high I sdeined subjection. So burdensome still paying. myself am Hell. I had stood Then happy. What could be less than to afford him praise. at once Indebted and discharged.Of Sun! to tell thee how I hate thy beams. but other Powers as great Fell not. and pay him thanks. Till pride and worse ambition threw me down Warring in Heaven against Heaven's matchless King: Ah. O.

as violent and void. peace. crowns with her enclosure green.Under what torments inwardly I groan. hope. Thus while he spake. the champaign head Of a steep wilderness. where delicious Paradise. and betrayed Him counterfeit. So on he fares. whose eye pursued him down The way he went. and could obtain. then alone. as I from begging. therefore as far From granting he. As Man ere long. All hope excluded thus. be thou my good. By act of grace. remorse! all good to me is lost. Cedar. each passion dimmed his face Thrice changed with pale. and was the first That practised falsehood under saintly show. Artificer of fraud. While they adore me on the throne of Hell. if any eye beheld. how soon Would highth recall high thoughts. how soon unsay What feigned submission swore? Ease would recant Vows made in pain. and on the Assyrian mount Saw him disfigured. and pine. Now nearer. Farewell. Evil. ire. Which marred his borrowed visage. The lower still I fall. But say I could repent. For never can true reconcilement grow. Whereof he soon aware. and with hope farewell. Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm. This knows my Punisher. fear. Deep malice to conceal. and to the border comes Of Eden. and branching palm. 54 . only supreme In misery: Such joy ambition finds. and more than half perhaps will reign. For heavenly minds from such distempers foul Are ever clear. Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep: Which would but lead me to a worse relapse And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear Short intermission bought with double smart. his gestures fierce He marked and mad demeanour. my former state. more than could befall Spirit of happy sort. behold. and for him this world. couched with revenge: Yet not enough had practised to deceive Uriel once warned. By thee. As he supposed. With diadem and scepter high advanced. and this new world. shall know. whose hairy sides Access denied. envy. So farewell. and despair. as the ranks ascend. and fir. in stead Mankind created. all unobserved. and. As with a rural mound. unseen. by thee at least Divided empire with Heaven's King I hold. A sylvan scene. and overhead upgrew Insuperable height of loftiest shade.

Yet higher than their tops The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung. As when to them who fail Beyond the Cape of Hope. As one continued brake. though enamoured. the undergrowth Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplexed All path of man or beast that passed that way. Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold: Or as a thief. off at sea north-east winds blow Sabean odours from the spicy shore Of Araby the blest. with such delay Well pleased they slack their course. though with them better pleased Than Asmodeus with the fishy fume That drove him. As when a prowling wolf. Now to the ascent of that steep savage hill Satan had journeyed on. and many a league Cheered with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles: So entertained those odorous sweets the Fiend. 55 . Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey. Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve In hurdled cotes amid the field secure. a woody theatre Of stateliest view. so lovely seemed That landskip: And of pure now purer air Meets his approach. and sheer within Lights on his feet. pensive and slow. Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue. Appeared. But further way found none. and whisper whence they stole Those balmy spoils. with gay enamelled colours mixed: On which the sun more glad impressed his beams Than in fair evening cloud.Shade above shade. Fanning their odoriferous wings. And higher than that wall a circling row Of goodliest trees. At one flight bound high over-leaped all bound Of hill or highest wall. and that looked east On the other side: which when the arch-felon saw. or humid bow. in contempt. from the spouse Of Tobit's son. and to the heart inspires Vernal delight and joy. dispense Native perfumes. Who came their bane. Due entrance he disdained. there fast bound. whose substantial doors. loaden with fairest fruit. so thick entwined. able to drive All sadness but despair: Now gentle gales. and with a vengeance sent From Media post to Egypt. and. bent to unhoard the cash Of some rich burgher. One gate there only was. 00081429 Which to our general sire gave prospect large Into his nether empire neighbouring round. When God hath showered the earth. and now are past Mozambick.

which. but perverts best things To worst abuse. yea more. and on the tree of life. and fed 56 . but through the shaggy hill Passed underneath ingulfed. Nor changed his course. the tree of knowledge. thence united fell Down the steep glade. Thence up he flew. but only used For prospect. Nature's whole wealth. for God had thrown That mountain as his garden-mould high raised Upon the rapid current. and next to life. So little knows Any. The middle tree and highest there that grew. So since into his church lewd hirelings climb. and with many a rill Watered the garden. to value right The good before him. Southward through Eden went a river large. Runs diverse. by him in the east Of Eden planted. Of where the sons of Eden long before Dwelt in Telassar: In this pleasant soil His far more pleasant garden God ordained. what well used had been the pledge Of immortality. or o'er the tiles: So clomb this first grand thief into God's fold. A Heaven on Earth: For blissful Paradise Of God the garden was. or to their meanest use. wandering many a famous realm And country. divided into four main streams. fear no assault. Sat like a cormorant. visiting each plant. taste. Our death. grew fast by. and met the nether flood. whereof here needs no account. Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing ill. Rose a fresh fountain. yet not true life Thereby regained. In narrow room. nor on the virtue thought Of that life-giving plant. High eminent. but God alone. Out of the fertile ground he caused to grow All trees of noblest kind for sight. Beneath him with new wonder now he views. smell. through veins Of porous earth with kindly thirst up-drawn. if Art could tell. How from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks. And all amid them stood the tree of life. Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold. Eden stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of great Seleucia. In at the window climbs. And now.Cross-barred and bolted fast. but sat devising death To them who lived. Which from his darksome passage now appears. But rather to tell how. With mazy errour under pendant shades Ran nectar. built by Grecian kings. To all delight of human sense exposed. blooming ambrosial fruit Of vegetable gold.

and flocks Grazing the tender herb. though this by some supposed True Paradise under the Ethiop line By Nilus' head. nor that Nyseian isle Girt with the river Triton. Hesperian fables true. and her florid son Young Bacchus. airs. Breathing the smell of field and grove. were interposed. which cost Ceres all that pain To seek her through the world. Hung amiable. where Proserpine gathering flowers. where old Cham. but wide remote From this Assyrian garden. from his stepdame Rhea's eye. while universal Pan.Flowers worthy of Paradise. and without thorn the rose: Another side. where the Fiend Saw. Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm. A whole day's journey high. new to sight. dispersed. erect and tall. Led on the eternal Spring. and where the unpierced shade Imbrowned the noontide bowers: Thus was this place A happy rural seat of various view. attune The trembling leaves. That to the fringed bank with myrtle crowned Her crystal mirrour holds. nor that sweet grove Of Daphne by Orontes. and dale. all delight. vernal airs. but Nature boon Poured forth profuse on hill. or in a lake. might with this Paradise Of Eden strive. all kind Of living creatures. and strange Two of far nobler shape. or the flowery lap Of some irriguous valley spread her store. and of delicious taste: Betwixt them lawns. If true. mean while murmuring waters fall Down the slope hills. o'er which the mantling vine Lays forth her purple grape. The birds their quire apply. and plain. unite their streams. umbrageous grots and caves Of cool recess. burnished with golden rind. for in their looks divine 57 . Flowers of all hue. Others whose fruit. which not nice Art In beds and curious knots. or level downs. Not that fair field Of Enna. and the inspired Castalian spring. Both where the morning sun first warmly smote The open field. here only. with native honour clad In naked majesty seemed lords of all: And worthy seemed. Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance. Godlike erect. undelighted. Or palmy hillock. enclosed with shining rock. Mount Amara. Hid Amalthea. Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Libyan Jove. Herself a fairer flower by gloomy Dis Was gathered. and gently creeps Luxuriant. Nor where Abassin kings their issue guard.

which implied Subjection. by a fresh fountain side They sat them down. as a veil. since wild. nor youthful dalliance. but not beneath his shoulders broad: She. He for God only. after no more toil Of their sweet gardening labour than sufficed To recommend cool Zephyr. and hyacinthine locks Round from his parted forelock manly hung Clustering. how have ye troubled all mankind With shows instead. by him best received. nor shunned the sight Of God or Angel. Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs Yielded them. For contemplation he and valour formed. (Severe. And banished from man's life his happiest life. wholesome thirst and appetite More grateful. to their supper-fruits they fell. but in wanton ringlets waved As the vine curls her tendrils. sanctitude severe and pure. Under a tuft of shade that on a green Stood whispering soft. and. Truth. That ever since in love's embraces met. modest pride. About them frisking played All beasts of the earth. the loveliest pair. and made ease More easy. dishonest shame Of nature's works. but required with gentle sway. the fairest of her daughters Eve. For softness she and sweet attractive grace. And sweet. and in the rind. nor endearing smiles Wanted. down to the slender waist Her unadorned golden tresses wore Dishevelled. Alone as they.The image of their glorious Maker shone. reluctant. mere shows of seeming pure. Yielded with coy submission. for they thought no ill: So hand in hand they passed. scoop the brimming stream. Still as they thirsted. forest or den. as beseems Fair couple. she for God in him: His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute rule. 58 . and of all chase In wood or wilderness. honour dishonourable. but in true filial freedom placed. wisdom. though both Not equal. linked in happy nuptial league. Adam the goodliest man of men since born His sons. Nor gentle purpose. as their sex not equal seemed.) Whence true authority in men. And by her yielded. amorous delay. side-long as they sat recline On the soft downy bank damasked with flowers: The savoury pulp they chew. Then was not guilty shame. Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed. Simplicity and spotless innocence! So passed they naked on. Sin-bred.

Insinuating. and of his fatal guile Gave proof unheeded. was hasting now with prone career To the ocean isles. as I do. Thank him who puts me loth to this revenge On you who wrong me not for him who wronged. Ah! gentle pair. yet to heavenly Spirits bright Little inferiour. By conquering this new world. Like this fair Paradise. though damned. Though I unpitied: League with you I seek. ounces. pards. That I with you must dwell. my dwelling haply may not please. and with necessity. and deliver ye to woe. as first he stood. whom I could pity thus forlorn. if no better place. when all these delights Will vanish. there will be room. bears. and this high seat your Heaven Ill fenced for Heaven to keep out such a foe As now is entered. and could love. so strait. close the serpent sly. 59 . yet such Accept your Maker's work. your sense. wove with Gordian twine His braided train. O Hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold! Into our room of bliss thus high advanced Creatures of other mould. to receive Your numerous offspring. And mutual amity.Sporting the lion ramped. whom my thoughts pursue With wonder. So spake the Fiend. and in the ascending scale Of Heaven the stars that usher evening rose: When Satan still in gaze. used all his might. ye little think how nigh Your change approaches. so close. or you with me Henceforth. Declined. and wreathed His?kithetmroboscis. Not Spirits. so lively shines In them divine resemblance. To entertain you two. More woe. Not like these narrow limits. Happy. others on the grass Couched. he gave it me. and in his paw Dandled the kid. the more your taste is now of joy. the unwieldy elephant. compels me now To do what else. for the sun. And should I at your harmless innocence Melt. yet publick reason just. but for so happy ill secured Long to continue. her widest gates. earth-born perhaps. I should abhor. Or bedward ruminating. To make them mirth. Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad. And send forth all her kings. Gambolled before them. Which I as freely give: Hell shall unfold. and such grace The hand that formed them on their shape hath poured. tigers. and now filled with pasture gazing sat. yet no purposed foe To you. Honour and empire with revenge enlarged.

my guide And head! what thou hast said is just and right. planted by the tree of life. That raised us from the dust. and sole part. for well thou knowest God hath pronounced it death to taste that tree. of all these joys. and of his good As liberal and free as infinite. and for us this ample world. this easy charge. nor can perform Aught whereof he hath need. needs must the Power That made us. Adam first of men To first of women Eve thus moving speech. and dominion given Over all other creatures that possess Earth. Whence rushing. So near grows death to life. and. Then as a tiger. unespied. who by chance hath spied In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play. following our delightful task. For we to him indeed all praises owe. not to taste that only tree Of knowledge. as one who chose his ground. rising. yet with thee were sweet. Straight couches close. and choice Unlimited of manifold delights: But let us ever praise him. changes oft His couchant watch. To prune these growing plants. Sole partner. and placed us here In all this happiness. then. Among so many signs of power and rule Conferred upon us. as their shape served best his end Nearer to view his prey.The tyrant's plea. Then from his lofty stand on that high tree Down he alights among the sportful herd Of those four-footed kinds. who enjoy Free leave so large to all things else. To whom thus Eve replied. who at his hand Have nothing merited. O thou for whom And from whom I was formed. Some dreadful thing no doubt. and sea. To mark what of their state he more might learn. Turned him. 60 . he might surest seize them both. And without whom am to no end. whate'er death is. and extol His bounty. Griped in each paw: when. By word or action marked. About them round A lion now he stalks with fiery glare. Be infinitely good. excused his devilish deeds. The only sign of our obedience left. Which were it toilsome. all ear to hear new utterance flow. he who requires From us no other service than to keep This one. Then let us not think hard One easy prohibition. air. himself now one. of all the trees In Paradise that bear delicious fruit So various. and tend these flowers. Now other. Dearer thyself than all. flesh of thy flesh.

yet methought less fair. then stood unmoved Pure as the expanse of Heaven. 'Substantial life.and from that time see How beauty is excelled by manly grace. fair indeed and tall. And meek surrender. 'His flesh. But follow straight. but pleased I soon returned. I chiefly. who enjoy So far the happier lot. him thou shalt enjoy 'Inseparably thine. to have thee by my side 'Henceforth an individual solace dear. That day I oft remember. and laid me down On the green bank. his bone. and found myself reposed Under a shade on flowers. So spake our general mother. that to me seemed another sky. half-embracing leaned On our first father. and thy soft embraces. 'Whom flyest thou? whom thou flyest. which alone is truly fair. Pleased it returned as soon with answering looks Of sympathy and love: There I had fixed Mine eyes till now. and thee claim 'My other half:' With that thy gentle hand Seised mine: I yielded. less amiably mild. Had not a voice thus warned me.' What could I do. I thither went With unexperienced thought. 'And I will bring thee where no shadow stays 'Thy coming. while thou Like consort to thyself canst no where find. Under a platane. to look into the clear Smooth lake. nearest my heart. fair Creature. of him thou art. whence thither brought. he 'Whose image thou art. much wondering where And what I was. to him shalt bear 'Multitudes like thyself. enjoying thee Pre-eminent by so much odds. And wisdom. is thyself. Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound Of waters issued from a cave. 'What there thou seest. when from sleep I first awaked. and spread Into a liquid plain. and with eyes Of conjugal attraction unreproved. As I bent down to look. and how. Less winning soft. 'With thee it came and goes: but follow me. half her swelling breast 61 . just opposite A shape within the watery gleam appeared. to give thee being I lent 'Out of my side to thee. 'Return. 'What thou seest. Thou following cryedst aloud. Than that smooth watery image: Back I turned. invisibly thus led? Till I espied thee. 'Part of my soul I seek thee. and pined with vain desire. It started back. fair Eve.And daily thanks. and thence be called 'Mother of human race. Bending to look on me: I started back.

and to himself thus plained. shall enjoy their fill Of bliss on bliss. sight tormenting! thus these two. Smiled with superiour love. The happier Eden. till I return. when he impregns the clouds That shed Mayflowers. and submissive charms. enjoy. and no corner leave unspied. Or in thick shade retired. But with sly circumspection. o'er dale. winding with one ascent Accessible from earth. the setting sun Slowly descended. Still unfulfilled with pain of longing pines. while I to Hell am thrust. from him to draw What further would be learned. and with right aspect Against the eastern gate of Paradise Levelled his evening rays: It was a rock Of alabaster. Among our other torments not the least. A chance but chance may lead where I may meet Some wandering Spirit of Heaven by fountain side. through waste. one entrance high. and to reject Envious commands. Short pleasures. it seems. yet with jealous leer malign Eyed them askance. invented with design To keep them low. Yet let me not forget what I have gained From their own mouths: All is not theirs. One fatal tree there stands. Yet happy pair. his roam Mean while in utmost longitude. Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidden Suspicious. where Heaven With earth and ocean meets. and pressed her matron lip With kisses pure: Aside the Devil turned For envy. but fierce desire. Live while ye may. reasonless. 62 . for long woes are to succeed! So saying. Conspicuous far. of knowledge called. Where neither joy nor love. and began Through wood. as Jupiter On Juno smiles. Imparadised in one another's arms. They taste and die: What likelier can ensue But first with narrow search I must walk round This garden. whom knowledge might exalt Equal with Gods: aspiring to be such. under the flowing gold Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight Both of her beauty. The proof of their obedience and their faith? O fair foundation laid whereon to build Their ruin! hence I will excite their minds With more desire to know. Why should their Lord Envy them that? Can it be sin to know? Can it be death? And do they only stand By ignorance? Is that their happy state.Naked met his. Sight hateful. o'er hill. his proud step he scornful turned. piled up to the clouds.

and spears. So minded. whether the prime orb. to thee thy course by lot hath given Charge and strict watch. to raise New troubles. Incredible how swift. To whom the winged warriour thus returned. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds: He thus began in haste. and Uriel to his charge Returned on that bright beam. had left him there Arraying with reflected purple and gold The clouds that on his western throne attend. shields. helms. when vapours fired Impress the air. Gabriel. Where he first lighted. soon discerned his looks Alien from Heaven. but such as come Well known from Heaven. but nigh at hand Celestial armoury. hath ventured from the deep. of whom Thou tellest. gliding through the even On a sun-beam. and since meridian hour No creature thence: If Spirit of other sort. About him exercised heroick games The unarmed youth of Heaven. zealous. Amid the sun's bright circle where thou sitst. Uriel. Thither came Uriel. 63 . By shorter flight to the east. with passions foul obscured: Mine eye pursued him still. and with gold. impossible to climb. that overhung Still as it rose. Betwixt these rocky pillars Gabriel sat. See far and wide: In at this gate none pass The vigilance here placed. and chiefly Man. but under shade Lost sight of him: One of the banished crew. Chief of the angelick guards. But if within the circuit of these walks. Hung high with diamond flaming. and marked his aery gait. or this less volubil earth. whose point now raised Bore him slope downward to the sun now fallen Beneath the Azores. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. to know More of the Almighty's works. by morrow dawning I shall know. This day at highth of noon came to my sphere A Spirit. So promised he. have o'er-leaped these earthly bounds On purpose. I fear. as he seemed. awaiting night. him thy care must be to find. no wonder if thy perfect sight. In whatsoever shape he lurk. had thither rolled Diurnal. that to this happy place No evil thing approach or enter in. God's latest image: I described his way Bent all on speed.The rest was craggy cliff. hard thou knowest it to exclude Spiritual substance with corporeal bar. But in the mount that lies from Eden north.

Sweet is the breath of Morn. Silence was pleased: Now glowed the firmament With living sapphires: Hesperus. and flower. When Adam thus to Eve. till the moon. yonder alleys green. With thee conversing I forget all time. And at our pleasant labour. with branches overgrown. all please alike. and Twilight gray Had in her sober livery all things clad. and require More hands than ours to lop their wanton growth: Those blossoms also. Mind us of like repose. They to their grassy couch. rode brightest. all but the wakeful nightingale. and less need rest. With charm of earliest birds: pleasant the sun. fruit. night bids us rest. and their change. To whom thus Eve. 64 . inclines Our eye-lids: Other creatures all day long Rove idle. Fair Consort. Now falling with soft slumbrous weight. we must be risen. Our walk at noon. unemployed. To-morrow. And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw. tree. Silence accompanied. Ask riddance. unsightly and unsmooth. and all things now retired to rest. her rising sweet. Glistering with dew. And of their doings God takes no account. She all night long her amorous descant sung. these to their nests Were slunk. With this her solemn bird. God is thy law. All seasons. and those dropping gums. While other animals unactive range. if we mean to tread with ease. as day and night. That mock our scant manuring. That lie bestrown. then silent Night. the hour Of night. and her praise. And the regard of Heaven on all his ways. that led The starry host. at length Apparent queen unveiled her peerless light. with perfect beauty adorned My Author and Disposer. since God hath set Labour and rest. which declares his dignity. and sweet the coming on Of grateful Evening mild. Man hath his daily work of body or mind Appointed. as Nature wills. on herb. Rising in clouded majesty. for beast and bird. to reform Yon flowery arbours. what thou bidst Unargued I obey: So God ordains.Now came still Evening on. to men Successive. and this fair moon. fragrant the fertile earth After soft showers. thou mine: To know no more Is woman's happiest knowledge. and the timely dew of sleep. ere fresh morning streak the east With first approach of light. When first on this delightful land he spreads His orient beams. Mean while.

Singing their great Creator? oft in bands While they keep watch. and lift our thoughts to Heaven.And these the gems of Heaven. when he framed All things to Man's delightful use. Sole. roses. With this her solemn bird. and what higher grew Of firm and fragrant leaf. though unbeheld in deep of night. nor walk by moon. These then. on either side Acanthus. With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds In full harmonick number joined. hand in hand alone they passed On to their blissful bower: it was a place Chosen by the sovran Planter. nor fragrance after showers. These have their course to finish round the earth. nor herb. each beauteous flower. though men were none. made hereby apter to receive Perfection from the sun's more potent ray. they set and rise. accomplished Eve. or nightly rounding walk. though to nations yet unborn. Temper or nourish. nor think. or in part shed down Their stellar virtue on all kinds that grow On earth. Thus talking. Glistering with dew. But wherefore all night long shine these? for whom This glorious sight. and extinguish life In Nature and all things. both when we wake. flower. Fenced up the verdant wall. Daughter of God and Man. which these soft fires Not only enlighten. but with kindly heat Of various influence foment and warm. That Heaven would want spectators. Iris all hues. God want praise: Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth Unseen. their songs Divide the night. Shine not in vain. nor rising sun On this delightful land. Nor grateful Evening mild. nor silent Night. or responsive each to others note. and wrought 65 . when sleep hath shut all eyes? To whom our general ancestor replied. the roof Of thickest covert was inwoven shade Laurel and myrtle. Reared high their flourished heads between. By morrow evening. and when we sleep: All these with ceaseless praise his works behold Both day and night: How often from the steep Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard Celestial voices to the midnight air. when she ascends With charm of earliest birds. her starry train: But neither breath of Morn. Lest total Darkness should by night regain Her old possession. Ministring light prepared. and jessamin. and from land to land In order. without thee is sweet. fruit. and each odorous bushy shrub. Or glittering star-light.

underfoot the violet. but adoration pure Which God likes best. and this delicious place For us too large. into their inmost bower Handed they went. Both turned. What day the genial Angel to our sire Brought her in naked beauty more adorned. nor turned. earth. as now. thy gift of sleep. at their shady lodge arrived. and other rites Observing none. And heavenly quires the hymenaean sung. or worm. wedded Love. Adam from his fair spouse. air. More lovely. leaves free to all. nor Nymph Nor Faunus haunted. This said unanimous. than Pandora. Crocus. and. to be avenged On him who had stole Jove's authentick fire. and place. and sweet-smelling herbs. Pan or Sylvanus never slept. Straight side by side were laid. nor Eve the rites Mysterious of connubial love refused: Whatever hypocrites austerely talk Of purity. beast. In shadier bower More sacred and sequestered. and hyacinth. when to the unwiser son Of Japhet brought by Hermes. Defaming as impure what God declares Pure. more coloured than with stone Of costliest emblem: Other creature here. Here. happy in our mutual help And mutual love. in our appointed work employed. foe to God and Man? Hail. And starry pole: Thou also madest the night. and innocence. where thy abundance wants Partakers. And when we seek. Bird. both stood. and heaven. who bids abstain But our Destroyer. Which they beheld. Have finished. garlands. Espoused Eve decked first her nuptial bed. and under open sky adored The God that made both sky. eased the putting off These troublesome disguises which we wear. though but feigned. both when we wake. I ween. insect. with rich inlay Broidered the ground. the moon's resplendent globe. mysterious law. With flowers. Such was their awe of Man. whom the Gods Endowed with all their gifts.Mosaick. Thus. who shall with us extol Thy goodness infinite. and O! too like In sad event. Maker Omnipotent. But thou hast promised from us two a race To fill the earth. durst enter none. and uncropt falls to the ground. Which we. true source 66 . she ensnared Mankind with her fair looks. and commands to some. the crown of all our bliss Ordained by thee. Our Maker bids encrease. in close recess. and thou the day.

which the starved lover sings To his proud fair. and coast the south With strictest watch. Our circuit meets full west. half to the spear. loveless. if ye seek No happier state. best quitted with disdain. and gave them thus in charge. as saints and patriarchs used. Or think thee unbefitting holiest place. But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge. From these. first were known. leave unsearched no nook. two strong and subtle Spirits he called That near him stood. where ye find. So saying. that I should write thee sin or blame. Sleep on. sole propriety In Paradise of all things common else! By thee adulterous Lust was driven from men Among the bestial herds to range. Far be it. nor in court-amours. This evening from the sun's decline arrived. embracing slept. Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced. And on their naked limbs the flowery roof Showered roses. by thee Founded in reason. on he led his radiant files. Casual fruition. and know to know no more. These. lulled by nightingales. Who tells of some infernal Spirit seen Hitherward bent (who could have thought?) escaped The bars of Hell.Of human offspring. these other wheel the north. Or serenate. seise fast. And from their ivory port the Cherubim. not in the bought smile Of harlots. and O!yet happiest. or midnight ball. and pure. Forth issuing at the accustomed hour. or past. Present. and all the charities Of father. and waves his purple wings. or wanton mask. Half wheeling to the shield. just. which the morn repaired. Mixed dance. with winged speed Search through this garden. As flame they part. Uzziel. Now laid perhaps asleep. stood armed To their night watches in warlike parade. and brother. close at the ear of Eve. Perpetual fountain of domestick sweets. these to the bower direct In search of whom they sought: Him there they found Squat like a toad. Here Love his golden shafts employs. When Gabriel to his next in power thus spake. Assaying by his devilish art to reach 67 . Reigns here and revels. son. and hither bring. joyless. Now had night measured with her shadowy cone Half way up hill this vast sublunar vault. on errand bad no doubt: Such. secure of harm. Ithuriel and Zephon. Blest pair. Dazzling the moon. here lights His constant lamp. half these draw off. unendeared. Relations dear. loyal.

answering scorn with scorn. but returns Of force to its own likeness: Up he starts Discovered and surprised. laid Fit for the tun some magazine to store Against a rumoured war. if ye know. transformed. Here watching at the head of these that sleep? Know ye not then said Satan. he might taint The animal spirits. inordinate desires. Think not. That glory then. as he list. and his grave rebuke. escaped thy prison? and. Why ask ye. and thou resemblest now Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foul. unmoved with fear. Best with the best. If I must contend. Which of those rebel Spirits adjudged to Hell Comest thou. there sitting where ye durst not soar: Not to know me argues yourselves unknown. and with them forge Illusions. the smutty grain. and these from harm. discontented thoughts. said he. Yet thus. With sudden blaze diffused.The organs of her fancy. be sure. yet seemed Undaunted. shalt give account To him who sent us. not the sent. added grace Invincible: Abashed the Devil stood. filled with scorn. As when thou stoodest in Heaven upright and pure. saw. Or if. and superfluous begin Your message. Why sat'st thou like an enemy in wait. thy shape the same. half amazed So sudden to behold the grisly king. or. Severe in youthful beauty. for no falshood can endure Touch of celestial temper. And felt how awful goodness is. accost him soon. when thou no more wast good. that from pure blood arise Like gentle breaths from rivers pure. The lowest of your throng. and saw Virtue in her shape how lovely. for thou. thence raise At least distempered. inspiring venom. vain aims. Vain hopes. But come. phantasms and dreams. So spake the Cherub. So started up in his own shape the Fiend. Blown up with high conceits ingendering pride. Back stept those two fair Angels. inflames the air. 68 . and pined His loss. Departed from thee. the sender. Know ye not me? ye knew me once no mate For you. like to end as much in vain? To whom thus Zephon. As when a spark Lights on a heap of nitrous powder. Him thus intent Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly. whose charge is to keep This place inviolable. but chiefly to find here observed His lustre visibly impaired. revolted Spirit. Or undiminished brightness to be known.

which in this place I sought. overcome with rage. like a proud steed reined. Why hast thou. But evil hast not tried: and wilt object His will who bounds us! Let him surer bar His iron gates. they found me where they say. Employed. The rest is true. Gabriel. for in his look defiance lours. who approve not to transgress By thy example. from the front thus called aloud. and closing stood in squadron joined. And with them comes a third of regal port. But faded splendour wan. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake. in what form and posture couched. Thus he in scorn. where found. when those two approached. more glory will be won. The warlike Angel moved. and those Whose dwelling God hath planted here in bliss! To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow. it seems. thus replied. break loose from Hell. broke the bounds prescribed To thy transgressions. but have power and right To question thy bold entrance on this place. and thence weak. Lives there who loves his pain! Who would not. went haughty on. Thy fear. Satan. How busied.Or all at once. where those half-rounding guards Just met. But that implies not violence or harm. The Fiend replied not. To thee no reason. who knowest only good. To whom their Chief. and disturbed the charge Of others. to violate sleep. Gabriel? thou hadst in Heaven the esteem of wise. And such I held thee. where thou mightst hope to change Torment with ease. And brief related whom they brought. if he intends our stay In that dark durance: Thus much what was asked. no doubt And boldly venture to whatever place Farthest from pain. But. Will save us trial what the least can do Single against thee wicked. Not likely to part hence without contest. He scarce had ended. but this question asked Puts me in doubt. who by his gait And fierce demeanour seems the Prince of Hell. Champing his iron curb: To strive or fly He held it vain. A waiting next command. and now by glimpse discern Ithuriel and Zephon through the shade. said Zephon bold. Though thither doomed! Thou wouldst thyself. Stand firm. finding way. and soonest recompense Dole with delight. not else dismayed. Now drew they nigh The western point. awe from above had quelled His heart. Disdainfully half smiling. 69 . O friends! I hear the tread of nimble feet Hasting this way. Or less be lost.

So wise he judges it to fly from pain However. not to hazard all Through ways of danger by himself untried: I. Argue thy inexperience what behoves From hard assays and ill successes past A faithful leader. O sacred name of faithfulness profaned! Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew? Army of Fiends. that no pain Can equal anger infinite provoked. To say and straight unsay. fit body to fit head. and to 'scape his punishment! So judge thou still. Your military obedience. whereof in Hell Fame is not silent. I alone first undertook To wing the desolate abyss. But still thy words at random. to dissolve 70 . whom folly overthrew. Argues no leader but a liear traced. Which taught thee yet no better. presumptuous! till the wrath. meet thy flight Sevenfold. Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive. not fight. To which the Fiend thus answered. Satan. Which thou incurrest by flying. But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee Came not all hell broke loose? or thou than they Less hardy to endure? Courageous Chief! The first in flight from pain! hadst thou alleged To thy deserted host this cause of flight. To whom the warriour Angel soon replied. pretending first Wise to fly pain. as before. with songs to hymn his throne. and spy This new created world. And practised distances to cringe. Whose easier business were to serve their Lord High up in Heaven. who ask what boldness brought him hither Unlicensed from his bounds in Hell prescribed. or in mid air. or shrink from pain. Was this your discipline and faith engaged. and my afflicted Powers To settle here on earth. Not that I less endure. And seconded thy else not dreaded spear.O loss of one in Heaven to judge of wise Since Satan fell. And now returns him from his prison 'scaped. when in battle to thy aid The blasting vollied thunder made all speed. Gravely in doubt whether to hold them wise Or not. frowning stern. professing next the spy. and scourge that wisdom back to Hell. therefore. here in hope to find Better abode. Insulting Angel! well thou knowest I stood Thy fiercest. Though for possession put to try once more What thou and thy gay legions dare against. and couldst thou faithful add? O name.

Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained. dilated stood. I know thy strength. now ponders all events. who more than thou Once fawned. or all the elements At least had gone to wrack. but the starry cope Of Heaven perhaps. though Heaven's King Ride on thy wings. Left on the threshing floor his hopeless sheaves Prove chaff. but Satan to no threats Gave heed. Satan. who now wouldst seem Patron of liberty. and thyself to reign? But mark what I arreed thee now. drawest his triumphant wheels In progress through the road of Heaven star-paved. thus bespake the Fiend. as thick as when a field Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends Her bearded grove of ears. Satan. nor wanted in his grasp What seemed both spear and shield: Now dreadful deeds Might have ensued. Wherein all things created first he weighed. So threatened he. and thou with thy compeers. and kicked the beam. the careful plowman doubting stands. and cringed. And seal thee so. Collecting all his might. and servily adored Heaven's awful Monarch? wherefore. and began to hem him round With ported spears.Allegiance to the acknowledged Power supreme? And thou. The pendulous round earth with balanced air In counterpoise. nor only Paradise In this commotion. but in hope To dispossess him. The sequel each of parting and of fight: The latter quick up flew. Proud limitary Cherub! but ere then Far heavier load thyself expect to feel From my prevailing arm. the angelick squadron bright Turned fiery red. sly hypocrite. 71 . Then when I am thy captive talk of chains. Battles and realms: In these he put two weights. to prevent such horrid fray. yet seen Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign. and thou knowest mine. alarmed. Which Gabriel spying. Hung forth in Heaven his golden scales. unremoved: His stature reached the sky. Like Teneriff or Atlas. Avant. and on his crest Sat Horrour plumed. Us'd to the yoke. as henceforth not to scorn The facile gates of Hell too slightly barred. Fly neither whence thou fledst! If from this hour Within these hallowed limits thou appear. sharpening in mooned horns Their phalanx. which way the wind Sways them. but waxing more in rage replied. On the other side. disturbed and torn With violence of this conflict. had not soon The Eternal. While thus he spake.

for I this night (Such night till this I never passed) have dreamed. Book V Now Morn. which the only sound Of leaves and fuming rills. Lightly dispersed. O sole in whom my thoughts find all repose. so customed. Close at mine ear one called me forth to walk With gentle voice. and with him fled the shades of night. and shown how light. how weak. I thought it thine: It said. My fairest. Such whispering waked her. and what the balmy reed. If dreamed. with looks of cordial love Hung over her enamoured. which. As through unquiet rest: He. as I oft am wont. of thee. And temperate vapours bland. how blows the citron grove. though doubled now To trample thee as mire: For proof look up. as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes. Her hand soft touching. and glowing cheek. so much the more His wonder was to find unwakened Eve With tresses discomposed. How nature paints her colours. we lose the prime. sowed the earth with orient pearl. whispered thus. 'Why sleepest thou. and the fresh field Calls us. how the bee Sits on the bloom extracting liquid sweet. and beheld Beauty.Neither our own. on his side Leaning half raised. The Fiend looked up. or morrow's next design. her rosy steps in the eastern clime Advancing. and morn returned. whom embracing. for his sleep Was aery-light. Where thou art weighed. and knew His mounted scale aloft: Nor more. Heaven's last best gift. my perfection! glad I see Thy face. Aurora's fan. thus she spake. then with voice Mild. and the shrill matin song Of birds on every bough. nor mine. Works of day past. My glory. from pure digestion bred. If thou resist. What drops the myrrh. my espoused. my ever new delight! Awake: The morning shines. which my mind Knew never till this irksome night: Methought. Shot forth peculiar graces. not. but with startled eye On Adam. my latest found. When Adam waked. Awake. Eve? now is the pleasant time. whether waking or asleep. but given: What folly then To boast what arms can do? since thine no more Than Heaven permits.but fled Murmuring. 72 . to mark how spring Our tender plants. But of offence and trouble. And read thy lot in yon celestial sign.

he drew nigh. on that tree he also gazed. but found thee not. a prospect wide And various: Wondering at my flight and change 73 . and to me held. since good. and be henceforth among the Gods 'Thyself a Goddess. as we. fair angelick Eve! 'Partake thou also. as I wondering looked. and with more pleasing light 'Shadowy sets off the face of things. 'But sometimes in the air. beside it stood One shaped and winged like one of those from Heaven By us oft seen. that now awake 'Tunes sweetest his love-laboured song. or what reserve forbids to taste? 'Forbid who will. methought. yet able to make Gods of Men: 'And why not Gods of Men. the silent. happy though thou art. 'Sweet of thyself.' I rose as at thy call. with ravishment 'Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze. 'Happier thou mayest be. Even to my mouth of that same fruit held part Which he had plucked. not to earth confined. none shall from me withhold 'Longer thy offered good. worthier canst not be: 'Taste this. 'with fruit surcharged. To find thee I directed then my walk. happy creature. but with venturous arm He plucked. that I. now reigns 'Full-orbed the moon. 'Nor God.' said he. save where silence yields 'To the night-warbling bird. Could not but taste. 'The author not impaired. Forthwith up to the clouds With him I flew. and see 'What life the Gods live there. Heaven wakes with all his eyes. but honoured more? 'Here. why else set here? This said. and such live thou!' So saying. sometimes 'Ascend to Heaven. he paused not. more abundant grows. he tasted. And 'O fair plant. me damp horrour chilled At such bold words vouched with a deed so bold: But he thus. nor Man? Is knowledge so despised? 'Or envy. in vain. the more 'Communicated. and taste thy sweet. And on. his dewy locks distilled Ambrosia. by merit thine. methought. 'Whom to behold but thee. but much more sweet thus cropt. 'Deigns none to ease thy load. alone I passed through ways That brought me on a sudden to the tree Of interdicted knowledge: fair it seemed. as only fit 'For Gods. and underneath beheld The earth outstretched immense. 'O fruit divine. it seems. overjoyed. the pleasant savoury smell So quickened appetite. 'If none regard. 'Forbidden here. Much fairer to my fancy than by day: And.'The cool. Nature's desire? 'In whose sight all things joy.

But know that in the soul Are many lesser faculties. I find Of our last evening's talk. Reserved from night. of evil sprung. And fell asleep. and leave No spot or blame behind: Which gives me hope That what in sleep thou didst abhor to dream. That wont to be more cheerful and serene. Two other precious drops that ready stood. Be not disheartened then. but O. yet be not sad. With wheels yet hovering o'er the ocean-brim. Yet evil whence? in thee can harbour none.To this high exaltation. But silently a gentle tear let fall From either eye. and most in dreams. Each in their crystal sluice. suddenly My guide was gone. joining or disjoining. frames All what we affirm or what deny. Which Reason. scarce up-risen. then retires Into her private cell. Some such resemblances. misjoining shapes. the fountains. and wiped them with her hair. so unreproved. Waking thou never will consent to do. among these Fancy next Her office holds. and she was cheered. So cheered he his fair spouse. and thus Adam answered sad. Than when fair morning first smiles on the world. Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. in this thy dream. and the flowers That open now their choisest bosomed smells. of all external things Which the five watchful senses represent. that serve Reason as chief. methinks. nor can I like This uncouth dream. Wild work produces oft. that feared to have offended. The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep Affects me equally. Oft in her absence mimick Fancy wakes To imitate her. But first. and the sun. and kept for thee in store. methought. nor cloud those looks. Best image of myself. So all was cleared. 74 . She forms imaginations. from under shady arborous roof Soon as they forth were come to open sight Of day-spring. Evil into the mind of God or Man May come and go. And let us to our fresh employments rise Among the groves. and call Our knowledge or opinion. when nature rests. and to the field they haste. he ere they fell Kissed. and I. I fear. Created pure. how glad I waked To find this but a dream! Thus Eve her night Related. aery shapes. sunk down. But with addition strange. but. who. as the gracious signs of sweet remorse And pious awe. and dearer half.

and without end. day without night. of this great world both eye and soul. for ye behold him.Shot parallel to the earth his dewy ray. 75 . who out of darkness called up light. last in the train of night. in fit strains pronounced. If better thou belong not to the dawn. ye who best can tell. Lowly they bowed adoring. And when high noon hast gained. sound his praise In thy eternal course. that crownest the smiling morn With thy bright circlet. or dimly seen In these thy lowest works. While day arises. Rising or falling still advance his praise. now flyest. With the fixed Stars. in prose or numerous verse. that sweet hour of prime. that in quaternion run Perpetual circle. In honour to the world's great Author rise. fixed in their orb that flies. resound His praise. Moon. and when thou fallest. each morning duly paid In various style. that now meetest the orient sun. and power divine. yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought. multiform. for neither various style Nor holy rapture wanted they to praise Their Maker. both when thou climbest. Whether to deck with clouds the uncoloured sky. ye in Heaven On Earth join all ye Creatures to extol Him first. Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold. Thus wonderous fair. Sure pledge of day. Air. him midst. Angels. ye sons of light. and began Their orisons. These are thy glorious works. Discovering in wide landskip all the east Of Paradise and Eden's happy plains. or sung Unmeditated. the eldest birth Of Nature's womb. Circle his throne rejoicing. Acknowledge him thy greater. such prompt eloquence Flowed from their lips. Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers. him last. Speak. And ye five other wandering Fires. Almighty! Thine this universal frame. dusky or gray. and they thus began. praise him in thy sphere. and with songs And choral symphonies. and ye Elements. Fairest of stars. Thou Sun. Parent of good. More tuneable than needed lute or harp To add more sweetness. and mix And nourish all things. let your ceaseless change Vary to our great Maker still new praise. Ye Mists and Exhalations. Thyself how wonderous then! Unspeakable. that move In mystick dance not without song. who sitst above these heavens To us invisible. that now rise From hill or steaming lake.

His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud; and, wave your tops, ye Pines, With every plant, in sign of worship wave. Fountains, and ye that warble, as ye flow, Melodious murmurs, warbling tune his praise. Join voices, all ye living Souls: Ye Birds, That singing up to Heaven-gate ascend, Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep; Witness if I be silent, morn or even, To hill, or valley, fountain, or fresh shade, Made vocal by my song, and taught his praise. Hail, universal Lord, be bounteous still To give us only good; and if the night Have gathered aught of evil, or concealed, Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark! So prayed they innocent, and to their thoughts Firm peace recovered soon, and wonted calm. On to their morning's rural work they haste, Among sweet dews and flowers; where any row Of fruit-trees over-woody reached too far Their pampered boughs, and needed hands to check Fruitless embraces: or they led the vine To wed her elm; she, spoused, about him twines Her marriageable arms, and with him brings Her dower, the adopted clusters, to adorn His barren leaves. Them thus employed beheld With pity Heaven's high King, and to him called Raphael, the sociable Spirit, that deigned To travel with Tobias, and secured His marriage with the seventimes-wedded maid. Raphael, said he, thou hearest what stir on Earth Satan, from Hell 'scaped through the darksome gulf, Hath raised in Paradise; and how disturbed This night the human pair; how he designs In them at once to ruin all mankind. Go therefore, half this day as friend with friend Converse with Adam, in what bower or shade Thou findest him from the heat of noon retired, To respite his day-labour with repast, Or with repose; and such discourse bring on, As may advise him of his happy state, Happiness in his power left free to will, Left to his own free will, his will though free, Yet mutable; whence warn him to beware He swerve not, too secure: Tell him withal His danger, and from whom; what enemy, Late fallen himself from Heaven, is plotting now The fall of others from like state of bliss; By violence? no, for that shall be withstood; 76

But by deceit and lies: This let him know, Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pretend Surprisal, unadmonished, unforewarned. So spake the Eternal Father, and fulfilled All justice: Nor delayed the winged Saint After his charge received; but from among Thousand celestial Ardours, where he stood Veiled with his gorgeous wings, up springing light, Flew through the midst of Heaven; the angelick quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all the empyreal road; till, at the gate Of Heaven arrived, the gate self-opened wide On golden hinges turning, as by work Divine the sovran Architect had framed. From hence no cloud, or, to obstruct his sight, Star interposed, however small he sees, Not unconformed to other shining globes, Earth, and the garden of God, with cedars crowned Above all hills. As when by night the glass Of Galileo, less assured, observes Imagined lands and regions in the moon: Or pilot, from amidst the Cyclades Delos or Samos first appearing, kens A cloudy spot. Down thither prone in flight He speeds, and through the vast ethereal sky Sails between worlds and worlds, with steady wing Now on the polar winds, then with quick fan Winnows the buxom air; till, within soar Of towering eagles, to all the fowls he seems A phoenix, gazed by all as that sole bird, When, to enshrine his reliques in the Sun's Bright temple, to Egyptian Thebes he flies. At once on the eastern cliff of Paradise He lights, and to his proper shape returns A Seraph winged: Six wings he wore, to shade His lineaments divine; the pair that clad Each shoulder broad, came mantling o'er his breast With regal ornament; the middle pair Girt like a starry zone his waist, and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold And colours dipt in Heaven; the third his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail, Sky-tinctured grain. Like Maia's son he stood, And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance filled The circuit wide. Straight knew him all the bands Of Angels under watch; and to his state, And to his message high, in honour rise; For on some message high they guessed him bound. Their glittering tents he passed, and now is come Into the blissful field, through groves of myrrh, And flowering odours, cassia, nard, and balm; 77

A wilderness of sweets; for Nature here Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will Her virgin fancies pouring forth more sweet, Wild above rule or art, enormous bliss. Him through the spicy forest onward come Adam discerned, as in the door he sat Of his cool bower, while now the mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays to warm Earth's inmost womb, more warmth than Adam needs: And Eve within, due at her hour prepared For dinner savoury fruits, of taste to please True appetite, and not disrelish thirst Of nectarous draughts between, from milky stream, Berry or grape: To whom thus Adam called. Haste hither, Eve, and worth thy sight behold Eastward among those trees, what glorious shape Comes this way moving; seems another morn Risen on mid-noon; some great behest from Heaven To us perhaps he brings, and will vouchsafe This day to be our guest. But go with speed, And, what thy stores contain, bring forth, and pour Abundance, fit to honour and receive Our heavenly stranger: Well we may afford Our givers their own gifts, and large bestow From large bestowed, where Nature multiplies Her fertile growth, and by disburthening grows More fruitful, which instructs us not to spare. To whom thus Eve. Adam, earth's hallowed mould, Of God inspired! small store will serve, where store, All seasons, ripe for use hangs on the stalk; Save what by frugal storing firmness gains To nourish, and superfluous moist consumes: But I will haste, and from each bough and brake, Each plant and juciest gourd, will pluck such choice To entertain our Angel-guest, as he Beholding shall confess, that here on Earth God hath dispensed his bounties as in Heaven. So saying, with dispatchful looks in haste She turns, on hospitable thoughts intent What choice to choose for delicacy best, What order, so contrived as not to mix Tastes, not well joined, inelegant, but bring Taste after taste upheld with kindliest change; Bestirs her then, and from each tender stalk Whatever Earth, all-bearing mother, yields In India East or West, or middle shore In Pontus or the Punick coast, or where Alcinous reigned, fruit of all kinds, in coat Rough, or smooth rind, or bearded husk, or shell, She gathers, tribute large, and on the board Heaps with unsparing hand; for drink the grape 78

She crushes, inoffensive must, and meaths From many a berry, and from sweet kernels pressed She tempers dulcet creams; nor these to hold Wants her fit vessels pure; then strows the ground With rose and odours from the shrub unfumed. Mean while our primitive great sire, to meet His God-like guest, walks forth, without more train Accompanied than with his own complete Perfections; in himself was all his state, More solemn than the tedious pomp that waits On princes, when their rich retinue long Of horses led, and grooms besmeared with gold, Dazzles the croud, and sets them all agape. Nearer his presence Adam, though not awed, Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek, As to a superiour nature bowing low, Thus said. Native of Heaven, for other place None can than Heaven such glorious shape contain; Since, by descending from the thrones above, Those happy places thou hast deigned a while To want, and honour these, vouchsafe with us Two only, who yet by sovran gift possess This spacious ground, in yonder shady bower To rest; and what the garden choicest bears To sit and taste, till this meridian heat Be over, and the sun more cool decline. Whom thus the angelick Virtue answered mild. Adam, I therefore came; nor art thou such Created, or such place hast here to dwell, As may not oft invite, though Spirits of Heaven, To visit thee; lead on then where thy bower O'ershades; for these mid-hours, till evening rise, I have at will. So to the sylvan lodge They came, that like Pomona's arbour smiled, With flowerets decked, and fragrant smells; but Eve, Undecked save with herself, more lovely fair Than Wood-Nymph, or the fairest Goddess feigned Of three that in mount Ida naked strove, Stood to entertain her guest from Heaven; no veil She needed, virtue-proof; no thought infirm Altered her cheek. On whom the Angel Hail Bestowed, the holy salutation used Long after to blest Mary, second Eve. Hail, Mother of Mankind, whose fruitful womb Shall fill the world more numerous with thy sons, Than with these various fruits the trees of God Have heaped this table!--Raised of grassy turf Their table was, and mossy seats had round, And on her ample square from side to side All autumn piled, though spring and autumn here Danced hand in hand. A while discourse they hold; 79

As doth your rational. Therefore what he gives (Whose praise be ever sung) to Man in part Spiritual. and vines Yield nectar. Mean while at table Eve Ministered naked. That one celestial Father gives to all. which our Nourisher.No fear lest dinner cool. smell. unpurged Vapours not yet into her substance turned. may of purest Spirits be found No ingrateful food: And food alike those pure Intelligential substances require. To us for food and for delight hath caused The earth to yield. whereby they hear. The sun that light imparts to all. but with keen dispatch Of real hunger. To whom the Angel. and as lowest first the moon. For know. nor wonder.if by fire Of sooty coal the empirick alchemist Can turn. And corporeal to incorporeal turn. So down they sat. Metals of drossiest ore to perfect gold. receives From all his alimental recompence In humid exhalations. and to taste Think not I shall be nice. needs To be sustained and fed: Of elements The grosser feeds the purer. please to taste These bounties. and their flowing cups With pleasant liquours crowned: O innocence Deserving Paradise! if ever. or holds it possible to turn. touch. assimilate. unmeasured out. transpires Through Spirits with ease. taste. Though in Heaven the trees Of life ambrosial fruitage bear. the air those fires Ethereal. Earth and the sea feed air. and find the ground Covered with pearly grain: Yet God hath here Varied his bounty so with new delights. then. and at even Sups with the ocean. earth the sea. 80 . Whence in her visage round those spots. only this I know. As may compare with Heaven. and concoctive heat To transubstantiate: What redounds. Nor doth the moon no nourishment exhale From her moist continent to higher orbs. see. And to their viands fell. the common gloss Of Theologians. As from the mine. when thus began Our author. nor in mist. nor seemingly The Angel. Heavenly stranger. Tasting concoct. though from off the boughs each morn We brush mellifluous dews. and both contain Within them every lower faculty Of sense. descends. unsavoury food perhaps To spiritual natures. digest. whatever was created. from whom All perfect good.

various degrees Of substance. As that more willingly thou couldst not seem At Heaven's high feasts to have fed: yet what compare To whom the winged Hierarch replied. but convert. the latter most is ours. whence the soul Reason receives. Under whose lowly roof thou hast vouchsafed To enter. As nearer to him placed. Food not of Angels. more spiritous. discourse Is oftest yours. and up to him return. when Men With Angels may participate. one first matter all. of kind the same. If not depraved from good. But more refined. of life. and his wary speech Thus to the empyreal minister he framed. from whom All things proceed. and these earthly fruits to taste. in things that live. So from the root Springs lighter the green stalk. by gradual scale sublimed. whose radiant forms. yet accepted so. Differing but in degree. nor too light fare. Discursive. now know I well Thy favour. Till body up to spirit work. and pure. to animal. or nearer tending Each in their several active spheres assigned. the injured lover's hell. Thus when with meats and drinks they had sufficed. To intellectual. One Almighty is. give both life and sense. 81 . To vital spirits aspire. what God for you saw good If I refuse not. Not burdened nature.Then had the sons of God excuse to have been Enamoured at that sight. Time may come. Wonder not then. whose high power. from thence the leaves More aery. last the bright consummate flower Spirits odorous breathes: flowers and their fruit. or intuitive. and. Man's nourishment. so far Exceeded human. but in those hearts Love unlibidinous reigned. Endued with various forms. Divine effulgence. Fancy and understanding. nor jealousy Was understood. Inhabitant with God. and reason is her being. in this honour done to Man. and find No inconvenient diet. as you To proper substance. created all Such to perfection. not to let the occasion pass Given him by this great conference to know Of things above his world. whose excellence he saw Transcend his own so far. And from these corporal nutriments perhaps Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit. sudden mind arose In Adam. and of their being Who dwell in Heaven. in bounds Proportioned to each kind. O Adam.

winged. or may. God made thee perfect. to thy obedience. at choice. or possibly his love desert. On other surety none: Freely we serve. O favourable Spirit. If ye be found Obedient? Can we want obedience then To him. and all the angelick host. I have heard. to disobedience fallen. O fall From what high state of bliss. By steps we may ascend to God. and retain Unalterably firm his love entire. If ye be found obedient. Son of Heaven and Earth. and can no other choose? Myself. incapable of more. who will but what they must By destiny. as you yours. into what woe! To whom our great progenitor. not immutable. or strict necessity: Our voluntary service he requires. But say. owe to God. Well hast thou taught the way that might direct Our knowledge. ordained thy will By nature free. Thy words Attentive. That is. not over-ruled by fate Inextricable. ascend Ethereal. nor can find. Because we freely love. be advised. Here or in heavenly Paradises dwell. Who formed us from the dust and placed us here Full to the utmost measure of what bliss Human desires can seek or apprehend? To whom the Angel. and the scale of nature set From center to circumference. To whom the patriarch of mankind replied. as we. and with more delighted ear. And good he made thee.Improved by tract of time. but to persevere He left it in thy power. in this we stand or fall: And some are fallen. What meant that caution joined. owe to thyself. And so from Heaven to deepest Hell. Whose progeny you are. That thou continuest such. Attend! That thou art happy. Divine instructer. as in our will To love or not. enthroned. that stand In sight of God. In contemplation of created things. such with him Finds no acceptance. therein stand. while our obedience holds. propitious guest. Not our necessitated. than when Cherubick songs by night from neighbouring hills Aereal musick send: Nor knew I not 82 . and. not free. our happy state Hold. be tried whether they serve Willing or no. whereon. for how Can hearts. Mean while enjoy Your fill what happiness this happy state Can comprehend. This was that caution given thee.

By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son. my constant thoughts Assured me. and for distinction serve Of hierarchies. the Father Infinite. By likening spiritual to corporal forms. more than on earth is thought? As yet this world was not. Innumerable before the Almighty's throne Forthwith. Worthy of sacred silence to be heard. 83 . and Raphael.To be both will and deed created free.) on such day As Heaven's great year brings forth. and future. and scarce begins His other half in the great zone of Heaven. But more desire to hear. High matter thou enjoinest me. As may express them best. And we have yet large day. Yet that we never shall forget to love Our Maker. Orb within orb. perhaps Not lawful to reveal? yet for thy good This is dispensed. where Earth now rests Upon her center poised. and degrees. and still assure: Though what thou tellest Hath passed in Heaven. measures all things durable By present. After short pause assenting. O prime of men. appeared Under their Hierarchs in orders bright: Ten thousand thousand ensigns high advanced. some doubt within me move. and obey him whose command Single is yet so just. applied To motion. the empyreal host Of Angels by imperial summons called. and what surmounts the reach Of human sense. Sad task and hard: For how shall I relate To human sense the invisible exploits Of warring Spirits? how. though what if Earth Be but a shadow of Heaven. for scarce the sun Hath finished half his journey. thus spake. and things therein Each to other like. whose top Brightness had made invisible. The ruin of so many glorious once And perfect while they stood? how last unfold The secrets of another world. acts of zeal and love Recorded eminent. when on a day (For time. of orders. from all the ends of Heaven. Or in their glittering tissues bear imblazed Holy memorials. The full relation. past. I shall delineate so. thus began. which must needs be strange. without remorse. Thus Adam made request. if thou consent. though in eternity. Amidst as from a flaming mount. and Chaos wild Reigned where these Heavens now roll. Thus when in orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. Standards and gonfalons 'twixt van and rear Stream in the air.

and shall confess him Lord: Under his great vice-gerent reign abide United. who showered With copious hand. This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son. as one individual soul. Eccentrick. Powers. Virtues. For ever happy: Him who disobeys. On flowers reposed. Tables are set. when most irregular they seem. breaks union. (Such are the courts of God) the angelick throng. and with his words All seemed well pleased. Now when ambrosial night with clouds exhaled From that high mount of God. which yonder starry sphere Of planets. And in their motions harmony divine So smooths her charming tones. and with fresh flowerets crowned. as other solemn days.) Forthwith from dance to sweet repast they turn Desirous. and that day. and of fixed. without end. We ours for change delectable. Thrones. that God's own ear Listens delighted. Mystical dance. your head I him appoint. to him shall bow All knees in Heaven. and wider far Than all this globous earth in plain outspread. So spake the Omnipotent. Fruit of delicious vines. in all her wheels Resembles nearest. before the all-bounteous King. the growth of Heaven. all ye Angels. they drink. (For we have also our evening and our morn. And by myself have sworn. yet regular Then most. That day. his place Ordained without redemption. Evening now approached. secure Of surfeit. and in communion sweet Quaff immortality and joy. whom ye now behold At my right hand. and rubied nectar flows In pearl. Me disobeys. intervolved. where full measure only bounds Excess. (for night comes not there In darker veil. Cast out from God and blessed vision. Hear my decree.) and roseat dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. deep ingulfed. which unrevoked shall stand. in diamond. Wide over all the plain. Princedoms. but were not all. and on this holy hill Him have anointed. falls Into utter darkness. mazes intricate. They eat. 84 . rejoicing in their joy. whence light and shade Spring both. they spent In song and dance about the sacred hill. all seemed. and massy gold. all in circles as they stood. not need. the face of brightest Heaven had changed To grateful twilight.Hear. and on a sudden piled With Angels food. Dominations. progeny of light.

and give laws. new minds may raise In us who serve. and his new commands. and his next subordinate Awakening. their camp extend By living streams among the trees of life. as he was taught. so call him now. save those. I am to haste. he resolved With all his legions to dislodge. where we possess The quarters of the north. who. the throne supreme. great in power. New laws from him who reigns. ere yet dim night Her shadowy cloud withdraws.Dispersed in bands and files. Under him Regent. I mine to thee was wont to impart. Celestial tabernacles. Companion dear? What sleep can close Thy eye-lids? and rememberest what decree Of yesterday. Soon as midnight brought on the dusky hour Friendliest to sleep and silence. there to prepare Fit entertainment to receive our King. Melodious hymns about the sovran throne Alternate all night long: but not so waked Satan. Homeward. and proclaimed Messiah King anointed. new counsels to debate What doubtful may ensue: More in this place To utter is not safe. how then can now Thy sleep dissent? New laws thou seest imposed. and sudden reared. The great Messiah. where they slept Fanned with cool winds. tells. could not bear Through pride that sight. in their course. he of the first. And all who under me their banners wave. now ere night. and leave Unworshipt. Assemble thou Of all those myriads which we lead the chief. In favour and pre-eminence. That the Most High commanding. so late hath passed the lips Of Heaven's Almighty. Pavilions numberless. Both waking we were one. Sleepest thou. Deep malice thence conceiving and disdain. Who speedily through all the hierarchies Intends to pass triumphant. with flying march. that by command. yet fraught With envy against the Son of God. If not the first Arch-Angel. unobeyed. and thought himself impaired. Now ere dim night had disincumbered Heaven. The great hierarchal standard was to move. thus to him in secret spake. Tell them. his former name Is heard no more in Heaven. Thou to me thy thoughts Wast wont. Contemptuous. 85 . and infused Bad influence into the unwary breast Of his associate: He together calls. So spake the false Arch-Angel. Or several one by one. the regent Powers. that day Honoured by his great Father.

Far was advanced on winged speed. Son. or be found the worst in Heaven. thou thy foes Justly hast in derision. Or stars of morning.Tells the suggested cause. and superiour voice Of their great Potentate. to sound Or taint integrity: But all obeyed The wonted signal. when they see all regal power Given me to quell their pride. and casts between Ambiguous words and jealousies. thou in whom my glory I behold In full resplendence. dew-drops. how spread Among the sons of morn. And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him. lest unawares we lose This our high place. with his Powers. and with what arms We mean to hold what anciently we claim Of deity or empire: Such a foe Is rising. Matter to me of glory. smiling. And. Made answer. who intends to erect his throne Equal to ours. what our power is. and with lies Drew after him the third part of Heaven's host. 86 . is no more Than what this garden is to all the earth. and Potentates. throughout the spacious north. Mean while the Eternal eye. an host Innumerable as the stars of night. ineffable. So spake the Son. from forth his holy mount. or our right. Lightning divine. hath in his thought to try In battle. and in event Know whether I be dextrous to subdue Thy rebels. whose sight discerns Abstrusest thoughts. His countenance. and high was his degree in Heaven. Laughest at their vain designs and tumults vain. the mighty regencies Of Seraphim. secure. Nor so content. Adam. and. saw in whom. Regions they passed. as the morning-star that guides The starry flock. but Satan. In their triple degrees. Heir of all my might. our hill. allured them. for great indeed His name. what multitudes Were banded to oppose his high decree. and Thrones. regions to which All thy dominion. serene. saw without their light Rebellion rising. whom their hate Illustrates. which the sun Impearls on every leaf and every flower. Let us advise. and to this hazard draw With speed what force is left. Mighty Father. To whom the Son with calm aspect and clear. to his only Son thus said. our sanctuary. Nearly it now concerns us to be sure Of our Omnipotence. and all employ In our defence.

Who can in reason then. Pretending so commanded to consult About the great reception of their King. which assert Our being ordained to govern. with pyramids and towers From diamond quarries hewn. Thus far his bold discourse without controul 87 . Virtues. from one entire globose Stretched into longitude. which having passed. but well consist. and if not equal all. not to serve. Princedoms. since by decree Another now hath to himself engrossed All power. prostration vile! Too much to one! but double how endured. This only to consult how we may best. Receive him coming to receive from us Knee-tribute yet unpaid. and choose to bend The supple knee? Ye will not. and us eclipsed under the name Of King anointed. if in power and splendour less. and hurried meeting here. far blazing. Thither to come. who without law Err not? much less for this to be our Lord. and teach us to cast off this yoke? Will ye submit your necks. If these magnifick titles yet remain Not merely titular. Dominations. For thither he assembled all his train. To one. Equally free. or right. The Mountain of the Congregation called. for whom all this haste Of midnight-march. and with calumnious art Of counterfeited truth thus held their ears. for orders and degrees Jar not with liberty. if I trust To know ye right. to the abuse Of those imperial titles.And all the sea. and rocks of gold. In imitation of that mount whereon Messiah was declared in sight of Heaven. At length into the limits of the north They came. as a mount Raised on a mount. The palace of great Lucifer. or if ye know yourselves Natives and sons of Heaven possessed before By none. and to his image now proclaimed? But what if better counsels might erect Our minds. Thrones. yet free. With what may be devised of honours new. In freedom equal? or can introduce Law and edict on us. assume Monarchy over such as live by right His equals. he Affecting all equality with God.) which not long after. Powers. And look for adoration. and Satan to his royal seat High on a hill. (so call That structure in the dialect of men Interpreted.

Or all angelick nature joined in one. That to his only Son. and proud! Words which no ear ever to hear in Heaven Expected. Cease then this impious rage. As by his Word.Had audience. under one head more near United. Stood up. and the incensed Son. every soul in Heaven Shall bend the knee. when among the Seraphim Abdiel. One over all with unsucceeded power. and in a flame of zeal severe The current of his fury thus opposed. Ingrate. since he the head One of our number thus reduced becomes. false. Canst thou with impious obloquy condemn The just decree of God. the Mighty Father made All things. as out of season judged. Dominations. least of all from thee. dost thou count. we know how good. Or singular and rash: Whereat rejoiced The Apostate. even thee. In place thyself so high above thy peers. and circumscribed their being? Yet. Equal to him begotten Son? by whom. But to grant it thee unjust. to bind with laws the free. Powers. who made Thee what thou art. And tempt not these. more haughty. That we were formed then sayest thou? and the work Of secondary hands. and. bent rather to exalt Our happy state. O argument blasphemous. Virtues. His laws our laws. all honour to him done Returns our own. But more illustrious made. And of our good and of our dignity How provident he is. and formed the Powers of Heaven Such as he pleased. That equal over equals monarch reign: Thyself. thus replied. but hasten to appease The incensed Father. though great and glorious. thou sayest. pronounced and sworn. how far from thought To make us less. Shalt thou give law to God? shalt thou dispute With him the points of liberty. Essential Powers. Flatly unjust. by task transferred 88 . And equal over equals to let reign. by right endued With regal scepter. So spake the fervent Angel. Crowned them with glory. Princedoms. but his zeal None seconded. and all the Spirits of Heaven By him created in their bright degrees. by experience taught. and to their glory named Thrones. While pardon may be found in time besought. and divine commands obeyed. and in that honour due Confess him rightful King? unjust. than whom none with more zeal adored The Deity. nor by his reign obscured.

Among innumerable false. Know none before us. those indulgent laws Will not be now vouchsafed. as the sound of waters deep. Long way through hostile scorn. his zeal. Distinguish not: For soon expect to feel His thunder on thy head.From Father to his Son? strange point and new! Doctrine which we would know whence learned: who saw When this creation was? rememberest thou Thy making. and to begirt the almighty throne Beseeching or besieging. ere evil intercept thy flight. He said. unmoved. nor less for that The flaming Seraph fearless. though alone Encompassed round with foes. Then who created thee lamenting learn. This report. nor example. Yet not for thy advice or threats I fly These wicked tents devoted. and thy hapless crew involved In this perfidious fraud. So spake the Seraph Abdiel. raging into sudden flame. ethereal sons. when fatal course Had circled his full orb. other decrees Against thee are gone forth without recall. with him wrought To swerve from truth. Unshaken. O alienate from God. which he sustained Superiour. These tidings carry to the anointed King. Is now an iron rod to bruise and break Thy disobedience. his love. faithful only he. thus answered bold. unterrified. And fly. Nor number. Well thou didst advise. self-raised By our own quickening power. self-begot. Though single. devouring fire. Forsaken of all good! I see thy fall Determined. our own right hand Shall teach us highest deeds. faithful found Among the faithless. unseduced. lest the wrath Impendent. That golden scepter. which thou didst reject. by proof to try Who is our equal: Then thou shalt behold Whether by supplication we intend Address. O Spirit accursed. the birth mature Of this our native Heaven. His loyalty he kept. or change his constant mind. contagion spread Both of thy crime and punishment: Henceforth No more be troubled how to quit the yoke Of God's Messiah. When who can uncreate thee thou shalt know. 89 . and. while the Maker gave thee being? We know no time when we were not as now. nor of violence feared aught. Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause Through the infinite host. From amidst them forth he passed. Our puissance is our own.

and for their King Messiah. though darkness there might well Seem twilight here: And now went forth the Morn Such as in highest Heaven arrayed in gold Empyreal. for this was all thy care To stand approved in sight of God. Back on thy foes more glorious to return. fast by his throne. Well done.And. from whence a voice. who by right of merit reigns. with retorted scorn. which makes through Heaven Grateful vicissitude. That of so many myriads fallen. Than scorned thou didst depart. like day and night. of celestial armies prince. in military prowess next. Light issues forth. and found Already known what he for news had thought To have reported: Gladly then he mixed Among those friendly Powers. Where light and darkness in perpetual round Lodge and dislodge by turns. Waked by the circling Hours. Servant of God. and to subdue By force. who him received With joy and acclamations loud. Go. with rosy hand Unbarred the gates of light. that one. war in procinct. from before her vanished Night. when all the plain Covered with thick embattled squadrons bright. aided by this host of friends. From midst a golden cloud. in word mightier than they in arms. And for the testimony of truth hast borne Universal reproach. On to the sacred hill They led him high applauded. yet one Returned not lost. Reflecting blaze on blaze. and at the other door Obsequious darkness enters. Michael. Shot through with orient beams. unpursued. who reason for their law refuse. till her hour To veil the Heaven. Right reason for their law. 90 . Chariots. Book VI All night the dreadless Angel. and flaming arms. well hast thou fought The better fight. Through Heaven's wide champain held his way. his back he turned On those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. though worlds Judged thee perverse: The easier conquest now Remains thee. first met his view: War he perceived. who single hast maintained Against revolted multitudes the cause Of truth. till Morn. There is a cave Within the mount of God. far worse to bear Than violence. and fiery steeds. thus mild was heard. and present Before the seat supreme. And thou.

to the sound Of instrumental harmony. That stood for Heaven. the sign Of wrath awaked. nor wood. but their thoughts proved fond and vain In the mid way: Though strange to us it seemed At first. So spake the Sovran Voice. as when the total kind Of birds. By thousands and by millions. drive them out from God and bliss. who wont to meet So oft in festivals of joy and love Unanimous. so over many a tract Of Heaven they marched. in mighty quadrate joined Of union irresistible. And in fierce hosting meet. which ready opens wide His fiery Chaos to receive their fall. Far in the horizon to the north appeared From skirt to skirt a fiery region. for they weened That self-same day. and. stretched In battailous aspect. and many a province wide. nor obvious hill. in the cause Of God and his Messiah. as sons of one great Sire. To win the mount of God. and smoke to roll In dusky wreaths. and helmets thronged. ranged for fight. Equal in number to that Godless crew Rebellious: Them with fire and hostile arms Fearless assault. that breathed Heroick ardour to adventurous deeds Under their God-like leaders. Tenfold the length of this terrene: At last. the gulf Of Tartarus. to the brow of Heaven Pursuing. lead forth my armed Saints. moved on In silence their bright legions. divides Their perfect ranks. The banded Powers of Satan hasting on With furious expedition. and the passive air upbore Their nimble tread. by fight or by surprise. lead forth to battle these my sons Invincible. Nor straitening vale. nor with less dread the loud Ethereal trumpet from on high 'gan blow: At which command the Powers militant. and clouds began To darken all the hill. with boastful argument portrayed. Into their place of punishment. and on his throne To set the Envier of his state. reluctant flames. for high above the ground Their march was. and shields Various. the proud Aspirer. that Angel should with Angel war. nor stream. Came summoned over Eden to receive Their names of thee. in orderly array on wing. On they move Indissolubly firm.Gabriel. Hymning the Eternal Father: But the shout 91 . and nearer view Bristled with upright beams innumerable Of rigid spears.

when I alone Seemed in thy world erroneous to dissent From all: My sect thou seest. Unaided. who faith Prefer. though then To thee not visible. The throne of God unguarded. at one blow. or with solitary hand Reaching beyond all limit. who in debate of truth hath won. though brutish that contest and foul. On the rough edge of battle ere it joined. or weakest prove Where boldest. and whelmed Thy legions under darkness: But thou seest All are not of thy train.Of battle now began. and thus securely him defied. Who out of smallest things could. So pondering. and his side Abandoned. And thus his own undaunted heart explores. where he stood Among the mightiest. art thou met? thy hope was to have reached The highth of thy aspiring unopposed.now learn too late 92 . there be. O Heaven! that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain. half-way he met His daring foe. Came towering. trusting in the Almighty's aid. armed in adamant and gold. and front to front Presented stood in terrible array Of hideous length: Before the cloudy van. in both disputes alike Victor. whose reason I have tried Unsound and false. When reason hath to deal with force. and rushing sound Of onset ended soon each milder thought. for now "twixt host and host but narrow space was left. Should win in arms. though to fight unconquerable? His puissance. A dreadful interval. Have raised incessant armies to defeat Thy folly. exalted as a God. Then lighted from his gorgeous throne. High in the midst. could have finished thee. with vast and haughty strides advanced. and piety to God. That he. enclosed With flaming Cherubim. at the terrour of thy power Or potent tongue: Fool!not to think how vain Against the Omnipotent to rise in arms. Satan. without end. Proud. yet so Most reason is that reason overcome. bent on highest deeds. and from his armed peers Forth stepping opposite. The Apostate in his sun-bright chariot sat. at this prevention more Incensed. I mean to try. where faith and realty Remain not: Wherefore should not strength and might There fail where virtue fails. and golden shields. nor is it aught but just. Abdiel that sight endured not. Idol of majesty divine.

This greeting on thy impious crest receive. Half sunk with all his pines. Whom the grand foe. Reign thou in Hell. can allow Omnipotence to none. (Unanswered lest thou boast) to let thee know. Ministring Spirits. When he who rules is worthiest. that no sight. Or Nature: God and Nature bid the same. To whom in brief thus Abdiel stern replied. seditious Angel! to receive Thy merited reward. worthiest to be obeyed. but to thyself enthralled. To serve the unwise. who. Thyself not free. when thousands err. first sought for. thou returnest From flight. to serve whom God ordains. durst oppose A third part of the Gods. let me serve In Heaven God ever blest. but now I see that most through sloth had rather serve. not realms. Inspired with contradiction. Yet lewdly darest our ministring upbraid. trained up in feast and song! Such hast thou armed. the minstrelsy of Heaven. Which hung not. Sidelong had pushed a mountain from his seat. a noble stroke he lifted high. This is servitude. expect: Mean while From me returned. Ill for thee. while they feel Vigour divine within them. Thus answered. But well thou comest Before thy fellows. as thine now serve thee. Such ruin intercept: Ten paces huge He back recoiled. At first I thought that Liberty and Heaven To heavenly souls had been all one. So saying. or him who hath rebelled Against his worthier. the tenth on bended knee His massy spear upstaid. Nor motion of swift thought. Servility with freedom to contend. but so swift with tempest fell On the proud crest of Satan. from the path of truth remote: Unjustly thou depravest it with the name Of servitude. Amazement seised 93 .How few sometimes may know. less could his shield. that thy success may show Destruction to the rest: This pause between. or waters forcing way. Yet chains in Hell. but in wished hour Of my revenge. ambitious to win From me some plume. and his divine Behests obey. from flight. as if on earth Winds under ground. with scornful eye askance. Apostate! still thou errest. the first assay Of this right hand provoked. and excels Them whom he governs. in synod met Their deities to assert. since first that tongue. As both their deeds compared this day shall prove. as erst thou saidst. thy kingdom. nor end wilt find Of erring.

but infinite. with ruinous assault And inextinguishable rage. and the madding wheels Of brazen chariots raged. but greater rage. and the faithful armies rung Hosanna to the Highest: Nor stood at gaze The adverse legions. nor less hideous joined The horrid shock. no unbecoming deed That argued fear. open when. till Satan. who that day Prodigious power had shown. over head the dismal hiss Of fiery darts in flaming vollies flew. and disturb. and when to close The ridges of grim war: No thought of flight. And clamour such as heard in Heaven till now Was never. to see Thus foiled their mightiest. From his strong hold of Heaven. the least of whom could wield These elements. and had Earth been then. and arm him with the force Of all their regions: How much more of power Army against army numberless to raise Dreadful combustion warring. all air seemed then Conflicting fire. Though not destroy. As only in his arm the moment lay Of victory: Deeds of eternal fame Were done. arms on armour clashing brayed Horrible discord. led in fight. soaring on main wing. ranging through the dire attack Of fighting Seraphim confused. all Earth Had to her center shook.The rebel Thrones. Presage of victory. All Heaven Resounded. So under fiery cope together rushed Both battles main. ours joy filled. And flying vaulted either host with fire. sometimes on firm ground A standing fight. their happy native seat. expert When to advance. high over-ruled And limited their might. dire was the noise Of conflict. though numbered such As each divided legion might have seemed A numerous host. What wonder? when Millions of fierce encountering Angels fought On either side. and met in arms No equal. or stand. each on himself relied. for wide was spread That war and various. Had not the Eternal King Omnipotent. or turn the sway Of battle. None of retreat. yet leader seemed Each warriour single as in chief. and fierce desire Of battle: Whereat Michael bid sound The Arch-Angel trumpet. Tormented all the air. at length 94 . then. in strength each armed hand A legion. and shout. Long time in even scale The battle hung. Now storming fury rose. through the vast of Heaven It sounded.

Though heaviest by just measure on thyself. that may lift Human imagination to such highth 95 . with huge two-handed sway Brandished aloft. but have sought thee far and nigh. imperious. now plenteous as thou seest These acts of hateful strife. Hast thou turned the least of these To flight. or to what things Liken on earth conspicuous. but that they rise Unvanquished. Or turn this Heaven itself into the Hell Thou fablest. Hence then. and both addressed for fight Unspeakable. and glad. and with threats To chase me hence? err not. the horrid edge came down Wide-wasting. to whom thus The Adversary. I fly not.Saw where the sword of Michael smote. his ample shield. for who. Or some more sudden vengeance. And thy adherents: How hast thou disturbed Heaven's blessed peace. and felled Squadrons at once. that so shall end The strife which thou callest evil. So spake the Prince of Angels. now proved false! But think not here To trouble holy rest. unknown till thy revolt. uncreated till the crime Of thy rebellion! how hast thou instilled Thy malice into thousands. with hostile frown And visage all inflamed first thus began. They ended parle. Nor think thou with wind Of aery threats to awe whom yet with deeds Thou canst not. but we style The strife of glory. once upright And faithful. Ere this avenging sword begin thy doom. easier to transact with me That thou shouldst hope. to the place of evil. as hoping here to end Intestine war in Heaven. hateful to all. Heaven casts thee out From all her confines. Thy offspring. Thou and thy wicked crew! there mingle broils. the seat of bliss. Author of evil. the arch-foe subdued Or captive dragged in chains. At his approach The great Arch-Angel from his warlike toil Surceased. Brooks not the works of violence and war. winged from God. And join him named Almighty to thy aid. Precipitate thee with augmented pain. Unnamed in Heaven. such destruction to withstand He hasted. A vast circumference. and evil go with thee along. can relate. If not to reign: Mean while thy utmost force. here however to dwell free. and into nature brought Misery. or if to fall. and opposed the rocky orb Of tenfold adamant. Heaven. which we mean to win. though with the tongue Of Angels. Hell.

nor odds appeared In might or swift prevention: But the sword Of Michael from the armoury of God Was given him tempered so. and in the air Made horrid circles.Of Godlike power? for likest Gods they seemed. and despite. as they please. To find himself not matchless. And all his armour stained. 96 . and shame. and not need repeat. Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound Receive. As not of power at once. Cannot but by annihilating die. all head. unsafe within the wind Of such commotion. not as frail man In entrails. all ear. and in half cut sheer. all eye. Together both with next to almighty arm Up-lifted imminent. the angelick throng. Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven. in mid sky Should combat. and. where it stood retired From off the files of war: There they him laid Gnashing for anguish. And writhed him to and fro convolved. no more than can the fluid air: All heart they live. such as celestial Spirits may bleed. if. such as. And left large field. for Spirits that live throughout Vital in every part. so far beneath His confidence to equal God in power. ere while so bright. in stature. who interposed Defence. nature's concord broke. All intellect. with steep force to smite Descending. and their jarring spheres confound. and from the gash A stream of necturous humour issuing flowed Sanguine. Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By Angels many and strong. deep entering. two broad suns their shields Blazed opposite. Yet soon he healed. rushing from aspect malign Of fiercest opposition. Now waved their fiery swords. Where erst was thickest fight. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. shared All his right side: Then Satan first knew pain. one stroke they aimed That might determine. nor staid. motion. Not long divisible. heart of head. liver or reins. so sore The griding sword with discontinuous wound Passed through him: But the ethereal substance closed. arms. and his pride Humbled by such rebuke. But with swift wheel reverse. Two planets. all sense. to set forth Great things by small. Among the constellations war were sprung. while Expectation stood In horrour: From each hand with speed retired. that neither keen Nor solid might resist that edge: it met The sword of Satan. Stood they or moved.

and in a rock of diamond armed. condense or rare. who him defied. Nor of renown less eager. or flight.They limb themselves. and Arioch. Far otherwise the inviolable Saints. Invulnerable. what stood. through the faint Satanick host Defensive scarce. furious king. and Raphael. and from just. to such evil brought By sin of disobedience. all the ground With shivered armour strown. yet by doom Cancelled from Heaven and sacred memory. Fled ignominious. And fiery-foaming steeds. Vanquished Adramelech. but meaner thoughts learned in their flight. nought merits but dispraise And ignominy. but with redoubled blow Ariel. Illaudable. their mightiest quelled. On each wing Uriel. Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail. I might relate of thousands. or size Assume. his vaunting foe. that to be less than Gods Disdained. And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array Of Moloch. And at his chariot-wheels to drag him bound Threatened. advanced entire. yet to glory aspires Vain-glorious. contented with their fame in Heaven. and Asmadai. and their names Eternize here on earth. and through infamy seeks fame: Therefore eternal silence be their doom. For strength from truth divided. but anon Down cloven to the waist. and the violence Of Ramiel scorched and blasted. or pain. till that hour Not liable to fear. In might though wonderous and in acts of war. Such high advantages their innocence Gave them above their foes. overthrew. with shattered arms And uncouth pain fled bellowing. And now. Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. Mean while in other parts like deeds deserved Memorial. the battle swerved. recoiled O'er-wearied. and foul disorder. impenetrably armed. Seek not the praise of men: The other sort. where the might of Gabriel fought. and on a heap Chariot and charioteer lay overturned. shape. but those elect Angels. Then first with fear surprised. nor from the Holy One of Heaven Refrained his tongue blasphemous. Two potent Thrones. and colour. Though huge. and sense of pain. as?kikes them best. Nor stood unmindful Abdiel to annoy The atheist crew. 97 . not to have sinned. In cubick phalanx firm. With many an inroad gored. deformed rout Entered. or with pale fear surprised.

unobnoxious to be pained By wound. void of rest. Found worthy not of liberty alone. and worse our foes. Due search and consultation will disclose. and. while we can preserve Unhurt our minds. and judged Sufficient to subdue us to his will. Some disadvantage we endured and pain. now known in arms Not to be overpowered. Victor and vanquished: On the foughten field Michael and his Angels prevalent Encamping. though from their place by violence moved. Far in the dark dislodged. and understanding sound. Now Night her course began. perhaps more valid arms. and by native vigour healed. Cherubick waving fires: On the other part. and renown. Companions dear. when next we meet. Who have sustained one day in doubtful fight. And cloudy in aspect thus answering spake. Or equal what between us made the odds. but. And silence on the odious din of war: Under her cloudy covert both retired. Weapons more violent. why not eternal days?) What Heaven's Lord had powerfullest to send Against us from about his throne. of Principalities the prime. May serve to better us. Imperishable. (And if one day. placed in guard their watches round. and too unequal work we find. And in the midst thus undismayed began. grateful truce imposed. less firmly armed. Of future we may deem him. in fight they stood Unwearied. But proves not so: Then fallible. 98 . dominion. Too mean pretence! but what we more affect. Of evil then so small as easy think The remedy. though till now Omniscient thought. and. as soon contemned. Satan with his rebellious disappeared. As one he stood escaped from cruel fight. He sat. it seems. though pierced with wound. yet hard For Gods. Honour. Sore toiled. and in the assembly next upstood Nisroch. Soon closing. over Heaven Inducing darkness. Since now we find this our empyreal form Incapable of mortal injury. True is. leader to free Enjoyment of our right as Gods. Deliverer from new Lords.Not to have disobeyed. His potentates to council called by night. Till now not known. and. O now in danger tried. known. In nature none: If other hidden cause Left them superiour. his riven arms to havock hewn. glory.

or inspired With devilish machination. into hollow engines. though matchless. which yet unfound most would have thought Impossible: Yet. Whose eye so superficially surveys These things. long and round. Of spiritous and fiery spume. excessive. Nor long shall be our labour. and each. the worst Of evils. among our foes Such implements of mischief. yet ere dawn. for what avails Valour or strength. if malice should abound. adorned With plant. that they shall fear we have disarmed The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt. at the other bore with touch of fire Dilated and infuriate. Mean while revive.Against unequal arms to fight in pain. of thy race In future days. and. so easy it seemed Once found. opening to the ambient light? These in their dark nativity the deep Shall yield us. shall send forth From far. But live content. Not uninvented that. and not repine. Against unpained. they shoot forth So beauteous. much less to be despaired. to me deserves No less than for deliverance what we owe. Which. to strength and counsel joined Think nothing hard. and gold. Thick rammed. materials dark and crude. and makes remiss the hands Of mightiest? Sense of pleasure we may well Spare out of life perhaps. who therefore can invent With what more forcible we may offend Our yet unwounded enemies. Some one intent on mischief. quelled with pain Which all subdues. and o'erwhelm whatever stands Adverse. Which of us who beholds the bright surface Of this ethereous mould whereon we stand. haply. and his words their drooping cheer Enlightened. pregnant with infernal flame. might devise 99 . I bring. He ended. The invention all admired. how he To be the inventer missed. Effect shall end our wish. impassive. with thundering noise. or arm Ourselves with like defence. which is the calmest life: But pain is perfect misery. Whereto with look composed Satan replied. and their languished hope revived. overturns All patience. as shall dash To pieces. gems. which thou aright Believest so main to our success. and tempered. as not to mind from whence they grow Deep under ground. from which evil Ruin must needs ensue. fruit. flower ambrosial. He. This continent of spacious Heaven. Abandon fear. till touched With Heaven's ray.

no drizzling shower. unespied. Concocted and adusted they reduced To blackest grain. on war and mutual slaughter bent. back with speediest sail Zophiel. under conscious night. Came flying. and scouts each coast light-armed scour. Borne even or high. and settled in his face I see Sad resolution. arm for fight. aware themselves. Where lodged. Each quarter to descry the distant foe.Like instrument to plague the sons of men For sin. Whom fled we thought. part incentive reed Provide. Warriours. Whereof to found their engines and their balls Of missive ruin. If I conjecture aught. pernicious with one touch to fire. Secret they finished. the foe at hand. sulphurous and nitrous foam They found. Now when fair morn orient in Heaven appeared. for this day will pour down. fear not his flight. So warned he them. others from the dawning hills Look round. or if for fight. In motion or in halt: Him soon they met Under spread ensigns moving nigh. and secure: Let each His adamantine coat gird well. impaled On every side with shadowing squadrons deep. and in order set. Forthwith from council to the work they flew. To hide the fraud. and saw beneath The originals of nature in their crude Conception. and. and to arms The matin trumpet sung: In arms they stood Of golden panoply. At interview both stood 100 . refulgent host. will save us long pursuit This day. and into store conveyed: Part hidden veins digged up (nor hath this earth Entrails unlike) of mineral and stone. But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire. So all ere day-spring. quit of all impediment. gripe fast his orbed shield. Instant without disturb they took alarm. Up rose the victor-Angels. None arguing stood. with subtle art. With silent circumspection. Arm. they mingled. innumerable hands Were ready. and in mid air aloud thus cried. in slow But firm battalion. of Cherubim the swiftest wing. and soon In order. and each Fit well his helm. in a moment up they turned Wide the celestial soil. And onward moved embattled: When behold! Not distant far with heavy pace the foe Approaching gross and huge. or whither fled. Soon banded. in hollow cube Training his devilish enginery.so thick a cloud He comes.

That all may see who hate us. Angel on Arch-Angel rolled. witness thou anon! while we discharge Freely our part: ye. whom they hit. Heaven! Heaven. and with open breast Stand ready to receive them. would render them yet more despised. however witness. for in view Stood ranked of Seraphim another row. he scarce Had ended. evaded swift By quick contraction or remove. repulse Repeated. With branches lopt. unarmed. who appointed stand Do as you have in charge. with such impetuous fury smote. Portending hollow truce: At each behind A Seraph stood. none on their feet might stand. and forced rout. And to their foes a laughter. whose roar Embowelled with outrageous noise the air. and loud that all may hear! So scoffing in ambiguous words. Not long. but now Foul dissipation followed. had not their mouths With hideous orifice gaped on us wide. stony mould. Vanguard. chained thunderbolts and hail Of iron globes. And all her entrails tore. new and strange. they might Have easily. The sooner for their arms. if they like Our overture. Or hollowed bodies made of oak or fir. and to either flank retired: Which to our eyes discovered. Though standing else as rocks. but suddenly at head appeared Satan. What should they do? if on they rushed. on the victor host Levelled. for sudden all at once their reeds Put forth. A triple mounted row of pillars laid On wheels (for like to pillars most they seemed.) Brass. and turn not back perverse: But that I doubt. Nor served it to relax their serried files. suspense. which. all Heaven appeared.A while. In posture to displode their second tire Of thunder: Back defeated to return 101 . but down they fell By thousands. and thus was heard commanding loud. But soon obscured with smoke. and indecent overthrow Doubled. Immediate in a flame. and briefly touch What we propound. how we seek Peace and composure. and in his hand a reed Stood waving tipt with fire. in wood or mountain felled. Collected stood within our thoughts amused. to right and left the front unfold. and to a narrow vent applied With nicest touch. when to right and left the front Divided. as Spirits. while we. iron. That. disgorging foul Their devilish glut. From those deep-throated engines belched.

Till on those cursed engines' triple-row They saw them whelmed. And to his mates thus in derision called. and when we. They plucked the seated hills. Had need from head to foot well understand. and to the hills (For Earth hath this variety from Heaven Of pleasure situate in hill and dale. Of hard contents. straight they changed their minds. Rocks. which in the air Came shadowing. When coming towards them so dread they saw The bottom of the mountains upward turned. Flew off. perhaps For joy of offered peace: But I suppose. Not understood. They show us when our foes walk not upright. and oppressed whole legions armed. the power. As they would dance. And all his host derided. crushed in and bruised Into their substance pent. Themselves invaded next. with all their load. yet for a dance they seemed Somewhat extravagant and wild.They worse abhorred. (what could we more?) propounded terms Of composition. seized the rebel host. and terrour. they flew. Rage prompted them at length. Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed!) Their arms away they threw. and by the shaggy tops Up-lifting bore them in their hands: Amaze. which wrought them pain 102 .) Light as the lightning glimpse they ran. and all their confidence Under the weight of mountains buried deep. and on their heads Main promontories flung. Leader! the terms we sent were terms of weight. and into strange vagaries fell. Forthwith (behold the excellence. and full of force urged home. We should compel them to a quick result. O Friends! why come not on these victors proud Ere while they fierce were coming. Be sure. woods. waters. So they among themselves in pleasant vein Stood scoffing. in like gamesome mood. and found them arms Against such hellish mischief fit to oppose. this gift they have besides. And stumbled many: Who receives them right. Their armour helped their harm. If our proposals once again were heard. and of his thunder made a scorn. From their foundations loosening to and fro. Satan beheld their plight. hightened in their thoughts beyond All doubt of victory: Eternal Might To match with their inventions they presumed So easy. To entertain them fair with open front And breast. Such as we might perceive amused them all. To whom thus Belial. while they stood A while in trouble: But they stood not long.

ere they could wind Out of such prison. Purest at first. with ruin overspread. Since Michael and his Powers went forth to tame These disobedient: Sore hath been their fight. To manifest thee worthiest to be Heir Of all things. what by Deity I am. that all may know In Heaven and Hell thy power above compare. advised: That his great purpose he might so fulfil. Had not the Almighty Father. To honour his anointed Son avenged Upon his enemies. since none but Thou Can end it. to be Heir. he thus began. Save what sin hath impaired. though Spirits of purest light. as with weapons. Two days. Long struggling underneath. and to declare All power on him transferred: Whence to his Son. As likeliest was. For to themselves I left them. Effulgence of my glory. this perverse commotion governed thus. foreseen This tumult. Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. when two such foes met armed. and many a dolorous groan. horrid confusion heaped Upon confusion rose: And now all Heaven Had gone to wrack. For thee I have ordained it. The Assessour of his throne. that the glory may be thine Of ending this great war. and to be King 103 . And. Son beloved. Second Omnipotence! two days are past. which makes Wild work in Heaven. and dangerous to the main. Son. in whose face invisible is beheld Visibly. Equal in their creation they were formed. which yet hath wrought Insensibly.Implacable. where he sits Shrined in his sanctuary of Heaven secure. Consulting on the sum of things. Into thee such virtue and grace Immense I have transfused. Infernal noise! war seemed a civil game To this uproar. and the neighbouring hills uptore: So hills amid the air encountered hills. armed. the third is thine. to like arms Betook them. And in whose hand what by decree I do. And to disordered rage let loose the reins With mountains. and thus far Have suffered. and no solution will be found: War wearied hath performed what war can do. The rest. and permitted all. Whence in perpetual fight they needs must last Endless. now gross by sinning grown. and thou knowest. in imitation. That under ground they fought in dismal shade. for I suspend their doom. as we compute the days of Heaven. Two days are therefore past.

circling thy holy mount. rid Heaven of these rebelled. He said. Whom to obey is happiness entire. O Father. and I among them Chief. and in me all whom thou lovest: But whom thou hatest. First. thou always seek'st To glorify thy Son. he all his Father full expressed Ineffably into his face received. four faces each Had wonderous. in me well pleased. and careering fires between. Scepter and power. bring forth all my war. Holiest. And gladlier shall resign. in thy Father's might. and can put on Thy terrours. and from the impure Far separate. and I in thee For ever. Armed with thy might. Flashing thick flames. and shall soon. he. with eyes the wheels Of beryl. Thou Mightiest. and sword upon thy puissant thigh. which to fulfil is all my bliss. o'er his scepter bowing. and the undying worm. My exaltation. as likes them. Hymns of high praise. Ascend my chariot. my almighty arms Gird on. So said. Dawning through Heaven. thy giving. Itself instinct with Spirit. when in the end Thou shalt be all in all. Over their heads a crystal firmament. but convoyed By four Cherubick shapes. I assume. My bow and thunder. Unfeigned Halleluiahs to thee sing.By sacred unction. drive them out From all Heaven's bounds into the utter deep: There let them learn. and my whole delight. O Supreme of heavenly Thrones. To chains of darkness. Go then. And thus the Filial Godhead answering spake. As is most just: This I my glory account. Whereon a sapphire throne. and on his Son with rays direct Shone full. Best. and colours of the showery arch. Forth rushed with whirlwind sound The chariot of Paternal Deity. And the third sacred morn began to shine. guide the rapid wheels That shake Heaven's basis. That from thy just obedience could revolt. as with stars. rose From the right hand of Glory where he sat. to despise God. Image of thee in all things. wheel within wheel undrawn. I hate. their bodies all And wings were set with eyes. 104 . declarest thy will Fulfilled. Pursue these sons of darkness. and Messiah his anointed King. Highest. I always thee. That thou. Then shall thy Saints unmixed. thy deserved right. inlaid with pure Amber. as I put thy mildness on. To their prepared ill mansion driven down.

He onward came. Ye Angels armed. Or wonders move the obdurate to relent? They. Stand still in bright array. Under their Head imbodied all in one. disdaining flight. Or faint retreat. this day from battle rest: Faithful hath been your warfare. were seen. In heavenly Spirits could such perverseness dwell? But to convince the proud what signs avail. fearless in his righteous cause. or to fall In universal ruin last. or whose he sole appoints: Number to this day's work is not ordained. and sparkles dire: Attended with ten thousand thousand Saints. when the great Son of God To all his host on either hand thus spake. and behold 105 . but stood obdured. so have ye done. And twenty thousand (I their number heard) Chariots of God. And from about him fierce effusion rolled Of smoke. Nor multitude. work divinely wrought. circumfused on either wing. and went Obsequious. and now To final battle drew. but by his own First seen: Them unexpected joy surprised. This saw his hapless foes. He on the wings of Cherub rode sublime On the crystalline sky. stand only. Under whose conduct Michael soon reduced His army. at his right hand Victory Sat eagle-winged. hope conceiving from despair. At his command the uprooted hills retired Each to his place. far off his coming shone.He. And as ye have received. Heaven his wonted face renewed. And to rebellious fight rallied their Powers. Grieving to see his glory. at the sight Took envy. beside him hung his bow And quiver with three-bolted thunder stored. by force or fraud Weening to prosper. When the great ensign of Messiah blazed Aloft by Angels borne. here stand. And with fresh flowerets hill and valley smiled. his sign in Heaven. and bickering flame. aspiring to his highth. Stood re-embattled fierce. Illustrious far and wide. they heard his voice. Vengeance is his. and. in celestial panoply all armed Of radiant Urim. in sapphire throned. Before him Power Divine his way prepared. and at length prevail Against God and Messiah. hardened more by what might most reclaim. Ascended. ye Saints. and of God Accepted. half on each hand. Insensate. Invincibly: But of this cursed crew The punishment to other hand belongs.

Because the Father. and from the living wheels Distinct alike with multitude of eyes. to try with me In battle which the stronger proves. One Spirit in them ruled. opening wide. and power. as with the sound Of torrent floods. in his right hand Grasping ten thousand thunders. and with furies. that withered all their strength. but me. and glory appertains. to the bounds And crystal wall of Heaven. not you. spiritless. afflicted. Exhausted. and a spacious gap disclosed 106 . against me is all their rage. Or I alone against them. All but the throne itself of God. down their idle weapons dropt: O'er shields. but root them out of Heaven: The overthrown he raised. astonished. which he sent Before him. Yet envied. they have despised. Nor less on either side tempestuous fell His arrows. which. Full soon Among them he arrived. to whom in Heaven s'preme Kingdom. Therefore to me their doom he hath assigned. all resistance lost. Gloomy as night. according to his will. He on his impious foes right onward drove. and as a herd Of goats or timorous flock together thronged Drove them before him thunder-struck. That they may have their wish. All courage. Nor other strife with them do I vouchsafe. nor care who them excels. they all. or of a numerous host. and shot forth pernicious fire Among the accursed. And full of wrath bent on his enemies. Rolled inward. So spake the Son. That wished the mountains now might be again Thrown on them. under his burning wheels The stedfast empyrean shook throughout. from the fourfold-visaged Four Distinct with eyes. and every eye Glared lightning. since by strength They measure all. and the orbs Of his fierce chariot rolled. And of their wonted vigour left them drained. and helmed heads he rode Of Thrones and mighty Seraphim prostrate. Yet half his strength he put not forth. At once the Four spread out their starry wings With dreadful shade contiguous. Hath honoured me. pursued With terrours.God's indignation on these godless poured By me. such as in their souls infixed Plagues: They. and into terrour changed His countenance too severe to be beheld. but checked His thunder in mid volley. of other excellence Not emulous. as a shelter from his ire. fallen. and helms. for he meant Not to destroy.

he who envies now thy state. Heir. But listen not to his temptations. celebrated. the reward Of disobedience. rode Triumphant through mid Heaven. who silent stood Eye-witnesses of his almighty acts. that. Thus. their fit habitation. and the deep fall Of those too high aspiring. so huge a rout Incumbered him with ruin: Hell at last Yawning received them whole. With jubilee advanced. By terrible example. and that thou mayest beware By what is past. And felt tenfold confusion in their fall Through his wild anarchy. thou mayest partake His punishment. and on them closed. warn Thy weaker. The discord which befel. Hell saw Heaven ruining from Heaven. Sole victor. and war in Heaven Among the angelick Powers. as they went. who rebelled With Satan. the house of woe and pain. Disburdened Heaven rejoiced. As a despite done against the Most High. and fear to transgress. measuring things in Heaven by things on Earth. into the courts And temple of his Mighty Father throned On high. Which would be all his solace and revenge. Shaded with branching palm. firm they might have stood. and soon repaired Her mural breach. At thy request. Who now is plotting how he may seduce Thee also from obedience. fraught with fire Unquenchable. but strict Fate had cast too deep Her dark foundations. and. to thee I have revealed What might have else to human race been hid. Yet fell. let it profit thee to have heard. and would have fled Affrighted. and Lord. Thee once to gain companion of his woe. who into glory him received. Nine days they fell: Confounded Chaos roared.Into the wasteful deep: The monstrous sight Struck them with horrour backward. eternal misery. Hell. 107 . with him Bereaved of happiness. and him sung victorious King. returning whence it rolled. to him dominion given. Worthiest to reign: He. and too fast had bound. Sung triumph. Son. Messiah his triumphal chariot turned: To meet him all his Saints. each Order bright. Hell heard the unsufferable noise. but far worse Urged them behind: Headlong themselves they threw Down from the verge of Heaven. remember. from the expulsion of his foes. eternal wrath Burnt after them to the bottomless pit. Where now he sits at the right hand of bliss.

So easily obeyed amid the choice 108 . and with her didst play In presence of the Almighty Father. Goddess. while thou Visitest my slumbers nightly. on the Aleian field I fall. not rapt above the pole. and with dangers compassed round. the race Of that wild rout that tore the Thracian bard In Rhodope. nor could the Muse defend Her son. If they transgress. Urania. though fallen on evil days. yet not alone. And solitude. The affable Arch-Angel. but narrower bound Within the visible diurnal sphere. or fountain flowed. More safe I sing with mortal voice. Thy tempering: with like safety guided down Return me to my native element: Lest from this flying steed unreined. not the name. Erroneous there to wander. (as once Bellerophon. In darkness. On evil days though fallen. Up led by thee Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed. lest the like befall In Paradise to Adam or his race. above the Olympian hill I soar. whose voice divine Following. and fit audience find. Thou with eternal Wisdom didst converse. what ensued when Raphael. An earthly guest. where woods and rocks had ears To rapture. though from a lower clime. but.Book VII Descend from Heaven. by dire example. nor on the top Of old Olympus dwellest. and evil tongues. she an empty dream. had forewarned Adam. Standing on earth. But drive far off the barbarous dissonance Of Bacchus and his revellers. Urania. to beware Apostasy. or when morn Purples the east: still govern thou my song. Charged not to touch the interdicted tree. Say. till the savage clamour drowned Both harp and voice. heavenly-born. and forlorn. Wisdom thy sister. Above the flight of Pegasean wing! The meaning. though few.) Dismounted. I call: for thou Nor of the Muses nine. who thee implores: For thou art heavenly. and slight that sole command. So fail not thou. unchanged To hoarse or mute. Half yet remains unsung. by that name If rightly thou art called. and drawn empyreal air. Before the hills appeared. by what befel in Heaven To those apostates. pleased With thy celestial song.

to hear Of things so high and strange. He. or without. and his admonishment Receive. the end Of what we are. How first began this Heaven which we behold Distant so high. Whose liquid murmur heard new thirst excites. to their thought So unimaginable. with solemn purpose to observe Immutably his sovran will. with his consorted Eve. When. as hate in Heaven. What within Eden. in his holy rest Through all eternity. suspense in Heaven. and the work begun. impossible to mix With blessedness. which human knowledge could not reach. Great things. with moving fires adorned Innumerable. for what cause. yet sinless. and this which yields or fills All space. and was filled With admiration and deep muse. and full of wonder in our ears. With such confusion: but the evil. Deign to descend now lower. the more we know. for our instruction. things. so late to build In Chaos. if unforbid thou mayest unfold What we. not to explore the secrets ask Of his eternal empire. And the great light of day yet wants to run Much of his race though steep. to impart Things above earthly thought. with desire to know What nearer might concern him. But since thou hast vouchsafed Gently. to forewarn Us timely of what might else have been our loss. which yet concerned Our knowing. what cause Moved the Creator. Divine interpreter! by favour sent Down from the empyrean. and relate What may no less perhaps avail us known. and whereof created. Proceeded thus to ask his heavenly guest. but the more To magnify his works. The story heard attentive. soon Driven back. how this world Of Heaven and Earth conspicuous first began. Though wandering. For which to the infinitely Good we owe Immortal thanks. 109 . redounded as a flood on those From whom it sprung. how soon Absolved. as to highest wisdom seemed. thou hast revealed.Of all tastes else to please their appetite. Whence Adam soon repealed The doubts that in his heart arose: and now Led on. as one whose drouth Yet scarce allayed still eyes the current stream. Unknown. And war so near the peace of God in bliss. was done Before his memory. Far differing from this world. the ambient air wide interfused Embracing round this floried Earth.

hath suppressed in night. To none communicable in Earth or Heaven: Enough is left besides to search and know. the seat Of Deity supreme. and into fraud Drew many. Obtain. shall not be withheld Thy hearing. listening to thee. to answer thy desire Of knowledge within bounds. and dismiss thee ere the morning shine. till thy song End. and to his Son thus spake. us dispossessed. Their station. I see. with caution asked. This also thy request. He trusted to have seised. will watch. and needs no less Her temperance over appetite.) Fell with his flaming legions through the deep Into his place. who thought All like himself rebellious.Held by thy voice. Heaven. At least our envious Foe hath failed. and infer Thee also happier. And longer will delay to hear thee tell His generation. retains Number sufficient to possess her realms Though wide. thy potent voice. and the rising birth Of Nature from the unapparent Deep: Or if the star of evening and the moon Haste to thy audience. and the great Son returned Victorious with his Saints. nor let thine own inventions hope Things not revealed. the Omnipotent Eternal Father from his throne beheld Their multitude. such commission from above I have received. brighter once amidst the host Of Angels. Or we can bid his absence. which best may serve To glorify the Maker. But knowledge is as food. Silence. Only Omniscient. Oppresses else with surfeit. than that star the stars among. and Sleep. Or heart of man suffice to comprehend? Yet what thou canst attain. after Lucifer from Heaven (So call him. which the invisible King. by whose aid This inaccessible high strength. and soon turns Wisdom to folly. abstain To ask. yet populous. lest his heart exalt him in the harm 110 . he hears. to know In measure what the mind may well contain. and solemn rites: But. Night with her will bring. whom their place knows here no more: Yet far the greater part have kept. Know then. Thus Adam his illustrious guest besought: And thus the Godlike Angel answered mild. that. as nourishment to wind. though to recount almighty works What words or tongue of Seraph can suffice. and this high temple to frequent With ministeries due. beyond.

retire.Already done. So sang the Hierarchies: Mean while the Son On his great expedition now appeared. Girt with Omnipotence. ride forth. Mean while inhabit lax. My damage fondly deemed. And Earth be changed to Heaven. to have dispeopled Heaven. because I Am who fill Infinitude. ye Powers of Heaven. there to dwell. Glory to Him. uncircumscribed myself. and Heaven to Earth. Not here. with radiance crowned Of Majesty Divine. and thence diffuse His good to worlds and ages infinite. and to what he spake His Word. and Seraph. I can repair That detriment. more swift Than time or motion. by degrees of merit raised. and Thrones. Immediate are the acts of God. Though I. and in a moment will create Another world. One kingdom. by thee This I perform. which is free To act or not. gave effect. winged Spirits. the Filial Godhead. to Him Glory and praise. good will To future men. and in their dwellings peace. and what I will is Fate. Potentates. Glory they sung to the Most High. And thou my Word. whose wisdom had ordained Good out of evil to create. but to human ears Cannot without process of speech be told. Necessity and Chance Approach not me. where stand of old Myriads. Boundless the Deep. instead Of Spirits malign. between two brazen mountains lodged 111 . When such was heard declared the Almighty's will. a better race to bring Into their vacant room. and bid the Deep Within appointed bounds be Heaven and Earth. sapience and love Immense. out of one man a race Of men innumerable. and all his Father in him shone. And Virtues. They open to themselves at length the way Up hither. whose just avenging ire Had driven out the ungodly from his sight And the habitations of the just. Great triumph and rejoicing was in Heaven. and be it done! My overshadowing Spirit and Might with thee I send along. and chariots winged From the armoury of God. And put not forth my goodness. So spake the Almighty. So told as earthly notion can receive. under long obedience tried. if such it be to lose Self-lost. nor vacuous the space. About his chariot numberless were poured Cherub. speak thou. begotten Son. joy and union without end. till.

Silence. and now came forth Spontaneous. And light from darkness by the hemisphere Divided: light the Day. He named. and from the shore They viewed the vast immeasurable abyss Outrageous as a sea. on the wings of Cherubim Uplifted. prepared In God's eternal store. Up from the bottom turned by furious winds And surging waves. thus far thy bounds. harnessed at hand. Attendant on their Lord: Heaven opened wide Her ever-during gates. the rest to several place Disparted. Let there be light. dark. in paternal glory rode Far into Chaos. O World! Thus God the Heaven created. Matter unformed and void: Darkness profound Covered the abyss: but on the watery calm His brooding wings the Spirit of God outspread. coming to create new worlds. and forthwith Light Ethereal. but. said God. to assault Heaven's highth. then conglobed Like things to like. and thou Deep. for yet the sun Was not. to circumscribe This universe. and with the center mix the pole. and the other turned Round through the vast profundity obscure. your discord end! Nor staid. Thus was the first day even and morn: 112 . and all created things: One foot he centered. And said. Then staid the fervid wheels. ye troubled Waves. Said then the Omnifick Word. And vital virtue infused.Against a solemn day. for within them Spirit lived. On heavenly ground they stood. and from her native east To journey through the aery gloom began. Celestial equipage. in his powerful Word And Spirit. and between spun out the air. For Chaos heard his voice: Him all his train Followed in bright procession. and the world unborn. and vital warmth Throughout the fluid mass. This be thy just circumference. harmonious sound On golden hinges moving. And Earth self-balanced on her center hung. wasteful. first of things. peace. she in a cloudy tabernacle Sojourned the while. to behold Creation. Thus far extend. as mountains. God saw the light was good. Sphered in a radiant cloud. thus the Earth. and the wonders of his might. Adverse to life: then founded. to let forth The King of Glory. but downward purged The black tartareous cold infernal dregs. Sprung from the deep. wild. quintessence pure. and darkness Night. and in his hand He took the golden compasses.

As drops on dust conglobing from the dry: Part rise in crystal wall. And on the washy oose deep channels wore. with warm Prolifick humour softening all her globe. and God made The firmament. Wave rolling after wave. so he the world Built on circumfluous waters calm. Fermented the great mother to conceive. Immediately the mountains huge appear Emergent. their tops ascend the sky: So high as heaved the tumid hills. diffused In circuit to the uttermost convex Of this great round. Let there be firmament Amid the waters. such flight the great command impressed On the swift floods: As armies at the call Of trumpet (for of armies thou hast heard) Troop to their standard. and their broad bare backs upheave Into the clouds. Birth-day of Heaven and Earth.Nor past uncelebrated. The waters underneath from those above Dividing: for as earth. nor withstood them rock or hill. and let dry land appear. And touched their golden harps. with torrent rapture. and hymning praised God and his works. 113 . embryon immature involved. with joy and shout The hollow universal orb they filled. Again. Both when first evening was. Appeared not: over all the face of Earth Main ocean flowed. Capacious bed of waters: Thither they Hasted with glad precipitance. if through plain. and the loud misrule Of Chaos far removed. or ridge direct. lest fierce extremes Contiguous might distemper the whole frame: And Heaven he named the Firmament: So even And morning chorus sung the second day. Creator him they sung. or under ground. when God said. pure. uprolled. The Earth was formed. but in the womb as yet Of waters. For haste. Be gathered now ye waters under Heaven Into one place. when orient light Exhaling first from darkness they beheld. found their way. But they. If steep. so low Down sunk a hollow bottom broad and deep. elemental air. Transparent. but. God said. so the watery throng. expanse of liquid. or circuit wide With serpent errour wandering. and let it divide The waters from the waters. nor unsung By the celestial quires. where way they found. Satiate with genial moisture. partition firm and sure. Soft-ebbing. not idle. in wide Crystalline ocean. and when first morn.

And set them in the firmament of Heaven To illuminate the Earth. altern. And bush with frizzled hair implicit: Last Rose. forth crept The swelling gourd. and said. and rule the night. All but within those banks. and for days. as in dance. till then Desart and bare. smelling sweet: and. which. And God made two great lights. Or wander with delight. Let there be lights High in the expanse of Heaven. And fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind. up stood the corny reed Embattled in her field. He scarce had said. And light from darkness to divide. and made the stars. before it grew On the green stem: God saw that it was good: So even and morn recorded the third day. Forth flourished thick the clustering vine. unsightly. Then herbs of every leaf. the stately trees. that sudden flowered Opening their various colours. and circling years. a seat where Gods might dwell. that it was good: For of celestial bodies first the sun 114 . to divide The day from night. ere God had bid the ground be dry. Surveying his great work. Again the Almighty spake. and man to till the ground None was. ere it was in the Earth. With borders long the rivers: that Earth now Seemed like to Heaven. and the great receptacle Of congregated waters. he called Seas: And saw that it was good. God saw. and each Plant of the field. and love to haunt Her sacred shades: though God had yet not rained Upon the Earth. Brought forth the tender grass. and each fountain side.Easy. The less by night. With tufts the valleys. when the bare Earth. and rule the day In their vicissitude. but from the Earth a dewy mist Went up. and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit. Let the Earth Put forth the verdant grass. as I ordain Their office in the firmament of Heaven. God made. For seasons. And let them be for lights. and every herb. herb yielding seed. Whose seed is in herself upon the Earth. unadorned. these scarce blown. and it was so. and made gay Her bosom. or gemmed Their blossoms: With high woods the hills were crowned. and let them be for signs. where rivers now Stream. great for their use To Man. and watered all the ground. the greater to have rule by day. and the humble shrub. and perpetual draw their humid train. To give light on the Earth. Earth. The dry land. whose verdure clad Her universal face with pleasant green.

and every magnitude of stars. great palace now of light. and each Soul living. then in the east her turn she shines. with wings Displayed on the open firmament of Heaven. Graze the sea-weed their pasture. made porous to receive And drink the liquid light. Regent of day. multiply. with diminution seen. that then appeared Spangling the hemisphere: Then first adorned With their bright luminaries that set and rose. for other light she needed none In that aspect. before him danced. and her reign With thousand lesser lights dividual holds. Shedding sweet influence: Less bright the moon. jocund to run His longitude through Heaven's high road. or with mate. on the Earth. and placed In the sun's orb. other stars Repairing. or. the waters fill. Though of ethereal mould: then formed the moon Globose. and shoals Of fish that with their fins. First in his east the glorious lamp was seen. Be fruitful. And saw that it was good. His mirrour. in their golden urns draw light. though from human sight So far remote. And God created the great whales. Revolved on Heaven's great axle. firm to retain Her gathered beams. thick as a field: Of light by far the greater part he took. Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day. each creek and bay. and blessed them. But opposite in levelled west was set. as to their fountain. and running streams. Hither. which plenteously The waters generated by their kinds. And sowed with stars the Heaven. With fry innumerable swarm. And let the fowl be multiplied. sporting with quick glance. saying. Forthwith the sounds and seas. Transplanted from her cloudy shrine. Glide under the green wave.A mighty sphere he framed. and shining scales. and through groves Of coral stray. And every bird of wing after his kind. And hence the morning-planet gilds her horns. and in the seas. By tincture or reflection they augment Their small peculiar. 115 . Let the waters generate Reptile with spawn abundant. With thousand thousand stars. the gray Dawn. living soul: And let fowl fly above the Earth. and the Pleiades. and all the horizon round Invested with bright rays. in sculls that oft Bank the mid sea: part single. with full face borrowing her light From him. And God said. And lakes. unlightsome first. and still that distance keeps Till night. each that crept.

enormous in their gait. Intelligent of seasons. from the egg that soon Bursting with kindly rupture forth disclosed Their callow young. ranged in figure. rising on stiff pennons. and beast of the Earth. high over seas Flying. perfect forms. and the air with fowl. borne on winds. Tempest the ocean: there leviathan. Between her white wings mantling proudly. Their brood as numerous hatch. fanned with unnumbered plumes: From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Solaced the woods. wedge their way. The sixth. yet oft they quit The dank. rows Her state with oary feet. or under rocks their food In jointed armour watch: on smooth the seal And bended dolphins play: part huge of bulk Wallowing unwieldy. bathed Their downy breast. attend Moist nutriment. Limbed and full grown: Out of the ground up rose. Or. and spread their painted wings Till even. there the eagle and the stork On cliffs and cedar tops their eyries build: Part loosely wing the region. a sea. and. Let the Earth bring forth soul living in her kind. so steers the prudent crane Her annual voyage. the air Floats as they pass. the swan with arched neck. And seems a moving land. and set forth Their aery caravan.Show to the sun their waved coats dropt with gold. Cattle. arose With evening harps and matin. The Earth obeyed. part more wise In common. and shores. on the deep Stretched like a promontory sleeps or swims. but feathered soon and fledge They summed their pens. nor then the solemn nightingale Ceased warbling. and at his trunk spouts out. The waters thus With fish replenished. and creeping things. Each in their kind. coloured with the florid hue Of rainbows and starry eyes. and. in their pearly shells at ease. soaring the air sublime. With clang despised the ground. but all night tun'd her soft lays: Others. and straight Opening her fertile womb teemed at a birth Innumerous living creatures. Evening and morn solemnized the fifth day. and of creation last. on silver lakes and rivers. under a cloud In prospect. and at his gills Draws in. the crested cock whose clarion sounds The silent hours. and fens. when God said. Hugest of living creatures. 116 . Mean while the tepid caves. tower The mid aereal sky: Others on ground Walked firm. and over lands. and the other whose gay train Adorns him. with mutual wing Easing their flight.

was swum. the ounce. they walked: The cattle in the fields and meadows green: Those rare and solitary. air. water. the wild beast where he wons In forest wild. but endued 117 . Streaking the ground with sinuous trace. the crumbled earth above them threw In hillocks: The swift stag from under ground Bore up his branching head: Scarce from his mould Behemoth biggest born of earth upheaved His vastness: Fleeced the flocks and bleating rose. beast. or den. Wonderous in length and corpulence. and added wings. in small room large heart enclosed. nor unknown The serpent. As plants: Ambiguous between sea and land The river-horse. with brazen eyes And hairy mane terrifick. as a line. joined in her popular tribes Of commonalty: Swarming next appeared The female bee. not prone And brute as other creatures. as the great first Mover's hand First wheeled their course: Earth in her rich attire Consummate lovely smiled. their long dimension drew. not all Minims of nature. was flown. some of serpent-kind. Needless to thee repeated. Pattern of just equality perhaps Hereafter. The libbard. that feeds her husband drone Deliciously. and scaly crocodile.As from his lair. fish. involved Their snaky folds. Among the trees in pairs they rose. a creature. Of huge extent sometimes. First crept The parsimonious emmet. And thou their natures knowest. By fowl. then springs as broke from bonds. as the mole Rising. brake. in thicket. azure and green: These. though to thee Not noxious. And rampant shakes his brinded mane. provident Of future. Insect or worm: those waved their limber fans For wings. and of the sixth day yet remained: There wanted yet the master-work. and builds her waxen cells With honey stored: The rest are numberless. Now Heaven in all her glory shone. was walked. and in broad herds upsprung. earth. and the tiger. who. these in flocks Pasturing at once. and rolled Her motions. subtlest beast of all the field. the end Of all yet done. pawing to get free His hinder parts. At once came forth whatever creeps the ground. now half appeared The tawny lion. Frequent. The grassy clods now calved. and smallest lineaments exact In all the liveries decked of summer's pride With spots of gold and purple. but obedient at thy call. and gavest them names.

beware. who made him chief Of all his works: therefore the Omnipotent Eternal Father (for where is not he Present?) thus to his Son audibly spake. Here finished he. lest Sin Surprise thee. and upright with front serene Govern the rest. and voice. Up to the Heaven of Heavens. Adam. and in thy nostrils breathed The breath of life. Thou mayest not. in his own image he Created thee. as thou knowest. Be fruitful. and thou becamest a living soul. self-knowing. And govern well thy appetite. to adore And worship God Supreme. He brought thee into this delicious grove. Dust of the ground. O Man. and throughout dominion hold Over fish of the sea. Delectable both to behold and taste. And freely all their pleasant fruit for food Gave thee. planted with the trees of God. for no place Is yet distinct by name. Answering his great idea. and let them rule Over the fish and fowl of sea and air. So even and morn accomplished the sixth day: Yet not till the Creator from his work Desisting. tasted. The addition of his empire. And every living thing that moves on the Earth. and fill the Earth. but thy consort Female. and the sound 118 . how fair. and over all the Earth. how it showed In prospect from his throne. Death is the penalty imposed. Man In our similitude. Wherever thus created. might erect His stature. how good. And every creeping thing that creeps the ground. Beast of the field. and her black attendant Death. Subdue it. and all that he had made Viewed. all sorts are here that all the Earth yields. though unwearied. but of the tree. in the day thou eatest. and fowl of the air. Thence to behold this new created world. multiply.With sanctity of reason. and said. This garden. Variety without end. works knowledge of good and evil. thence. he formed thee. But grateful to acknowledge whence his good Descends. This said. Male he created thee. thee. up returned. Let us make now Man in our image. and from thence Magnanimous to correspond with Heaven. Up he rode Followed with acclamation. for race. his high abode. in the image of God Express. and behold all was entirely good. thither with heart. then blessed mankind. and eyes Directed in devotion. thou diest. Which.

(thou rememberest. thou seest Powdered with stars. Delighted. Seen in the galaxy. led To God's eternal house direct the way. the imperial throne Of Godhead. and. Tempered soft tunings. the solemn pipe. from work Now resting. when at the holy mount Of Heaven's high-seated top. The Filial Power arrived. That opened wide her blazing portals. yet staid. and henceforth oft. intermixed with voice Choral or unison: of incense clouds. Open. and with frequent intercourse Thither will send his winged messengers On errands of supernal grace.let in The great Creator from his work returned Magnificent. Who can impair thee. Open. and sat him down With his great Father. but to create Is greater than created to destroy. as stars to thee appear. the air Resounded. Jehovah! infinite Thy power! what thought can measure thee. for thou heardst. While the bright pomp ascended jubilant. or tongue Relate thee! Greater now in thy return Than from the giant Angels: Thee that day Thy thunders magnified.) The heavens and all the constellations rung. Mighty King. or bound Thy empire! Easily the proud attempt 119 . And dulcimer. for the sun Was set. Forerunning night. Open. The planets in their station listening stood. ye Heavens! your living doors. (such privilege Hath Omnipresence) and the work ordained. a World. his six days work. for God will deign To visit oft the dwellings of just men. Fuming from golden censers. whose dust is gold And pavement stars. fixed for ever firm and sure. So sung The glorious train ascending: He through Heaven. that milky way. hid the mount. all organs of sweet stop. that tuned Angelick harmonies: The earth. as a circling zone. Creation and the six days acts they sung: Great are thy works. A broad and ample road. ye everlasting gates! they sung. But not in silence holy kept: the harp Had work and rested not. blessed and hallowed the seventh day. Which nightly. As resting on that day from all his work.Symphonious of ten thousand harps. for he also went Invisible. All sounds on fret by string or golden wire. and twilight from the east came on. Author and End of all things. And now on Earth the seventh Evening arose in Eden.

this world. Who seeks To lessen thee. and from thence createst more good. with stars Numerous. founded in view On the clear hyaline. that asked How first this world and face of things began. in sea. and.Of Spirits apostate. and in reward to rule Over his works. What thanks sufficient. now heard With wonder. With glory attributed to the high Creator! Something yet of doubt remains. if they know Their happiness. there to dwell And worship him. the glassy sea. have I to render thee. and compute 120 . who thus largely hast allayed The thirst I had of knowledge. and the empyrean rung With halleluiahs: Thus was sabbath kept. as new waked. or what recompence Equal. and in Adam's ear So charming left his voice. but delight. whom God hath thus advanced! Created in his image. say. might know: If else thou seekest Aught. Thrice happy Men. Thou hast repelled. Informed by thee. and vouchsafed This friendly condescension to relate Things. Of amplitude almost immense. with her nether ocean circumfused. not surpassing human measure. And what before thy memory was done From the beginning. Earth. but thou knowest Their seasons: among these the seat of Men. and every star perhaps a world Of destined habitation. as is due. and from thee withdraw The number of thy worshippers. and their counsels vain. divine Historian. And sons of Men. else by me unsearchable. And multiply a race of worshippers Holy and just: Thrice happy. on earth. Their pleasant dwelling-place. Then. that he a while Thought him still speaking. thus gratefully replied. And thy request think now fulfilled. When I behold this goodly frame. Which only thy solution can resolve. Witness this new-made world. while impiously they thought Thee to diminish. still stood fixed to hear. Book VIII The Angel ended. and persevere upright! So sung they. or air. that posterity. another Heaven From Heaven-gate not far. against his purpose serves To manifest the more thy might: his evil Thou usest. Of Heaven and Earth consisting.

reasoning I oft admire.Their magnitudes. she knew. this punctual spot. and solve high dispute With conjugal caresses: from his lip Not words alone pleased her. I blame thee not. to this one use. this Earth. A pomp of winning Graces waited still. to wish her still in sight. Greater so manifold. with the firmament compared And all her numbered stars. Rose. Adam relating. 121 . So spake our sire. which Eve Perceiving. for Heaven Is as the book of God before thee set. with superfluous hand So many nobler bodies to create. in love and mutual honour joined? With Goddess-like demeanour forth she went. An atom. they at her coming sprung. he. Served by more noble than herself. To visit how they prospered. while the sedentary Earth. Not unattended. a spot. And. Her nursery. One day and night. To ask or search. and by his countenance seemed Entering on studious thoughts abstruse. gladlier grew. That better might with far less compass move. a grain. as Queen. such a sumless journey brought Of incorporeal speed. and on their orbs impose Such restless revolution day by day Repeated. and went forth among her fruits and flowers. would intermix Grateful digressions. to describe whose swiftness number fails. her warmth and light. And from about her shot darts of desire Into all eyes. as not with such discourse Delighted. Speed. As tribute. Her husband the relater she preferred Before the Angel. where she sat retired in sight. and receives. bud and bloom. attains Her end without least motion. O! when meet now Such pairs. Yet went she not. or not capable her ear Of what was high: such pleasure she reserved. to Adam's doubt proposed. she sole auditress. How Nature wise and frugal could commit Such disproportions. that seem to roll Spaces incomprehensible. and their swift return Diurnal. With lowliness majestick from her seat.) merely to officiate light Round this opacous Earth. in all her vast survey Useless besides. For aught appears. and of him to ask Chose rather. And Raphael now. Benevolent and facile thus replied. (for such Their distance argues. for on her. touched by her fair tendance. And grace that won who saw to wish her stay.

Admitting motion in the Heavens. and learn His seasons. to show Invalid that which thee to doubt it moved. distance inexpressible By numbers that have name. there first received. and supposest That bodies bright and greater should not serve The less not bright. and the rest Ordained for uses to his Lord best known. That Man may know he dwells not in his own. but to thee. Imports not. Earth's habitant. or days. Earth sitting still. or years: This to attain. hours. unbuild. The swiftness of those circles attribute.Wherein to read his wonderous works. His beams. and his line stretched out so far. Cycle and epicycle. Who art to lead thy offspring. unactive else. in comparison of Heaven. so small. nor Heaven such journeys run. if thou reckon right. may of solid good contain More plenty than the sun that barren shines. Though numberless. who built So spacious. when she alone receives The benefit: Consider first. contrive To save appearances. An edifice too large for him to fill. And for the Heaven's wide circuit. the rest From Man or Angel the great Architect Did wisely to conceal. to his Omnipotence. whether Heaven move or Earth. Whose virtue on itself works no effect. how build. 122 . Not that I so affirm. how they will wield The mighty frame. or months. Lodged in a small partition. if they list to try Conjecture. let it speak The Maker's high magnificence. or. Who since the morning-hour set out from Heaven Where God resides. But in the fruitful Earth. Yet not to Earth are those bright luminaries Officious. and not divulge His secrets to be scanned by them who ought Rather admire. that great Or bright infers not excellence: the Earth Though. orb in orb: Already by thy reasoning this I guess. though so it seem To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth. perhaps to move His laughter at their quaint opinions wide Hereafter. how gird the sphere With centrick and eccentrick scribbled o'er. But this I urge. their vigour find. Nor glistering. and ere mid-day arrived In Eden. he his fabrick of the Heavens Hath left to their disputes. That to corporeal substances could add Speed almost spiritual: Me thou thinkest not slow. when they come to model Heaven And calculate the stars.

then hid. and fear! Of other creatures. and with her part averse From the sun's beam meet night. Communicating male and female light. With their attendant moons. Progressive. while she paces even. her other part Still luminous by his ray. What if the sun Be center to the world. Or she from west her silent course advance. now low. Invisible else above all stars.God. which returns Light back to them. In six thou seest. Fields and inhabitants: Her spots thou seest As clouds. thou wilt descry. and clouds may rain. What if that light. And no advantage gain. But whether the sun. If it presume. He from the east his flaming road begin. Or save the sun his labour. and other stars. so stedfast though she seem. predominant in Heaven. might err in things too high. as him pleases best. and other suns perhaps. the wheel Of day and night. that earthly sight. dance about him various rounds? Their wandering course now high. which needs not thy belief. Stored in each orb perhaps with some that live. With inoffensive pace that spinning sleeps On her soft axle. conveyed so far Down to this habitable. But whether thus these things. By his attractive virtue and their own Incited. Leave them to God above. Rise on the earth. retrograde. or whether not. to remove his ways from human sense. industrious of herself. desart and desolate. If earth. as she by night This earth? reciprocal. Enlightening her by day. And bears thee soft with the smooth hair along. Placed Heaven from Earth so far. is obvious to dispute. Only to shine. Sent from her through the wide transpicuous air. or earth rise on the sun. yet scarce to contribute Each orb a glimpse of light. Sollicit not thy thoughts with matters hid. and what if seventh to these The planet earth. For such vast room in Nature unpossessed By living soul. Which two great sexes animate the world. or standing still. fetch day Travelling east. if land be there. and rain produce Fruits in her softened soil for some to eat Allotted there. Moved contrary with thwart obliquities. To the terrestrial moon be as a star. him serve. Insensibly three different motions move? Which else to several spheres thou must ascribe. 123 . and that swift Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb supposed.

from which God hath bid dwell far off all anxious cares. haply. And day is not yet spent. Sire of men. Heaven is for thee too high To know what passes there. unprepared. Contented that thus far hath been revealed Not of Earth only. or degree. in things that most concern. with grace divine Imbued. till then thou seest How subtly to detain thee I devise. she learn. obscure and subtle. Fond! were it not in hope of thy reply: For. but. nor with perplexing thoughts To interrupt the sweet of life. is fume. Or emptiness. whence. pure Intelligence of Heaven. By sufferance. And sweeter thy discourse is to my ear Than fruits of palm-tree pleasantest to thirst And hunger both. be lowly wise: Think only what concerns thee. at the hour Of sweet repast. or by experience taught. Though pleasant. Nor tongue ineloquent. That. and notions vain. what creatures there Live. joy thou In what he gives to thee. they satiate. which perhaps thou hast not heard. freed from intricacies. bring to their sweetness no satiety. Therefore from this high pitch let us descend A lower flight. but thy words. and speak of things at hand Useful. unless we ourselves Seek them with wandering thoughts. Unpractised. and thy being. replied. And not molest us. Angel serene! And. for God on thee Abundantly his gifts hath also poured 124 . in what state. not to know at large of things remote From use. and of her roving is no end. condition. taught to live The easiest way. To whom thus Raphael answered heavenly meek.Wherever placed. Inviting thee to hear while I relate. or fond impertinence: And renders us. and soon fill. But apt the mind or fancy is to rove Unchecked. mention may arise Of something not unseasonable to ask. deigned. let him dispose. Nor are thy lips ungraceful. hear me relate My story. To whom thus Adam. but of highest Heaven. How fully hast thou satisfied me. cleared of doubt. Dream not of other worlds. and still to seek. from labour. I seem in Heaven. this Paradise And thy fair Eve. and thy wonted favour. Is the prime wisdom: What is more. Thee I have heard relating what was done Ere my remembrance: now. while I sit with thee. to know That which before us lies in daily life. Till warned.

Torment. and upright Stood on my feet: about me round I saw Hill. to speak I tried. As thitherward endeavouring. and sometimes ran With supple joints. or mute. and forthwith spake. Myself I then perused. and shady woods. But thy relation now. And liquid lapse of murmuring streams. Bound on a voyage uncouth and obscure. Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid. Birds on the branches warbling.Inward and outward both. raised By quick instinctive motion. and furious rage. Nor less think we in Heaven of thee on Earth Than of our fellow-servant. For Man to tell how human life began Is hard. and barricadoed strong. As new waked from soundest sleep. for I attend. up I sprung. The dismal gates. and loud lament. But us he sends upon his high behests For state. dale. and on the reeking moisture fed. Squared in full legion (such command we had) To see that none thence issued forth a spy. or from what cause. Glad we returned up to the coasts of light Ere sabbath-evening: so we had in charge. hath honoured thee. or where. fast shut. other than the sound of dance or song. and inquire Gladly into the ways of God with Man: For God. forms. Straight toward Heaven my wondering eyes I turned. and sunny plains. till. In balmy sweat. Lest he. as Sovran King. Creatures that lived and moved. Pleased with thy words no less than thou with mine. all comeliness and grace Attends thee. all things smiled. each motion. and set On Man his equal love: Say therefore on. Destruction with creation might have mixed. Fast we found. for who himself beginning knew Desire with thee still longer to converse Induced me. and to inure Our prompt obedience. or flew. and sometimes went. we see. his image fair: Speaking. and each word. by these. Knew not. But long ere our approaching heard within Noise. and walked. Far on excursion toward the gates of Hell. while God was in his work. and limb by limb Surveyed. incensed at such eruption bold. as befel. So spake the Godlike Power. and thus our Sire. For I that day was absent. And gazed a while the ample sky. 125 . which with his beams the sun Soon dried. as lively vigour led: But who I was. Not that they durst without his leave attempt. Or enemy. With fragrance and with joy my heart o'erflowed.

In adoration at his feet I fell Submiss: He reared me. how adore.--by some great Maker then. fair light. Whose inward apparition gently moved My fancy to believe I yet had being. and forthwith to dissolve: When suddenly stood at my head a dream. Woods. And feel that I am happier than I know. and with soft oppression seised My droused sense. as the dream Had lively shadowed: Here had new begun My wandering. if ye saw. of shape divine. and bowers. but with awe. by the hand he took me raised. stirred in me sudden appetite To pluck and eat. fear here no dearth: 126 . and strayed I knew not whither. answer none returned. 'Thy mansion wants thee. though I thought I then was passing to my former state Insensible. and of the fruit to eat: 'Of every tree that in the garden grows 'Eat freely with glad heart. how may I know him.' Said mildly. ye Rivers.My tongue obeyed. last led me up A woody mountain. From whom I have that thus I move and live. From where I first drew air. and Dales. and first beheld This happy light. Rejoicing. with goodliest trees Planted. Each tree. Thou Sun. In goodness and in power pre-eminent: Tell me. and found Before mine eyes all real. Loaden with fairest fruit that hung to the eye Tempting. count it thine 'To till and keep. enclosed. tell. of men innumerable ordained 'First Father! called by thee. And thou enlightened Earth. and readily could name Whate'er I saw. Adam.' So saying. and Plains. Ye Hills. had not he. And over fields and waters. profuse of flowers. how here?-Not of myself. untroubled. with walks.-While thus I called. 'This Paradise I give thee. how I came thus. whose high top was plain. A circuit wide. when. so fresh and gay. 'Author of all this thou seest 'Above. who was my guide Up hither. whereat I waked. And lived: One came. as in air Smooth-sliding without step. On a green shady bank. And said. Presence Divine. I come thy guide 'To the garden of bliss. Pensive I sat me down: There gentle sleep First found me. and 'Whom thou soughtest I am. rise. said I. And ye that live and move. or round about thee. fair Creatures. or beneath. thy seat prepared. that what I saw Of Earth before scarce pleasant seemed. 'First Man. Tell. from among the trees appeared. methought.

each bird stooped on his wing. or air. what contentment find? Thus I presumptuous. I named them. but all the Earth 'To thee and to thy race I give. And to the heavenly Vision thus presumed. my sole command 'Transgressed. fish. 127 . inevitably thou shalt die. 'The day thou eatest thereof. all enjoying. or aught than mankind higher. to draw the thinner air.' Sternly he pronounced The rigid interdiction. As with a smile more brightened. 'Remember what I warn thee. but soon his clear aspect Returned. 'Amid the garden by the tree of life. each bird and beast behold 'After their kinds. 'Not hither summoned. since they cannot change 'Their element. Surpassest far my naming. and all these at thy command To come and play before thee? Knowest thou not Their language and their ways? They also know.' As thus he spake. with such knowledge God endued My sudden apprehension: But in these I found not what methought I wanted still. Or. for thou above all these. and the air Replenished. And all this good to man? for whose well being So amply. What callest thou solitude? Is not the Earth With various living creatures. 'Or live in sea. how may I Adore thee. understand the same 'Of fish within their watery residence. as lords 'Possess it. 'From that day mortal. I bring them to receive 'From thee their names. Above mankind. and the Vision bright. expelled from hence into a world 'Of woe and sorrow. thus replied. and this happy state 'Shalt lose. Author of this universe. In solitude What happiness. shun to taste. O. which I have set 'The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith. and fowl. beast. and with hands so liberal. and gracious purpose thus renewed. 'Not only these fair bounds. who can enjoy alone. which resounds Yet dreadful in mine ear. though in my choice Not to incur. these cowering low With blandishment. and pay thee fealty 'With low subjection.'But of the tree whose operation brings 'Knowledge of good and ill. 'And shun the bitter consequence: for know. Thou hast provided all things: But with me I see not who partakes. and all things that therein live. 'In sign whereof. by what name. and understood Their nature. each bird and beast behold Approaching two and two. as they passed.

I see.And reason not contemptibly: With these Find pastime. fit to participate All rational delight: wherein the brute Cannot be human consort: They rejoice Each with their kind. already Infinite. To attain The highth and depth of thy eternal ways All human thoughts come short. and beget Like of his like. Let not my words offend thee. How have I then with whom to hold converse. though in pleasure. and in thee Is no deficience found: Not so is Man. My Maker. Adam! and wilt taste No pleasure. lion with lioness. or fish with fowl So well converse. the other still remiss. Heavenly Power. I lowly answered. Hast thou not made me here thy substitute. or true delight? Which must be mutual. Thou to thyself proposest. what harmony. thy realm is large. or not? who am alone From all eternity. Supreme of things! Thou in thyself art perfect. though One: But Man by number is to manifest His single imperfection. Worse then can man with beast. And through all numbers absolute. but. What thinkest thou then of me. and seemed So ordering: I. 128 . But in degree. for none I know Second to me or like. and least of all. with leave of speech implored. in disparity The one intense. the cause of his desire By conversation with his like to help Or solace his defects. solitary. infinite descents Beneath what other creatures are to thee? He ceased. be propitious while I speak. nor with the ox the ape. in the choice Of thy associates. thus replied. And humble deprecation. No need that thou Shouldst propagate. and bear rule. not displeased. A nice and subtle happiness. So spake the Universal Lord. equal much less. Cannot well suit with either. And these inferiour far beneath me set? Among unequals what society Can sort. but soon prove Tedious alike: Of fellowship I speak Such as I seek. his image multiplied. Save with the creatures which I made. in proportion due Given and received. So fitly them in pairs thou hast combined: Much less can bird with beast. and those To me inferiour. and this my state? Seem I to thee sufficiently possessed Of happiness. Whereto the Almighty answered.

ere thou spakest. Canst raise thy creature to what highth thou wilt Of union or communion. Thou in thy secresy although alone. where I lay. and took From thence a rib. As with an object that excels the sense Dazzled and spent. in her contained And in her looks. be assured. and dearest amity. my internal sight. My image. and saw the shape Still glorious before whom awake I stood: Who stooping opened my left side. seekest not Social communication. yet. deified: I. but open left the cell Of fancy. wide was the wound. Which it had long stood under. so lovely fair. Abstract as in a trance. and acceptance found. But suddenly with flesh filled up and healed: The rib he formed and fashioned with his hands. thy other self. by which. I was pleased. which instantly fell on me. Adam. And no such company as then thou sawest Intended thee. unfelt before. Whose fellowship therefore unmeet for thee Good reason was thou freely shouldst dislike. which from that time infused Sweetness into my heart. methought I saw. Expressing well the spirit within thee free. or I heard no more. Man-like. And be so minded still: I. That what seemed fair in all the world. Though sleeping. Which thou hast rightly named. cannot these erect From prone. And life-blood streaming fresh.In unity defective. but different sex. Thus far to try thee. Thy likeness. Knew it not good for Man to be alone. and sought repair Of sleep. Under his forming hands a creature grew. for trial only brought. Thy wish exactly to thy heart's desire. which requires Collateral love. with cordial spirits warm. and closed mine eyes. or in her summed up. but of thyself. so pleased. for now My earthly by his heavenly overpowered. Thus I emboldened spake. sunk down. He ended. seemed now Mean. which gained This answer from the gracious Voice Divine. strained to the highth In that celestial colloquy sublime. called By Nature as in aid. nor in their ways complacence find. by conversing. And find thee knowing. thy fit help. and freedom used Permissive. Mine eyes he closed. To see how thou couldest judge of fit and meet: What next I bring shall please thee. Best with thyself accompanied. not of beasts alone. 129 . not imparted to the brute.

And into all things from her air inspired The spirit of love and amorous delight. She disappeared, and left me dark; I waked To find her, or for ever to deplore Her loss, and other pleasures all abjure: When out of hope, behold her, not far off, Such as I saw her in my dream, adorned With what all Earth or Heaven could bestow To make her amiable: On she came, Led by her heavenly Maker, though unseen, And guided by his voice; nor uninformed Of nuptial sanctity, and marriage rites: Grace was in all her steps, Heaven in her eye, In every gesture dignity and love. I, overjoyed, could not forbear aloud. This turn hath made amends; thou hast fulfilled Thy words, Creator bounteous and benign, Giver of all things fair! but fairest this Of all thy gifts! nor enviest. I now see Bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh, myself Before me: Woman is her name;of Man Extracted: for this cause he shall forego Father and mother, and to his wife adhere; And they shall be one flesh, one heart, one soul. She heard me thus; and though divinely brought, Yet innocence, and virgin modesty, Her virtue, and the conscience of her worth, That would be wooed, and not unsought be won, Not obvious, not obtrusive, but, retired, The more desirable; or, to say all, Nature herself, though pure of sinful thought, Wrought in her so, that, seeing me, she turned: I followed her; she what was honour knew, And with obsequious majesty approved My pleaded reason. To the nuptial bower I led her blushing like the morn: All Heaven, And happy constellations, on that hour Shed their selectest influence; the Earth Gave sign of gratulation, and each hill; Joyous the birds; fresh gales and gentle airs Whispered it to the woods, and from their wings Flung rose, flung odours from the spicy shrub, Disporting, till the amorous bird of night Sung spousal, and bid haste the evening-star On his hill top, to light the bridal lamp. Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought My story to the sum of earthly bliss, Which I enjoy; and must confess to find In all things else delight indeed, but such As, used or not, works in the mind no change, Nor vehement desire; these delicacies 130

I mean of taste, sight, smell, herbs, fruits, and flowers, Walks, and the melody of birds: but here Far otherwise, transported I behold, Transported touch; here passion first I felt, Commotion strange! in all enjoyments else Superiour and unmoved; here only weak Against the charm of Beauty's powerful glance. Or Nature failed in me, and left some part Not proof enough such object to sustain; Or, from my side subducting, took perhaps More than enough; at least on her bestowed Too much of ornament, in outward show Elaborate, of inward less exact. For well I understand in the prime end Of Nature her the inferiour, in the mind And inward faculties, which most excel; In outward also her resembling less His image who made both, and less expressing The character of that dominion given O'er other creatures: Yet when I approach Her loveliness, so absolute she seems And in herself complete, so well to know Her own, that what she wills to do or say, Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best: All higher knowledge in her presence falls Degraded; Wisdom in discourse with her Loses discountenanced, and like Folly shows; Authority and Reason on her wait, As one intended first, not after made Occasionally; and, to consummate all, Greatness of mind and Nobleness their seat Build in her loveliest, and create an awe About her, as a guard angelick placed. To whom the Angel with contracted brow. Accuse not Nature, she hath done her part; Do thou but thine; and be not diffident Of Wisdom; she deserts thee not, if thou Dismiss not her, when most thou needest her nigh, By attributing overmuch to things Less excellent, as thou thyself perceivest. For, what admirest thou, what transports thee so, An outside? fair, no doubt, and worthy well Thy cherishing, thy honouring, and thy love; Not thy subjection: Weigh with her thyself; Then value: Oft-times nothing profits more Than self-esteem, grounded on just and right Well managed; of that skill the more thou knowest, The more she will acknowledge thee her head, And to realities yield all her shows: Made so adorn for thy delight the more, So awful, that with honour thou mayest love 131

Thy mate, who sees when thou art seen least wise. But if the sense of touch, whereby mankind Is propagated, seem such dear delight Beyond all other; think the same vouchsafed To cattle and each beast; which would not be To them made common and divulged, if aught Therein enjoyed were worthy to subdue The soul of man, or passion in him move. What higher in her society thou findest Attractive, human, rational, love still; In loving thou dost well, in passion not, Wherein true love consists not: Love refines The thoughts, and heart enlarges; hath his seat In reason, and is judicious; is the scale By which to heavenly love thou mayest ascend, Not sunk in carnal pleasure; for which cause, Among the beasts no mate for thee was found. To whom thus, half abashed, Adam replied. Neither her outside formed so fair, nor aught In procreation common to all kinds, (Though higher of the genial bed by far, And with mysterious reverence I deem,) So much delights me, as those graceful acts, Those thousand decencies, that daily flow From all her words and actions mixed with love And sweet compliance, which declare unfeigned Union of mind, or in us both one soul; Harmony to behold in wedded pair More grateful than harmonious sound to the ear. Yet these subject not; I to thee disclose What inward thence I feel, not therefore foiled, Who meet with various objects, from the sense Variously representing; yet, still free, Approve the best, and follow what I approve. To love, thou blamest me not; for Love, thou sayest, Leads up to Heaven, is both the way and guide; Bear with me then, if lawful what I ask: Love not the heavenly Spirits, and how their love Express they? by looks only? or do they mix Irradiance, virtual or immediate touch? To whom the Angel, with a smile that glowed Celestial rosy red, Love's proper hue, Answered. Let it suffice thee that thou knowest Us happy, and without love no happiness. Whatever pure thou in the body enjoyest, (And pure thou wert created) we enjoy In eminence; and obstacle find none Of membrane, joint, or limb, exclusive bars; Easier than air with air, if Spirits embrace, Total they mix, union of pure with pure Desiring, nor restrained conveyance need, 132

As flesh to mix with flesh, or soul with soul. But I can now no more; the parting sun Beyond the Earth's green Cape and verdant Isles Hesperian sets, my signal to depart. Be strong, live happy, and love! But, first of all, Him, whom to love is to obey, and keep His great command; take heed lest passion sway Thy judgement to do aught, which else free will Would not admit: thine, and of all thy sons, The weal or woe in thee is placed; beware! I in thy persevering shall rejoice, And all the Blest: Stand fast;to stand or fall Free in thine own arbitrement it lies. Perfect within, no outward aid require; And all temptation to transgress repel. So saying, he arose; whom Adam thus Followed with benediction. Since to part, Go, heavenly guest, ethereal Messenger, Sent from whose sovran goodness I adore! Gentle to me and affable hath been Thy condescension, and shall be honoured ever With grateful memory: Thou to mankind Be good and friendly still, and oft return! So parted they; the Angel up to Heaven From the thick shade, and Adam to his bower. Book IX No more of talk where God or Angel guest With Man, as with his friend, familiar us'd, To sit indulgent, and with him partake Rural repast; permitting him the while Venial discourse unblam'd. I now must change Those notes to tragick; foul distrust, and breach Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt, And disobedience: on the part of Heaven Now alienated, distance and distaste, Anger and just rebuke, and judgement given, That brought into this world a world of woe, Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery Death's harbinger: Sad talk!yet argument Not less but more heroick than the wrath Of stern Achilles on his foe pursued Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous'd; Or Neptune's ire, or Juno's, that so long Perplexed the Greek, and Cytherea's son: 00482129 If answerable style I can obtain 133

and foreworned the Cherubim That kept their watch. who late fled before the threats Of Gabriel out of Eden. who deigns Her nightly visitation unimplor'd. whose office is to bring Twilight upon the earth. And dictates to me slumbering. The skill of artifice or office mean. The space of seven continued nights he rode With darkness. of these Nor skill'd nor studious. and now from end to end Night's hemisphere had veil'd the horizon round: When satan. regent of the sun. gorgeous knights At joust and tournament. till part 134 . traversing each colure. maugre what might hap Of heavier on himself. Now not. hitherto the only argument Heroick deem'd chief mastery to dissect With long and tedious havock fabled knights In battles feign'd. though sin. on the coast averse From entrance or Cherubick watch. who brings it nightly to my ear. caparisons and steeds. if all be mine. Me. unless an age too late. or cold Climate. The sun was sunk. Not that which justly gives heroick name To person. or to poem. There was a place. or to describe races and games. descried His entrance. damp my intended wing Depress'd. sufficient of itself to raise That name. now improv'd In meditated fraud and malice. or years. at the foot of Paradise. the better fortitude Of patience and heroick martyrdom Unsung. or inspires Easy my unpremeditated verse: Since first this subject for heroick song Pleas'd me long choosing.Of my celestial patroness. Since Uriel. four times crossed the car of night From pole to pole. short arbiter "twixt day and night. On the eighth returned. and beginning late. and after him the star Of Hesperus. imblazon'd shields. Not sedulous by nature to indite Wars. Impresses quaint. by stealth Found unsuspected way. Where Tigris. not time. cautious of day. higher argument Remains. then marshall'd feast Serv'd up in hall with sewers and seneshals. and. Into a gulf shot under ground. thrice the equinoctial line He circled. Bases and tinsel trappings. Not hers. bent On Man's destruction. first wrought the change. and much they may. thence full of anguish driven. fearless returned From compassing the earth. Or tilting furniture.

receivest from all those orbs: in thee. Not in themselves. as seems. all summed up in Man. and land. in whom To enter. which of all Most opportune might serve his wiles. yet bear their bright officious lamps. reason. and valley. From Eden over Pontus and the pool Maeotis. after better. Him after long debate. fittest imp of fraud. up beyond the river Ob. sense. irresolute Of thoughts revolved. and with inspection deep Considered every creature. and nobler birth Of creatures animate with gradual life Of growth. as built With second thoughts. none would suspicious mark. if not preferred For what God. as from the hateful siege Of contraries: all good to me becomes Bane. so thou. and found The Serpent subtlest beast of all the field. If I could joy in aught. yet extends to all. Light above light. his final sentence chose Fit vessel. how like to Heaven. in other beasts observed. involved in rising mist. Thus he resolved. for thee alone. woods. With what delight could I have walked thee round. and the more I see Pleasures about me. Centring.Rose up a fountain by the tree of life: In with the river sunk. now sea and shores with forest crowned. plant. thence to the land where flows Ganges and Indus: Thus the orb he roamed With narrow search. worse would build? Terrestrial Heaven. sea he had searched. 135 . and in Heaven much worse would be my state. Rocks. Now land. in the wily snake Whatever sleights. then sought Where to lie hid. West from Orontes to the ocean barred At Darien . seat worthier of Gods. which. and plains. and with it rose Satan. rivers. In thee concentring all their precious beams Of sacred influence! As God in Heaven Is center. and caves! But I in none of these Find place or refuge. danced round by other Heavens That shine. but first from inward grief His bursting passion into plaints thus poured. sweet interchange Of hill. More justly. reforming what was old! O Earth. and in length. Doubt might beget of diabolick power Active within. beyond the sense of brute. and his dark suggestions hide From sharpest sight: for. all their known virtue appears Productive in herb. Downward as far antarctick. so much more I feel Torment within me. dens. As from his wit and native subtlety Proceeding.

I reck not. and pry In every bush and brake. first or last. in whose mazy folds To hide me. Almighty styled. and. though thereby worse to me redound: For only in destroying I find ease To my relentless thoughts. if they at least Are his created. who erst contended With Gods to sit the highest. To basest things. all this will soon Follow. In woe then. thus wrapt in mist Of midnight vapour glide obscure. six nights and days Continued making. Since higher I fall short. O foul descent! that I. O indignity! Subjected to his service angel-wings. at first though sweet. no nor in Heaven To dwell. Man he made. in one day to have marred What he. am now constrained Into a beast. Him lord pronounced. to spite us more. as to him linked in weal or woe. Determined to advance into our room A creature formed of earth. or. With heavenly spoils. mixed with bestial slime. but others to make such As I. Whether such virtue spent of old now failed More Angels to create. He effected. freed From servitude inglorious well nigh half The angelick name. For whom all this was made. so it light well aimed. Exalted from so base original. where hap may find The serpent sleeping. back on itself recoils: Let it. unless by mastering Heaven's Supreme. our spoils: What he decreed. And to repair his numbers thus impaired. to be avenged. This essence to incarnate and imbrute. in one night. That to the highth of Deity aspired! But what will not ambition and revenge Descend to? Who aspires. and for him built Magnificent this world. and. And flaming ministers to watch and tend Their earthly charge: Of these the vigilance I dread. and the dark intent I bring. that destruction wide may range: To me shall be the glory sole among The infernal Powers. and. Bitter ere long. obnoxious. on him who next 136 . and who knows how long Before had been contriving? though perhaps Not longer than since I. Or won to what may work his utter loss. Nor hope to be myself less miserable By what I seek. and thinner left the throng Of his adorers: He. him destroyed. and earth his seat. to elude. and him endow. Revenge. must down as low As high he soared. and.But neither here seek I.

Luxurious by restraint. us the more to spite. through each thicket dank or dry. forth came the human pair. or where most needs. while I. that done. which intermits Our day's work. Whom. him fast-sleeping soon he found In labyrinth of many a round self-rolled. well stored with subtile wiles: Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den. but. on the grassy herb. or prune. or direct The clasping ivy where to climb. that breathe. till more hands Aid us. Fearless unfeared he slept: in at his mouth The Devil entered. or object new Casual discourse draw on. possessing.Provokes my envy. this new favourite Of Heaven. how that day they best may ply Their growing work: for much their work out-grew The hands' dispatch of two gardening so wide. and the hour of supper comes unearned? 137 . but. Thou therefore now advise. And Eve first to her husband thus began. waiting close the approach of morn. this man of clay. Our pleasant task enjoined. what wonder if so near Looks intervene and smiles. and his brutal sense. One night or two with wanton growth derides Tending to wild. and his nostrils fill With grateful smell. when as sacred light began to dawn In Eden on the humid flowers. son of despite. where choice Leads thee. Or bear what to my mind first thoughts present: Let us divide our labours. From the Earth's great altar send up silent praise To the Creator. So saying. still to tend plant. Nor nocent yet. or prop. where soonest he might find The serpent. brought to little. his Maker raised From dust: Spite then with spite is best repaid. but his sleep Disturbed not. Like a black mist low-creeping. while so near each other thus all day Our task we choose. And joined their vocal worship to the quire Of creatures wanting voice. when all things. and flower. or bind. he held on His midnight-search. find what to redress till noon: For. His head the midst. the work under our labour grows. partake The season prime for sweetest scents and airs: Then commune. soon inspired With act intelligential. Adam. though begun Early. what we by day Lop overgrown. well may we labour still to dress This garden. whether to wind The woodbine round this arbour. herb. In yonder spring of roses intermixed With myrtle. Now. thou. In heart or head. that breathed Their morning incense.

leave not the faithful side That gave thee being. and of his own Despairing. but to delight. or to disturb Conjugal love. He made us. But other doubt possesses me. To brute denied. or this sweet intercourse Of looks and smiles. Hopeless to circumvent us joined. as wide As we need walk. But. Sole Eve. and all Earth's Lord! That such an enemy we have. associate sole. 138 . whether food. or worse. not the lowest end of human life. How we might best fulfil the work which here God hath assigned us. Or this. where each To other speedy aid might lend at need: Whether his first design be to withdraw Our fealty from God. And good works in her husband to promote. what malicious foe Envying our happiness. And from the parting Angel over-heard. still shades thee. if much converse perhaps Thee satiate. Safest and seemliest by her husband stays. and some unkindness meets. us asunder. as to debar us when we need Refreshment. where danger or dishonour lurks. Offspring of Heaven and Earth. both by thee informed I learn. Who guards her. And short retirement urges sweet return. The wife.To whom mild answer Adam thus returned. for smiles from reason flow. To whom the virgin majesty of Eve. for thou knowest What hath been warned us. to short absence I could yield: For solitude sometimes is best society. and are of love the food. For not to irksome toil. and protects. well thy thoughts employed. With sweet austere composure thus replied. or talk between. As one who loves. and somewhere nigh at hand Watches. no doubt. seeks to work us woe and shame By sly assault. till younger hands ere long Assist us. These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands Will keep from wilderness with ease. lest harm Befall thee severed from me. than to study houshold good. than which perhaps no bliss Enjoyed by us excites his envy more. nor of me shalt pass Unpraised: for nothing lovelier can be found In woman. to me beyond Compare above all living creatures dear! Well hast thou motioned. with greedy hope to find His wish and best advantage. Yet not so strictly hath our Lord imposed Labour. or with her the worst endures. Love. and delight to reason joined. who seeks Our ruin. Food of the mind.

while shame. and thy trial choose With me. wherever met. Subtle he needs must be. I. Adam. Thoughts. not proof Against temptation: Thou thyself with scorn And anger wouldst resent the offered wrong. Can either not receive. But. stronger. being such As we. Daughter of God and Man. For he who tempts. that my firm faith and love Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced. Would utmost vigour raise. more watchful. which plain infers Thy equal fear. which on us both at once The enemy. though in vain. If such affront I labour to avert From thee alone.As in a shady nook I stood behind. we not endued Single with like defence. but to avoid The attempt itself. will hardly dare. Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel When I am present. receive Access in every virtue. at least asperses The tempted with dishonour foul. His violence thou fearest not. Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed. Shame to be overcome or over-reached. Just then returned at shut of evening flowers. who could seduce Angels. but Eve. or can repel. because we have a foe May tempt it. thus to dwell In narrow circuit straitened by a foe. Though ineffectual found: misdeem not then. intended by our foe. though bold. nor think superfluous other's aid. thou looking on. mis-thought of her to thee so dear? To whom with healing words Adam replied. not capable of death or pain. who thought Less attributed to her faith sincere. Subtle or violent. first on me the assault shall light. supposed Not incorruptible of faith. best witness of thy virtue tried? So spake domestick Adam in his care And matrimonial love. from the influence of thy looks. from sin and blame entire: Not diffident of thee do I dissuade Thy absence from my sight. which how found they harbour in thy breast. if need were Of outward strength. Or daring. 139 . and raised unite. I expected not to hear. that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt To God or thee. How are we happy. immortal Eve! For such thou art. Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn. His fraud is then thy fear. If this be our condition. still in fear of harm? But harm precedes not sin: only our foe. in thy sight More wise.

our witness. and Reason he made right. To whom thus Adam fervently replied. enjoins. is free. by some fair-appearing good surprised. Frail is our happiness. Seek not temptation then. absents thee more. but tender love. Not seeing thee attempted. for what obeys Reason. for thy stay. then wherefore shunned or feared By us? who rather double honour gain From his surmise proved false. if this be so. much less Man. from the event. who attest? But. rely On what thou hast of virtue. summon all! For God towards thee hath done his part. find peace within. yet lies within his power: Against his will he can receive no harm. if thou think. That I should mind thee oft. But God left free the will. virtue. and thus forewarned 140 . But bid her well be ware. yet submiss. but turns Foul on himself. Lest. Go in thy native innocence. Favour from Heaven. as she was warned. And fall into deception unaware. which to avoid Were better. unassayed Alone. do thine. the other who can know. Secure from outward force. within himself The danger lies. and most likely if from me Thou sever not: Trial will come unsought.Tempting. and mind thou me. So spake the patriarch of mankind. trial unsought may find Us both securer than thus warned thou seemest. but Eve Persisted. And what is faith. Not keeping strictest watch. She dictate false. yet possible to swerve. and mis-inform the will To do what God expressly hath forbid. Or aught that might his happy state secure. not free. and still erect. approve First thy obedience. though last. love. And Eden were no Eden. Firm we subsist. Wouldst thou approve thy constancy. best are all things as the will Of God ordained them: His creating hand Nothing imperfect or deficient left Of all that he created. Not then mistrust. Since Reason not impossibly may meet Some specious object by the foe suborned. replied. As not secure to single or combined. Go. without exteriour help sustained? Let us not then suspect our happy state Left so imperfect by the Maker wise. affronts us with his foul esteem Of our integrity: his foul esteem Sticks no dishonour on our front. With thy permission then. thus exposed. O Woman.

nor much expect A foe so proud will first the weaker seek. O much deceived. To Pales. from her husband's hand her hand Soft she withdrew. or afternoon's repose. much failing. so thick the roses blushing round About her glowed. Though not as she with bow and quiver armed. In bower and field he sought. Likest she seemed. where she stood. purple. Betook her to the groves. The willinger I go. May find us both perhaps far less prepared. Beyond his hope. when to his wish. the more shall shame him his repulse. Such ambush. or of Delia's train. but Delia's self In gait surpassed. hid among sweet flowers and shades. And on his quest. or plantation for delight. Oft he to her his charge of quick return Repeated. Guiltless of fire. and since first break of dawn. but not with hope Of what so seldom chanced. where likeliest he might find The only two of mankind. and. like a Wood-Nymph light. But with such gardening tools as Art yet rude. Eve separate he spies. hapless Eve. Thus saying. or specked with gold. or sound repose. azure. So bent. thus adorned. And all things in best order to invite Noontide repast. though gay Carnation. 141 . Her long with ardent look his eye pursued Delighted. that our trial. By fountain or by shady rivulet He sought them both. or to Ceres in her prime. oft stooping to support Each flower of slender stalk. where any tuft Of grove or garden-plot more pleasant lay. or Pomona. his purposed prey. had formed. but wished his hap might find Eve separate. Mere serpent in appearance. of faith. when least sought. Pomona when she fled Vertumnus. of bliss! For now. Half spied. Oread or Dryad. or send thee back Despoiled of innocence. forth was come.Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words Touched only. whose head. and Goddess-like deport. but in them The whole included race. Waited with hellish rancour imminent To intercept thy way. he wished. Their tendance. the Fiend. or Angels brought. Of thy presumed return! event perverse! Thou never from that hour in Paradise Foundst either sweet repast. but desiring more her stay. Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove. she to him as oft engaged To be returned by noon amid the bower. Veiled in a cloud of fragrance.

or least action. and flowers Imbordered on each bank. Her graceful innocence. other joy To me is lost. Much he the place admired. pine. or palm.nor hope Of Paradise for Hell. from each thing met conceives delight. Or dairy. whither have ye led me! with what sweet Compulsion thus transported. Then. Thoughts. gratulating. and in her look sums all delight: Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold This flowery plat. each rural sight. hope here to taste Of pleasure. not for him ordained: then soon Fierce hate he recollects. Though in mid Heaven. soon ended his delight. for her now pleases more. now seen. each rural sound. and feminine. the hand of Eve: Spot more delicious than those gardens feigned Or of revived Adonis. now hid. let me not let pass Occasion which now smiles. fair virgin pass. and for the time remained Stupidly good. From her best prop so far. What pleasing seemed. to breathe Among the pleasant villages and farms Adjoined. thus alone: Her heavenly form Angelick. of enmity disarmed. the person more. overawed His malice. host of old Laertes' son. of hate. but more soft. and storm so nigh. or renowned Alcinous. As one who long in populous city pent. mindless the while Herself. of revenge: But the hot Hell that always in him burns. her every air Of gesture. Forth issuing on a summer's morn. Where houses thick and sewers annoy the air. Then voluble and bold. and all his thoughts Of mischief. Among thick-woven arborets. of envy. The smell of grain. Of guile. with nymph-like step. or tedded grass. the more he sees Of pleasure. though fairest unsupported flower. and many a walk traversed Of stateliest covert. If chance. not mystick. Nearer he drew.Hung drooping unsustained. not love. cedar. thus excites. And tortures him now more. them she upstays Gently with myrtle band. behold alone 142 . the sweet recess of Eve Thus early. to forget What hither brought us! hate. or kine. Save what is in destroying. where the sapient king Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse. and with rapine sweet bereaved His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought: That space the Evil-one abstracted stood From his own evil. She most. but all pleasure to destroy. Or that.

erect Amidst his circling spires. With burnished neck of verdant gold. more duteous at her call. or the god In Epidaurus. so much hath Hell debased. as since. His fraudulent temptation thus began. not those that in Illyria changed. But as in gaze admiring: oft he bowed His turret crest. and sleek enamelled neck. and shifts her sail: So varied he. or impulse of vocal air. but feared To interrupt. nor to which transformed Ammonian Jove. Than at Circean call the herd disguised. by skilful steersmen wrought Nigh river's mouth or foreland. of courage haughty. as oft so steers. enclosed In serpent.The woman. 143 . that towered Fold above fold. and of his tortuous train Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve. Hate stronger. as used To such disport before her through the field. this with her who bore Scipio. inmate bad! and toward Eve Addressed his way: not with indented wave. and pain Enfeebled me. but on his rear. to what I was in Heaven. he. To lure her eye. and carbuncle his eyes. Fawning. not approached by stronger hate. or Capitoline. As when a ship. a surging maze! his head Crested aloft. Foe not informidable! exempt from wound. but minded not. for I view far round. The way which to her ruin now I tend. though terrour be in love And beauty. From every beast. that on the grass Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape And lovely. opportune to all attempts. Whose higher intellectual more I shun. glad Of her attention gained. Hermione and Cadmus. So spake the enemy of mankind. she. And strength. not nigh. and licked the ground whereon she trod. with serpent-tongue Organick. Circular base of rising folds. was seen. busied. He with Olympias. He. Prone on the ground. fit love for Gods! Not terrible. under show of love well feigned. She fair. bolder now. heard the sound Of rusling leaves. never since of serpent-kind Lovelier. the highth of Rome. side-long he works his way. uncalled before her stood. as one who sought access. divinely fair. I not. With tract oblique At first. Her husband. though of terrestrial mould. where the wind Veers oft. and of limb Heroick built. His gentle dumb expression turned at length The eye of Eve to mark his play.

and in their actions. and how To me so friendly grown above the rest Of brutal kind. Thee. that daily are in sight? Say. I thus single. Ruddy and gold: I nearer drew to gaze.nor have feared Thy awful brow. but not with human voice endued. oft appears. of these I thought denied To beasts. How camest thou speakable of mute. one man except. or the teats Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at even. if perhaps Thou canst. at length. with disdain. on a day roving the field. for such wonder claims attention due. Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair. resplendent Eve! Easy to me it is to tell thee all What thou commandest. whom God. What may this mean? language of man pronounced By tongue of brute. the Heaven of mildness. at least. she thus in answer spake. and right thou shouldst be obeyed: I was at first as other beasts that graze The trodden herb. Thee all things living gaze on. and say. Beholders rude. for in their looks Much reason. Where universally admired. I chanced A goodly tree far distant to behold Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mixed. all things thine By gift. sovran Mistress. subtlest beast of all the field I knew. on their creation-day. these beasts among. Grateful to appetite. more awful thus retired. Empress of this fair world. but here In this enclosure wild. and apprehended nothing high: Till. Redouble then this miracle. thy daily train. adored and served By Angels numberless. Not unamazed. So glozed the Tempter. and thy celestial beauty adore With ravishment beheld! there best beheld. Though at the voice much marvelling. who art sole wonder! much less arm Thy looks. more pleased my sense Than smell of sweetest fennel. 144 . Created mute to all articulate sound: The latter I demur. and human sense expressed? The first. Displeased that I approach thee thus. As was my food. When from the boughs a savoury odour blown. To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied. and his proem tuned: Into the heart of Eve his words made way. of abject thoughts and low. and gaze Insatiate. nor aught but food discerned Or sex. and shallow to discern Half what in thee is fair.Wonder not. Serpent. Who sees thee? and what is one? who should be seen A Goddess among Gods.

Unsucked of lamb or kid. to degree Of reason in my inward powers. and speech Wanted not long. Serpent. blithe and glad. swiftly rolled In tangles. Beyond a row of myrtles. and with capacious mind Considered all things visible in Heaven. the way is ready. to come And gaze. universal Dame! So talked the spirited sly Snake. the branches would require Thy utmost reach or Adam's: Round the tree All other beasts that saw. to pluck and eat my fill I spared not. Still hanging incorruptible. Fast by a fountain. where grows the tree? from hence how far? For many are the trees of God that grow In Paradise. Hope elevates. To whom the wily Adder. Amid the tree now got. though to this shape retained. but could not reach. though importune perhaps. that tend their play. For. As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched. with like desire Longing and envying stood. high from ground. Powerful persuaders. such pleasure till that hour. all things fair and good: But all that fair and good in thy divine Semblance. in such abundance lies our choice. no fair to thine Equivalent or second! which compelled Me thus. Thenceforth to speculations high or deep I turned my thoughts. never had I found. I can bring thee thither soon Lead then. and made intricate seem straight. or Middle. one small thicket past Of blowing myrrh and balm: if thou accept My conduct. unwary thus replied. To mischief swift. on a flat. Or Earth. leading. till men Grow up to their provision. About the mossy trunk I wound me soon. I resolved Not to defer. He. in thee first proved: But say. and various. and Eve. quickened at the scent Of that alluring fruit. At feed or fountain. Sated at length. ere long I might perceive Strange alteration in me. said Eve. and joy 145 . and not long. for. where plenty hung Tempting so nigh. hunger and thirst at once. United I beheld. thy overpraising leaves in doubt The virtue of that fruit. and more hands Help to disburden Nature of her birth. urged me so keen. and worship thee of right declared Sovran of creatures. yet unknown To us. and in thy beauty's heavenly ray. Empress. Yet more amazed. To satisfy the sharp desire I had Of tasting those fair apples.

but to trace the ways Of highest agents. Serpent. some evil Spirit attends. As when of old some orator renowned. and the cold environs round. won audience ere the tongue. Wonderous indeed. Fluctuates disturbed. The Tempter. In Athens or free Rome. since mute! to some great cause addressed. Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way To bogs and mires. our reason is our law. The credit of whose virtue rest with thee. as no delay Of preface brooking. lest ye die. moving. not only to discern Things in their causes. thus to her guide she spake. and indignation at his wrong. though brief. while each part. but with show of zeal and love To Man. we might have spared our coming hither. through his zeal of right: So standing. though fruit be here to excess.Brightens his crest. from succour far. Hovering and blazing with delusive light. all impassioned. But of this tree we may not taste nor touch. as when a wandering fire. which the night Condenses. Stood in himself collected. each act. as to passion moved. we live Law to ourselves. nor shall ye touch it. the rest. Kindled through agitation to a flame. Fruitless to me. God hath said. Which when she saw. they say. root of all our woe. and wisdom-giving Plant. To whom the Tempter guilefully replied. Of the fruit Of each tree in the garden we may eat. wise. Compact of unctuous vapour. But of the fruit of this fair tree amidst The garden. She scarce had said. and. and into fraud Led Eve. New part puts on. yet sinless. Queen of this universe! do not believe 146 . or to highth up grown. and left that command Sole daughter of his voice. where eloquence Flourished. There swallowed up and lost. Indeed! hath God then said that of the fruit Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat. when now more bold The Tempter. deemed however wise. Motion. as of some great matter to begin. to the tree Of prohibition. O sacred. yet comely and in act Raised. Which oft. thus began. if cause of such effects. our credulous mother. God so commanded. Sometimes in highth began. So glistered the dire Snake. and oft through pond or pool. Ye shall not eat Thereof. Mother of science! now I feel thy power Within me clear. Yet Lords declared of all in earth or air$? To whom thus Eve.

Goddess humane. Why then was this forbid? Why. not feared then. who enclosed Knowledge of good and evil in this tree. Of good. which to the Beast Is open? or will God incense his ire For such a petty trespass? and not praise Rather your dauntless virtue. Knowing both good and evil. by the threatener? look on me. Why. human. And life more perfect have attained than Fate Meant me. by venturing higher than my lot. is but proportion meet.Those rigid threats of death: ye shall not die: How should you? by the fruit? it gives you life To knowledge. by putting off Human. how just? of evil. that all from them proceeds: I question it. and ye shall be as Gods. Shall that be shut to Man. which no worse than this can bring. shall perfectly be then Opened and cleared. for this fair earth I see. whom the pain Of death denounced. and his words. Into her heart too easy entrance won: Fixed on the fruit she gazed. His worshippers? He knows that in the day Ye eat thereof. and that advantage use On our belief. ye. as they know. whatever thing death be. reach then. and be just. forthwith attains Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies The offence. that Man should thus attain to know? What can your knowledge hurt him. and freely taste! He ended. Yet are but dim. Deterred not from achieving what might lead To happier life. your eyes that seem so clear. but to keep ye low and ignorant. Not just. participating God-like food? The Gods are first. who have touched and tasted. death to be wished. not God. since I as Man. since easier shunned? God therefore cannot hurt ye. Gods. yet both live. I. but to awe. replete with guile. That ye shall be as Gods. Them. Me. why not known. nothing: if they all things. nor obeyed: Your fear itself of death removes the fear. Internal Man. So ye shall die perhaps. of human. of brute. knowledge of good and evil. And what are Gods. these. which to behold 147 . that Man may not become As they. or this tree Impart against his will. and many more Causes import your need of this fair fruit. That whoso eats thereof. producing every kind. Warmed by the sun. Though threatened. to put on Gods. if what is evil Be real. if all be his? Or is it envy? and can envy dwell In heavenly breasts? These.

and waked An eager appetite. best of fruits. and reasons. and worthy to be admired. naming thee the tree Of knowledge. What fear I then? rather. Great are thy virtues. Solicited her longing eye. and in her ears the sound Yet rung of his persuasive words. Intent now wholly on her taste. had And yet unknown. of law or penalty? Here grows the cure of all. and well might. Inclinable now grown to touch or taste. nought else 148 . Forbids us then to taste! but his forbidding Commends thee more. thus to herself she mused. to her seeming. this fruit divine. Forbids us good. or. Whose taste. far from deceit or guile. her rash hand in evil hour Forth reaching to the fruit. our doom is. too long forborn. and Nature from her seat. what forbids he but to know. And knows. and feed at once both body and mind? So saying. and with truth: Mean while the hour of noon drew on. author unsuspect. gave signs of woe. and speaks. For us alone Was death invented? or to us denied This intellectual food. Though kept from man. who forbids thy use. Of God or death. what profits then Our inward freedom? In the day we eat Of this fair fruit. while it infers the good By thee communicated. which with desire. Conceals not from us. impregned With reason. if death Bind us with after-bands. Fair to the eye. But. knowledge both of good and evil. yet first Pausing a while. That all was lost. she plucked. Irrational till then. Of virtue to make wise: What hinders then To reach. is as not had at all. inviting to the taste. Sighing through all her works. we shall die! How dies the Serpent? he hath eaten and lives. and taught The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise: Thy praise he also. at first assay Gave elocution to the mute. Back to the thicket slunk The guilty Serpent. In plain then. doubtless. but brings with joy The good befallen him. and discerns. what know to fear Under this ignorance of good and evil. she eat! Earth felt the wound. for beasts reserved? For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first Hath tasted envies not. Friendly to man. forbids us to be wise? Such prohibitions bind not. and our want: For good unknown sure is not had. raised by the smell So savoury of that fruit.Might tempt alone.for Eve.

precious of all trees In Paradise! of operation blest To sapience. and other care perhaps May have diverted from continual watch Our great Forbidder. had the gift been theirs. A thing not undesirable. Till. And death ensue? then I shall be no more! And Adam. And render me more equal. though secret she retire. and remote to see from thence distinct Each thing on Earth. from the tree her step she turned. And hightened as with wine. I had remained In ignorance. Shall live with her enjoying. such delight till then. I extinct. sometime Superiour. Shall tend thee. as the Gods. dieted by thee. whether true Or fancied so. the more to draw his love. But first low reverence done. Though others envy what they cannot give: For. thou openest wisdom's way. who all things know.Regarded. And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high. And thy fair fruit let hang. Experience. derived 149 . wedded to another Eve. or rather not. And knew not eating death: Satiate at length. And givest access. Greedily she ingorged without restraint. who is free This may be well: But what if God have seen. O sovran. Best guide. inferiour. Not without song. I grow mature In knowledge. next. Thus to herself she pleasingly began. as to the Power That dwelt within. But to Adam in what sort Shall I appear? shall I to him make known As yet my change. virtuous. infamed. for. as seemed. A death to think! Confirmed then I resolve. Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe: So dear I love him. each morning. and due praise. and the fertile burden ease Of thy full branches offered free to all. to thee I owe. as to no end Created. through expectation high Of knowledge. hitherto obscured. and perhaps. but henceforth my early care. So saying. High. jocund and boon. that with him all deaths I could endure. it had not here Thus grown. not was Godhead from her thought. and give him to partake Full happiness with me. whose presence had infused Into the plant sciential sap. without him live no life. not following thee. In fruit she never tasted. safe with all his spies About him. But keeps the odds of knowledge in my power Without copartner? so to add what wants In female sex.

divine of something ill. what rash untried I sought. Reasoning to admiration. And forth to meet her went. soon as he heard 150 . Misgave him. and wonderful to hear: This tree is not. and I then too late renounce Deity for thee. and odious soon. agony of love till now Not felt. to me is bliss. there he her met. and have also found The effects to correspond. Waiting desirous her return. without thee can despise. and ambrosial smell diffused. she thus addressed. New gathered. as equal love. as we are threatened. in her face excuse Came prologue. But in her cheek distemper flushing glowed. different degree Disjoin us. but thenceforth Endued with human voice and human sense. opener mine eyes. Tedious. that equal lot May join us. drink of Gods. Adam the while. But strange Hath been the cause. with bland words at will. Dim erst. and apology too prompt. Hath eaten of the fruit.From nectar. to adorn Her tresses. equal joy. nor to evil unknown Opening the way. for never more Mean I to try. and make them Gods who taste. and her rural labours crown. Or not restrained as we. Adam. a tree Of danger tasted. as thou hast part. Thus Eve with countenance blithe her story told. Not dead. the way she took That morn when first they parted: by the tree Of knowledge he must pass. nor shall be twice. Lest. as we are told. dilated spirits. As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen. and is become. On the other side Adam. To him she hasted. Scarce from the tree returning. which for thee Chiefly I sought. so long delayed: Yet oft his heart. Hast thou not wondered. had wove Of choicest flowers a garland. Great joy he promised to his thoughts. And growing up to Godhead. deprived Thy presence. that I Have also tasted. at my stay? Thee I have missed. Thou therefore also taste. The pain of absence from thy sight. and new Solace in her return. thou not tasting. For bliss. unshared with thee. he the faltering measure felt. when Fate will not permit. and thought it long. that downy smiled. and with me Persuasively hath so prevailed. And hath been tasted such: The serpent wise. ampler heart. Which. but of divine effect To open eyes. in her hand A bough of fairest fruit. or not obeying.

adventurous Eve. or sweet! How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost. Though threatening. and all the faded roses shed: Speechless he stood and pale. Holy. bliss or woe. and from thy state Mine never shall be parted. as thou saidst. or done undo? Not God Omnipotent. Nor yet on him found deadly. and all his joints relaxed. and gains to live. how hast thou yielded to transgress The strict forbiddance.The fatal trespass done by Eve. perhaps the fact Is not so heinous now. And peril great provoked. From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve Down dropt. Nor can I think that God. And me with thee hath ruined. foretasted fruit. yet he lives. divine. Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned. But past who can recall. Had it been only coveting to eye That sacred fruit. Profaned first by the serpent. sacred to abstinence. nor Fate. as one from sad dismay Recomforted. Lives. how to violate The sacred fruit forbidden! Some cursed fraud Of enemy hath beguiled thee. Higher degree of life. by him first Made common. and unhallowed. or Angels. for with thee Certain my resolution is to die: How can I live without thee! how forego Thy sweet converse. ere our taste. will in earnest so destroy 151 . Much more to taste it under ban to touch. while horrour chill Ran through his veins. Creature in whom excelled Whatever can to sight or thought be formed. and after thoughts disturbed Submitting to what seemed remediless. inducement strong To us. till thus at length First to himself he inward silence broke. good. amazed. who thus hast dared. as likely tasting to attain Proportional ascent. and I Another rib afford. and now to death devote! Rather. yet loss of thee Would never from my heart: no. which cannot be But to be Gods. Astonied stood and blank. O fairest of Creation. as Man. and love so dearly joined. yet so Perhaps thou shalt not die. demi-Gods. Bold deed thou hast presumed. To live again in these wild woods forlorn! Should God create another Eve. no!I feel The link of Nature draw me: flesh of flesh. yet unknown. Creator wise. So having said. amiable. Bone of my bone thou art. deflowered. Defaced. last and best Of all God's works.

opened eyes. who can please him long? Me first "He ruined. but. linked in love so dear. we are one. My own in thee. declaring thee resolved. whom will he next?" Matter of scorn. O glorious trial of exceeding love. One heart. and thus Eve to him replied. and labour lose. And fear of death deliver to the winds. love unequalled: but I feel Far otherwise the event. undo. hath presented This happy trial of thy love. So Adam. Direct. Adam. So faithful. Dependant made. dignified so high. and say. from whose dear side I boast me sprung.Us his prime creatures. new hopes. whereof good proof This day affords. but life Augmented. Set over all his works. rather die Deserted. flat seems to this. However I with thee have fixed my lot. needs with us must fail. Certain to undergo like doom: If death Consort with thee. not death. to lose thee were to lose myself. now Mankind. Shall separate us. Taste so divine. how shall I attain. for what thou art is mine. Whose virtue for of good still good proceeds. who. than oblige thee with a fact Pernicious to thy peace. Not well conceived of God. Our state cannot be severed. short Of thy perfection. or by occasion. one crime. or aught than death more dread. For us created. chiefly assured Remarkably so late of thy so true. do. of tasting this fair fruit. example high! Engaging me to emulate. If any be. one soul in both. Rather than death. Be frustrate. so God shall uncreate. which else So eminently never had been known? Were it I thought death menaced would ensue This my attempt. I would sustain alone The worst. Adam. she embraced him. and for joy 152 . yet would be loth Us to abolish. that what of sweet before Hath touched my sense. lest the Adversary Triumph. death is to me as life. One flesh. Illustrious evidence. new joys. And gladly of our union hear thee speak. not to be given the Foe. On my experience. So saying. To undergo with me one guilt. though his power Creation could repeat. freely taste. which in our fall. So forcible within my heart I feel The bond of Nature draw me to my own. and harsh. "Fickle their state whom God "Most favours. and not persuade thee.

well understood Of Eve. And elegant. As with new wine intoxicated both. that he his love Had so ennobled. and. Against his better knowledge. Eve. much won. in lust they burn: Till Adam thus 'gan Eve to dalliance move. But fondly overcome with female charm. she him As wantonly repaid. As meet is. fairer now Than ever. not deceived. after such delicious fare. I the praise Yield thee. In recompence for such compliance bad Such recompence best merits from the bough She gave him of that fair enticing fruit With liberal hand: he scrupled not to eat. and forbore not glance or toy Of amorous intent. He led her nothing loth. he on Eve Began to cast lascivious eyes. whose eye darted contagious fire. bounty of this virtuous tree! So said he. Earth trembled from her entrails. and asphodel. as again In pangs. and fancy that they feel Divinity within them breeding wings. so well this day thou hast purveyed. For this one tree had been forbidden ten. the more to sooth Him with her loved society.Tenderly wept. Much pleasure we have lost. or death. and Nature gave a second groan. muttering thunder. while we abstained From this delightful fruit. But come. And hyacinth. Thick over-head with verdant roof imbowered. And palate call judicious. Wherewith to scorn the earth: But that false fruit Far other operation first displayed. Since to each meaning savour we apply. nor known till now True relish. since the day I saw thee first and wedded thee. Pansies. Carnal desire inflaming. so well refreshed. 153 . so inflame my sense With ardour to enjoy thee. They swim in mirth. that now. and violets. adorned With all perfections. Earth's freshest softest lap. and to a shady bank. nor Eve to iterate Her former trespass feared. Her hand he seised. Eating his fill. some sad drops Wept at completing of the mortal sin Original: while Adam took no thought. if such pleasure be In things to us forbidden. Sky loured. it might be wished. tasting. For never did thy beauty. as of choice to incur Divine displeasure for her sake. of sapience no small part. now I see thou art exact of taste. flowers were the couch. now let us play.

each the other viewing. in some glade Obscured.--How shall I behold the face Henceforth of God or Angel. and their minds How darkened. now had left them. And in our faces evident the signs Of foul concupiscence. the last of evils. he covered. O! might I here In solitude live savage. long they sat. Of innocence. spread their umbrage broad And brown as evening: Cover me. naked left To guilty Shame. That with exhilarating vapour bland About their spirits had played. and native righteousness. from the harlot-lap Of Philistean Dalilah. of faith. Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit.There they their fill of love and love's disport Took largely. Soon found their eyes how opened. and in face Confounded. False in our promised rising. but his robe Uncovered more. ye Pines! Ye Cedars. where I may never see them more!-But let us now. impenetrable To star or sun-light. devise What best may for the present serve to hide 154 . and inmost powers Made err. of whomsoever taught To counterfeit Man's voice. of purity. of the first Be sure then. was now exhaled. good lost. was gone. that as a veil Had shadowed them from knowing ill. till dewy sleep Oppressed them. O Eve. with innumerable boughs Hide me. Even shame. Bred of unkindly fumes. innocence. as strucken mute: Till Adam. Bad fruit of knowledge. up they rose As from unrest. and evil got. Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained. Which leaves us naked thus. of honour void. true in our fall. So rose the Danite strong. They destitute and bare Of all their virtue: Silent. The solace of their sin. though not less than Eve abashed. Herculean Samson. from about them. At length gave utterance to these words constrained. since our eyes Opened we find indeed. of their mutual guilt the seal. as in bad plight. and grosser sleep. erst with joy And rapture so oft beheld? Those heavenly shapes Will dazzle now this earthly with their blaze Insufferably bright. and waked Shorn of his strength. if this be to know. Just confidence. where highest woods. And honour. and find we know Both good and evil. and. in evil hour thou didst give ear To that false worm. with conscious dreams Incumbered. wearied with their amorous play. whence evil store.

shunning heat. and. not. this unhappy morn. But such as at this day. conclude. and both together went Into the thickest wood. naked else. There sit not. and shook sore Their inward state of mind. but not at rest or ease of mind. vain covering. hate. anger. a pillared shade High over-arched. when earnestly they seek Such proof. we had then Remained still happy. despoiled Of all our good. miserable! Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve The faith they owe. Some tree. so girt With feathered cincture. their shame in part Covered. now tost and turbulent: For Understanding ruled not. thus Eve. as I besought thee. Adam. soon moved with touch of blame. that in the ground The bended twigs take root. they then begin to fail. to Indians known.The parts of each from other. Shelters in cool. there soon they chose The fig-tree. Would thou hadst hearkened to my words. nor only tears Rained at their eyes. Thus fenced. not that kind for fruit renowned. how unlike To that first naked glory! Such of late Columbus found the American. And. but high winds worse within Began to rise. and wild Among the trees on isles and woody shores. In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms Branching so broad and long. They sat them down to weep. Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewed. discord. with what skill they had. 155 . Shame. broad as Amazonian targe. estranged in look and altered style. may cover round Those middle parts. as now. both in subjection now To sensual Appetite. So counselled he. when that strange Desire of wandering. and staid With me. as they thought. suspicion. naked. Mistrust. high passions. shamed. To whom. and unseemliest seen. that seem most To shame obnoxious. if to hide Their guilt and dreaded shame! O. And girded on our loins. together sewed. whose broad smooth leaves together sewed. I know not whence possessed thee. who from beneath Usurping over sovran Reason claimed Superiour sway: From thus distempered breast. calm region once And full of peace. that this new comer. and daughters grow About the mother tree. and echoing walks between: There oft the Indian herdsman. and tends his pasturing herds At loop-holes cut through thickest shade: Those leaves They gathered. and reproach us as unclean. and the Will Heard not her lore. To gird their waist.

had been force. ingrateful Eve! expressed Immutable. didst permit. who. foretold The danger. Adam replied. I admonished thee. in overmuch admiring What seemed in thee so perfect. as thou callest it. Thus it shall befall Him. But confidence then bore thee on. And of their vain contest appeared no end. nor thou with me. that I thought No evil durst attempt thee. Hadst thou been firm and fixed in thy dissent. Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there.What words have passed thy lips. Or here the attempt. beyond this. Neither had I transgressed. or will Of wandering. approve. and fair dismiss. to worth in women overtrusting. Being as I am. Is this the love. but neither self-condemning. Yet willingly chose rather death with thee? And am I now upbraided as the cause Of thy transgressing? Not enough severe. then first incensed. when thou wert lost. Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook. Going into such danger. thou couldst not have discerned Fraud in the Serpent. speaking as he spake. which who knows But might as ill have happened thou being by. secure Either to meet no danger. thou didst not much gainsay. not I. left to herself. Why he should mean me ill. the head. And force upon free will hath here no place. and joyed immortal bliss. or seek to harm. Book X Mean while the heinous and despiteful act 156 . Was I to have never parted from thy side? As good have grown there still a lifeless rib. is this the recompence Of mine to thee. It seems. why didst not thou. And thou the accuser. if evil thence ensue. and the lurking enemy That lay in wait. but I rue The errour now. No ground of enmity between us known. and perhaps I also erred. in thy restraint: What could I more I warned thee. Nay. as thou saidst? Too facile then. She first his weak indulgence will accuse. or to find Matter of glorious trial. which is become my crime. Command me absolutely not to go. Adam severe! Imputest thou that to my default. Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours. To whom. Who might have lived. And.

For Man. By some immediate stroke. and speed On his bad errand. when the Most High Eternal Father. with strength entire and free will armed. Because not yet inflicted. had perverted Eve. About the new-arrived. Accountable. to her own inclining left In even scale. Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice. For still they knew. Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth. for what can 'scape the eye Of God all-seeing. and sad. Or touch with lightest moment of impulse His free will. Complete to have discovered and repulsed Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend. Her husband she. their utmost vigilance And easily approved. Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen Entrance unseen. Assembled Angels. Whoever tempted. which they not obeying. as he feared. yet. violated not their bliss. The high injunction. Was known in Heaven. in multitudes The ethereal people ran. (Incurred what could they less?) the penalty. Foretold so lately what would come to pass. no decree of mine Concurring to necessitate his fall. from his secret cloud.Of Satan. or deceive his heart Omniscient? who. but that the mortal sentence pass On his transgression. Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste The angelick guards ascended. Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind Of Man. and now What rests. When first this tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. to make appear. and how He. not to taste that fruit. Man should be seduced. I told ye then he should prevail. and ye Powers returned From unsuccessful charge. And. in all things wise and just. in the serpent. But fallen he is. done in Paradise. to hear and know How all befel: They towards the throne supreme. be not dismayed. And flattered out of all. believing lies Against his Maker.--death denounced that day? Which he presumes already vain and void. made haste. With righteous plea. to taste the fatal fruit. Soon as the unwelcome news From Earth arrived at Heaven-gate. Which your sincerest care could not prevent. deserved to fall. but soon shall find 157 . mute. displeased All were who heard. for of his state by this they knew. dim sadness did not spare That time celestial visages. manifold in sin. and ought to have still remembered. mixed With pity.

they heard. though with swiftest minutes winged. and. the worst on me must light. Where art thou. or Earth. I go to judge On earth these thy transgressours. by soft winds Brought to their ears. Convict by flight. and Dominations ministrant. Princedoms. Mine. and Powers. Attendance none shall need. from wrath more cool. in prospect lay. And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. To fan the earth now waked. Easy it may be seen that I intend Mercy colleague with justice. as may illustrate most Them fully satisfied. yet I shall temper so Justice with mercy. Now was the sun in western cadence low From noon. nor train. Adam. where none Are to behold the judgement. that thou in me. Those two. from his radiant seat he rose Of high collateral glory: Him Thrones. But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee. Mayest ever rest well pleased. while day declined. both man and wife. and all the coast. wont with joy to meet 158 . for so I undertook Before thee. and.Forbearance no acquittance. When time shall be. this obtain Of right. his Mediator. thus to Adam called aloud. and rebel to all law: Conviction to the serpent none belongs. ere day end. sending thee Man's friend. and thee appease. Accompanied to Heaven-gate. and gentle airs. from whence Eden. and Intercessour both. thine is to decree. Justice shall not return as bounty scorned. Thus saying. to do thy will Supreme. but thou knowest. Approaching. So spake the Father. Whoever judged. and thus divinely answered mild. not repenting. but the judged. on the Son Blazed forth unclouded Deity: He full Resplendent all his Father manifest Expressed. whether in Heaven. To sentence Man: The voice of God they heard Now walking in the garden. both in Heaven and Earth. And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen. till God. due at their hour. unfolding bright Toward the right hand his glory. thy Son beloved. and usher in The evening cool. Down he descended straight. or Hell. his designed Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary. Came the mild Judge. the speed of Gods Time counts not. the third best absent is condemned. Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred All judgement. that I may mitigate their doom On me derived. when he. Father Eternal.

and not expose to blame By my complaint: but strict necessity Subdues me. or to accuse My other self. who Hath told thee? Hast thou eaten of the tree. whom thou madest to be my help. Not pleased. Where obvious duty ere while appeared unsought: Or come I less conspicuous. and the place Wherein God set thee above her made of thee. and obstinacy. Was she thy God. and calamitous constraint. though first To offend. Whence Adam. and despair. faltering long. To whom the Sovran Presence thus replied. hid myself. However insupportable. and lovely. 159 . To whom The gracious Judge without revile replied. Her doing seemed to justify the deed. and her gifts Were such. though should I hold my peace. so acceptable. how is it now become So dreadful to thee? That thou art naked. while her faith to me remains. discountenanced both. not thy subjection.-This Woman. and hast not feared. Superiour. And shame. to attract Thy love. Whose failing. be all Devolved. O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand Before my Judge. My voice thou oft hast heard. but apparent guilt. So fit. Lest on my head both sin and punishment. That from her hand I could suspect no ill. and guile. and perturbation. whose perfection far excelled Hers in all real dignity? Adorned She was indeed. either to undergo Myself the total crime. more loth. And what she did. being naked. thus entertained with solitude. And gavest me as thy perfect gift. I should conceal. But still rejoiced. And for thee. as under government well seemed. yet thou Wouldst easily detect what I conceal. or but equal. so divine. Or to each other. and I did eat. that to her Thou didst resign thy manhood.My coming seen far off? I miss thee here. or what chance detains?--Come forth! He came. Love was not in their looks. so good. whatever in itself. Whereof I gave thee charge thou shouldst not eat? To whom thus Adam sore beset replied. and with him Eve. the partner of my life. either to God. I heard thee in the garden. Anger. that her thou didst obey Before his voice? or was she made thy guide. She gave me of the tree. and hate. thus answered brief. and of thy voice Afraid. and discomposed. or what change Absents thee.

Thou shalt not eat thereof: Cursed is the ground for thy sake. each beast of the field. Her seed shall bruise thy head. with shame nigh overwhelmed. he thus to Eve in few. The realm itself of Satan. he over thee shall rule. who now foretold his fatal bruise. down from Heaven. and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. then verified When Jesus. Which when the Lord God heard. what is this which thou hast done? To whom sad Eve. (since he no further knew) Nor altered his offence. rising from his grave Spoiled Principalities and Powers. And dust shalt eat all the days of thy life. children thou shalt bring In sorrow forth. 160 . Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception. And to the Woman thus his sentence turned. Confessing soon. Woman. thou bruise his heel. and. which was thy part And person. Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. and to thy husband's will Thine shall submit. triumphed In open show. thus abashed replied. and I did eat. Say. Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth Unbid. judged as then best: And on the Serpent thus his curse let fall. who made him instrument Of mischief. saying. justly then accursed. Upon thy belly groveling thou shalt go. unable to transfer The guilt on him. thou in sorrow Shalt eat thereof. Prince of the air. Saw Satan fall. So having said. Between thee and the woman I will put Enmity. thou art accursed Above all cattle. Son of Mary. though brute. concerning which I charged thee. with ascension bright. Though in mysterious terms. long usurped. So spake this oracle. second Eve. On Adam last thus judgement he pronounced. Because thou hast done this. yet God at last To Satan first in sin his doom applied. Captivity led captive through the air. and between thine and her seed.Unseemly to bear rule. without delay To judgement he proceeded on the accused Serpent. Whom he shall tread at last under our feet. hadst thou known thyself aright. Even he. And eaten of the tree. all the days of thy life. then. yet not before her Judge Bold or loquacious. The Serpent me beguiled. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. and polluted from the end Of his creation. like lightning. As vitiated in nature: More to know Concerned not Man.

what had passed with Man Recounted. his offspring dear? It cannot be But that success attends him. that now Stood open wide.Till thou return unto the ground. As when he washed his servants feet. Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid. if mishap. Within the gates of Hell sat Sin and Death. Thou. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise. my shade Inseparable. since no place like this Can fit his punishment. but inward nakedness. Removed far off. and happier seat provides For us. though all-knowing. and dominion given me large Beyond this deep. So judged he Man. both Judge and Saviour sent. And thought not much to clothe his enemies. ere thus was sinned and judged on Earth. our great author. covered from his Father's sight. belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos. with his robe of righteousness. while Satan. and shalt to dust return. Into his blissful bosom reassumed In glory. yet to thy power and mine Not unagreeable. whatever draws me on. to him appeased All. In counterview within the gates. And the instant stroke of death. To him with swift ascent he up returned. Arraying. lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable. must with me along. Powerful at greatest distance to unite. But. know thy birth. or some connatural force. thrives In other worlds. impervious. things of like kind. denounced that day. For Death from Sin no power can separate. As father of his family. or their revenge. to found a path 161 . Ere this he had returned. Wings growing. For dust thou art. that now Must suffer change. Mean while. much more. then. O Son. Or sympathy. Nor he their outward only with the skins Of beasts. he clad Their nakedness with skins of beasts. disdained not to begin Thenceforth the form of servant to assume. so now. with fury driven By his avengers. By secretest conveyance. or slain. Sin opening. as of old. Opprobrious. let us try Adventurous work. for thou Out of the ground wast taken. With secret amity. mixing intercession sweet. since the Fiend passed through. pitying how they stood Before him naked to the air. who thus now to Death began. why sit we here each other viewing Idly.

and inclination strong. Flew diverse. a bridge Of length prodigious. so strongly drawn By this new-felt attraction and instinct. though many a league remote. As with a trident. to a field. together crouded drove. Sagacious of his quarry from so far. Where Satan now prevails. and the mole immense wrought on Over the foaming deep high-arched. Easing their passage hence. come flying. and with power (their power was great) Hovering upon the waters. for intercourse. and upturned His nostril wide into the murky air. down to Hell. lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death. So. whither Fate. Then both from out Hell-gates. damp and dark. Forfeit to Death. that stop the imagined way Beyond Petsora eastward. nor err The way. from hence a passage broad. smote. And with Asphaltick slime. the liberty of Greece to yoke. I shall not lag behind. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl. Where armies lie encamped. and fixed as firm As Delos. As when two polar winds. 162 . into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos. cold and dry. Deep to the roots of Hell the gathered beach They fastened. prey innumerable. Xerxes. the following day. The aggregated soil Death with his mace petrifick. joining to the wall Immoveable of this now fenceless world. but afford thee equal aid. to the rich Cathaian coast. Or transmigration.Over this main from Hell to that new world. Smooth. in bloody fight: So scented the grim Feature. easy. the rest his look Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move. with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. Nor can I miss the way. Go. Whom thus the meager Shadow answered soon. floating once. Against the day of battle. Leads thee. what they met Solid or slimy. inoffensive. So saying. a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host. From each side shoaling towards the mouth of Hell. such a scent I draw Of carnage. broad as the gate. thou leading. as in raging sea Tost up and down. and taste The savour of death from all things there that live: Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest Be wanting. together drive Mountains of ice. blowing adverse Upon the Cronian sea. if great things to small may be compared. as their lot shall lead.

saw his guileful act By Eve. and listening where the hapless pair Sat in their sad discourse. though in disguise. Great joy was at their meeting. changing shape. in likeness of an Angel bright. Over the vexed abyss. thus the silence broke. three several ways In sight. returned By night. and prime architect: For I no sooner in my heart divined. after Eve seduced. when. guilty. and at sight Of that stupendious bridge his joy encreased. Came to the sea: and.From Susa. but those his children dear Their parent soon discerned. his Memnonian palace high. to Hell he now returned. My heart. that past. and various plaint. Long he admiring stood. Hell With long reach interposed. what his wrath Might suddenly inflict. on the left hand. following the track Of Satan to the self-same place where he First lighted from his wing. behold! Satan. which by a secret harmony 163 . his fair Enchanting daughter. And at the brink of Chaos. unminded slunk Into the wood fast by. and landed safe From out of Chaos. but shun The present. O Parent. and. saw their shame that sought Vain covertures. And of this World. To observe the sequel. Now had they brought the work by wonderous art Pontifical. Europe with Asia joined. to the outside bare Of this round world: With pins of adamant And chains they made all fast. too fast they made And durable! And now in little space The confines met of empyrean Heaven. till Sin. to each of these three places led. unhoped Met. which understood Not instant. and. who to meet him came. a ridge of pendant rock. over Hellespont Bridging his way. seconded Upon her husband. Thy trophies! which thou viewest as not thine own. fearing. And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves. with joy And tidings fraught. his offspring dear. He. but when he saw descend The Son of God to judge them. while the sun in Aries rose: Disguised he came. near the foot Of this new wonderous pontifice. though all unweeting. not hoping to escape. but of future time. Thou art their author. And now their way to Earth they had descried. Thence gathered his own doom. Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering His zenith. these are thy magnifick deeds. terrified He fled. To Paradise first tending.

there let him still victor sway. Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne. Antagonist of Heaven's Almighty King. thence on the earth Dominion exercise and in the air. which thy looks Now also evidence. and reign in bliss. and with them rejoice. Therefore. Whom thus the Prince of darkness answered glad.) Amply have merited of me. with this thy son. from thy orbicular world. and fully avenged Our foil in Heaven. and overlay. If your joint power prevail. them to acquaint With these successes. right down to Paradise descend. thy virtue hath won What thy hands builded not. sole lord of all declared. and create Plenipotent on earth. Fair Daughter. There dwell. Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit. parted by the empyreal bounds. of all The infernal empire. Thou hast achieved our liberty. by his own doom alienated. and be strong! 164 . and thou Son and Grandchild both. That I must after thee. You two this way. go. confined Within Hell-gates till now. Such fatal consequence unites us three! Hell could no longer hold us in our bounds. To my associate Powers. Hell and this world. among these numerous orbs.Still moves with thine. with this glorious work. of matchless might Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now My hold of this new kingdom all depends. the dark abyss. but straight I felt. and made one realm. As battle hath adjudged. that so near Heaven's door Triumphal with triumphal act have met. Thine now is all this world. joined in connexion sweet. All yours. High proof ye now have given to be the race Of Satan (for I glory in the name. Him first make sure your thrall. on your road with ease. thy wisdom gained With odds what war hath lost. one realm. here thou shalt monarch reign. thou us impowered To fortify thus far. from this new world Retiring. My substitutes I send ye. Chiefly on Man. while I Descend through darkness. There didst not. His quadrature. And henceforth monarchy with thee divide Of all things. yet felt. the affairs of Hell No detriment need fear. Mine. Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure Detain from following thy illustrious track. one continent Of easy thorough-fare. With this portentous bridge. Though distant from thee worlds between. and lastly kill. That thou on earth hadst prospered.

Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim: Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers. and whom they wished beheld. for those. Raised from their dark Divan. they with speed Their course through thickest constellations held. In show plebeian Angel militant Of lowest order. That scorned his indignation: Through the gate. so he Departing gave command. Wide open and unguarded.So saying he dismissed them. left desart utmost Hell Many a dark league. Flown to the upper world. real eclipse Then suffered. had left their charge. won. solicitous what chance Might intercept their emperour sent. Down a while He sat. at the upper end Was placed in regal lustre. As when the Tartar from his Russian foe. Retires. the late Heaven-banished host. invisible Ascended his high throne. in his retreat To Tauris or Casbeen: So these. while the Grand In council sat. 165 . or brighter. the rest were all Far to the inland retired. about the walls Of Pandemonium. The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate: On either side Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed. Appointed to sit there. under state Of richest texture spread. and round about him saw unseen: At last. reduced in careful watch Round their metropolis. And planets. By Astracan. And with rebounding surge the bars assailed. or Bactrin Sophi. clad With what permissive glory since his fall Was left him. and with like joy Congratulant approached him. There kept their watch the legions. city and proud seat Of Lucifer. Satan passed. his fulgent head And shape star-bright appeared. passed. Dominations. which. And all about found desolate. Virtues. Spreading their bane. and they observed. from the search Of foreign worlds: He through the midst unmarked. Princedoms. and now expecting Each hour their great adventurer. and with these words attention. who with hand Silence. leaves all waste beyond The realm of Aladule. the blasted stars looked wan. and from the door Of that Plutonian hall. Thrones. Powers. from the horns Of Turkish crescent. or false glitter: All amazed At that so sudden blaze the Stygian throng Bent their aspect. over the snowy plains. as from a cloud. so by allusion called Of that bright star to Satan paragoned. planet-struck.

For in possession such, not only of right, I call ye, and declare ye now; returned Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth Triumphant out of this infernal pit Abominable, accursed, the house of woe, And dungeon of our tyrant: Now possess, As Lords, a spacious world, to our native Heaven Little inferiour, by my adventure hard With peril great achieved. Long were to tell What I have done; what suffered;with what pain Voyaged th' unreal, vast, unbounded deep Of horrible confusion; over which By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved, To expedite your glorious march; but I Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride The untractable abyss, plunged in the womb Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild; That, jealous of their secrets, fiercely opposed My journey strange, with clamorous uproar Protesting Fate supreme; thence how I found The new created world, which fame in Heaven Long had foretold, a fabrick wonderful Of absolute perfection! therein Man Placed in a Paradise, by our exile Made happy: Him by fraud I have seduced From his Creator; and, the more to encrease Your wonder, with an apple; he, thereat Offended, worth your laughter! hath given up Both his beloved Man, and all his world, To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us, Without our hazard, labour, or alarm; To range in, and to dwell, and over Man To rule, as over all he should have ruled. True is, me also he hath judged, or rather Me not, but the brute serpent in whose shape Man I deceived: that which to me belongs, Is enmity which he will put between Me and mankind; I am to bruise his heel; His seed, when is not set, shall bruise my head: A world who would not purchase with a bruise, Or much more grievous pain?--Ye have the account Of my performance: What remains, ye Gods, But up, and enter now into full bliss? So having said, a while he stood, expecting Their universal shout, and high applause, To fill his ear; when, contrary, he hears On all sides, from innumerable tongues, A dismal universal hiss, the sound Of publick scorn; he wondered, but not long Had leisure, wondering at himself now more, His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare; 166

His arms clung to his ribs; his legs entwining Each other, till supplanted down he fell A monstrous serpent on his belly prone, Reluctant, but in vain; a greater power Now ruled him, punished in the shape he sinned, According to his doom: he would have spoke, But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue To forked tongue; for now were all transformed Alike, to serpents all, as accessories To his bold riot: Dreadful was the din Of hissing through the hall, thick swarming now With complicated monsters head and tail, Scorpion, and Asp, and Amphisbaena dire, Cerastes horned, Hydrus, and Elops drear, And Dipsas; (not so thick swarmed once the soil Bedropt with blood of Gorgon, or the isle Ophiusa,) but still greatest he the midst, Now Dragon grown, larger than whom the sun Ingendered in the Pythian vale or slime, Huge Python, and his power no less he seemed Above the rest still to retain; they all Him followed, issuing forth to the open field, Where all yet left of that revolted rout, Heaven-fallen, in station stood or just array; Sublime with expectation when to see In triumph issuing forth their glorious Chief; They saw, but other sight instead! a croud Of ugly serpents; horrour on them fell, And horrid sympathy; for, what they saw, They felt themselves, now changing; down their arms, Down fell both spear and shield; down they as fast; And the dire hiss renewed, and the dire form Catched, by contagion; like in punishment, As in their crime. Thus was the applause they meant, Turned to exploding hiss, triumph to shame Cast on themselves from their own mouths. There stood A grove hard by, sprung up with this their change, His will who reigns above, to aggravate Their penance, laden with fair fruit, like that Which grew in Paradise, the bait of Eve Used by the Tempter: on that prospect strange Their earnest eyes they fixed, imagining For one forbidden tree a multitude Now risen, to work them further woe or shame; Yet, parched with scalding thirst and hunger fierce, Though to delude them sent, could not abstain; But on they rolled in heaps, and, up the trees Climbing, sat thicker than the snaky locks That curled Megaera: greedily they plucked The fruitage fair to sight, like that which grew Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed; 167

This more delusive, not the touch, but taste Deceived; they, fondly thinking to allay Their appetite with gust, instead of fruit Chewed bitter ashes, which the offended taste With spattering noise rejected: oft they assayed, Hunger and thirst constraining; drugged as oft, With hatefullest disrelish writhed their jaws, With soot and cinders filled; so oft they fell Into the same illusion, not as Man Whom they triumphed once lapsed. Thus were they plagued And worn with famine, long and ceaseless hiss, Till their lost shape, permitted, they resumed; Yearly enjoined, some say, to undergo, This annual humbling certain numbered days, To dash their pride, and joy, for Man seduced. However, some tradition they dispersed Among the Heathen, of their purchase got, And fabled how the Serpent, whom they called Ophion, with Eurynome, the wide-Encroaching Eve perhaps, had first the rule Of high Olympus; thence by Saturn driven And Ops, ere yet Dictaean Jove was born. Mean while in Paradise the hellish pair Too soon arrived; Sin, there in power before, Once actual; now in body, and to dwell Habitual habitant; behind her Death, Close following pace for pace, not mounted yet On his pale horse: to whom Sin thus began. Second of Satan sprung, all-conquering Death! What thinkest thou of our empire now, though earned With travel difficult, not better far Than still at Hell's dark threshold to have sat watch, Unnamed, undreaded, and thyself half starved? Whom thus the Sin-born monster answered soon. To me, who with eternal famine pine, Alike is Hell, or Paradise, or Heaven; There best, where most with ravine I may meet; Which here, though plenteous, all too little seems To stuff this maw, this vast unhide-bound corps. To whom the incestuous mother thus replied. Thou therefore on these herbs, and fruits, and flowers, Feed first; on each beast next, and fish, and fowl; No homely morsels! and, whatever thing The sithe of Time mows down, devour unspared; Till I, in Man residing, through the race, His thoughts, his looks, words, actions, all infect; And season him thy last and sweetest prey. This said, they both betook them several ways, Both to destroy, or unimmortal make All kinds, and for destruction to mature Sooner or later; which the Almighty seeing, 168

From his transcendent seat the Saints among, To those bright Orders uttered thus his voice. See, with what heat these dogs of Hell advance To waste and havock yonder world, which I So fair and good created; and had still Kept in that state, had not the folly of Man Let in these wasteful furies, who impute Folly to me; so doth the Prince of Hell And his adherents, that with so much ease I suffer them to enter and possess A place so heavenly; and, conniving, seem To gratify my scornful enemies, That laugh, as if, transported with some fit Of passion, I to them had quitted all, At random yielded up to their misrule; And know not that I called, and drew them thither, My Hell-hounds, to lick up the draff and filth Which Man's polluting sin with taint hath shed On what was pure; til, crammed and gorged, nigh burst With sucked and glutted offal, at one sling Of thy victorious arm, well-pleasing Son, Both Sin, and Death, and yawning Grave, at last, Through Chaos hurled, obstruct the mouth of Hell For ever, and seal up his ravenous jaws. Then Heaven and Earth renewed shall be made pure To sanctity, that shall receive no stain: Till then, the curse pronounced on both precedes. He ended, and the heavenly audience loud Sung Halleluiah, as the sound of seas, Through multitude that sung: Just are thy ways, Righteous are thy decrees on all thy works; Who can extenuate thee? Next, to the Son, Destined Restorer of mankind, by whom New Heaven and Earth shall to the ages rise, Or down from Heaven descend.--Such was their song; While the Creator, calling forth by name His mighty Angels, gave them several charge, As sorted best with present things. The sun Had first his precept so to move, so shine, As might affect the earth with cold and heat Scarce tolerable; and from the north to call Decrepit winter; from the south to bring Solstitial summer's heat. To the blanc moon Her office they prescribed; to the other five Their planetary motions, and aspects, In sextile, square, and trine, and opposite, Of noxious efficacy, and when to join In synod unbenign; and taught the fixed Their influence malignant when to shower, Which of them rising with the sun, or falling, Should prove tempestuous: To the winds they set 169

when with bluster to confound Sea. thwart of these. nor stood much in awe Of Man. Corrupt and pestilent: Now from the north Of Norumbega. Glared on him passing. Thus began Outrage from lifeless things. Bursting their brazen dungeon. Devoured each other. and exhalation hot. else. and the Spartan Twins. though sinless. among the irrational Death introduced. and Caecias.Their corners. and south as far Beneath Magellan. which had forbid the snow From cold Estotiland. as fierce. they with labour pushed Oblique the centrick globe: Some say. Sirocco and Libecchio. while the low sun. except to those Beyond the polar circles. which Adam saw 170 . and seas upturn. and fowl with fowl. and hail. These were from without The growing miseries. Boreas. and the Virgin. how had the world Inhabited. the sun Was bid turn reins from the equinoctial road Like distant breadth to Taurus with the seven Atlantick Sisters. And Thrascias. As deep as Capricorn. Up to the Tropick Crab: thence down amain By Leo. Avoided pinching cold and scorching heat? These changes in the Heavens. turned His course intended. he bid his Angels turn ascanse The poles of earth. else had the spring Perpetual smiled on earth with vernant flowers. Some say. Equal in days and nights. through fierce antipathy: Beast now with beast 'gan war. And snow. as from Thyestean banquet. and Afer black with thunderous clouds From Serraliona. Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds. and mist. to graze the herb all leaving. in their sight Had rounded still the horizon. From the sun's axle. produced Like change on sea and land. And fish with fish. and stormy gust and flaw. armed with ice. air. twice ten degrees and more. with their lateral noise. and the Samoed shore. and not known Or east or west. To recompense his distance. and the Scales. Daughter of Sin. and Argestes loud. the thunder when to roll With terrour through the dark aereal hall. to them day Had unbenighted shone. or. though slow. Eurus and Zephyr. more than now. to bring in change Of seasons to each clime. but Discord first. With adverse blast upturns them from the south Notus. and shore. At that tasted fruit The sun. but fled him. Vapour. rend the woods. sideral blast. with countenance grim.

his dreadful voice no more Would thunder in my ears. Or multiply. why hast thou added The sense of endless woes? Inexplicable Why am I mocked with death. of blessed? hide me from the face Of God. the spirit of Man Which God inspired. it were but right And equal to reduce me to my dust. And. but this will not serve: All that I eat or drink. Is propagated curse. though hid in gloomiest shade. O voice. as on their natural center. light Heavy. by which I was to hold The good I sought not. For this we may thank Adam! but his thanks Shall be the execration: so. Thus to disburden sought with sad complaint. besides Mine own that bide upon me. On me. once heard Delightfully. Encrease and multiply. or here place In this delicious garden? As my will Concurred not to my being. O fleeting joys Of Paradise. Now death to hear! for what can I encrease. To the loss of that. Sufficient penalty. whom to behold was then my highth Of happiness!--Yet well. To sorrow abandoned. would torment me With cruel expectation. Yet one doubt Pursues me still. cannot together perish 171 . lest all I cannot die. Desirous to resign and render back All I received. and be earth Insensible! How glad would lay me down As in my mother's lap! There I should rest. feeling The evil on him brought by me. And sleep secure. in a troubled sea of passion tost. O miserable of happy! Is this the end Of this new glorious world.Already in part. or shall beget. all from me Shall with a fierce reflux on me rebound. but worse felt within. and would bear My own deservings. if here would end The misery. but curses on my head? Who of all ages to succeed. and to my offspring. will curse My head? Ill fare our ancestor impure. I deserved it. no fear of worse To me. but. dear bought with lasting woes! Did I request thee. from my clay To mould me Man? did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me. who now become Accursed. unable to perform Thy terms too hard. Lest that pure breath of life. and lengthened out To deathless pain? How gladly would I meet Mortality my sentence. though in their place. Maker. and me so late The glory of that glory.

but endless misery From this day onward.--Ay me!that fear Comes thundering back with dreadful revolution On my defenceless head. in me all Posterity stands cursed: Fair patrimony That I must leave ye. both Death and I Am found eternal. according still To the reception of their matter. Is his wrath also? Be it. heavier than the earth to bear. how would you bless Me. Bereaving sense. act. then. Will he draw out. but to will the same With me? How can they then acquitted stand In sight of God? Him. and leave ye none! So disinherited. and so last To perpetuity. For one man's fault. which I feel begun Both in me. But say That death be not one stroke. as the source and spring Of all corruption. whom death must end? Can he make deathless death? That were to make Strange contradiction. lead me still But to my own conviction: first and last On me. For though the Lord of all be infinite. Forced I absolve: all my evasions vain. thus guiltless be condemned. Or in some other dismal place. which to God himself Impossible is held. Nor I on my part single. both mind and will depraved Not to do only. in the grave. to satisfy his rigour. Man is not so. And reasonings. all the blame lights due. though through mazes. But mortal doomed. since human reach no further knows. All of me then shall die: let this appease The doubt. and without me. me only.With this corporeal clod. So might the wrath! Fond wish!couldst thou support That burden. How can he exercise Wrath without end on Man. But all corrupt. now your curse! Ah. By which all causes else. finite to infinite. Satisfied never? That were to extend His sentence beyond dust and Nature's law. Than all the world much heavier. were I able To waste it all myself. though divided 172 . what dies but what had life And sin? The body properly had neither. Not to the extent of their own sphere. as I supposed. if true! Yet why? It was but breath Of life that sinned. why should all mankind. For anger's sake. Sons! O. who knows But I shall die a living death? O thought Horrid. and incorporate both. after all disputes. It guiltless? But from me what can proceed. not of power. as argument Of weakness. In punished Man.

and oft Cursed his creation.With that bad Woman? Thus. may show Thy inward fraud. and disdained Not to be trusted. but that thy shape. had not thy pride And wandering vanity. Wholesome. Like his. to warn all creatures from thee Henceforth. longing to be seen. Rather than solid virtue. bent. alike destroys all hope Of refuge. Why comes not Death. imagined wise. with the serpent meeting. Out of my sight. O fountains. and concludes thee miserable Beyond all past example and future. hillocks. lest that too heavenly form. and resound far other song. from deep to deeper plunged! Thus Adam to himself lamented loud. Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed: But her with stern regard he thus repelled. Justice Divine Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries. Said he. not now. and dreadful gloom. as supernumerary 173 . but with black air Accompanied. with one thrice-acceptable stroke To end me? Shall Truth fail to keep her word. Rejected my forewarning. out of which I find no way. all but a rib Crooked by nature. Desolate where she sat. Constant. And understood not all was but a show. on the cold ground. And what thou fearest. him overweening To over-reach. by him thou. Fooled and beguiled. Death as oft accused Of tardy execution. as now appears. O woods. nothing wants. O Conscience! into what abyss of fears And horrours hast thou driven me. Justice Divine not hasten to be just? But Death comes not at call. I by thee To trust thee from my side. pretended To hellish falshood. and colour serpentine. Through the still night. with damps.-Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld. To Satan only like both crime and doom. and mild. as ere Man fell. what thou desirest. but. and bowers! With other echo late I taught your shades To answer. proof against all assaults. when least was safe. Though by the Devil himself. snare them! But for thee I had persisted happy. mature. since denounced The day of his offence. More to the part sinister. from me drawn. thyself as false And hateful. dales. Which to his evil conscience represented All things with double terrour: On the ground Outstretched he lay. approaching nigh. Well if thrown out. thou Serpent! That name best Befits thee with him leagued. and cool.

Between us two let there be peace. Creator wise. Immoveable. without feminine. There with my cries importune Heaven. as Angels. just object of his ire! She ended weeping. My only strength and stay: Forlorn of thee. besought His peace. where subsist? While yet we live. Adam! witness Heaven What love sincere. or mistake. and reverence in my heart I bear thee. if she love. and houshold peace confound. Unhappily deceived! Thy suppliant I beg. or his happiest choice too late Shall meet. both joining. but shall see her gained By a far worse. and clasp thy knees. and not fill the world at once With Men. may light On me. till peace obtained from fault 174 . one enmity Against a foe by doom express assigned us. thy gentle looks. bereave me not. from thy head removed.but thou Against God only. or. Or find some other way to generate Mankind? This mischief had not been befallen. scarce one short hour perhaps. Whither shall I betake me. and from her turned. On me already lost. innumerable Disturbances on earth through female snares. but such As some misfortune brings him.To my just number found. thy aid. sole cause to thee of all this woe. at his feet Fell humble. I against God and thee. me than thyself More miserable! Both have sinned. Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Through her perverseness. And more that shall befall. Forsake me not thus. but Eve. already linked and wedlock-bound To a fell adversary. embracing them. As joined in injuries. and unweeting have offended. He added not. in this uttermost distress. withheld By parents. and her lowly plight. his hate or shame: Which infinite calamity shall cause To human life. and thus proceeded in her plaint. that peopled highest Heaven With Spirits masculine. that all The sentence. Whereon I live. with tears that ceased not flowing And tresses all disordered. me only. create at last This novelty on earth. And strait conjunction with this sex: for either He never shall find out fit mate. this fair defect Of nature. Not so repulsed. and. Thy counsel. And to the place of judgement will return. That cruel Serpent: On me exercise not Thy hatred for this misery befallen. Me. O! why did God.

alas! Bear thine own first. and too desirous. To whom thus Eve. in thy power It lies. and sole delight. To me committed. Restored by thee. and of our loins to bring Into this cursed world a woeful race. who desirest The punishment all on thyself. nor blame Each other. and by me exposed. hopeful to regain Thy love. his anger all he lost. Since this day's death denounced. vile as I am. if aught I see. yet tolerable. replied. But rise. but a slow-paced evil. as before.--let us no more contend. That on my head all might be visited. and of easier choice. Childless thou art. Which must be born to certain woe. recovering heart. That after wretched life must be at last Food for so foul a monster. whose thou feelest as yet least part. His counsel. childless remain: so Death 175 . Now at his feet submissive in distress. ill able to sustain His full wrath. So now of what thou knowest not. and be louder heard. in our share of woe. though sharp and sad. Our own begotten. how we may lighten Each other's burden. the sole contentment of my heart Living or dying. Tending to some relief of our extremes. from thee I will not hide What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen. Or end. Unwary. whom she had displeased. And thus with peaceful words upraised her soon. to augment our pain. If prayers Could alter high decrees. If care of our descent perplex us most. Will prove no sudden. Found so erroneous. Adam. and miserable it is To be to others cause of misery. by sad experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can find. yet ere conception to prevent The race unblest. blamed enough elsewhere. A long day's dying. Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking. And my displeasure bearest so ill. his life so late. And to our seed (O hapless seed!) derived. Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven. As in our evils. thence by just event Found so unfortunate: Nevertheless. but strive In offices of love. his aid: As one disarmed. I to that place Would speed before thee. in Adam wrought Commiseration: Soon his heart relented Towards her.Acknowledged and deplored. devoured By Death at last. to being yet unbegot. to place Of new acceptance.

Shall be deceived his glut, and with us two Be forced to satisfy his ravenous maw. But if thou judge it hard and difficult, Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain From love's due rights, nuptial embraces sweet; And with desire to languish without hope, Before the present object languishing With like desire; which would be misery And torment less than none of what we dread; Then, both ourselves and seed at once to free From what we fear for both, let us make short, -Let us seek Death; -- or, he not found, supply With our own hands his office on ourselves: Why stand we longer shivering under fears, That show no end but death, and have the power, Of many ways to die the shortest choosing, Destruction with destruction to destroy? -She ended here, or vehement despair Broke off the rest: so much of death her thoughts Had entertained, as dyed her cheeks with pale. But Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed, To better hopes his more attentive mind Labouring had raised; and thus to Eve replied. Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems To argue in thee something more sublime And excellent, than what thy mind contemns; But self-destruction therefore sought, refutes That excellence thought in thee; and implies, Not thy contempt, but anguish and regret For loss of life and pleasure overloved. Or if thou covet death, as utmost end Of misery, so thinking to evade The penalty pronounced; doubt not but God Hath wiselier armed his vengeful ire, than so To be forestalled; much more I fear lest death, So snatched, will not exempt us from the pain We are by doom to pay; rather, such acts Of contumacy will provoke the Highest To make death in us live: Then let us seek Some safer resolution, which methinks I have in view, calling to mind with heed Part of our sentence, that thy seed shall bruise The Serpent's head; piteous amends! unless Be meant, whom I conjecture, our grand foe, Satan; who, in the serpent, hath contrived Against us this deceit: To crush his head Would be revenge indeed! which will be lost By death brought on ourselves, or childless days Resolved, as thou proposest; so our foe Shal 'scape his punishment ordained, and we Instead shall double ours upon our heads. 176

No more be mentioned then of violence Against ourselves; and wilful barrenness, That cuts us off from hope; and savours only Rancour and pride, impatience and despite, Reluctance against God and his just yoke Laid on our necks. Remember with what mild And gracious temper he both heard, and judged, Without wrath or reviling; we expected Immediate dissolution, which we thought Was meant by death that day; when lo!to thee Pains only in child-bearing were foretold, And bringing forth; soon recompensed with joy, Fruit of thy womb: On me the curse aslope Glanced on the ground; with labour I must earn My bread; what harm? Idleness had been worse; My labour will sustain me; and, lest cold Or heat should injure us, his timely care Hath, unbesought, provided; and his hands Clothed us unworthy, pitying while he judged; How much more, if we pray him, will his ear Be open, and his heart to pity incline, And teach us further by what means to shun The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow! Which now the sky, with various face, begins To show us in this mountain; while the winds Blow moist and keen, shattering the graceful locks Of these fair spreading trees; which bids us seek Some better shroud, some better warmth to cherish Our limbs benummed, ere this diurnal star Leave cold the night, how we his gathered beams Reflected may with matter sere foment; Or, by collision of two bodies, grind The air attrite to fire; as late the clouds Justling, or pushed with winds, rude in their shock, Tine the slant lightning; whose thwart flame, driven down Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine; And sends a comfortable heat from far, Which might supply the sun: Such fire to use, And what may else be remedy or cure To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought, He will instruct us praying, and of grace Beseeching him; so as we need not fear To pass commodiously this life, sustained By him with many comforts, till we end In dust, our final rest and native home. What better can we do, than, to the place Repairing where he judged us, prostrate fall Before him reverent; and there confess Humbly our faults, and pardon beg; with tears Watering the ground, and with our sighs the air

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Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek Book XI Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn From his displeasure; in whose look serene, When angry most he seemed and most severe, What else but favour, grace, and mercy, shone? So spake our father penitent; nor Eve Felt less remorse: they, forthwith to the place Repairing where he judged them, prostrate fell Before him reverent; and both confessed Humbly their faults, and pardon begged; with tears Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign Of sorrow unfeigned, and humiliation meek. Thus they, in lowliest plight, repentant stood Praying; for from the mercy-seat above Prevenient grace descending had removed The stony from their hearts, and made new flesh Regenerate grow instead; that sighs now breathed Unutterable; which the Spirit of prayer Inspired, and winged for Heaven with speedier flight Than loudest oratory: Yet their port Not of mean suitors; nor important less Seemed their petition, than when the ancient pair In fables old, less ancient yet than these, Deucalion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore The race of mankind drowned, before the shrine Of Themis stood devout. To Heaven their prayers Flew up, nor missed the way, by envious winds Blown vagabond or frustrate: in they passed Dimensionless through heavenly doors; then clad With incense, where the golden altar fumed, By their great intercessour, came in sight Before the Father's throne: them the glad Son Presenting, thus to intercede began. See$ Father, what first-fruits on earth are sprung From thy implanted grace in Man; these sighs And prayers, which in this golden censer mixed With incense, I thy priest before thee bring; Fruits of more pleasing savour, from thy seed Sown with contrition in his heart, than those Which, his own hand manuring, all the trees Of Paradise could have produced, ere fallen From innocence. Now therefore, bend thine ear To supplication; hear his sighs, though mute; Unskilful with what words to pray, let me Interpret for him; me, his advocate 178

And propitiation; all his works on me, Good, or not good, ingraft; my merit those Shall perfect, and for these my death shall pay. Accept me; and, in me, from these receive The smell of peace toward mankind: let him live Before thee reconciled, at least his days Numbered, though sad; till death, his doom, (which I To mitigate thus plead, not to reverse,) To better life shall yield him: where with me All my redeemed may dwell in joy and bliss; Made one with me, as I with thee am one. To whom the Father, without cloud, serene. All thy request for Man, accepted Son, Obtain; all thy request was my decree: But, longer in that Paradise to dwell, The law I gave to Nature him forbids: Those pure immortal elements, that know, No gross, no unharmonious mixture foul, Eject him, tainted now; and purge him off, As a distemper, gross, to air as gross, And mortal food; as may dispose him best For dissolution wrought by sin, that first Distempered all things, and of incorrupt Corrupted. I, at first, with two fair gifts Created him endowed; with happiness, And immortality: that fondly lost, This other served but to eternize woe; Till I provided death: so death becomes His final remedy; and, after life, Tried in sharp tribulation, and refined By faith and faithful works, to second life, Waked in the renovation of the just, Resigns him up with Heaven and Earth renewed. But let us call to synod all the Blest, Through Heaven's wide bounds: from them I will not hide My judgements; how with mankind I proceed, As how with peccant Angels late they saw, And in their state, though firm, stood more confirmed. He ended, and the Son gave signal high To the bright minister that watched; he blew His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps When God descended, and perhaps once more To sound at general doom. The angelick blast Filled all the regions: from their blisful bowers Of amarantine shade, fountain or spring, By the waters of life, where'er they sat In fellowships of joy, the sons of light Hasted, resorting to the summons high; And took their seats; till from his throne supreme The Almighty thus pronounced his sovran will. O Sons, like one of us Man is become 179

Dismiss them not disconsolate. Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs. repents. As I shall thee enlighten. and the arch-angelick Power prepared For swift descent. Cherubick watch. And send him from the garden forth to till The ground whence he was taken. like a double Janus. how variable and vain. Take to thee from among the Cherubim Thy choice of flaming warriours. the pastoral reed Of Hermes. Lest therefore his now bolder hand Reach also of the tree of life. dream at least to live For ever. Or in behalf of Man. to remove him I decree. though sorrowing. lest they faint At the sad sentence rigorously urged. Happier! had it sufficed him to have known Good by itself. yet in peace: And on the east side of the garden place. and prays contrite. and from the Paradise of God Without remorse drive out the sinful pair. from thence Perpetual banishment. and eat. Mean while. My motions in him. and more wakeful than to drouse. And live for ever. or his opiate rod. If patiently thy bidding they obey. And guard all passage to the tree of life: Lest Paradise a receptacle prove To Spirits foul. since his taste Of that defended fruit. He ceased. So send them forth. His heart I know. and evil not at all. reveal To Adam what shall come in future days. From hallowed ground the unholy. Charmed with Arcadian pipe. Michael. To re-salute the world with sacred light. (For I behold them softened. and all my trees their prey. but let him boast His knowledge of good lost. all their shape Spangled with eyes more numerous than those Of Argus. Leucothea waked. With whose stolen fruit Man once more to delude. Self-left. and to their progeny. fitter soil. He sorrows now.) all terrour hide. this my behest have thou in charge. intermix My covenant in the Woman's seed renewed. or to invade Vacant possession. and evil got. longer than they move. with him the cohort bright Of watchful Cherubim: four faces each Had.To know both good and evil. and denounce To them. some new trouble raise: Haste thee. Yet. and with tears Bewailing their excess. and of a sword the flame Wide-waving. all approach far off to fright. and with fresh dews imbalmed 180 . lest the Fiend.

Hard to belief may seem. nigh in her sight The bird of Jove.The earth. and to my memory His promise. Though after sleepless night. stooped from his aery tour. To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek. Eve rightly called. distrust. joy. new hope to spring Out of despair. upborne Even to the seat of God. for see!the morn. Ill-worthy I such title should belong To me transgressour. impressed On bird. After short blush of morn. then not minded in dismay. So spake. but with fear yet linked. or to incline his will. but Fate Subscribed not: Nature first gave signs. Mother of all things living. Which. now with sweat imposed. and all things live for Man. begins Her rosy progress smiling: let us forth. Where'er our day's work lies. air. who. so wished much humbled Eve. beast. became thy snare. and before him humbled all my heart. But. For since I sought By prayer the offended Deity to appease. What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? Here let us live. am graced The source of life. who first brought death on all. mother of all mankind. Which thus to Eve his welcome words renewed. and we shall live. Eve. when Adam and first matron Eve Had ended now their orisons. that thy seed shall bruise our foe. peace returned Home to my breast. that all The good which we enjoy from Heaven descends. for thee ordained A help. till day droop. easily my faith admit. since by thee Man is to live. though now enjoined Laborious. air suddenly eclipsed. that from us aught should ascend to Heaven So prevalent as to concern the mind Of God high-blest. yet now Assures me that the bitterness of death Is past. Far other name deserving. But the field To labour calls us. persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favour. That I. Whence hail to thee. Two birds of gayest plume before him drove. to me reproach Rather belongs. next favourable thou. and found Strength added from above. though in fallen state. All unconcerned with our unrest. I never from thy side henceforth to stray. Kneeled. yet this will prayer Or one short sigh of human breath. 181 . and all dispraise: But infinite in pardon was my Judge. while here we dwell. content. Who highly thus to entitle me vouchsaf'st. Methought I saw him placable and mild. Bending his ear.

Against the Syrian king. shows Forerunners of his purpose. which perhaps Of us will soon determine. to Eve thus spake. Goodliest of all the forest. First hunter then. nor sociably mild. when the Angels met Jacob in Mahanaim. One of the heavenly host. such majesty Invests him coming! yet not terrible. With reverence I must meet. Direct to the eastern gate was bent their flight. who to surprise One man. One way the self-same hour? why in the east Darkness ere day's mid-course. And slow descends with something heavenly fraught? He erred not. that draws O'er the blue firmament a radiant white. that we are dust. But solemn and sublime.Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods. took his way. not unmoved. O Eve. to seise Possession of the garden. by his gait. he alone. and on a hill made halt. Not unperceived of Adam. haply too secure. had levied war. Who knows? or more than this. To find where Adam sheltered. Adam observed. and be no more? Why else this double object in our sight Of flight pursued in the air. As Raphael. of our discharge From penalty. and morning-light More orient in yon western cloud. While the great visitant approached. that I should much confide. had not doubt And carnal fear that day dimmed Adam's eye. because from death released Some days: how long. or to warn Us. And thither must return. War unproclaimed. That I should fear. and o'er the ground. Eve$ now expect great tidings. A glorious apparition. 182 . or impose New laws to be observed. thus spake. assassin-like. where he saw The field pavilioned with his guardians bright. Not that more glorious. and thou retire. From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill. pursued a gentle brace. and what till then our life. and. some great Potentate Or of the Thrones above. some further change awaits us nigh. for I descry. who to Eve. whom not to offend. for by this the heavenly bands Down from a sky of jasper lighted now In Paradise. Which Heaven. hart and hind. and with his eye the chase Pursuing. covered with a camp of fire. which on the flaming mount appeared In Dothan. by these mute signs in Nature. The princely Hierarch In their bright stand there left his Powers. None of the meanest. Nor that.

His starry helm unbuckled showed him prime In manhood where youth ended. appeased. Heaven's high behest no preface needs: Sufficient that thy prayers are heard. And one bad act with many deeds well done Mayest cover: Well may then thy Lord. Fit haunt of Gods? where I had hope to spend. for Adam at the news Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood. or rank Your tribes. Lament not. with audible lament Discovered soon the place of her retire. Adam. but patiently resign What justly thou hast lost. O unexpected stroke. But longer in this Paradise to dwell Permits not: to remove thee I am come. native soil! these happy walks and shades. Eve. he. 183 . Defeated of his seisure many days Given thee of grace. but his coming thus declared. O flowers. That never will in other climate grow. fitter soil. Redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious claim. by his side. Livelier than Meliboean. kingly. and water from the ambrosial fount? Thee lastly. from his state Inclined not. and my last . which I bred up with tender hand From the first opening bud. Quiet though sad. And send thee from the garden forth to till The ground whence thou wast taken. My early visitation. hung the sword. Adam bowed low. accustomed to immortal fruits? Whom thus the Angel interrupted mild. the respite of that day That must be mortal to us both. worse than of Death! Must I thus leave thee$ Paradise? thus leave Thee. and Death. nor set thy heart. worn by kings and heroes old In time of truce. or the grain Of Sarra. That all his senses bound.He ended: and the Arch-Angel soon drew nigh. and whither wander down Into a lower world.t even. to this obscure And wild? how shall we breathe in other air Less pure. over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flowed. who unseen Yet all had heard. He added not. but as man Clad to meet man. Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress. nuptial bower! by me adorned With what to sight or smell was sweet! from thee How shall I part. Satan's dire dread. As in a glistering zodiack. Iris had dipt the woof. Not in his shape celestial. Eve. and gave ye names! Who now shall rear ye to the sun. wherein thou mayest repent. and in his hand the spear.

and theron Offer sweet-smelling gums. and despair. and dejection. and far off his steps adore. I now Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts Of glory. here with him at this fountain talked: So many grateful altars I would rear Of grassy turf. and air. Fomented by his virtual power and warmed: All the earth he gave thee to possess and rule. sea. think there thy native soil. and all the Earth. thou knowest Heaven his. Adam. Celestial. with thee goes Thy husband. our sweet Recess. and flowers: In yonder nether world where shall I seek His bright appearances. This most afflicts me. and every kind that lives. if by prayer Incessant I could hope to change the will Of Him who all things can. And in performing end us. for such of shape may seem Prince above princes! gently hast thou told Thy message. which might else in telling wound. and to my sons relate. yet recalled To life prolonged and promised race. To Michael thus his humble words addressed. his Omnipresence fills Land.Thus over-fond. Blown stifling back on him that breathes it forth: Therefore to his great bidding I submit. in memory. or named Of them the highest. and pile up every stone Of lustre from the brook. nor known: And. whom to follow thou art bound. by this from the cold sudden damp Recovering. on that which is not thine: Thy going is not lonely. what besides Of sorrow. Or monument to ages. among these pines his voice 'I heard. Nor knowing us. Where he abides. under this tree 'Stood visible. thy tidings bring. Our frailty can sustain. 'On this mount he appeared. I would not cease To weary him with my assiduous cries: But prayer against his absolute decree No more avails than breath against the wind. As from his face I shall be hid. departing hence. Not this rock only. Adam. To whom thus Michael with regard benign. and only consolation left Familiar to our eyes! all places else Inhospitable appear. and desolate. and his scattered spirits returned. 184 . whether among the Thrones. or foot-step trace? For though I fled him angry. deprived His blessed countenance: Here I could frequent With worship place by place where he vouchsafed Presence Divine. and fruits. that. Departure from this happy place.

in clearest ken. from the destined walls Of Cambalu. and of his steps the track divine. as here. Ascend. I follow thee. for different cause. Not higher that hill. To whom thus Adam gratefully replied. God is. and of his presence many a sign Still following thee. thereby to learn True patience. and their glory. Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead Safest thy life. It was a hill. Temir's throne. from whose top The hemisphere of earth. arming to overcome By suffering. and best prepared endure Thy mortal passage when it comes. the seat Of mightiest empire. And Samarchand by Oxus. nor wider looking round. To show him all Earth's kingdoms. their great progenitor. and earn rest from labour won. and will be found alike Present. As once thou sleptst. and to the hand of Heaven submit. let Eve (for I have drenched her eyes) Here sleep below. and to thy offspring: good with bad Expect to hear. Stretched out to the amplest reach of prospect lay. His eye might there command wherever stood City of old or modern fame. -. his face Express. the path Thou leadest me. equally inured By moderation either state to bear. and to temper joy with fear And pious sorrow. to the evil turn My obvious breast. in the wilderness. However chastening. Of Paradise the highest. seat of Cathaian Can. the Tempter set Our second Adam. To Paquin of Sinaean kings. But this pre-eminence thou hast lost. If so I may attain. and be confirmed Ere thou from hence depart. from whence had spread All generations. while she to life was formed. and thence 185 . Whereon. while thou to foresight wakest. Which that thou mayest believe. supernal grace contending With sinfulness of men. I am sent To show thee what shall come in future days To thee. and in plain. surmise not then His presence to these narrow bounds confined Of Paradise.No despicable gift. brought down To dwell on even ground now with thy sons: Yet doubt not but in valley. know.--Ascend This hill. still compassing thee round With goodness and paternal love. and had hither come From all the ends of the earth.So both ascend In the visions of God. or Eden: this had been Perhaps thy capital seat. to celebrate And reverence thee. safe Guide.

But him the gentle Angel by the hand Soon raised. and all his spirits became entranced. or since In Hispahan. came with the firstlings of his flock. and where Rome was to sway The world: in spirit perhaps he also saw Rich Mexico. I' the midst an altar as the land-mark stood. the other part sheep-walks and folds. laid The inwards and their fat. On the cleft wood. So deep the power of these ingredients pierced. for he had much to see. Even to the inmost seat of mental sight. Which that false fruit that promised clearer sight Had bred. More meek. That Adam. and Algiers. and first behold The effects. yet from that sin derive Corruption. the richer seat Of Atabalipa. or the Sultan in Bizance. Nor sinned thy sin. then purged with euphrasy and rue The visual nerve. Morocco. and yet unspoiled Guiana. Or thence from Niger flood to Atlas mount The kingdoms of Almansor. whose great city Geryon's sons Call El Dorado. and the yellow sheaf. as came to hand. the green ear. But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. or where The Persian in Ecbatan sat. to bring forth more violent deeds. Unculled. or where the Russian Ksar In Mosco. now enforced to close his eyes. and all due rights performed: His offering soon propitious fire from Heaven 186 . On Europe thence. Adam. now ope thine eyes. and the less maritim kings Mombaza. thither anon A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits. nor with the snake conspired. Part arable and tilth. And Cusco in Peru. and beheld a field. Choicest and best. a shepherd next. Turchestan-born. And Sofala. and Quiloa. then. and Angola farthest south. who never touched The excepted tree. and Melind. Rustick. to the realm Of Congo. And from the well of life three drops instilled. Fez and Sus. and his attention thus recalled. thought Ophir. nor could his eye not ken The empire of Negus to his utmost port Ercoco. and Tremisen. sacrificing. Down to the golden Chersonese. Sunk down. which thy original crime hath wrought In some to spring from thee. whereon were sheaves New reaped. the seat of Montezume.To Agra and Lahor of great Mogul. of grassy sord. His eyes he opened. with incense strowed.

A lazar-house it seemed. how horrible to feel! To whom thus Michael. Whereat he inly raged. approved. Lose no reward. that thou mayest know What misery the inabstinence of Eve Shall bring on Men. all feverous kinds. moaping melancholy. Marasmus. Much at that sight was Adam in his heart Dismayed. Immediately a place Before his eyes appeared. qualms Of heart-sick agony.and. dark. than within. but many shapes Of Death. yet to sense More terrible at the entrance. foul and ugly to behold. flood. To which our sire. Dropsies. Groaned out his soul with gushing blood effused. and many are the ways that lead To his grim cave. which on the earth shall bring Diseases dire. though here thou see him die. and asthmas. And over them triumphant Death his dart Shook. The other's not. Rolling in dust and gore. colick-pangs. the unjust the just hath slain. and joint-racking rheums. O Teacher. Dire was the tossing. but the bloody fact Will be avenged. by violent stroke shall die. replied. Is piety thus and pure devotion paid? To whom Michael thus. and wide-wasting pestilence. noisome. wherein were laid Numbers of all diseased. Demoniack phrenzy. as they talked. and the other's faith. pining atrophy. all maladies Of ghastly spasm. These two are brethren.Consumed with nimble glance. by intemperance more In meats and drinks. though oft invoked 187 . Some. Adam. of which a monstrous crew Before thee shall appear. who well had sacrificed. Alas! both for the deed. sad. or racking torture. epilepsies. but delayed to strike. and for the cause! But have I now seen Death? Is this the way I must return to native dust? O sight Of terrour. fierce catarrhs. For envy that his brother's offering found From Heaven acceptance. he also moved. Despair Tended the sick busiest from couch to couch. deadly pale. all dismal. as thou sawest. he fell. Intestine stone and ulcer. By fire. for his was not sincere. some great mischief hath befallen To that meek man. Convulsions. and to come Out of thy loins. deep the groans. and grateful steam. Death thou hast seen In his first shape on Man. famine. And moon-struck madness. and. Horrid to think. Smote him into the midriff with a stone That beat out life. and thus in haste to the Angel cried.

nor harshly plucked. when themselves they vilified To serve ungoverned Appetite. not gluttonous delight. thou must outlive Thy youth. and mix with our connatural dust? There is. Therefore so abject is their punishment. all taste of pleasure must forego. from such deformities be free. thou drop Into thy mother's lap. besides These painful passages. compassion quelled His best of man. Retaining still divine similitude In part. but wept. Why is life given To be thus wrested from us? rather. worthily. Though not of woman born. But is there yet no other way. till firmer thoughts restrained excess. and final hope. by temperance taught. if thou well observe The rule of Not too much. to what wretched state reserved! Better end here unborn. Or if his likeness. in thy blood will reign 188 . In what thou eatest and drinkest. but their own. how we may come To death. as their chief good. said Adam. Till many years over thy head return: So mayest thou live. like ripe fruit. or be with ease Gathered. O miserable mankind. thy strength. but then. or soon beg to lay it down. why Obtruded on us thus? who. and gave him up to tears A space. exempt? Their Maker's image. Sight so deform what heart of rock could long Dry-eyed behold? Adam could not. scarce recovering words.With vows. till. by themselves defaced. would either no accept Life offered. While they pervert pure Nature's healthful rules To loathsome sickness. And. which will change To withered. Can thus The image of God in Man. Disfiguring not God's likeness. then Forsook them. his plaint renewed. to what fall Degraded. and took His image whom they served. and gray. for his Maker's image sake. weak. for death mature: This is Old Age. Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve. I yield it just. Obtuse. thy senses then. said Michael. a brutish vice. And. and submit. for the air of youth. and. if we knew What we receive. since they God's image did not reverence in themselves. created once So goodly and erect. thy beauty. To such unsightly sufferings be debased Under inhuman pains? Why should not Man. Hopeful and cheerful. seeking from thence Due nourishment. answered Michael. Glad to be so dismissed in peace. though faulty since. To what thou hast.

all in heat They light the nuptial torch. how I may be quit. and bid invoke Hymen. Henceforth I fly not death. nor hate. flowers. how long. Down to the plain descended. whence the sound Of instruments. and fair event Of love and youth not lost. In other part stood one who.) the liquid ore he drained Into fit moulds prepared. bent rather. thence gliding hot To some cave's mouth. then. Down to the veins of earth. To whom our ancestor. his volant touch. at the forge Labouring. by some. which might preserve Freedom and peace to Men. by their guise Just men they seemed. But on the hither side. and patiently attend My dissolution. who moved Their stops and chords. of harp and organ. and saw a spacious plain. And now of love they treat. but what thou livest Live well. though grave. of this cumbrous charge. Love's harbinger. Instinct through all proportions. Such happy interview. permit to Heaven: And now prepare thee for another sight. Fairest and easiest. (whether found where casual fire Had wasted woods on mountain or in vale. to the harp they sung Soft amorous ditties. that made melodious chime. Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue. Which I must keep till my appointed day Of rendering up. low and high. and. Was heard. and in dance came on: The men. nor those things last. from which he formed First his own tools. eyed them. in the amorous net Fast caught. when from the tents.A melancholy damp of cold and dry To weigh thy spirits down. Nor love thy life. were herds Of cattle grazing. a different sort From the high neighbouring hills. Michael replied. appeared. was seen. and each his liking chose. behold! A bevy of fair women. He looked. two massy clods of iron and brass Had melted. or whether washed by stream From underground. 189 . they on the plain Long had not walked. others. After these. garlands. and last consume The balm of life. or short. till the evening-star. what might else be wrought Fusil or graven in metal. and let their eyes Rove without rein. richly gay In gems and wanton dress. they liked. nor would prolong Life much. whereon Were tents of various hue. which was their seat. till. then first to marriage rites invoked: With feast and musick all the tents resound. and know his works Not hid. and all their study bent To worship God aright. then. songs.

O pity and shame. should turn aside to tread Paths indirect. all their fame Ignobly. for which The world erelong a world of tears must weep. attached the heart Of Adam. that they. From Man's effeminate slackness it begins. and now swim in joy. To dress. soon inclined to admit delight. conformity divine. whose lives Religious titled them the sons of God. studious they appear Of arts that polish life. Judge not what is best By pleasure. who should better hold his place By wisdom. and laugh. Concourse in arms. Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget. and saw wide territory spread Before him. Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her ends. The bent of nature. who to live well Entered so fair. Cities of men with lofty gates and towers. and troll the tongue. towns. fierce faces threatening war. To whom thus Adam. Created. Unmindful of their Maker. Erelong to swim at large. Yet empty of all good wherein consists Woman's domestick honour and chief praise. Shall yield up all their virtue. Part wield their arms. True opener of mine eyes. prime Angel blest. so gay. wherein shall dwell his race Who slew his brother. so blithe. to sing. Those were of hate and death. from Woman to begin. were the tents Of wickedness. than those two past. as thou art.And charming symphonies. Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise. that seemed Of Goddesses. nor idly mustering stood. He looked. 190 . and superiour gifts received. Those tents thou sawest so pleasant. though to nature seeming meet. or in the mid way faint! But still I see the tenour of Man's woe Holds on the same. to nobler end Holy and pure. of short joy bereft. Said the Angel. Single or in array of battle ranged Both horse and foot. But now prepare thee for another scene. which he thus expressed. Bred only and completed to the taste Of lustful appetence. or pain much worse. For that fair female troop thou sawest. and roll the eye: To these that sober race of men. part curb the foaming steed. inventers rare. to dance. To whom thus Michael. so smooth. to the trains and to the smiles Of these fair atheists. and more hope Of peaceful days portends. Much better seems this vision. but they his gifts acknowledged none. and rural works between. though his Spirit Taught them.

and sulphurous fire. and oppression. From a fat meadow ground. and multiply Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew His brother: for of whom such massacre Make they. men of high renown. Deserted: Others to a city strong Lay siege. encamped. now scattered lies With carcasses and arms the ensanguined field. and mine. and subdue Nations. spake much of right and wrong. which makes a bloody fray. Death's ministers. and sons of Gods. Adam was all in tears. shall be held the highest pitch Of human glory. who of themselves Abhor to join. Gods. scale. but of their brethren. or fleecy flock. and. These are the product Of those ill-mated marriages thou sawest. till at last. And judgement from above: him old and young Exploded. Assemble. or religion. To overcome in battle. and harangues are heard. and to his guide Lamenting turned full sad. and for glory done Of triumph. eminent In wise deport. had in his righteousness been lost? To whom thus Michael. On each hand slaughter. and peace. Produce prodigious births of body or mind. And valour and heroick virtue called. truth. Their booty. Had not a cloud descending snatched him thence Unseen amid the throng: so violence Proceeded. and refuge none was found. fair oxen and fair kine. With cruel tournament the squadrons join. and gigantick deeds. to be styled great conquerours Patrons of mankind.One way a band select from forage drives A herd of beeves. with warriours mixed. whom had not Heaven Rescued. 191 . not men? who thus deal death Inhumanly to men. Of middle age one rising. and sword-law. Through all the plain. Where cattle pastured late. O!what are these. Ewes and their bleating lambs over the plain. Of justice. and had seized with violent hands. men of men But who was that just man. anon Gray-headed men and grave. In other part the sceptered heralds call To council. others from the wall defend With dart and javelin. by imprudence mixed. and bring home spoils with infinite Man-slaughter. in the city-gates. stones. Such were these giants. Where good with bad were matched. scarce with life the shepherds fly. In factious opposition. Assaulting. by battery. But call in aid. but soon. For in those days might only shall be admired.

that God would come To judge them with his Saints. and to them preached Conversion and repentance. down rushed the rain Impetuous. whom thou beheldst The only righteous in a world preverse. And of their doings great dislike declared. All now was turned to jollity and game. and insect small. under judgements imminent: But all in vain: which when he saw. For man and beast: when lo. and breadth. And therefore hated. And what most merits fame. and saw the face of things quite changed. as befel. and of provisions laid in large. But he. and continued. to show thee what reward Awaits the good. feast and dance. he ceased Contending. The brazen throat of war had ceased to roar. him the Most High Rapt in a balmy cloud with winged steeds Did. And utter odious truth. for daring single to be just. With their four wives. as to souls In prison. renown on earth. a wonder strange! Of every beast. till the earth No more was seen: the floating vessel swum Uplifted. he oft Frequented their assemblies. in silence hid. At length a reverend sire among them came. and exhalation dusk and moist. from the mountain hewing timber tall. Began to build a vessel of huge bulk. Came sevens. Which now direct thine eyes and soon behold. and God made fast the door. the rest what punishment. the seventh from thee. as thou sawest. the hills to their supply Vapour. therefore so beset With foes. Rape or adultery. Thus fame shall be achieved. and highth. Triumphs or festivals.Destroyers rightlier called. Mean while the south-wind rose. thence from cups to civil broils. Measured by cubit. all the clouds together drove From under Heaven. and pairs. receive. and. Marrying or prostituting. and entered in as taught Their order: last the sire and his three sons. to walk with God High in salvation and the climes of bliss. with black wings Wide-hovering. To luxury and riot. and bird. length. Then. And testified against their ways. whereso met. He looked. where passing fair Allured them. Sent up amain. and plagues of men. Exempt from death. and now the thickened sky Like a dark cieling stood. and secure with beaked prow Rode tilting o'er the waves. and removed his tents far off. all dwellings else 192 . Smeared round with pitch. and in the side a door Contrived.

Though comfortless. on me light At once. Grievous to bear: but that care now is past. and achieved thereby Fame in the world. evil he may be sure. by my foreknowledge gaining birth Abortive. all virtue lose 193 . sea-monsters whelped And stabled. and them with all their pomp Deep under water rolled. With thought that they must be. When violence was ceased. To whom thus Michael. so numerous late. till wantonness and pride Raise out of friendship hostile deeds in peace. sea covered sea. having spilt much blood. peace would have crowned With length of happy days the race of Man. Wandering that watery desart: I had hope. and enslaved by war. as when a father mourns His children. Adam. all in view destroyed at once. gently reared By the Angel. Depopulation! Thee another flood. are they First seen in acts of prowess eminent And great exploits. each day's lot Enough to bear. with their freedom lost. and in their palaces. for now I see Peace to corrupt no less than war to waste. How comes it thus? unfold. to behold The end of all thy offspring. And scarce to the Angel utter'dst thus thy plaint. Of tears and sorrow a flood. O visions ill foreseen! Better had I Lived ignorant of future! so had borne My part of evil only. The conquered also. All would have then gone well.Flood overwhelmed. Sea without shore. but of true virtue void. Who. those now. Shall change their course to pleasure. and sloth. in one small bottom swum imbarked. and rich prey. But I was far deceived. and done much wast Subduing nations. thee also drowned. Man is not whom to warn: those few escaped Famine and anguish will at last consume. what shall befall Him or his children. Surfeit. high titles. Which neither his foreknowing can prevent. till. and war on earth. and lust. of mankind. end so sad. Those. Shall. And he the future evil shall no less In apprehension than in substance feel. And sunk thee as thy sons. And whether here the race of Man will end. celestial Guide. whom last thou sawest In triumph and luxurious wealth. Where luxury late reigned. that were dispensed The burden of many ages. on thy feet thou stoodest at last. to torment me ere their being. ease. Let no man seek Henceforth to be foretold. How didst thou grieve then. All left.

with them of man and beast Select for life. See where it flows. day and night. all fountains of the deep. Worldly or dissolute. from amidst A world devote to universal wrack. shall in the ark be lodged. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. The grand-child. truth and faith. to a land hereafter called Egypt. but of God observed The one just man alive. by his command Shall build a wonderous ark. he of their wicked ways Shall them admonish. as inmate guests Or violence. but all the cataracts Of Heaven set open on the Earth shall pour Rain. And there take root an island salt and bare. And sheltered round. One man except. if none be thither brought 194 . Justice and temperance. and orcs. With all his verdure spoiled. and before them set The paths of righteousness. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. the only son of light In a dark age. and a world Offended: fearless of reproach and scorn. as thou beheldst. with twelve sons encreased. shall heave the ocean to usurp Beyond all bounds. till inundation rise Above the highest hills: Then shall this mount Of Paradise by might of waves be moved Out of his place. The haunt of seals. pushed by the horned flood. Thenceforth shall practice how to live secure. divided by the river Nile. on what their lords Shall leave them to enjoy. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. for the earth shall bear More than enough. No sooner he. and houshold. all depraved. forgot. from whom their piety feigned In sharp contest of battle found no aid Against invaders. departs From Canaan. Down the great river to the opening gulf. therefore. and trees adrift. how much more safe And full of peace. Broke up. and sea-mews' clang: To teach thee that God attributes to place No sanctity. that temperance may be tried: So all shall turn degenerate. Against allurement. against example good. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. denouncing wrath to come On their impenitence.And fear of God. a son. cooled in zeal. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea: To sojourn in that land He comes. custom. To save himself. whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh: There he dies. and shall return Of them derided.

Wrinkled the face of deluge. pacifick sign: Anon dry ground appears. that stole With soft foot towards the deep. behold. That God vouchsafes to raise another world From him. to bind The fluid skirts of that same watery cloud. with all his train.By men who there frequent. for the clouds were fled. as rocks. With clamour thence the rapid currents drive. and all flesh 195 . in his bill An olive-leaf he brings. O thou. Far less I now lament for one whole world Of wicked sons destroyed. appear. So willingly doth God remit his ire. With all the creatures. Forthwith from out the ark a raven flies. and their seed preserve. and shower the earth? To whom the Arch-Angel. And now. and thus his joy broke forth. He looked. A dove sent forth once and again to spy Green tree or ground. And now the tops of hills. Lest it again dissolve. what mean those coloured streaks in Heaven Distended. assured that Man shall live. Dextrously thou aimest. Though late repenting him of Man depraved. Then with uplifted hands. Which now abated. And the clear sun on his wide watery glass Gazed hot. over his head beholds A dewy cloud. And after him. heavenly Instructer! I revive At this last sight. their furious tide. blowing dry. as the Heaven his windows shut. But say. Towards the retreating sea. The ark no more now floats. Driven by a keen north-wind. and in the cloud a bow Conspicuous with three lifted colours gay. and all his anger to forget. as decayed. but seems on ground. and saw the ark hull on the flood. who future things canst represent As present. that. which made their flowing shrink From standing lake to tripping ebb. Betokening peace from God. who now had stopt His sluces. as the brow of God appeased? Or serve they. Grieved at his heart. Grateful to Heaven. As after thirst. and covenant new. or therein dwell. and eyes devout. as a flowery verge. when looking down he saw The whole earth filled with violence. than I rejoice For one man found so perfect. the surer messenger. Greatly rejoiced. erst so sad. and of the fresh wave largely drew. what further shall ensue. whereon his foot may light: The second time returning. Fast on the top of some high mountain fixed. and so just. and from his ark The ancient sire descends. Whereat the heart of Adam.

With some regard to what is just and right Shall lead their lives. Then. Book XII As one who in his journey bates at noon. Thou therefore give due audience. And Man. such as refuse Subjection to his empire tyrannous: A mighty hunter thence he shall be styled Before the Lord.Corrupting each their way. Both Heaven and Earth. wine. by families and tribes. and end. as in despite of Heaven. fearing the Deity. and multiply apace. when he brings Over the earth a cloud. and. and sacred feast. Shall spend their days in joy unblamed. Much thou hast yet to see. proceed. Labouring the soil. while yet but few. so here the Arch-Angel paused Betwixt the world destroyed and world restored. and attend. will therein set His triple-coloured bow. Shall hold their course. lamb. those removed. and quite dispossess Concord and law of nature from the earth. And makes a covenant never to destroy The earth again by flood. and hostile snare. With large wine-offerings poured. Corn. wherein the just shall dwell. but I perceive Thy mortal sight to fail. Such grace shall one just man find in his sight. nor let the sea Surpass his bounds. And while the dread of judgement past remains Fresh in their minds. 196 . new speech resumes. That he relents. whereon to look. nor rain to drown the world. and oil. not to blot out mankind. or kid. Seed-time and harvest. and dwell Long time in peace. not content With fair equality. objects divine Must needs impair and weary human sense: Henceforth what is to come I will relate. from the herd or flock. and reaping plenteous crop. And call to mind his covenant: Day and night. Under paternal rule: till one shall rise Of proud ambitious heart. fraternal state. heat and hoary frost. Thus thou hast seen one world begin. till fire purge all things new. Will arrogate dominion undeserved Over his brethren. Though bent on speed. who. This second source of Men. With man therein or beast. Oft sacrificing bullock. but. as from a second stock. yet. with transition sweet. Hunting (and men not beasts shall be his game) With war. If Adam aught perhaps might interpose.

yet know withal. He with a crew. to himself assuming Authority usurped. fatherly displeased. and of that stuff. which always with right reason dwells Twinned. whose top may reach to Heaven. to see the hubbub strange. ere the tower Obstruct Heaven-towers. from God not given: He gave us only over beast. who oft descends to visit men Unseen. who on the quiet state of men Such trouble brought. such title to himself Reserving. and. whom like ambition joins With him or under him to tyrannize. fish. far dispersed In foreign lands. Regardless whether good or evil fame. to rase Quite out their native language. But this usurper his encroachment proud Stays not on Man. As mocked they storm: great laughter was in Heaven. each to other calls Not understood. To sow a jangling noise of words unknown: Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud. And famish him of breath. O execrable son! so to aspire Above his brethren. But God. And hear the din: Thus was the building left Ridiculous. their memory be lost. and in derision sets Upon their tongues a various spirit. affecting to subdue Rational liberty. shall find The plain. wherein a black bituminous gurge Boils out from under ground. them beholding soon. where thin air Above the clouds will pine his entrails gross. till hoarse. lest. instead. Whereto thus Adam. the mouth of Hell: Of brick. Dominion absolute.Or from Heaven. and from her hath no dividual being: 197 . human left from human free. Justly thou abhorrest That son. Since thy original lapse. claiming second sovranty. And from rebellion shall derive his name. to God his tower intends Siege and defiance: Wretched man!what food Will he convey up thither. Among the builders. And get themselves a name. and all in rage. Comes down to see their city. they cast to build A city and tower. and the work Confusion named. that right we hold By his donation. and through their habitations walks To mark their doings. but man over men He made not lord. And looking down. fowl. if not of bread? To whom thus Michael. true liberty Is lost. Though of rebellion others he accuse. Marching from Eden towards the west. to sustain Himself and his rash army.

Canaan he now attains. And one peculiar nation to select From all the rest. for the shame Done to his father. While yet the patriarch lived. after him a cumbrous train Of herds and flocks. and native soil. and fall To worship their own work in wood and stone For Gods! Yet him God the Most High vouchsafes To call by vision. Bred up in idol-worship: O. who 'scaped the flood. who called him. yet firm believes: I see him. with what faith He leaves his Gods. Ur of Chaldaea. who.Reason in man obscured. but thou canst not. Immediately inordinate desires. His kindred. since he permits Within himself unworthy powers to reign Over free reason. that men (Canst thou believe?) should be so stupid grown. as the former world. resolving from thenceforth To leave them to their own polluted ways. on his vicious race. but trusting all his wealth With God. Still tend from bad to worse. from his father's house. Thus will this latter. God. catch the government From reason. in a land unknown. and upon him shower His benediction so. As to forsake the living God. that in his seed All nations shall be blest: he straight obeys. of whom to be invoked. Their inward lost: Witness the irreverent son Of him who built the ark. and avert His holy eyes. A nation from one faithful man to spring: Him on this side Euphrates yet residing. Who oft as undeservedly enthrall His outward freedom: Tyranny must be. into a land Which he will show him. But justice. Therefore. Deprives them of their outward liberty. Wearied with their iniquities. And upstart passions. and from him will raise A mighty nation. withdraw His presence from among them. Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse. Not knowing to what land. that no wrong. Not wandering poor. and numerous servitude. passing now the ford To Haran. and some fatal curse annexed. till God at last. till then free. in judgement just. and to servitude reduce Man. Servant of servants. or not obeyed. Subjects him from without to violent lords. I see his tents Pitched about Sechem. his friends. which is reason. and the neighbouring plain 198 . Yet sometimes nations will decline so low From virtue. heard this heavy curse. and false Gods.

with twelve sons increased.) From Hermon east to the great western Sea. And all his people. must all his palace fill With loathed intrusion. From Hameth northward to the Desart south. they return. each place behold In prospect. whereof to thee anon Plainlier shall be revealed. and leaves his race Growing into a nation. and flies. This ponder. Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call. To blood unshed the rivers must be turned. there by promise he receives Gift to his progeny of all that land. a son whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm Of Pharaoh. 199 . and renown: The grandchild. and of his son a grand-child. that long ridge of hills. or fruit. divided by the river Nile See where it flows.Of Moreh. in wisdom. Jordan. as inmate guests Too numerous. His cattle must of rot and murren die. true limit eastward. disgorging at seven mouths Into the sea. but his sons Shall dwell to Senir. What it devours not. With glory and spoil. Mount Hermon. back to their promised land. And wheel on the earth. invited by a younger son In time of dearth. must rend the Egyptians sky. Must be compelled by signs and judgements dire. who shall bruise The Serpent's head. Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss. on the shore Mount Carmel. the lawless tyrant. whence of guests he makes them slaves Inhospitably. Hail mixed with fire. or grain. (Things by their names I call. and kills their infant males: Till by two brethren (these two brethren call Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim His people from enthralment. who seeks To stop their overgrowth. There he dies. A son. and on the ground leave nothing green. as I point them. who denies To know their God. But first. herb. Darkness must overshadow all his bounds. and now grown Suspected to a sequent king. A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down Must eat. or message to regard. Frogs. though yet unnamed. This patriarch blest. leaves. To sojourn in that land He comes. and fill all the land. thunder mixed with hail. lice. that all nations of the earth Shall in his seed be blessed: By that seed Is meant thy great Deliverer. yonder sea. devouring where it rolls. departs From Canaan to a land hereafter called Egypt. Like him in faith. here. the double-founted stream.

but still. all the first-born Of Egypt must lie dead. but them lets pass. And terrour cease. between two crystal walls. Then through the fiery pillar. as ice More hardened after thaw. there they shall found Their government. the sea Swallows him with his host. Though present in his Angel. part. will himself In thunder. 200 . and pillar of fire. and oft Humbles his stubborn heart. But the voice of God To mortal ear is dreadful: They beseech That Moses might report to them his will. And craze their chariot-wheels: when by command Moses once more his potent rod extends Over the sea. On their embattled ranks the waves return. and loud trumpets' sound. This also shall they gain by their delay In the wide wilderness. the sea his rod obeys.Palpable darkness. Awed by the rod of Moses so to stand Divided. part. Last. in his rage Pursuing whom he late dismissed. As on dry land. while the obdurate king pursues: All night he will pursue. entering on the Canaanite alarmed. he descending. of that destined Seed to bruise The Serpent. not the readiest way. whose gray top Shall tremble. to rule by laws ordained: God from the mount of Sinai. till. and blot out three days. such as appertain To civil justice. but his approach Darkness defends between till morning watch. by types And shadows. War terrify them inexpert. and the cloud. by night a pillar of fire. And overwhelm their war: The race elect Safe toward Canaan from the shore advance Through the wild Desart. lightning. religious rites Of sacrifice. Thus with ten wounds The river-dragon tamed at length submits To let his sojourners depart. informing them. and fear Return them back to Egypt. who shall go Before them in a cloud. with one midnight stroke. Lest. by what means he shall achieve Mankind's deliverance. Ordain them laws. where rashness leads not on. and their great senate choose Through the twelve tribes. he grants what they besought. till his rescued gain their shore: Such wondrous power God to his saint will lend. God looking forth will trouble all his host. and remove Behind them. To guide them in their journey. choosing rather Inglorious life with servitude. By day a cloud. for life To noble and ignoble is more sweet Untrained in arms.

Here Adam interposed. So many laws argue so many sins Among them. between the wings Of two bright Cherubim. The Holy One with mortal Men to dwell: By his prescript a sanctuary is framed Of cedar. before him burn Seven lamps as in a zodiack representing The heavenly fires. This yet I apprehend not. how can God with such reside? To whom thus Michael. gracious things Thou hast revealed. who thus shall Canaan win. Erewhile perplexed with thoughts. And therefore was law given them. son of Isaac. of whose day he shall foretel. to the land Promised to Abraham and his seed:--The rest Were long to tell. Thus. therein An ark. a fiery gleam by night. over these A mercy-seat of gold. as of thee begot. and night's due course adjourn. to evince Their natural pravity. what would become Of me and all mankind: But now I see His day. in whom all nations shall be blest. Or how the sun shall in mid Heaven stand still A day entire. over the tent a cloud Shall rest by day. 'Till Israel overcome! so call the third From Abraham. that he vouchsafes Among them to set up his tabernacle. why to those Among whom God will deign to dwell on earth So many and so various laws are given. Doubt not but that sin Will reign among them. those chiefly. which concern Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Mine eyes true-opening. and kingdoms won. Favour unmerited by me. how many battles fought How many kings destroyed. to introduce One greater. and in the ark his testimony. And all the Prophets in their age the times Of great Messiah shall sing. and from him His whole descent. by stirring up Sin against law to fight: that when they see 201 . Man's voice commanding. Conducted by his Angel. in Gibeon stand. and at length they come.Instructed that to God is no access Without Mediator. The records of his covenant. Enlightener of my darkness. O sent from Heaven. 'And thou moon in the vale of Aialon. overlaid with gold. Save when they journey. who sought Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. 'Sun. whose high office now Moses in figure bears. and my heart much eased. laws and rites Established. such delight hath God in Men Obedient to his will.

Just for unjust. for of his reign shall be no end. The clouded ark of God. and expose their land. nor Man the mortal part Perform. But Joshua. Long time shall dwell and prosper. from flesh to spirit. 202 . as to leave them. Up to a better covenant. in their earthly Canaan placed. Their city. part bad. that. of kings The last. not performing. From imposition of strict laws to free Acceptance of large grace. and other faults Heaped to the popular sum. for wealth and wisdom famed. And therefore shall not Moses. works of law to works of faith. Mean while they. that his regal throne For ever shall endure. will so incense God. So law appears imperfect. his people into Canaan lead. as in whom shall trust All nations. from servile fear To filial. The blood of bulls and goats. who shall quell The adversary-Serpent. Whose foul idolatries. in full time. as shall be registered Part good. disciplined From shadowy types to truth. they may find Justification towards God. Such follow him. the Woman's seed to thee foretold. and bring back Through the world's wilderness long-wandered Man Safe to eternal Paradise of rest. though of God Highly beloved. and. in such righteousness To them by faith imputed. and but given With purpose to resign them. of whom The second. a long succession must ensue. which the law by ceremonies Cannot appease. but not remove.Law can discover sin. Foretold to Abraham. shall in a glorious temple enshrine. And his next son. both for piety renowned And puissant deeds. and his holy ark. cannot live. But first. whom the Gentiles Jesus call. till then in tents Wandering. that of the royal stock Of David (so I name this king) shall rise A Son. but when sins National interrupt their publick peace. From whom as oft he saves them penitent By Judges first. his temple. being but the minister Of law. and to kings foretold. the like shall sing All Prophecy. Provoking God to raise them enemies. Save by those shadowy expiations weak. they may conclude Some blood more precious must be paid for Man. His name and office bearing. then under Kings. and peace Of conscience. a promise shall receive Irrevocable. of bad the longer scroll.

till. and for a while In mean estate live moderate. He ceased. the house of God They first re-edify. a deadlier bruise. To whom thus Michael. as had like grief been dewed in tears. There in captivity he lets them dwell The space of seventy years. Remembering mercy. but his sire The power of the Most High: He shall ascend The throne hereditary. As of a duel. and regard not David's sons. which these he breathed. O prophet of glad tidings. Returned from Babylon by leave of kings Their lords. and gold: His place of birth a solemn Angel tells To simple shepherds. to offer incense. whom God disposed. what stroke shall bruise the victor's heel. Dream not of their fight. then brings them back. his glory with the Heavens. or the local wounds Of head or heel: Not therefore joins the Son Manhood to Godhead. Babylon thence called. that the true Anointed King Messiah might be born Barred of his right. Without the vent of words. hail. myrrh. yet at his birth a star. But first among the priests dissention springs. And guides the eastern sages. and from thy womb the Son Of God Most High: so God with Man unites! Needs must the Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain: Say where and when Their fight. nor so is overcome Satan. Men who attend the altar. and bound his reign With Earth's wide bounds. with more strength to foil Thy enemy. They gladly thither haste. whose fall from Heaven. Unseen before in Heaven. discerning Adam with such joy Surcharged. who inquire His place. High in the love of Heaven. and his covenant sworn To David. proclaims him come. yet from my loins Thou shalt proceed. A virgin is his mother.With all his sacred things. finisher Of utmost hope! now clear I understand What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in vain. 203 . keeping watch by night. grown In wealth and multitude. stablished as the days of Heaven. Why our great Expectation should be called The seed of Woman: Virgin Mother. factious they grow. a scorn and prey To that proud city. and by a quire Of squadroned Angels hear his carol sung. and should most Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings Upon the temple itself: at last they seise The scepter. Then lose it to a stranger. whose high walls thou sawest Left in confusion.

The penalty to thy transgression due. For this he shall live hated. as many as offered life Neglect not. But soon revives.Disabled. and the sins Of all mankind. the stars of morn shall see him rise Out of his grave. judged. than certain times to appear To his disciples. Not by destroying Satan. though legal. The law of God exact he shall fulfil Both by obedience and by love. Death over him no power Shall long usurp. Proclaiming life to all who shall believe In his redemption. though love Alone fulfil the law. who comes thy Saviour. and to death condemned A shameful and accursed. with him there crucified. ere the third dawning light Return. In sin for ever lost from life. and in thy seed: Nor can this be. men who in his life Still followed him. not to give thee thy death's wound: Which he. works. shall recure. and suffering death. nailed to the cross By his own nation. and the benefit embrace By faith not void of works: This God-like act Annuls thy doom. crush his strength. But by fulfilling that which thou didst want. so he dies. A gentle wafting to immortal life. And due to theirs which out of thine will grow: So only can high Justice rest appaid. Imputed. like sleep. imposed On penalty of death. not their own. Defeating Sin and Death. this act Shall bruise the head of Satan. a death. Never to hurt them more who rightly trust In this his satisfaction. Nor after resurrection shall he stay Longer on earth. thy punishment He shall endure. the sign 204 . his merits To save them. His death for Man. fresh as the dawning light. by coming in the flesh To a reproachful life. Obedience to the law of God. Or theirs whom he redeems. his two main arms. them who shall believe Baptizing in the profluent stream. Seised on by force. but his works In thee. to them shall leave in charge To teach all nations what of him they learned And his salvation. slain for bringing life: But to the cross he nails thy enemies. Thy ransom paid. which Man from death redeems. be blasphemed. becomes theirs by faith. and that his obedience. And fix far deeper in his head their stings Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's heel. The law that is against thee. the death thou shouldest have died. and cursed death.

As at the world's great period. but to the sons Of Abraham's faith wherever through the world. there shall surprise The Serpent. Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins Salvation shall be preached. more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand. and drag in chains Through all his realm. exalted high Above all names in Heaven. and receive them into bliss. and resume His seat at God's right hand. And evil turn to good.Of washing them from guilt of sin to life Pure. Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce. and thence shall come. O Goodness infinite. from that day. triumphing through the air Over his foes and thine. that much more good thereof shall spring. and our sire. To God more glory. Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend With victory. said the Angel. The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people. With glory and power to judge both quick and dead. if so befall. All nations they shall teach. and also arm With spiritual armour. far happier place Than this of Eden. Whether in Heaven or Earth. but to reward His faithful. like that which the Redeemer died. for. 205 . and quench his fiery darts. then paused. and occasioned. but from Heaven He to his own a Comforter will send. and over wrath grace shall abound. Whether I should repent me now of sin By me done. To guide them in all truth. left among the unfaithful herd. prince of air. Replete with joy and wonder. thus replied. When this world's dissolution shall be ripe. For death. for then the Earth Shall all be Paradise. what will betide the few His faithful. who shall dwell His Spirit within them. and in mind prepared. So in his seed all nations shall be blest. who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt? Be sure they will. Working through love. What man can do against them. able to resist Satan's assaults. or rejoice Much more. and the law of faith. But say. more good-will to Men From God. upon their hearts shall write. not afraid. and there confounded leave. Then enter into glory. The promise of the Father. if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend. To judge the unfaithful dead. and far happier days. So spake the Arch-Angel Michael.

and do all miracles. Their doctrine and their story written left. Then shall they seek to avail themselves of names. the rest.Though to the death. laws which none shall find Left them inrolled. and the truth With superstitions and traditions taint. And oft supported so as shall amaze Their proudest persecutors: For the Spirit. They die. at return Of him so lately promised to thy aid. who in the worship persevere Of spirit and truth. What will they then But force the Spirit of Grace itself. on earth. and with these to join Secular power. from that pretence. And vengeance to the wicked. 206 . then on all Baptized. obscurely then foretold. Though not but by the Spirit understood. The Woman's Seed. As did their Lord before them. built by faith to stand. Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force On every conscience. and titles. shall them with wonderous gifts endue To speak all tongues. Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven To their own vile advantages shall turn Of lucre and ambition. Places. till the day Appear of respiration to the just. though feigning still to act By spiritual. Under her own weight groaning. Wolves shall succeed for teachers. and bind His consort Liberty? what. and works of faith Rarely be found: So shall the world go on. Their own faith. to bad men benign. as they forewarn. far greater part. but in their room. Truth shall retire Bestuck with slanderous darts. Thus they win Great numbers of each nation to receive With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: At length Their ministry performed. promised alike and given To all believers. Will deem in outward rites and specious forms Religion satisfied. Poured first on his Apostles. whom he sends To evangelize the nations. against such cruelties With inward consolations recompensed. and race well run. Left only in those written records pure. grievous wolves. and. but unbuild His living temples. Now ampler known thy Saviour and thy Lord. Who against faith and conscience can be heard Infallible? yet many will presume: Whence heavy persecution shall arise On all. To good malignant. not another's? for. or what the Spirit within Shall on the heart engrave. to themselves appropriating The Spirit of God.

death the gate of life. to walk As in his presence. all Nature's works. All secrets of the deep. waves fiercely round: We may no longer stay: go. Beyond which was my folly to aspire. at whose front a flaming sword. only add Deeds to thy knowledge answerable. patience. ever to observe His providence. whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest.-Let us descend now therefore from this top Of speculation. And all the rule. whose end no eye can reach. what this vessel can contain. New Heavens. air. ages of endless date.Last. with good Still overcoming evil. and by small Accomplishing great things. By name to come called charity. add faith. to dissolve Satan with his perverted world. and thus Adam last replied. Add virtue. earth. the race of time. new Earth. Greatly in peace of thought. expect Their motion. for the hour precise Exacts our parting hence. but shalt possess A Paradise within thee. and have my fill Of knowledge. waken Eve. Her also I with gentle dreams have calmed 207 . and on him sole depend. joy and eternal bliss. thou hast attained the sum Of wisdom. and see!the guards. This having learned. By me encamped on yonder hill. by things deemed weak Subverting worldly strong. Measured this transient world. from Heaven to be revealed In glory of the Father. Henceforth I learn. Taught this by his example. To bring forth fruits. the soul Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth To leave this Paradise. then raise From the conflagrant mass. To whom thus also the Angel last replied. How soon hath thy prediction. in the clouds. hope no higher. And love with fear the only God. one empire. happier far. He ended. or sea. Merciful over all his works. Till time stand fixed! Beyond is all abyss. though all the stars Thou knewest by name. In signal of remove. and peace. and all the ethereal powers. to the faithful. Or works of God in Heaven. and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Is fortitude to highest victory. Greatly-instructed I shall hence depart. Founded in righteousness. Eternity. And. that to obey is best. add love. purged and refined. And all the riches of this world enjoyedst. temperance. and love. Seer blest.

and to the eastern gate Led them direct. Adam to the bower. which will be many days.Portending good. Such favour I unworthy am vouchsafed. at season fit. yet much more cheered With meditation on the happy end. since with sorrow and heart's distress Wearied I fell asleep: But now lead on. as evening-mist Risen from a river o'er the marish glides. The brandished sword of God before them blazed. Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. but answered not: For now. too nigh The Arch-Angel stood. and all her spirits composed To meek submission: thou. thou to me Art all things under $Heaven. some great good Presaging. but found her waked. Fierce as a comet. and Adam heard Well pleased. They. I know. where to choose 208 . where Eve Lay sleeping. all places thou. whereat In either hand the hastening Angel caught Our lingering parents. and whither wentest. all in bright array The Cherubim descended. which with torrid heat. so late their happy seat. and dreams advise. on the ground Gliding meteorous. and down the cliff as fast To the subjected plain. In me is no delay. And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel Homeward returning. Whence thou returnest. the gate With dreadful faces thronged. for evils past. He ended. with thee to go. Which he hath sent propitious. Waved over by that flaming brand. Descended. The great deliverance by her seed to come (For by the Woman's seed) on all mankind: That ye may live. and. and they both descend the hill. without thee here to stay. though all by me is lost. but wiped them soon. Is to go hence unwilling. Both in one faith unanimous. With cause. This further consolation yet secure I carry hence. So spake our mother Eve. looking back. then disappeared. Who for my wilful crime art banished hence. Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard. Is to stay here. and fiery arms: Some natural tears they dropt. And vapour as the Libyan air adust. By me the Promised Seed shall all restore. from the other hill To their fixed station. High in front advanced. The world was all before them. Began to parch that temperate clime. ran before. all the eastern side beheld Of Paradise. And thus with words not sad she him received. though sad. For God is also in sleep.

hand in hand. with wandering steps and slow. [The End] 209 . and Providence their guide: They. Through Eden took their solitary way.Their place of rest.