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NEBOSH IGC

Unit IGC1

Question & Answer

1
Give the meaning of the term Hazard and an
example of a hazard (4)
 Hazard is something with the potential to
cause harm. Example: Fire

Give the meaning of the term Risk and example


of risk (4)
 Risk is the likelihood that harm will occur and
the severity of the harm. For Example: Risk of
slip trip and fall
Identify sources of information that can help
reduce risks to workers. (8)

Internal Sources: External Sources:


 Risk assessments  Professional Institutions such as
 Inspection reports IOSH
 Accident/incident records  World Health Organization, ILO
 Medical reports  Suppliers and Manufacturers
 Maintenance reports  Consultants and Specialists
 Insurance Companies and workers
unions
Give meaning of the term Near miss or Incident (4)
 An unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event
that had the potential to result in a loss, but
did not.
Give meaning of the term Accident (4)
 An unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event
which results in a loss of some kind.
Outline the reasons for having good health and
safety practice? (4)

The reasons for having good health and safety practice


include:
 Moral – duty to ensure safe workplace. Not exposing
workers to harm
 Legal – avoid fines and punishments.
 Financial – direct and indirect costs that are related to
an Accident or Incident.
Identify reasons for maintaining good health and safety
in an organisation? (8)
Maintaining good standards will lead to
• improved staff morale
• improved production
• Company’s reputation will be enhanced
• reducing accidents and ill health
• reduce damage caused to equipment by poorly trained staff
• reduce insurance premiums
• motivated staff
• complaints will reduce, absenteeism, and staff turnover
• reduction in fines and compensation claims
Identify the benefits of having good health and safety
practice (8)

 Improved production
 Improved level of compliance
 Improved staff morale
 Improved company reputation

 Reduced accidents
 Reduced ill health
 Reduced damage to equipment
 Reduced staff complaints
 Reduced staff turnover
 Reduced insurance premiums
 Reduced fines and compensation claims
Outline the main health & safety responsibilities
of Employers (4)
 Provide safe plant / equipment
 Provide adequate Information, Training, Instructions and
Supervision
 Provide safe environment, premises, and safe access
and egress
 Provide good welfare facilities
 Provide safety policy
 Provide consultation with employees
 Provide emergency arrangements
Outline the main health & safety responsibilities of
workers/employees (4)

 Not to endanger themselves and others


 Co-operate with their employer
 Not to interfere with anything provided for safety
 Follow instructions and training given
 Report significant dangers in the workplace.
 Receive information, training and instruction offered
by the employer
Identify the possible costs that an organisation may incur as a result of
inadequate standards of workplace health & safety (8)

Direct Costs
 Damage to property – building, plant, machinery and equipment
 Increased insurance premiums
 Cost from legal fines
 Public liability insurance claims
 Sick pay for the injured person
Indirect Costs
 Loss of company reputation
 Production delays or stoppages
 Lost time paid to supervisors, managers and others involved in investigating the
accident or incident
 Loss of staff morale leading to poor production and customer service.
Outline the purpose of an organisation’s health and safety
policy. (6)

Purpose of safety policy is to:


 Demonstrate management commitment to safety
 Organization and arrangements for controlling work
related hazards
 Protect people from injury and ill-health
 Comply with legal requirements
 Manage health and safety on a cost effective basis
Identify the components of a Safety Policy? (3)
 Statement of Intent
 Organisation
 Arrangements

Outline the purpose of each of the components of a Safety Policy. (3)


 Statement of Intent - Demonstrates Management’s commitment to
health and safety and sets the H&S aims and objectives
 Organization - To identify H&S roles & responsibilities and reporting
lines within the company
 Arrangements - Set out in detail the specific systems and procedures
for implementing the safety policy
Explain why the Safety policy should be signed by the
most senior person in the organisation. (2)

The Safety policy should be signed by the most senior


person in the organisation to show management
commitment to safety in the workplace. To give the policy
authority that must be complied and the last is the person
who signs the policy has the ultimate responsibility and
accountability for safety in the organization.
Identify the important for organisation to set health and
safety targets? (2)
 Gives evidence of Management commitment
 Motivates staff by giving them something to aim for.

Give 4 examples of H&S targets that an organisation could


set.
 Reduce accidents by 20% within 12 months
 Zero prosecutions for 2017
 Reduced sickness absence by 60% in 6 months
 Reduction in compensation claims by 50% for 2017
Outline the key components/elements of a H&S management
system? (8)

 Policy: Sets the Health and Safety aims and objectives of the organization, and
establishes management commitment
 Organization: demonstrating a clear roles and responsibilities, to include
competence, commitment and control, consultation leading to co-operation and
communication
 Planning and Implementation: Perform risk assessments to identify hazards,
assess risks and decide how risks can be eliminated or controlled. Set standards
against which performance can be measured.
 Measuring Performance: A means of determining the extent to which health and
safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both reactive
and proactive
 Reviewing: Analyzing data gathered through monitoring to see whether
performance is adequate
 Audit: Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organization's
management systems and procedures
Identify issues that are included in the organization
section of the Policy (4)

• Clear roles and responsibilities for H&S functions to be


allocated
• Competence – From recruitment through to staff transfers &
training
• Control – Policies, procedures, auditing, supervision &
management involvement
• Consultation and Co-operation – consultation demonstrates
commitment which leads to Co-operation
• Communication - Needs to flow in all directions.
Identify the circumstances that requires a H&S
policy to be reviewed. (8)

• Changes in processes • After Prosecutions


• Changes in materials • After Enforcement Action
• Changes of premises • After Compensation
• Changes in legislation Claims
• Changes to work • After Policy Review
patterns • After Professional Advise
• Risk Assessments • After Accidents or
indicate policies are not Incidents.
suitable or sufficient.
Outline issues that are typically included in the
health and safety arrangements section of a
policy. (8)

• Risk Assessments
• Safe Systems of Work
• Permits to Work
• Policies & procedures
• Training Programmes
• Maintenance of plant & equipment
• Emergency procedures
• First Aid Arrangements
Outline what is meant by the terms
Active Monitoring (2)
Reactive Monitoring (2)

 Active monitoring: A way of looking and checking before things


go wrong, it involves regular inspections and checking to ensure
that standards are being implemented and management
controls are working

 Reactive monitoring: Reactive monitoring is after something


goes wrong; it involves learning from your mistakes
Identify issues that may be considered in a Safety
Committee Meeting and Agenda (8)

 Accident statistics
 Audit reports
 Inspector’s reports
 Safety officer reports
 Development of work safety rules and safe systems of work
 Effectiveness of safety training
 Health and safety communications
Explain how an organisation could reduce the risks to
contractors before and during a building project. (8)

Before project During project


 Select suitable contractors  Progress meetings
 Identify job hazards  Regular inspections
 Check health & Safety aspects  Safety Committee
of bids  Accident/Incident reporting
 Provide Site rules  Client set example
 Train employees  Safety propaganda
 Do risk assessments etc.  Monitor training program
 Create method statements
 Appoint a Coordinator
 Arrange Pre-contract meeting
Outline the checks (or factors) that the company should
make when deciding on the health and safety competence
of contractors tendering for the work. (6)

 Previous experience  Accident record


 References  Trade / professional body membership
 Enforcement history  Employee competence
 Safety management system /  Selection and management of sub-
policy contractors
 Competent advice  Liaison with the client
 Risk assessments and method  Monitoring and supervision
statements  Insurance
Identify the actions that the company should take to help insure
that the health and safety of their own and the contractors
employees are not put at risk. (10)

 Plan the job especially the sequence of cleaning, timings (out of office
hours) etc.
 Establish communication channels including accident reporting
 Regular inspections of the contractor’s method/way of working
 Check that the contractors are trained and competent in carrying out
their work
 Check that the contractors have method statement
 Cleaners re given information and instructions on restricted
Give reasons why visitors to a workplace might be at greater
risk of injury than workers. (8)
Visitors to workplace might be at greater risk of injury than workers for the
following reasons:

 Unfamiliar with the workplace environment – safety exits.


 Unaware of existing hazards and risks
 May panic in an emergency and wonder into high risk areas
 No appropriate PPE
 No safety induction training
 No safety policy or procedures for safety of visitors
 May be no segregation of pedestrian and vehicles
 No security to control unauthorized entry.
Identify the precautions that could be taken to ensure
the health and safety of visitors to the workplace

 Signing in
 Providing identification badges
 Site induction e.g. Fire precautions
 Providing PPE
 Escorting visitor to area of work
 Remain with visitor or regular monitoring
 Escorting visitor back to reception area
 Signing out visitor and removing badge
Identify the functions of a safety practitioner

 Advise Management
 Carry out inspections
 Investigate accidents
 Record/Analyse accident data
 Assist with Training
 Contact with External Bodies
 Liaison with Workforce
 Up to date with new safety standards
 Liaison with Contractors
Identify 5 types of information that can be displayed on
notice boards (4)

 Information for Employees – poster with site rules


 Health and safety policy
 Evacuation procedures
 First aid arrangements
 Contacts details for safety representatives
 Targets for accident reduction
Identify how can we improve the effectiveness of notice
boards as a means of communication on health & safety.
(4)

 Locate common/prominent area


 Dedicated to health and safety only
 Information displayed relevant and current
 Keep information in a neat orderly state
 Make boards eye catching by use of colour and graphics
Outline ways in which the health and safety of an
organisation might be improved. (8)

 Management sets a good example - shows commitment to health


and safety
 Involve employees in risk assessments and drawing up safe
systems, procedures
 Involve employees in safety tours & inspections
 Encourage hazard spotting and suggestion schemes
 Organize training courses
 Safety committee meetings
 Give staff responsibilities - i.e. Mentoring young workers
Give 5 reasons why verbal communication is not effective.
(4)

 Inconsistent message
 Hearing defects
 Noise
 Distance
 Language (Jargon)
 Lack of Knowledge
 Attitude
 Duration/Speed
Identify factors that should be considered when developing a program of
health & safety training within an organisation. (8)

 What employees need to know and what they do know


 Employees’ existing knowledge/experience
 Types of training already received
 Employees’ responsibilities
 Activities carried out
 Risks associated with activities
 Actions required by employees
 Different requirements for various staff
 Numbers involved
 Resources needed
 Competence of trainers
 Communicating to employees and getting their commitment
Outline the various measures that might be used to
assess the effectiveness of H&S training (8)

 The trainers
 The delegates
 Their supervisors
 Accident rates
 Absenteeism through illness
 Compliance to procedures
 Concerns raised by employees
 Results of attitude surveys
 Quality of suggestions made
Give reasons why it is important for an employer to keep
a record of the training provided to each employee. (4)

 Proof of employees’ competence


 Provide evidence in legal actions
 Provide evidence in investigations
 Identify when refresher training needed
 Review effectiveness of training
 Assess progress against targets
Identify reasons why a worker could require additional
health and safety training during their employment (8)

 Change in Job - Promotion or reorganisation


 Change in processes
 Change in procedures
 Changes in work patterns
 New legislation introduced
 Enforcement action
 Insurance company requirements
 Results of inspections/audits
 Result of Risk assessments
 Increased accidents/incidents
 As a result of accident investigation
 Dangerous occurrences
Identify two main purposes of first aid treatment
(2)

 Preserve life - minimize the consequences of


serious injury;
 Prevent deterioration - reassuring the casualty and
lessening the effects of medical shock; and
 Promote recovery - provide the treatment of minor
injuries that do not require medical attention.
Outline the factors to be considered when carrying out
a risk assessment of first aid requirements in a
workplace. (8)
• Size of organization
• The nature and distribution of the workforce
• Nature of the work
• Types of hazards and risks
• Past accident and injury types
• Remoteness from emergency services
• Travelling, remote and lone workers
• Need to train personnel in special procedures
• Need to cover in absence of first aiders
Outline how induction training programs for new
workers can help to reduce the number of accidents in
the workplace.

• Quickly fit into unfamiliar and frightening workplace.


• Perform his/her task smoothly without creating hazards for their
colleagues, themselves or damaging equipment.
• Learn terminology of the workplace or trade.
• How to be safe during his/her first few days at work and where to
ask for assistance and guidance if required.
• Quickly identify with the employee and his/her work colleagues
Identify reasons why young people could be at greater risks
of accidents at work. (4)

Young persons are at greater risks because:


• Lack of knowledge, experience and training
• Body not fully developed
• More likely to take risks
• More likely to respond to peer group pressure
• Be over enthusiastic
Outline the control measures that could be taken to
minimise risks to young workers. (4)

Control measures for young persons:


 Induction training
 Close supervision
 Mentoring
 Clear lines of communication
 Restrictions on type of work
 Restricting the hours worked
Outline reasons for reviewing a risk assessment (3)
 Changes in Processes
 Changes in Materials
 Changes in Premises
 Changes in Legislation
 Changes in work patterns
 Accidents/Incidents
 Prosecutions/Enforcement notices
 Enforcement Action
 Compensation Claims
 Policy Review
 Professional Advice
Explain using an example, the meaning of the term
“Risk” (2)

Risk is the likelihood that harm will occur and the


severity of the harm. Example is risk of tripping over a
cable that is lying across the walkway.
Identify the key stages of risk assessment (6)

• Identify the Hazards - Example : electricity, moving vehicle


• Decide who may be harmed and how - Consider in particular the
special needs people i.e.; disabled, blind, deaf, pregnant women,
young workers
• Evaluate risks & existing precautions – estimate the risk, and if
existing controls are adequate, what further actions are necessary to
eliminate or reduce the risk.
• Record the findings - Significant hazards to be recorded, people
affected, adequacy of controls, further precautions required
• Review assessments - and revise if necessary – for example after an
accident or changes to work processes.
Outline the factors to be considered when
selecting individuals to assist in carrying out the
required risk assessment. (4)

• Competence in risk assessment with enough


knowledge, ability, training, experience and personal
qualities
• Knowledge of own limitations
• A thorough understanding of the processes and
procedures involved
• Good communication skills
Explain the criteria which must be met for the assessment
to be suitable and sufficient. (4)

A risk assessment is considered suitable and sufficient


when if it:

• Ensures that all aspects of work activity are reviewed


• Identifies all the significant hazards and risks
• Takes account of the way the work is organized
• Identifies employees and others at risk
• Evaluates the risks
• Identifies control measures

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Outline the factors to consider when assessing the risks to a
long distance lorry driver (8)

• The distance to travel • Load properly secured


• Road condition • Vehicle suitable for task
• The weather conditions • Vehicle properly
• The type of load – e.g. maintained
hazardous • Ergonomic design of cab
• Security issues e.g. and seat
valuable load • Competence of driver
Identify the factors to be considered to reduce the risks to
workers required to work alone away from the workplace (8)

• Workplace
• Task
• People – workers, women, young people
• Violence
• Access and egress
• Medical conditions
• Additional physical or mental burden through
lone working
Give the meaning of Permit to Work (2)
A Permit to Work procedure is a formal written
system to control certain types of work which are
potentially hazardous.
Identify 3 types of work that require a permit to work and
give the reasons why in each case. (2)

 Confined space – loose material, earth, water and


toxic fumes hazard.
 Welding – fire and explosion hazard,
 Working with Electricity – electricity hazard.
All are high risk activities that require checking, testing
and controls put into place prior to entry or
commencement of work to ensure that all precautionary
measures are taken and all hazards are identified and
controlled prior to commencement of work.
Identify the general information that should be included
in permit to work (4)

General information to be included in a PTW include:


• The duration of the permit
• Description of the task to be performed
• Inherent risks
• Electrical and mechanical isolations
• Other precautions required
• Issued by an authorised person
• Acceptance by the competent person
On completion of the work:
• Permit should be cleared by the competent person
• Cancelled by the authorised person indicating that the isolations
have been removed and the plant is safe to operate
Identify factors that would influence the Permit
To Work System (4)

Factors that may influence the effectiveness of a permit to work


system are:
 It should be designed as a formal document
 It should be simple to use, not overly complicated
 It should have the commitment from those who use it.
Outline with examples the general hierarchy that should be applied
to control health and safety risks in the workplace. (6)

• Eliminate the hazard by removing totally the trailing cable on the


walkway
• Reducing the hazard by minimizing the electrical voltage from
220V to 110V
• Isolating the hazard by providing barriers in the work at height
activity
• Engineering control by using a forklift machine in lifting heavy
objects
• Administrative control by providing break time to workers during
work to minimize exposure
• Providing Personal Protective Equipment such as hard hat,
goggles, overall, safety shoes, and gloves
Give the meaning of the term Hierarchy of
control (2)

 A preferred series of measures to control risks


in order of priority starting with elimination and
ending with discipline.
Identify four types of emergency that would require an
organization to have an emergency procedure.
 Fire, bomb, hazardous chemical spill, earthquake

Explain why visitors to a workplace should be informed


of its emergency procedure.
 They can act appropriately in the event of an
emergency.
 They will not obstruct other employees and putting
themselves and the employees at risks.
Give the meaning of the term Safe System of
Work (2)
 Is a system use to analyze a task or process in order
to identify the hazards likely to be present and details
the precautions necessary to avoid or minimize the
risks to the health and safety of individuals.
Identify the sources of information that could be consulted
when developing a SSOW (8)
External:
Internal:
 Governmental organizations e.g. Enforcing
 Risk assessments
Authorities
 Accident/incident records
 National safety organizations / Professional
 Policies institutions
 Inspection reports  Various standards organizations such as
 Medical records  International Standards Organization such as
 Health & Safety committees (ISO) and
 Plant registers  British Standards Institute (BSI)
 Safety advisors  Suppliers and manufactures
 Consultants and specialists
 Insurance Companies and Workers Trade Unions
Outline the reasons why the provision of PPE should be considered
only after all other control measures.

 Only a barrier between the wearer and the hazard - does not
eliminate the hazard.
 Fails to danger
 May create an additional hazard for the wearer
 May be worn incorrectly making it ineffective
 Relies on action being taken by user
 Uncomfortable
 Relies on management commitment
 Incompatibility with other PPE
 Could become contaminated
Outline the reasons for monitoring the health and safety
performance in an organization.

 Identify sub-standard H & S practices


 Identify Trends
 Compare actual performance against targets
 Useful in benchmarking
 Identify effectiveness of control measures
 Identify suitable control measures
 Prioritise the implementation of control measures
 Assess compliance with legal requirements
 Provide feedback to Board, Committees etc.
Identify four active means by which an organization can
monitor it’s health and safety performance. (4)

 Safety audit. It is a thorough, critical examination of an


organization's safety management systems and procedures.
 Safety Sampling (involving the targeting of specific areas such
as checking the wearing of PPE or noise level, dust level. )
 Safety Tours (where unscheduled, less formal workplace
inspections are carried out to check on issues such as
housekeeping or the use of personal protective equipment)
 Safety Surveys (focusing on particular activities) may be carried
out by specialists
Identify four reactive means by which an organisation
can monitor it’s health and safety performance. (4)

 Review number of Enforcement actions


 Review Injuries or ill health records (including sickness
absence)
 Review complaints reports
 Review damage to property, goods or equipment
report
 Review the dangerous occurrences data
 Review the near misses data
Outline the features of a Health and safety inspection. (4)

 A straightforward observation of a workplace &/or the activities or


equipment within it.
 A safety inspection is usually carried out by a manager, employee
representative and Safety Advisor and is often aided by the use
of a checklist.
 It may be carried out routinely with the aim of identifying hazards
& assessing the & effectiveness of control measures.
Outline the key features of a health and safety audit

 It is a lengthy process carried out by a trained auditor, often


someone from outside the organization looking at the strengths
and weaknesses of the organization.
 The process uses a combination of interviews, workplace
inspections and reviewing of documentation
 It could also be carried out internally by competent member of
staff
 It is a thorough, critical examination of an organization's safety
management systems and procedures.
 It uses a checklist to aid in the audit process.
Identify the written information that is likely to be examined
during a health and safety audit.

 Previous audit reports  Safety monitoring procedures

 Safety policy  Minutes from the safety


committee
 Details of statutory inspections
 Maintenance records
 Risk assessment procedures
 Health surveillance records
 Training records
 Accident and ill health reports
Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve
health and safety performance (10)

 The findings could identify weakness in the management system


which allows corrective actions to be implemented.
 It helps to identify and confirm if H&S objectives are achieved and
whether further efforts and H&S initiatives are required.
 Prioritises the implementation of corrective action so that the most
significant issues receive attention first.
 It recommends effective risk controls to be implemented
Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve
health and safety performance.(cont.)

 It identifies effectiveness of training, communication and consultation


programs and whether more needs to be done
 It identifies if legal standards are met and what additional measures
are required to meet standard.
 It makes recommendations for management to take action on
improving the management systems and procedures and to
implement the action required. The use of prioritized, timed and
allocated action plans will aid the process.
 Implementation of the action plan should then be monitored.
Identify the written information that is likely to be
examined during a health and safety audit.

 Safety policy
 Risk assessment procedures
 Safety monitoring procedures
 Maintenance records
 Accident and incident reports
 Health surveillance records
 Training records
 Inspection records
 Previous audit reports
Identify the limitations of a Workplace Inspection?

 It is only a snapshot in time


 Some hazards invisible – e.g. gas
 Some hazards not always present during the inspections and may
occur later in the process
 Unsafe practices may not occur during the inspection if the
employees know the inspection is taking place
Give the meaning of the term “immediate cause” (2)
 Immediate/Direct Cause: The unsafe act or condition that results
in an accident or incident
Give two examples of immediate causes of workplace accident (2)
 Damaged grinder, oil spill on floor

Give the meaning of the term “underlying causes” (2)


 Root/Underlying Cause: The failure of procedures, management
systems that have resulted in the unsafe act or condition
Give two examples of underlying causes of workplace accident (2)
 Lack of supervision, lack of maintenance, no training
Identify four reasons why accidents should be investigated (4)

 To provide information to insurance companies


 Provide information for any criminal or civil actions
 To learn from the accident and prevent it from happening
again
 Find root causes and weaknesses in the management
system
Outline the information that should be included in an accident investigation
report (8)
 The personal details of the injured party, time & location of the accident,
 Environmental conditions, the work activity at the time of the accident,
 Control measures in place,
 Circumstances of the accident,
 Type & extent of injury sustained,
 Details of witnesses & copies of their statements where taken,
 Drawings & photographs,
 Immediate & root causes identified,
 Possible breaches of the law,
 Recommendations - remedial actions required.

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Identify four reasons why accidents should be reported and
recorded. (4)
 To provide information to insurance companies
 To prevent an accident happening again
 Provide information for any criminal or civil actions
 To comply with legal requirements
Explain why an organization should have a system for the internal
reporting of accidents (4)
The benefits of an internal reporting system will help organizations
to:
 Learn from them and prevent a recurrence,
 Monitor trends and analyze immediate and root causes of
accidents. This may be useful in legal actions and civil claims.
 It is also important as many occupational ill-health effects may
take years to develop and become apparent
 Good reporting can significantly reduce accidents if
improvements or corrective actions are implemented.
Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work (4)
Accidents may not be reported because:
 Individuals ignorant of reporting procedures;
 Peer pressure
 Retribution by management or other staff.
 Perception that they are preserving the company’s or department’s
safety record (particularly when an incentive scheme is in operation).
 To avoid receiving first-aid or medical treatment (for whatever
reason);
 Over-complicated reporting procedures.
 Lack of obvious management response to earlier reported accidents
A worker has received serious injuries from being struck by a reversing
vehicle in a loading bay.
Identify four reasons why the accident should be investigated. (4)

 Primary purpose of investigating an accident is to identify the


immediate and root causes in order to prevent similar accidents
occurring in the future.

 The identification of possible weaknesses in risk assessment processes


and other aspects of safety management systems.

 Collecting evidence to defend a civil claim, where applicable.

 Demonstrating management commitment to occupational health and


safety.
A worker has received serious injuries from being struck by a
reversing vehicle in a loading bay. Outline :

Four possible immediate causes (4)

 Human error or failure to comply with procedures.


 Mechanical failure.
 Poor visibility in the loading bay (e.g. absence of lighting).
 Restricted view for the driver.
 Environmental conditions such as high noise levels.
A worker has received serious injuries from being struck by a
reversing vehicle in a loading bay. Outline :

Four possible underlying (root) causes are: (4)

 Lack of driver and/or other employee training.


 Lack of supervision.
 Absence of site rules or procedures for the control of
reversing vehicles.
 Failure to separate vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
 Lack of maintenance of vehicles and/or the workplace.
An employee has been seriously injured in an accident with a
vehicle in the workplace
Outline the immediate and longer term actions that should be
taken following the accident (8)
Immediate Longer term
 Treatment for injured personnel  Decide the depth of the investigation
 Make the area safe and select team
 Initiate emergency plan  Gather evidence at the scene
 Contact emergency services  Interview witnesses
 Preserve scene for investigation  Examine documents
 May have to notify enforcing authority  Appoint specialists if necessary

76
Identify the measures an employee could take in order to
ensure that the drivers of internal transport are and remain
competent (4)

 Check licence valid


 Previous experience reference accident history
 Refresher training
 Practical workplace assessments
 Supervision and monitoring

77
Question
Replacement and retraining of staff is a cost that an organisation may face
following a workplace accident.
Identify EIGHT other possible costs to an organisation when an employee
has been seriously injured in such an accident. (8)

Answer
• Payments to injured employee • Loss of contracts
• Loss of production • Loss of business reputation
• Damage to equipment and • Cost of accident investigation
materials
• Increased insurance premiums
• Repairs to plant and equipment
• Legal action e.g. fines
Question
Outline the main components of an health and safety
management system. (8)
Answer
• Policy:- Health and safety aims of the organisation, health and safety objectives and
management commitment
• Organising:- Clear lines of responsibility, Competence, commitment and control, Co-
operation, Communication
• Planning and Implementation:- Identify hazards, assess risks, and decide how risks can
be eliminated or controlled. Sets standards against which performance can be
measured.
• Measuring performance:- Be used as a means of determining the extent to which
health and safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both
reactive and proactive.
• Reviewing:- Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance
is adequate
• Audit:- Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organisations management
systems and procedures
Outline FOUR main components of the health and safety
management system described in OHSAS 18001:1999
Occupational health and safety management systems (8)
Answer
• Policy:- Health and safety aims of the organisation, health and safety objectives and
management commitment
• Organising:- Clear lines of responsibility, Competence, commitment and control, Co-
operation, Communication
• Planning and Implementation:- Identify hazards, assess risks, and decide how risks can
be eliminated or controlled. Sets standards against which performance can be
measured.
• Measuring performance:- Be used as a means of determining the extent to which
health and safety policy and objectives are being implemented and should be both
reactive and proactive.
• Reviewing:- Analysing data gathered through monitoring to see whether performance
is adequate
• Audit:- Systematic critical examination of each stage of an organisations management
systems and procedures
Question 4
It is generally accepted that, following a workplace accident the “hidden
costs” (usually uninsured) greatly exceed the more obvious costs which
are usually covered by insurance.
Outline FOUR of these “hidden costs”, giving an example of each (8)
Answer
• Payments to injured employee
• Compensation claims given to the injured worker if found out that the
employer is breaching the duty of care
• Loss of production
• Stoppage of work due to the accident investigation
• Loss of business reputation
• Media publicity of the accident that can cancel orders to clients
• Legal action
• Possible of fines from the employer, and imprisonment to managers
and owners
a) Explain the difference between the objectives of a Criminal Law
system and a Civil Law system (2)
b) Outline the THREE standard conditions that are usually required to
be met to prove a case of negligence against an employer. (6)
c) Outline the typical actions that might be brought against an
employer who has breached Criminal Law in relation to health and
safety (6)
d) Explain why H & S legislation might be enforced to different
standards in various countries (6)
Answer
(a) The criminal law aims to punish the companies that are accountable
on the accidents happened such as fines and imprisonment while the
civil law aims to compensate for loss or injury to the worker
(b) To prove a case of negligence the injured worker must
• Necessary to show there is a duty of care owed from the
employer
• The duty of care was breached by the employer or negligent
from the employer
• Due to the breached there is an injury, loss or harm occurred to
the worker
Answer
c) Typical actions that might be brought against an employer
• Provide health and safety advice and guidance to rectify the
breach
• Issue legal document to the employer to make specified
improvements to rectify the breach.
• Issue legal mandate demanding that work in dangerous
situations is stopped and made safe.
• Take out a prosecution to punish the employer
d) H & S legislation might be enforced to different standards in various
countries due to different legal systems, standards of legislation and
enforcement used in each countries. Different penalties for
breaches imposed in each countries in terms of civil and criminal
law. Different religious beliefs and cultural issues that may possibly
control the legislation. Ability and knowledge of enforcing authorities
that enforce and formulate the legislation. The degree of reporting
to enforcement authorities in terms of accidents happen in the
companies.
a) Outline the requirements whereby employers must prepare a
written statement of their health and safety policy (2)
b) Explain the purpose of EACH of the following sections of a
health and safety policy document:
• Statement of intent (2)
• Organisation (2)
• Arrangements (2)
c) Outline the issues that are typically included in the
arrangements section of a health and safety policy document
(12)
Answer
a)
If required by legislation of the country or a company policy

b) 1) The “Statement of intent” which demonstrates


managements commitment to health and safety and sets
goals and objectives for the organisation
2) The “Organisation” section the purpose of which is to
identify health and safety responsibilities within the
Company
3) The “Arrangements” section which sets out in detail the
systems and procedures that show how the policy is
implemented.
c)
• Risk assessments
• Fire policy
• Evacuation procedures
• Safe systems of work
• Permits to work
• First aid policy
• Display screen policy
• Manual handling policy
• Hazardous chemicals policy
• Fork truck policy
• Contractor policy
• Noise policy
A medium sized engineering organisation intends to benchmark its health
and safety with similar organisation.
Outline the health and safety management issues that could be used to
benchmark with the other organisations (8)

• Existence and quality of health and safety policy


• Staff roles and responsibilities clearly outlined
• Documented health and safety plans measured
• The quality of risk assessments
• Type of training provided
• Level of monitoring i.e. Reactive and pro-active
a) Explain the purpose of the statement of intent section of a health
and safety policy (2)
b) Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety
policy to be reviewed. (6)

a) The “Statement of intent” demonstrates managements commitment to


health and safety and sets goals and objectives for the organisation
b) Accidents/incidents
New equipment
New staff/new technology
New premises
Risk assessments
Changes in legislation
Accident investigation
Enforcement action
Periodic review
a) Outline the key health and safety responsibilities of employers
of employers which are common in many countries. (4)
b) Outline the key health and safety responsibilities and rights of
employees which are common in many countries (4)
a)
• Provision of safe workplace
• Provision of safe plant and equipment
• Provision of information and training
• Provision of emergency procedures
• Co-operation with other employers
• Co-operation/communication with their employees
• Not charging employees for health and safety measures

b)
Co-operating with their employer
Reporting any dangerous situations to employer
Right to receive adequate health and safety information
Right to receive adequate health and safety training
Right to be consulted by their employer
Identify the factors that might be considered when assessing the
health and safety competence of a contractor. (8)

• Previous experience with the type of work


• Reputation amongst previous or current clients
• Content and quality of Health and Safety policy
• Content and quality of risk assessments
• Training and qualifications of staff
• Accident/enforcement history
• Membership of approved accreditation bodies
• Records of maintenance of equipment
• Method statements
A company intends to use the services of an outside contractor for
office cleaning both within and outside normal working hours.
An invitation to tender has been issued.
a) Outline the checks that the company should make when
deciding on the health and safety competence of contractors
tendering for the work. (6)
b) Outline the duties that the company will owe to the cleaners
(4)
c) Identify the actions that the company should take to help
insure that the health and safety of their own and the
contractors employees are not put at risk (10)
a)
• the contractors previous experience with the type of work;
• the reputation of the contractor amongst previous or current
clients
• the content & quality of the contractor’s H&S policy & risk
assessments
• the level of training & qualifications of staff (including those
with H&S responsibilities)
• accident/enforcement history
• membership of accreditation or certification bodies
• equipment maintenance & statutory examination records
• the detailed proposals for the work to be carried out.
b)
• Inform contractors of companies safety rules and
procedures
• Inform contractor of hazards of their operations
• Ensure employees activities do not endanger contractors
c)
• Ensure contractor competent by checking their experience,
training, safety policy,
• Inform contractor of hazards
• Inform employees of contractors work
• Ensure employees activities do not endanger contractors
• Ensure contractors activities do not endanger employees
• Ensure contractors activities do not endanger public
• Co ordinate activities
• Monitor contractors activities
• Appoint coordinator
a) Explain the meaning of the term motivation (2)
b) Describe the motivating factors that could lead to
improved health and safety in the workplace (6)

a)
The driving force a person has to achieve a goal

b)
• Training & information, improving employee’s knowledge of the
consequences of not working safely.
• Commitment of the organisation to safety by providing resources & a safe
working environment,
• Involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation & team meetings,
• recognising & rewarding achievement
a) Identify the criteria that should be used in assessing a persons
competence to carry out a task (4)
b) Outline the personal and organisational factors that may cause
a person to work unsafely even though they are competent
(4)
a)
• knowledge based on appropriate qualifications & training,
• the skills,
• experience & personal qualities to apply the knowledge in a given situation,
• &, importantly, a clear recognition of his or her limitations.

b)
• management or peer group pressure,
• a poor safety culture in the organisation,
• a lack of resources or equipment,
• a lack of clarity in roles & responsibilities,
• inadequate supervision
• poor working conditions
• Age, Medical condition, Attitude, Motivation
Outline the ways in which employers may motivate their
employees to comply with health and safety procedures (8)

• Improving, by training & the provision of information, employee’s


knowledge of the consequences of not working safely

• Showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by providing


resources & a safe working environment

• Involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation & team meetings

• Recognising & rewarding achievement


Outline the reasons why employees may fail to comply with health
and safety procedures (8)

• Lack of motivation
• Unrealistic working procedures
• Lack of management commitment
• Over familiarisation
• Repetitive work leading to boredom
• Peer group pressure
• Inadequate supervision
• Fatigue and stress
• Lack of information, training and consultation
• Job insecurity
a) Explain the meaning of the term perception (2)
b) Explain how an understanding of perception can help to
improve health and safety performance (6)

a) Perception:- The way that people interpret and make sense of presented
information

b) Make the nature of the hazards clear


Warnings of hazards
Training
Suitable PPE
Give confidence in others ability
Select suitable personal
a) Identify the factors that place young persons at greater risk of
accidents at work (4)
b) Outline the measures that could be taken to minimise the risk to
young persons (4)

a)
• lack of perception of risk or avoidance of risk (because of
limited knowledge, experience &/or lack of training),
• the individual’s stage of physical development,
• The tendency of young persons to take risks & to respond to
peer group pressure.
b)
• Risk assessments for young persons
• induction programmes, careful supervision
• Mentoring by an experienced older co-worker,
• clear lines of communication,
• limits on the number of hours worked.
a) Explain using examples, the meaning of EACH of the following terms:
i. Motivation (3)
ii. Perception (3)
iii. Attitude (3)
b) Outline the ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the
workplace (11)

i) Motivation is the driving force behind the that that someone strives to
achieve a goal or objective (e.g. to work safely).

ii) Perception is the way that people interpret and make sense of presented
information

iii) Attitude is the tendency to respond in a particular way in a given situation


b)
• the use of skilled, competent & properly trained employees &
ensuring that they are well motivated
• avoiding monotonous work processes & arranging breaks to
counter fatigue
• designing clear roles & lines of communication with the
workforce & ensuring adequate levels of supervision
• establishing good lines of communication with the workforce &
ensuring the clarity of instructions & information passed on to
them
• implementing policies on alcohol & drugs (prescribed &
otherwise)
• addressing the workplace environmental issues such as noise,
light & heat
• designing the workplace & work equipment to reduce the
opportunity for error (e.g automation,unambiguous
controls/information, monitoring & confirmation of actions
a) Explain the meaning of the term perception (2)
b) Outline the factors that may influence a persons perception of
risk in the workplace (6)

a)
The way that people interpret & make sense of presented information – for
instance, in relation to their surroundings.
b)
• the nature of the hazard (e.g. obvious or hidden, immediate or delayed
effects, etc)
• a person’s previous experience & familiarity with the situation
• the level & nature of training
• peer group influences
• confidence in others’ abilities & judgements
• & a number of other personal characteristics such as age, attitude &
sensory impairment
11) Outline FOUR advantages & FOUR disadvantages of using
‘propaganda’ posters to communicate health & safety information
to the workforce (8)

Advantages of posters include:


• their relatively low cost, (allowing them to be displayed in the lost apposite
positions)
• their brevity (allowing messages to be easily understood),
• their use in reinforcing verbal instructions or information,
• Providing a constant reminder of important health & safety issues,
• Potential to allow employees to become involved in their selection & hence in the
message being conveyed.
11) cont

Disadvantages include:
• the need to change posters on a regular basis if they are to be
noticed,
• the fact that they may become soiled, defaced & out-of-date,
• & the possibility that they might be seen to trivialise serious matters.
• additionally they might actually alienate people if inappropriate
stereotypes (e.g. of the ‘stupid worker) are used,
• they provide no direct way of assessing whether the message has
been understood,
• & they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy, if
not particularly effective, way of discharging their responsibility to
provide health & safety information,
• & even of shifting the responsibility onto the workforce for any
accidents that may occur.
Explain why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate
health & safety information in the workplace. (8)

• people respond differently to different stimuli, & that


variety prevents over-familiarisation with one method &
helps to reinforce a message
the need to overcome language barriers & the inability of
some employees to read
• the need to motivate, stimulate interest & gain involvement
& feedback
• the acceptance that different types of information require
different methods of communication.
Outline the various methods for communicating
health and safety information to the workforce (8)

• Health and safety committee meetings/minutes


• Team briefings
• Toolbox talks
• Formal training
• Safety signs/posters
• Newsletters
• Safety reports/memo/e-mail
• Verbal instruction
• Written procedures/permit to work
• Visual-video/computer programmes
Outline the topics that may need to be included on the agenda
of a safety committee meeting. (8)

• a review of recent accidents/incidents,


• a review of proactive monitoring strategies such as safety
inspections & audits,
• reports following visits by enforcement authorities,
• The effects of the company of new or impending H&S legislation.
• possible amendments to the company’s H&S policy & risk
assessments,
• the extent & effectiveness of any H&S training given to
employees,
• the introduction of new equipment & processes.
Outline the reasons that may prevent a verbal
instruction being clearly understood by an employee
(8)

• Hearing/speech defects
• Noise
• Distance from receiver
• Poor environment (light/temperature); Language/jargon
• Distractions
• lack of knowledge/experience
• Attitude of person to communication
• Duration/speed
Question
a) Explain the circumstances under which an employer should
form a health and safety committee (2)
b) Give reasons why a safety committee may be ineffective (6)

Answer
a)
If there is a legal requirement or when requested by the
safety representative
Answer
b)
• a lack of management commitment
• no agenda or remit &/or no minutes or notes of the
meetings being produced
• an uneven balance between management & employee
representatives
• poor chairmanship
• no access to the decision-making processes
• infrequent meetings
• inappropriate topics
• no access to H&S expertise
Question
Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly
understood by an employee at work (8)
Answer
• the way that verbal information is given like complex, jargonistic,
ambiguous, not in the usual language of the receiver
• distorted by the means of communication such as telephone
• inconsistent with body language
• due to the environment (e.g noisy) or due to some limitation on the
part of the receiver (e.g. mental or physical difficulty)
• Inattention
• lack of knowledge or experience
• restricted by PPE
Question
Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and
presenting a health and safety training session (8)
Answer
• Identify training needs
• Selection of training provider
• Duration of training; Research topic
• Learning outcome;
• Verification of learning outcome/test
• Experience of persons; Type of person
• Method of presentation
• Appropriate venue
• Resource materials/equipment
Question
Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a
review of health & safety training within an organisation. (8)
Answer
• the introduction of new technology or a new item of work equipment or
process
• a job change for one or a group of individuals
• accident incidence data or the findings of an accident investigation
• the results of risk assessments or review
• new legislation or guidance
• as a result of enforcement action
• new employees with special needs (e.g. young or disabled workers)
• requirements imposed by the employer’s insurance company
Question
Explain how induction training programmes for new
employees can help to reduce the numbers of accidents in
the workplace (8)
Answer
• Establishes safety culture
• Shows management commitment
• Identified responsibilities
• Identifies hazard and precautions
• Employee is aware of hazards
• Imparts knowledge
• Employee recognises/reports hazards
• Sets scene for future performance
Question
An investigation has identified the two key underlying causes of a
workplace accident as ineffective verbal communication between
employees and shortcomings in the quality of health and safety
training.
a) Identify the barriers to effective communication that may have
existed (8)
b) Outline the measures by which verbal communication could
be improved (6)
c) Describe the variety of training methods a trainer could use to
improve the effectiveness of employee training in health and
safety (6)
Answer
a)
• Hearing/speech defects
• Noise
• Distance from receiver
• Poor environment (light/temperature); Language/jargon
• Distractions
• lack of knowledge/experience
• Attitude of person to communication
• Duration/speed
Question
(a) Outline the events that may create a need for additional health and safety
training within an organisation (10)
(b) Outline the factors to be considered when preparing and presenting a
training session on health and safety (10)

Answer
a)
• Job change
• Promotion
• Restructuring/Reorganisation
• Change of process or equipment
• New legislation
• As a result of a risk assessment
• Inspection or audit
• Accidents/incidents, ill-health
• Enforcement action
• New buildings/acquisitions
Answer
b)
• Identify the training needs
• Identify the training objectives
• The target audience, knowledge, skills etc.
• Training methods, lecture, video etc.
• How to evaluate effectiveness of training
• Number of trainees
• Time available
• Training aids required
• Suitability of training facilities, room size etc.
• Course rules and administration
Question
a) Explain the meaning of the term Competent Person (4)
b) Outline FOUR checks that could be made to help assess a
persons competence (4)
Answer
a)
A person shall be regarded as competent where he has sufficient training
and experience or knowledge and other qualities to enable him to
carry out the measures required of him
b)
• Evidence of qualifications
• Level of training
• Membership of professional organisation
• Undertaking written or practical assessments
• References or recommendations
Question
Outline the main health & safety issues to be included in an
induction training programme for new employees. (8)

Answer
• the organisation’s H&S policy
• emergency procedures
• hazards specific to the workplace & the need to comply with
H&S requirements
• Health & safety responsibilities & lines of communication
• accident & first-aid arrangements
• welfare provision
• health surveillance & consultation procedure
Question
Identify the factors that could be considered when assessing the
health and safety competence of a contractor (8)

Answer
• Experience of the type of work and industry
• Suitable references
• Enforcement record
• Safety management such as Policy, risk assessments etc.
• Accident and ill-health data
• Membership of trade/professional bodies
• Competence and training of employees
• Arrangements for selection of sub-contractors
• Arrangement for ongoing liaison with clients
Question
Outline the methods by which the health and safety culture of
an organisation may be improved (8)
Answer
• the commitment & leadership of senior management
• the competence & training of the workforce
• a clear policy with health & safety being given obvious equal priority to
other business objectives (production, quality, etc)
• the setting of realistic & achievable targets
• the provision of a good working environment
• proactive monitoring of health & safety standards
• effective communication channels
• a ‘no-blame’ culture
• Consultation with, & the involvement of, the workforce
Question
Due to increasing sales a manufacturing company is about to recruit
new staff in both production and administrative departments.
a) Identify the main issues to be addressed in a general health and
safety induction programme for the new employees
(6)
b) Outline the factors that will determine the level of supervision
each new employee should receive during their initial period with
the company (8)
c) Identify the reasons why additional training of some or all of the
employees may be required at a latter stage of their employment
(6)
Answer
a)
• the organisation’s H&S policy,
• emergency procedures,
• hazards specific to the workplace & the need to comply with
H&S requirements,
• Health & safety responsibilities & lines of communication,
• accident & first-aid arrangements,
• & welfare provision.
• More able candidates referred to health surveillance &
consultation procedures.
Answer

• the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of


work in general & of the task to be performed in particular
• the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks
• the person’s skills & qualifications for the work
• his/her attitude & aptitude
• the systems of work & any specific safety requirements
applying to the task
• the employee’s communication skills & any special needs
that he/she may have
Answer

c)
• the introduction of new processes, equipment & methods of work
• as a result of a job change involving different health & safety requirements
&/or the allocation of additional responsibilities
• following the introduction of new legislation
• where risk assessments or staff appraisals indicate that additional training is
necessary
• where refresher training is required such as that required for for-lift truck
operators & first-aid personnel
• following an accident, enforcement action or insurance impositions
• to counteract the possibility of employees becoming complacent & lax in
following established procedures for health & safety
Question
Accidents are often attributed to human error which can be
categorised into different types
Outline FOUR types of human error, giving a workplace example
in each case (8)

Answer
• Slips
• Lapses of attention
• Mistakes
• Violations
Question
Outline the personal factors that might place an individual at a
greater risk of harm while at work (8)

Answer
• a generally poor attitude to work, authority &/or risk often coupled
with low motivation
• issues relating to physical capabilities or development (such as lack of
stature, strength &/or stamina) & to mental capabilities (such as poor
reasoning skills)
• poor perception of risk, perhaps influenced by alcohol or drugs
• age-related behavioural factors associated with immaturity
• medical conditions affecting physical or mental capacity
• the levels of training & experience of the individual
Question
Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly
understood by an employee. (8)

Answer
• the way that verbal information is given (e.g complex, jargonistic,
ambiguous, not in the usual language of the receiver, in a heavy dialect;
• distorted by the means of communication such as telephone or tannoy;
• inconsistent with body language
• due to the environment (e.g noisy)
• due to some limitation on the part of the receiver (e.g. mental or physical
difficulty)
• Inattention
• lack of knowledge or experience
• restricted by PPE
Question
Outline the practical control measures by which a manager could
involve employees in the improvement of health & safety in the
workplace. (8)
Answer
• involving employees in risk assessments
• accident investigations
• & the development of safe systems & procedures
• encouraging hazard-spotting & the reporting of defects
• setting up suggestion schemes
• organising training courses & information programmes
• supporting active involvement in safety committee meetings
• being accompanied by employees or their representatives on safety
tours & inspections
• & giving employees responsibilities for mentoring young &
inexperienced workers
Question
Outline the factors that may determine the level of supervision
an employee should receive during their initial period of
employment within a company. (8)
Answer
• the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of work in
general & of the task to be performed in particular
• the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks
• the person’s skills & qualifications for the work
• his/her attitude & aptitude
• the systems of work & any specific safety requirements applying to the
task
• the employee’s communication skills & any special needs that he/she
may have
Question

(a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘motivation’. (2)


(b) Other than the lack of motivation, outline SIX reasons
why employees may fail to comply with safety
procedures at work. (6)
Answer
a)
The driving force behind the that that someone strives to achieve a goal
or objective (e.g. to work safely).
(b)
• lack of management commitment
• over familiarisation with the tasks to be performed
• repetitive work, leading to boredom & lack of concentration
• peer group pressure
• wilful disregard of laid-down procedures coupled with inadequate or
ineffective supervision
• fatigue & stress
• lack of communication, training & consultation
Question
Outline the factors which might contribute towards a positive
safety culture within an organisation (8)
Answer
• effective communication;
• No blame culture;
• Good leadership & commitment at senior level;
• monitoring workplace and implementing remedial action;
• consultation & employee involvement;
• a good working environment;
• Training
• Clear objectives
• Communication
Question
Outline reasons why an employee might require additional health &
safety training at a later stage of employment within an
organisation. (8)
Answer
• the introduction of new processes, equipment & methods of work;
• as a result of a job change involving different health & safety
requirements or additional responsibilities;
• following the introduction of new legislation;
• where risk assessments or staff appraisals indicate that additional
training is necessary;
• where refresher training is required such as that required for for-lift
truck operators & first-aid personnel;
• following an accident, enforcement action or insurance impositions;
• & to counteract the possibility of employees becoming complacent & lax
in following established procedures for health & safety.
Question
a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘competent person’. (2)
b) Outline the organisational factors that may cause a person
to work unsafely even though they are competent.
(6)
Answer

a)
Competent person should have enough knowledge, appropriate
qualifications & training, the skills to implement the learnings. Experience
& personal qualities to apply the knowledge in a given situation, &
importantly, a clear recognition of his or her limitations.

b)
• management or peer group pressure
• a poor safety culture in the organisation
• a lack of resources or equipment
• a lack of clarity in roles & responsibilities
• inadequate supervision
• poor working conditions
• Age, Medical condition, Attitude, Motivation
Question
(a) Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the
workplace. (8)
(b) Give FOUR reasons why the seriousness of a hazard may be
underestimated by someone exposed to it. (4)
(c) Outline ways in which managers can motivate employees to
work safely. (8)
Answer
Answer
a)
• the use of skilled, trained & competent staff (including pre-
employment screening issues);
• motivation of the workforce;
• task variety to prevent monotony & the provision of frequent breaks
to avoid work overload;
• addressing workplace environmental issues such as noise, light &
heat;
• mechanisation & automation;
• ensuring that controls on machinery are clearly marked;
• implementation of a drug & alcohol policy;
• Providing competent supervision of employees.
Answer
b)
• over familiarity & complacency;
• lack of instruction, information & training;
• lack of experience, particularly where young persons are
involved;
• the fact that some hazards (e.g. airborne contaminants or
radiation) may be invisible &/or intangible;
• sensory impairment;
• & involvement in routine, repetitive tasks that can lead to lack
of attention.
Answer
c)
• The recognition of good health & safety performance is important in
this respect.
• Disciplining employees who choose to ignore safe working
procedures
• involving employees, for instance, in carrying out risk assessments &
drawing up safe systems of work;
• improving the company’s health & safety culture & demonstrating a
high level of management commitment;
• ensuring a good working environment;
• & providing training & ensuring good communication.
Question
(a) Identify FOUR factors relating to the individual that might
increase the risk of accidents at work. (4)
(b) Give reasons why maintenance operations may pose
particular risks to those undertaking them. (4)
Answer
a)
• psychological factors such as attitude & motivation.
• lack of skill or experience,
• lack of familiarity (or possibly over familiarity) with the workplace, high
stress levels,
• & health problems,
• medical conditions or physical disability/incapacity (including that
brought about by alcohol & drugs).

b)
• the existence of new or different hazards,
• the lack of familiarity or experience with the tasks or equipment involved,
• the likelihood that the events leading to the need for maintenance & their
hazards would be unpredictable,
• the possibility that the maintenance operations would have to be carried out in
confined spaces or other poor work environments,
• pressure on maintenance staff to complete the work in as short a time as
possible in order to return to normal production.
Question
Outline the factors that may determine the level of supervision
an employee should receive during their initial period within a
company. (8)

Answer
• the age of the employee, as well as his/her experience of work in general & of
the task to be performed in particular
• the nature & complexity of the task & its inherent risks
• the person’s skills & qualifications for the work
• his/her attitude & aptitude
• the systems of work & any specific safety requirements applying to the task
• the employee’s communication skills & any special needs that he/she may
have
Question
Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an
organisation to decline (8)

Answer
• lack of effective communication
• the perception of a growing blame culture
• lack of leadership & commitment at senior level
• lack of monitoring or a failure to implement remedial action
• lack of consultation & employee involvement
• a generally a poor working environment
• a high staff turnover leading to lack of continuity
• external influences such as downturn in the economy,
leading to job insecurity
Question
Outline the various circumstances that may create a need for a
review of health & safety training within an organisation. (8)

Answer
• the introduction of new technology or a new item of work equipment
or process
• a job change for one or a group of individuals; accident incidence data
or the findings of an accident investigation
• the results of risk assessments or review
• new legislation or guidance
• as a result of enforcement action
• new employees with special needs (e.g. young or disabled workers)
• requirements imposed by the employer’s insurance company
Question
Outline ways in which employers may motivate their employees
to comply with health & safety procedures. (8)

Answer
• improving by giving training
• provision of information, employee’s knowledge of the
consequences of not working safely
• showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by
providing resources & a safe working environment
• involving employees in H&S decisions by consultation &
team meetings
• recognising & rewarding achievement
Question
Outline the main health & safety issues to be included in an
induction training programme for new employees. (8)
Answer
• the organisation’s H&S policy
• emergency procedures
• hazards specific to the workplace & the need to comply with
H&S requirements
• Health & safety responsibilities & lines of communication
• accident & first-aid arrangements
• welfare provision
• health surveillance & consultation procedures
Question
(a) Explain the meaning of the term “perception”. (2)
(b) Outline the factors that may influence a persons perception of risk in
the workplace. (6)
Answer
a)
Perception is the way that people interpret & make sense of presented
information – for instance, in relation to their surroundings.
b)
• the nature of the hazard like obvious/hidden, immediate or delayed effects
• a person’s previous experience & familiarity with the situation
• the level & nature of training
• peer group influences
• confidence in others’ abilities & judgements
• number of other personal characteristics such as age, attitude & sensory
impairment.
Question
Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an
organisation to decline (8)

Answer
• lack of effective communication
• the perception of a growing blame culture
• lack of leadership & commitment at senior level
• lack of monitoring or a failure to implement remedial action
• lack of consultation & employee involvement
• a generally a poor working environment
• a high staff turnover leading to lack of continuity & loss of
momentum in making safety improvements
• external influences such as downturn in the economy, leading to
job insecurity with the possibility of H&S being seen as a less of a
priority
Question
Most occupational accidents can be attributed in part to human error.
Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace. (8)

Answer
• the use of skilled, competent & properly trained employees & ensuring that they are
well motivated
• avoiding monotonous work processes & arranging breaks to counter fatigue
• designing clear roles & lines of communication with the workforce & ensuring
adequate levels of supervision
• establishing good lines of communication with the workforce & ensuring the clarity
of instructions & information passed on to them
• implementing policies on alcohol & drugs (prescribed & otherwise)
• addressing the workplace environmental issues such as noise, light & heat
• designing the workplace & work equipment to reduce the opportunity for error
• take into account previous incidents & the results of accident investigation and put
control measures
Question
Outline the factors that might contribute to a positive health
and safety culture within an organisation. (8)
Answer
• Senior management commitment
• Ownership of H & S at every level
• Effective communication and consultation
• Training for all level employees
• A shared perception of risks
• Acceptable standards of behaviour
• Learning from experience by monitoring and review
• A balance between H & S and production
• External factors e.g. financial, Regulatory
• The provision of a good working environment
• Setting realistic and achievable targets
• No blame culture
Question
a) Outline the factors to be considered when developing a safe
system of work (8)
b) Outline the sources of information that could be consulted when
developing a safe system of work (6)
c) Explain the actions an enforcement officer could take when an
organisation has failed to provide a safe system of work
(6)

Answer
a)
• Select the task to be studied
• Identify the hazards
• Develop the safe system
• Implement system
• Monitor the system
Answer

b)
Internal External
Risk assessments Government bodies
Policies National safety
Inspection reports organisations
Medical records Suppliers and
Health and safety manufacturers
committees International standards
Plant registers Consultants and
Safety advisors specialists
Insurance companies
Answer
c)
• Informal
– Verbal and / or written
• Formal
– Prosecution with the intent of punishment
• fines, orders to rectify, imprisonment
– Legal mandate:
• to stop dangerous activity, e.g. Prohibition Notice
• to comply with the law, e.g. Improvement Notice
– Caution
Question
Outline the sources of information that could be consulted when
developing a safe system of work (8)

Answer
Internal External
Risk assessments Government bodies
Policies National safety organisations
Inspection reports Suppliers and manufacturers
Medical records International standards
Health and safety committees Consultants and specialists
Plant registers Insurance companies
Safety advisors
Question
Outline the factors that should be considered when
carrying out a risk assessment (8)
Answer
• Identify the task being assessed and identify the hazards e.g.
Chemical, Physical etc.
• Identify the people who might be harmed and how. This includes own
workers and vulnerable employees such as pregnant women, and
others such as the Public, Contractors, etc.
• Evaluate the risk by considering the likelihood of the harm occurring
and the severity of harm. Identifying the existing controls and decide
if further controls are needed
• Significant findings are recorded
• Assessment reviewed regularly if there is a changes of premises,
process, or equipment’s. Considerations also if accidents happen
Question
a) Explain the meaning of the term hazard (2)
b) Outline the main hazards that may be present during the
demolition of a building (6)

Answer
a) b)
Something with the • Struck by falling debris, masonry
potential to cause • Premature collapse of building
harm • Falls from height or same level
• Underground and overhead services
• Explosion and fire – Use of explosives
• Chemical and biological contamination
• Asbestos
• Manual handling
• Plant – Collisions and toppling over
• Noise
Question
a) Define the term ‘Permit to Work System’ (2)
b) Explain the operation of a permit to work system for entry into a
confined space (6)

Answer
a)
Permit to Work is a formal written procedure requiring written
confirmation that certain actions have been carried out to eliminate
or control risks before a specific high risk activity is carried out
Answer
b)
• Identify the task (Where and when)
• Identify the hazards
• List the precautions to eliminate or reduce the hazards
• Additional precautions
• Time limits
• Issue by competent person
• Receipt by person in charge of work
• Completion
• Cancellation
Question
a) Explain the meaning of the term hazard (2)
b) Outline techniques for identifying hazards in the workplace (6)

Answer
a)
Something that has the potential to cause harm

b)
• Task observation
• Accident, ill-health or near miss data
• Workplace inspections
• Job safety analysis
• Legal standards
• Talking to the workforce
Question
Outline the precautionary measures that may be needed to
prevent slip and trip hazards in an office (8)

Answer
• No cables in walkways
• Suitable storage for materials
• Suitable storage for personal belongings
• Removal of materials from floor
• Closure of cabinets
• Clearly marked walkways
• Cleaning of floors out of office hours
Question
a) Outline the steps that should be used in carrying out a risk
assessment, identifying the issues that would need to be
considered at EACH stage (10)
b) Outline the factors that the employer should take into account
when selecting individuals to carry out risk assessments
(6)
c) Identify FOUR criteria which need to be fulfilled to ensure that a
risk assessment is suitable and sufficient
(4)
Answer
a)
• Identify the task being assessed and identify the hazards e.g. Chemical,
Physical etc.
• Identify the people who might be harmed and how. This includes own
workers and vulnerable employees such as pregnant women, and
others such as the Public, Contractors, etc.
• Evaluate the risk by considering the likelihood of the harm occurring and
the severity of harm
• Significant findings are recorded
• Assessment reviewed regularly if there is a changes of premises,
process, or equipment’s. Considerations also if accidents happen
Answer
b)
• Level of experience or training in hazard identification and
risk assessment process
• Familiarity with process being assessed
• Ability to interpret legislation and guidance
• Ability to provide realistic control measures
• Technical knowledge of plant involved
• Ability to lead and engage workers in process
• Communication and report writing skills
Answer

c)
• Staff have sufficient knowledge and experience
• All significant hazards addressed
• All aspects of workplace considered
• Non-routine operations considered
• Work organisation is considered
• Risks to other parties considered
• Systematic process used
• Short and long term control measures identified
• Recommended control measures prioritised
Question
a) Identify the factors that may place young persons at a greater risk of
accidents at work (4)
b) Outline the measures that could be taken to minimise the risks to
young persons (4)

Answer
b)
a)
• Their physical condition
• Lack of experience / training
• The workplace
• Body not fully developed
• Physical, Biological and chemical
• More likely to take risks
hazards
• Respond to peer group
• The work equipment
pressure
• The organisation of work and
• Be over enthusiastic
processes
• Health and safety training
Question
Outline the factors that may increase risks to pregnant
employees (8)

Answer
• Exposure to chemicals e.g. Lead, Pesticides
• Biological hazards e.g. Hepatitis
• Physical agents e.g. radiation
• Extremes of temperature
• Manual handling
• Ergonomic issues
• Stress
• Personal Protective Equipment
Question
a) Identify the key stages of a workplace risk assessment (5)
b) Outline THREE circumstances that might require a risk assessment
to be reviewed (3)
Answer
a)
• the identification of hazards
• the identification of all persons at risk
• an evaluation of risks arising from the hazards, a review of the
existing precautions, setting out proposals for methods to
eliminate or control the risks
• making a record of the findings of the assessment & setting a
timescale for its review
Answer

b)
• the nature of the method of work
• if new plant is introduced or existing plant modified
• following an accident
• change in the legislation
• if improved control methods become available
• review time reaches
Question
Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health &
safety of persons who are required to work on their own away
from the workplace. (8)

Answer
• The type of work to be done
• The hazards & risks
• The equipment to be used
• The work environment
• The control measures in place
• The competence & suitability of the persons involved
• The methods of communication with the home base
• The emergency & first-aid procedures
Question
An organisation has introduced a new work process for which a risk
assessment is required.
a) Outline the steps that should be used in carrying out a risk
assessment, identifying the issues that would need to be
considered at each stage (8)
b) Explain the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be
deemed suitable and sufficient (4)
c) Identify the various circumstances that might require a review
of the risk assessment (8)
Answer
a)
• Identify the task being assessed and identify the hazards e.g. Chemical,
Physical etc.
• Identify the people who might be harmed and how. This includes own
workers and vulnerable employees such as pregnant women, and
others such as the Public, Contractors, etc.
• Evaluate the risk by considering the likelihood of the harm occurring and
the severity of harm. Identifying existing controls and decide if further
controls needed
• Significant findings are recorded
• Assessment reviewed regularly
Answer
b)
• Staff have sufficient knowledge and experience
• All significant hazards addressed
• All aspects of workplace considered
• Non-routine operations considered
• Work organisation is considered
• Risks to other parties considered
• Systematic process used
• Short and long term control measures identified
• Recommended control measures prioritised
Answer
c)
• After an accident/incident
• New equipment
• Changes to equipment, plant, process
• Changes in personnel
• Changes in legislation
• Result of monitoring or audit
• Action by enforcing authority
• New information becomes available
Question
Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing
the risks to employees on night shifts (8)

Answer
• the need for shift rostering
• the effects of fatigue
• the need to control temperature & lighting to maintain alertness
• the precautions needed in the employment of pregnant or young workers
• the review of existing risk assessments
• the provision of first-aid
• the emergency arrangements for the night shift
• the level of supervision & access to specialist advice
• the travel arrangements for the workers
Question
Outline the factors of the physical environment that may cause a person
to feel stressed at work (8)

Answer
• cramped conditions
• dirty or untidy working conditions
• workplace layout resulting in a lack of privacy or
security
• Poor lighting
• problems with glare
• extremes of temperature &/or humidity
• inadequate ventilation resulting in stale air
• exposure to noise & vibration
• inadequate welfare facilities
Question
Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and
safety of persons who have to work away from their own
workplace (8)

Answer
• Work location
• Type of work
• The equipment
• Manual handling
• Sex of the worker
• Emergency facilities
• Training requirement
• Lack of Supervision
• Communication
Question
Outline the measures an employer might consider to minimise the
risk of violence against employees (8)

Answer
• Security
• Barriers, screens
• Suitable environment
• No cash on premises
• Queue management
• Design of the job
• Communication
• No Lone working
• Reporting and recording incidents
• Training
• Communication
Question
a) Outline specific hazards associated with working in confined
spaces (6)
b) Describe the precautions that may be needed when an
emptied solvent degreasing tank is to be cleaned including the
removal of the sludge from the bottom of the tank
(14)
Answer
a)
• Chemicals – toxic/corrosive
• Lack of oxygen (asphyxiation)
• Flammable vapours
• Oxygen enrichment (fire/explosion)
• Biological hazards Leptospirosis/Legionaires
• Access/egress causing slips/trips/falls
• Flooding (liquid/solid)
• Structural collapse
• Non isolation of services
• Poor lighting
Answer
b)
• Permit to work system
• Pre-task assessment/method statement
• Isolation/Lock off Procedure
• Pre-clean/purging/ventilating
• Atmosphere testing
• Safe access/egress
• PPE –Harness/eye pr0tection/RPE/Bump cap
• Suitable lighting and tools (non spark)
• Competent/trained persons and provide good
supervision
• Communication (signals/radio)
• Emergency Procedures
Question
a) Explain with examples, the meaning of the term confined space
b) The inside of a large underground tank is to be cleaned manually
before it is brought back into service.
i) Outline the factors that should be taken into account
when assessing the risks to employees undertaking the cleaning of
the vessel
ii) Outline the elements of a safe system of work for the
cleaning operation

Answer
a)
Confined Space is any space where there is a specified risk of
serious injury from hazardous substances or conditions within
the space. Examples is Tanks, Sewers,
Answer

b) i)
• Fire or explosion
• Loss of consciousness due to increased body temperature
• Loss of consciousness due to asphyxiation
• Drowning
• Asphyxiation due to free flowing solids
• Lack of oxygen
• Access and egress
Answer
b) ii)
• Permit to work system
• Pre-task assessment/method statement
• Isolation/Lock off Procedure
• Pre-clean/purging/ventilating
• Atmosphere testing
• Safe access/egress
• PPE –Harness/eye protection/RPE/Bump cap
• Suitable lighting and tools (non spark)
• Competent/trained persons and provide good supervision
• Communication (signals/radio)
• Emergency Procedures
Question
Describe the practical measures that must be taken to ensure
maintenance work is undertaken safely in an underground storage
vessel (8)
Answer
• Permit to work system
• Pre-task assessment/method statement
• Isolation/Lock off Procedure
• Pre-clean/purging/ventilating
• Atmosphere testing
• Safe access/egress
• PPE –Harness/eye protection/RPE/Bump cap
• Suitable lighting and tools (non spark)
• Competent/trained persons and provide good supervision
• Communication (signals/radio)
• Emergency Procedures
Question
Outline the factors to be considered in the selection of eye
protection for use at work (8)

Answer
• Identify the hazard
• Type of equipment (Goggles, Face shields etc.)
• Made to standards
• Comfort
• Compatibility
• Cost
• Training needs
• Replacement
• Hygiene problems
• Supervision
• Storage
Question
Outline the factors to be considered in the correct selection of
respiratory protection equipment for use at work (8)

Answer
• Identify the hazard
• Type of equipment (Respirator, B.A.)
• Made to standards
• Comfort
• Compatibility
• Cost
• Training needs
• Replacement
• Hygiene problems
• Supervision
• Storage
Question
Outline the factors to be considered when developing a safe
system of work (8)

Answer
• Select the task to be studied
• Identify the hazards
• Develop the safe system
• Implement system
• Monitor the system
Question
An office building is about to be occupied by new owners.
(i) Identify the factors that should be considered by the new
owners when assessing the suitability of lighting within the
building. (8)
(ii) Other than lighting, outline FOUR factors associated with the
physical working environment that may affect the health & safety
of employees. (4)
(iii) Outline the requirements with respect to the welfare facilities
that should be provided in the building. (8)
Answer
(i)
• the tasks to be carry out
• the equipment to be used
• the availability of natural light
• the adequacy of the existing lighting
• the appropriateness of the particular type of artificial lighting
• possible glare created on computer screens & workstations
• the provision of local lighting for specific tasks
• the availability & adequacy of emergency lighting
Answer
(ii)
• Noise that can cause stress and lack of focus during work
• temperature, humidity, air quality/ventilation that produced in
the workplace
• the condition of the floors that can be slippery or elevation
change
• space constraints for workers that cause difficulty of mobility
• Poor workstation design that may lead to work-related upper
limb disorder
Answer
(iii)
• Provide adequate number of well ventilated & lit sanitary
conveniences in relation to the numbers of male & female
employees
• Provide washing facilities with hot & cold running water &
means of drying
• Provide a suitable source of drinking water and clearly
marked
• facilities for taking rest & refreshment away from working
areas
• accommodation for clothing not worn during working hours
• Provide adequate first-aid facilities for injured workers
• Provide rest facilities for pregnant women & nursing mothers
• Protection for non-smokers from the effects of smoke
Question
a) Identify the TWO main functions of first aid (2)
b) Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment
of first-aid provision in the workplace (6)
Answer
a)
Preserve life, prevent deterioration
b)
• Nature of work
• size of organisation
• Types of accidents
• Type of workforce
• Nearness of emergency services
• Travelling
• Lone workers
Question
Identify EIGHT design features and or safe practices intended to
reduce the risk of accidents on staircases used as internal pedestrian
routes within work premises (8)

Answer
• Stairs suitable angle
• Suitable width of step
• Suitable height of step
• Non slip surfaces
• Handrails must be held when on the stairs
• Lighting
• Regular inspection and cleaning
• No carrying of loads
Question
a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Safe System of Work’ (2)
b) Describe the enforcement action that could be taken by an
enforcing authority when a safe system of work has not been
implemented (6)
Answer
a)
A step by step procedure taking in to account hazards, controls,
essential equipment, PPE to the job safely
b)
Provide health and safety advice and guidance to employer to
rectify the breach. Issue legal mandates for the employer to
make specified improvements Issue legal mandates
demanding work be stopped. Taking out legal action against
employer
Question
a) Identify THREE work situations that would be require the use of personal eye
protection (3)
b) Outline the range of issues that should be addressed when training employees
in the use of personal eye protection (5)

Answer
a)
Flying particles, dusts, molten metals, chemicals, Radiation, Ultra Violet light

b) The legal and organisational requirements


Consequences of not wearing it
Level of protection and limitations
Compatibility with other PPE
Correct way to wear equipment
Method of keeping clean
Correct storage
Replacement procedure
Question
An employee has been seriously injured in an accident at work:
a) Outline the immediate actions to be taken following the accident (6)
b) Outline the reasons why the accident should be investigated by the employer (6)
c) Identify FOUR parties other than the employer who may want to investigate the
accident giving reasons in EACH case (8)

Answer
a)
• Treatment for injured personnel
• Make the area safe
• Initiate emergency plan
• Contact emergency services
• Preserve scene for investigation
• May have to notify enforcing authority
Answer
b)
• Prevent future accidents by identifying and eliminating the causes
• Demonstrate concern about peoples health and safety
• Improve worker morale
• Identify weaknesses in management time
• Prevent business loses
• Collate accident and ill-health data and identify trends
• Defend criminal cases
• Defend claims for compensation

c)
• Enforcing authority
• Insurance company
• Employee representative
• Employee legal advisor
• Manufacturer of equipment
Question
Giving reasons in EACH case, Identify FOUR categories of persons
who may be considered a useful member of an internal accident
investigation team (8)

Answer
• Supervisors and line managers from department where accident occurred
• A senior manager from another department
• Health and Safety professionals
• Specialists e.g. Engineers
• Representative of workers
• Employee experienced in the work activity.
Question
Outline the immediate and longer term actions that should be taken following a
serious accident at work (8)

Answer
Immediate
• Treatment for injured personnel
• Make the area safe and initiate emergency plan
• Contact emergency services
• Preserve scene for investigation
• May have to notify enforcing authority

Longer Term
• Decide the depth of the investigation and select team
• Gather evidence at the scene
• Interview witnesses
• Examine documents
• Appoint specialists if necessary
Question
Outline the information that should be included in an accident
investigation report (8)

Answer
• Who is injured person
• Where the accident happened
• When it happened
• What happened
• Why it happened
• Documentation
• Evidence
• Recommendations
Question
Outline the key points that should be covered in a training
session for employees on the reporting of accidents/ incidents
(8)

Answer
• To prevent happening again
• To improve health and safety performance
Requirement to report to enforcing authority
• For use in accident data
• How to report
• Who to report accident to
• There will be a no blame culture
• Explain the information required on form
• The benefits of near miss reports
Question
Outline reasons why employers should keep records of accidents at
work and cases of occupational disease (8)

Answer
• To prevent a recurrence
• Monitoring purposes
• Legal reasons
• Occupational ill-health may take years to occur
• Civil claims
• Criminal actions
Question
Outline the reasons for reporting accidents at work (8)

Answer
• Prevent future accidents by identifying and eliminating the causes
• Demonstrate concern about peoples health and safety
• Improve worker morale
• Identify weaknesses in management time
• Prevent business loses
• Collate accident and ill-health data and identify trends
• Defend criminal cases
• Defend claims for compensation
Question
a) Explain the differences between immediate causes and
the root (underlying) causes of an accident
(4)
b) With reference to an accident involving an operator who
comes into contact with a dangerous part of a machine
describe:
i. The possible immediate causes (4)
ii. The possible root (underlying) causes (12)
Answer
a)
Immediate - Direct result of unsafe acts/unsafe conditions leading
to accident.
Root - Indirect effects causing unsafe acts/unsafe conditions.

b)
Immediate Causes Root /underlying Causes
No safety devices Poor design
Loose clothing Lack of training
Safety device failure No Maintenance programme
Operator error No safe system of work
Poor operator attitude No management commitment
Poor operator selection
No risk assessment
No defect reporting system
Lack of supervision
Question
Explain why not all accidents/incidents may be reported (8)

Answer
• Person not aware of procedure
• Complicated reporting procedure
• Trivial (minor) nature of injury
• Considers management may not take any action
• Blame culture within the organisation
• Peer pressure
• Preserve accident record
• To avoid first aid treatment
Question
a) Explain the principle of the Domino Theory in conducting
accident investigation (3)
b) Outline a more pro-active approach to preventing accidents
(5)

Answer
a)
The domino theory suggests that the events leading to an
accident are like a row of dominoes and it starts at Domino A
Management control and if this is established there is less
likelihood of an accident occurring at domino D
Answer

b)
• safety audit is a systematic critical examination of
companies health and safety management system and
procedures
• safety surveys which generally focus on a particular
procedure or activity, such as the introduction of new
equipment
• safety tours which are unscheduled, less formal
inspections to check on general workplace standards
• safety sampling which is an organised system of checking
defined areas of the workplace, & often particular health &
safety issues, on a regular basis
Question
a) Explain why an organisation should have a system for the internal reporting
of accidents (6)
b) Give TWO Reasons why one department may have more reported accidents
than another department over a specified period (2)

Answer
a) To prevent a recurrence
Monitoring purposes
Legal reasons
Occupational ill-health may take years to occur
Civil claims
Criminal actions

b) More accurate reporting


Lack of management commitment
Lack of supervision
Poorer training
Question
a) Give FOUR reasons why an organisation should have a system for
the internal reporting of accidents (4)
b) Outline the factors that may discourage employees from
reporting accidents at work (4)

Answer
a)
• To prevent a recurrence
• Monitoring purposes
• Legal reasons
• Occupational ill-health may take years to occur
• Civil claims
• Criminal actions
Answer

b)
• ignorance of the reporting procedures
• peer pressure
• possible retribution by management
• to preserve the company’s or department’s safety record
• to avoid receiving first-aid or medical treatment
• over-complicated reporting procedures
• lack of obvious management response to earlier reported
accidents
Question

A driver of a fork lift truck has been seriously injured after the
vehicle overturned.
a) Outline the possible immediate causes of the accident in
terms of BOTH the behaviour of the driver AND the conditions of
the workplace and work equipment (4)
b) Describe the underlying factors that may have led to the
unsafe acts or conditions identified in a) (4)
Answer
a)
• Driver
• Cornering to fast
• Hitting obstructions
• Driving on uneven ground
• Condition of workplace and work equipment
• Potholes
• Defective brakes
• Mechanical failure

b)
• Poor perception of risk
• Unfamiliarity with workplace
• Poor vehicle selection
• Inadequate driver training
• Poor employee selection procedures
Question
An employee has been seriously injured after being struck by a
reversing vehicle in a loading bay.
a) Give FOUR reasons why the accident should be investigated by
the persons employer (4)
b) Outline the information that should be included in the
investigation report (8)
c) Outline FOUR possible immediate causes and FOUR possible
underlying root causes of the accident (8)
Answer

a)
• identify the immediate & root causes in order to prevent
similar accidents occurring in the future.
• possible weaknesses in risk assessment processes & other
aspects of safety management systems.
• collecting evidence to defend a civil claim,
• determining economic loss
• demonstrating management commitment to occupational
health & safety.
Answer
b)
• the personal details of the injured party, time & location of the
accident
• the work activity at the time of the accident
• the control measures in place at the time of accident
• the precise situations of the accident
• the type & extent of injury sustained
• details of witnesses & copies of their statements where taken
• drawings & photographs gathered in the scene
• immediate & root causes identified in analysing the datas
• accident possible breaches of the law
• the recommendations of the investigation team in relation to
remedial action required
Answer
c)
Immediate causes
• human error
• failure to comply with procedures
• restricted view for the driver
• environmental conditions such as high noise levels
Underlying causes could have included
• lack of driver / other employee training
• lack of supervision during the activity
• absence of site rules / procedures for the control of reversing
vehicles
• failure to separate vehicular & pedestrian traffic
• a lack of maintenance of vehicles / the workplace
Question
a) Explain how accident data can be used to improve health and safety
performance within an organisation (4)
b) Outline TWO proactive monitoring methods that can be used when assessing an
organisation’s health and safety performance (4)

Answer
a) Shows patterns and trends
Identifies weaknesses in policies and procedures
Prioritises safety measures
Identifies areas for improvements
Sets targets for reduction

a) Audit
b) Inspection
c) Safety tours
d) Safety sampling
Question
a) Identify FOUR reasons why accidents should be reported and recorded within a
workplace (4)
b) Outline the factors that may discourage employees from reporting workplace
accidents (4)

Answer
a) To prevent a recurrence
To meet the requirements of legislation
To show management commitment
To find underlying causes
b) Person not aware of procedure
Trivial (minor) nature of injury
Considers management may not take any action
Blame culture within the organisation
Peer pressure
Preserve accident record
Question
Outline the reasons why an organisation should monitor its health
and safety performance (8)

Answer
• To identify substandard practices
• To identify trends in accidents and incidents
• To compare actual performance with previous targets
• To benchmark against that of similar organisations
• Identify whether control measure are in use
• Make decisions on remedial actions
• Set priorities and establish realistic targets
• Assess compliance with legal requirements
• Provide management with relevant information
Question
Outline FOUR proactive monitoring methods that can be
used in assessing the health and safety performance of
an organisation (8)

Answer
• safety audit is a systematic critical examination of companies
health and safety management system and procedures
• safety surveys which generally focus on a particular procedure or
activity, such as the introduction of new equipment
• safety tours which are unscheduled, less formal inspections to
check on general workplace standards
• safety sampling which is an organised system of checking defined
areas of the workplace, & often particular health & safety issues,
on a regular basis
Question
Explain how the following may be used to improve safety
performance within an organisation:
a) Accident data (4)
b) Safety inspections (4)

Answer
a) Accident data b) Safety inspections
• Shows trends and patterns. • Identifies workplace hazards.
• Identifies weaknesses in • Introduce control measures.
procedures and policies.
• Consultation with employees.
• Priorities safety measures.
• identifies areas for improvements. • Benchmark improvements.
• Sets targets for reduction. • Covers all aspects of workplace
Question
Identify EIGHT measures that can be used to monitor an
organisations health and safety performance (8)

Answer
• Rates of accidents/incidents
• Actions taken by enforcement authorities
• Number of compensation claims
• Results of inspections
• Results of environmental monitoring
• Outcomes of safety audits
• Results of tours, sampling and surveys
• Compliance with procedures
• Number of staff trained in health and safety
Question
Explain the main features of:
a) A safety inspection (4)
b) A safety audit (4)

Answer

a)
A safety inspection involves the straightforward observation
of a workplace &/or the activities or equipment within it. A
safety inspection, usually carried out by a manager or
employee representative & often aided by the use of a
checklist, may be carried out routinely & has the aim of
identifying hazards & assessing the use & effectiveness of
control measures
Answer
b)
A safety audit, is a thorough, critical examination of an
organisation’s safety management systems & procedures.
It is normally a lengthy process carried out by a trained
auditor, often someone from outside the organisation. It is a
structured way of assessing the H&S performance of an
organisation by supplying answers to a series of questions,
& often involves a scoring system such that improvements
can be made
Question
A production manager intends to implement a programme of
regular workplace inspections.
a) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning
the inspection programme (6)
b) Identify the main health and safety issues that may be
included on the inspection checklist (8)
c) Other than inspections Outline THREE proactive methods of
monitoring health and safety performance
(6)
Answer
a)
• the nature of the hazards in the workplace
• the composition & competence of the inspection team
• the areas to be inspected & the routes to follow
• the timing & frequency of the inspections
• the relevant legislation & standards against which the results of
the inspection would be judged
• the preparation & provision of checklists
• the action that should follow the inspections
• the means of notifying & consulting with relevant staff prior to
the inspection
Answer
b)
• machinery safety
• the storage of hazardous substances
• fire prevention & the evacuation procedure
• ergonomic issues
• electricity work
• workplace housekeeping
• welfare provision
• observation of workers’ behaviour
• work environment
Answer
c)
• safety audit is a systematic critical examination of companies
health and safety management system and procedures
• safety surveys which generally focus on a particular procedure
or activity, such as the introduction of new equipment
• safety tours which are unscheduled, less formal inspections to
check on general workplace standards
• safety sampling which is an organised system of checking
defined areas of the workplace, & often particular health &
safety issues, on a regular basis
Question
An employer intends to implement a programme of regular
workplace inspections following a workplace accident.
a) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning
such inspections (6)
b) Identify THREE additional proactive methods that could be used
in the monitoring of health and safety performance
(6)
c) Identify the possible costs to the organisation as a result of the
accident (8)
Answer
a)
• the nature of the hazards in the workplace
• the composition & competence of the inspection team
• the areas to be inspected & the routes to follow
• the timing & frequency of the inspections
• the relevant legislation & standards against which the results
of the inspection would be judged
• the preparation & provision of checklists
• the action that should follow the inspections
• the means of notifying & consulting with relevant staff prior
to the inspection
Answer

b)
• safety audits
• safety surveys
• safety samplings
• safety tours
Answer
c)
• the cost of loss production
• time lost by the employees involved in the accident
• clean-up costs
• cost for repair of damaged plant & equipment
• cost in increase in insurance premiums
• cost of legal representation in any subsequent
proceedings & the legal fines
• cost from compensation payments
• intangible costs lost of company reputation
• cost from the lost of morale of the workforce
Question

a) Outline the factors that should be considered when


planning an inspection of a workplace (10)
b) Identify information that should be included in a report of
a workplace inspection. Explain how the information
should be presented in order to increase the likelihood of
action being taken (10)