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A Short Course in

Industrial Design

Eskild Tjalve
Senior Lecturer, Department o f Engineering
Design, The Technical University o f Denmark

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First published in Denmark in 1976 as 'Systematisk udformning af


industriprodukter'

First published in English 1979

© E. Tjalve, 1979

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted


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Tjalve, Eskild
A short course in industrial design.
1. Engineering design
I. Title

620'.0042 TA174 78-41280

ISBN 0-408-00388-X

Typeset by Butterworths Litho Preparation Department

Printed in Scotland by Thomson Litho L t d . , East Kilbride


Preface

T h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e w p r o d u c t takes i n m a n y levels o f a c t i v i t y a n d m a n y s k i l l s , o f w h i c h t h e f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t
are t h o s e o f design engineers a n d i n d u s t r i a l designers. I t is easy t o recognise t h e e x t r e m e s w h e n c o m p a r i n g
t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e design e n g i n e e r a n d t h e i n d u s t r i a l designer, b u t n o t so easy t o say w h e r e t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f one ends a n d t h e o t h e r begins.
T h e design engineer is i n v o l v e d in design w h i c h is o f t e n k n o w n b y o t h e r names, e.g. s k e t c h i n g , d e t a i l
d e s i g n , d i m e n s i o n i n g , e t c . A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e w o r k o f design engineers a n d i n d u s t r i a l designers consists
o f t h e same a c t i v i t i e s , i.e. f o r m u l a t i o n o f suggestions o f shape, ' m o d e l l i n g ' o f these ( s k e t c h i n g , d r a w i n g
o r h a r d w a r e m o d e l l i n g ) , i n v e s t i g a t i n g a n d a p p r a i s i n g t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e t h e
creative m i n d at m a n y levels a n d are t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s b o o k , w h i c h n o t o n l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e s t u d e n t t o
t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e v o l v i n g a d e s i g n , b u t surveys t h e c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h these are assessed. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s b o o k
t h e w o r d ' d e s i g n e r ' has been used as a b l a n k e t t e r m f o r p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h design (i.e. engineers, designers
and others) of products.
T h e c o n t e n t s o f t h i s b o o k s h o u l d be seen as p a r t o f t h e design t e c h n i q u e . In t h e o v e r a l l p l a n f o r p r o j e c t
e v a l u a t i o n a n d design o n l y t h e m e t h o d s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e f i n a l phases o f design p r o j e c t have been d e s c r i b e d .
T h e danger o f f o r m u l a t i n g s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k , is t h a t o t h e r s are
led i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h necessarily gives t h e r i g h t a n s w e r . T h i s is j u s t n o t so. T h e m o s t
e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n is achieved b y t h e r i g h t balance o f s y s t e m a t i c s a n d i n t u i t i o n . T h e s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h
s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be seen as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e t o i n n o v a t i o n , n a m e l y an u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t t h a t one c a n , t h r o u g h a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t l o o k o b j e c t i v e l y a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y at all t h e
design c r i t e r i a a n d premises o n w h i c h a n y p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n is based.
E x i s t i n g p r o d u c t s have t o a great e x t e n t been used as e x a m p l e s . These are i n c l u d e d p a r t i c u l a r l y where
t h e y i l l u s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e same p r o b l e m a n d d i f f e r e n t results — a n d n o t because t h e y are
p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d o r b a d . T h e r e is t h u s n o i m p l i e d e v a l u a t i o n in t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n .
I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h o s e c o m p a n i e s w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x a m p l e s b y s u b m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l
o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . T h e p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h are n o t a c k n o w l e d g e d w e r e t a k e n o n m y b e h a l f b y F r a n k S c h m i d t , t o
w h o m I am very grateful.
It is m y h o p e t h a t m a n y o f t h o s e w h o are i n v o l v e d in t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p r o d u c t s w i l l f i n d t h i s b o o k useful
w h e t h e r t h e y are engineers o r designers. I also h o p e t h a t t h e b o o k w i l l f i l l a gap i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n n e c t e d
w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f e n g i n e e r i n g design in t h e schools o f e n g i n e e r i n g . In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , a m a t e r i a l
o b j e c t requires a r o u g h d r a w i n g b e f o r e o n e c a n get d o w n t o t h e necessary s p e c i f i c c a l c u l a t i o n s a n d d e t a i l i n g . A
l o t o f t i m e is r i g h t l y used o n these essential p r o c e d u r e s , y e t so o f t e n n o o n e w i l l q u e s t i o n h o w t h e idea be­
h i n d a n y p a r t i c u l a r s c h e m e has e m e r g e d . It is t o o c o m m o n a m i s t a k e t o regard t h e f i r s t idea f o r a design as
t h e o n l y o n e o r even as t h e best. L a s t l y I h o p e t h a t t h e b o o k m a y be an i n s p i r a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l designers
in t r a i n i n g a n d in p r a c t i c e , as i t m u s t be i m p o r t a n t f o r designers t o get an idea o f t h e phases a c o m p l e x
p r o d u c t goes t h r o u g h , as w e l l as a general v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n .

Eskild Tjalve
1 CREATION OF A PRODUCT

1.1 T h e idea o f f o r m 3

1.2 Life o f the product 6

1.3 Properties o f t h e p r o d u c t 7

1.4 T h e step-by-step creation o f t h e p r o d u c t 7


1. Creation of a Product
1.1 The idea of f o r m

A v e r y great p a r t o f o u r w o r l d consists o f o b j e c t s the handwheel) i n t o one of translation (of the


w h i c h have o n e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o p e r t y , f o r m : i.e. a valve seat).
shape, a c e r t a i n a r r a n g e m e n t o f parts a n d an o v e r a l l T h e valve seat is a n n u l a r because o n e m u s t be
s t r u c t u r e . F o r m m a y arise as f o l l o w s ( F i g u r e 1 ) : able t o face i t o f f w i t h a m i l l i n g c u t t e r t o m a k e
1. A n uncontrolled process, where the form i t f i t t i g h t l y against t h e gasket.
depends solely on the conditions o f the en­ T h e i n n e r c a v i t y o f t h e valve is shaped t o f a c i l i t a t e
v i r o n m e n t , e.g. p e b b l e s , m o u n t a i n ranges. flow.
2. A process c o n t r o l l e d b y p h y s i c a l a n d c h e m i c a l The outer form of the valve consists o f two
laws as w e l l as t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n ­ intersecting cylinders.
m e n t , e.g. ice c r y s t a l s , m i c a . T h e c y l i n d e r f o r m is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e mould
3. A process c o n t r o l l e d b y genes a n d t h e c o n ­ f r o m w h i c h t h e valve h o u s i n g is cast.
ditions of the environment, e.g. living
organisms.
S i m i l a r c o m m e n t s t o t h e above can be m a d e o n
4 . A process c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e wishes o f m e n o r
t h e c u p a n d saucer s h o w n in F i g u r e 3 :
animals and the c o n d i t i o n s o f the e n v i r o n m e n t ,
T h e c u p a n d saucer have r o t a t i o n a l symmetry,
e.g. m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s , a beaver's d a m ,
either because t h e y are t h r o w n o n t h e potter's
b i r d s ' nests.
w h e e l o r , (if t h e y w e r e m a d e in a m o u l d ) s i m p l y
Now that manufactured products increasingly because cups and saucers traditionally have
dominate our everyday world — indeed where rotational symmetry.
whole environments are m a n - m a d e — w e need t o T h e c u p is c y l i n d r i c a l because a c e r t a i n appearance
analyse m o r e c l o s e l y t h e processes b y w h i c h f o r m was d e s i r e d .
is d e t e r m i n e d , so t h a t w e m a y design o u r e n v i r o n m e n t T h e c u p is s m a l l e r in d i a m e t e r at t h e base p a r t l y
as m u c h t o o u r l i k i n g as p o s s i b l e . because i t is t h e n s t a c k a b l e a n d p a r t l y f o r reasons
As a f i r s t a t t e m p t at t h i s analysis let us e x a m i n e o f appearance.
t h e valve in F i g u r e 2 . T h e design o f t h e valve a n d T h e n o t c h in t h e base o f t h e c u p lets t h e w a t e r
t h e parts f r o m w h i c h it is assembled is as f o l l o w s : drain away if i t is w a s h e d ( u p s i d e d o w n ) i n a
washing up machine.

T h e t w o c o n n e c t i n g pieces are h e x a g o n a l because T h e shape o f t h e h a n d l e ensures t h a t t h e part

o n e m u s t be able t o assemble t h e valve w i t h an w h i c h is h e l d does n o t get t o o h o t w h e n t h e c u p

a d j u s t a b l e spanner. is b e i n g u s e d .

T h e r o t a t i n g n u t u n d e r t h e h a n d w e e l is also h e x ­ T h e edge o f t h e saucer is t u r n e d u p because it

agonal so t h a t it can be t i g h t e n e d w i t h a s p a n n e r . m u s t be able t o h o l d l i q u i d s p i l t f r o m t h e c u p .

T h e h a n d w h e e l is r o u n d because t h e h a n d m u s t be
able t o grasp it f i r m l y in all p o s i t i o n s . Even if these t w o e x a m p l e s are a l i t t l e s i m p l i f i e d
T h e s p i n d l e is t h r e a d e d because o f its f u n c t i o n , t h e y s t i l l s h o w c l e a r l y t h a t t h e design o f a p r o d u c t
w h i c h is t o t r a n s f o r m t h e r o t a r y m o v e m e n t ( o f a n d its e l e m e n t s d e p e n d s o n m a n y d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s .
Figure 1 Form can arise in four ways
Creation of a Product 5

Figure 2 The form of the valve is determined by a large


number of factors

e.g. m a n u f a c t u r i n g process, f u n c t i o n , ease o f h a n d ­ A n understanding of the factors w h i c h influence


ling, appearance and economics. Another very t h e design m u s t be b u i l t on a knowledge of the
i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , w h i c h w e m u s t n o t f o r g e t , is t h e v a r i o u s stages i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o d u c t . In t h e f o l ­
person who designs the product. However many l o w i n g pages, t h e r e f o r e , w e w i l l e x a m i n e a m o d e l o f
r e q u i r e m e n t s t h e r e are in t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the t h e life o f a p r o d u c t f r o m i n c e p t i o n t o d e s t r u c t i o n ,
d e s i g n , t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s be r o o m f o r t h e designer as w e l l as a m o r e d e t a i l e d m o d e l o f t h e w a y in w h i c h
t o express his ideas a n d personal j u d g e m e n t . a p r o d u c t comes into being.

Figure 3 Many factors determine the form of a cup (R0rstrand)


6 Creation of a Produc t

1.2 Life of the product p r o d u c t is c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f i e d . F o r p r o d u c t s w h i c h


are t o be p r o d u c e d i n great n u m b e r s , t h e design a n d
All p r o d u c t s are c r e a t e d , used a n d e v e n t u a l l y dis­ choice o f p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d f o l l o w next, b u t f o r
carded. L e t us, t h e r e f o r e , examine a little more t h e sake o f c l a r i t y t h i s phase has been l e f t o u t i n
closely w h a t happens t o a p r o d u c t before, d u r i n g Figure 4 . N e x t comes t h e p r o d u c t manufacturing
a n d a f t e r use. process, a f t e r w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t is sold t o t h e dealer,
When a product is used i t p e r f o r m s a process f r o m w h o m i t is resold t o t h e c o n s u m e r . O n l y n o w
which brings a b o u t a n e x t e r n a l change f r o m o n e can t h e p r o d u c t f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o its i n t e n d e d
state t o a n o t h e r . I t is t h e need f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r ­ p u r p o s e . T h e l i f e o f t h e p r o d u c t ends w i t h d e s t r u c ­
m a t i o n t h a t has caused t h e p r o d u c t t o be c r e a t e d , t i o n . T h i s process can be a c t i v e , w h e r e t h e p r o d u c t
for example: may be c r u s h e d , t a k e n a p a r t o f m e l t e d d o w n , o r
passive, w h e r e i t rusts, c r u m b l e s o r d e c o m p o s e s , e t c .
Scissors: A w h o l e sheet o f paper - paper d i v i d e d F i g u r e 4 s h o w s t h a t , i d e a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n is f e d
i n t o t w o pieces. i n t o t h e design process f r o m ail o t h e r p r o d u c t - r e l a t e d
Fiie: A blank w i t h burrs — a blank w i t h chamfered activities. E f f e c t i v e design is o n l y possible i f t h e
edges. designer is a w a r e o f w h a t h a p p e n s b e y o n d t h e d r a w ­
Television: A person w i t h a need f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t ing board and in other departments. Thus, the
and information — a person e n t e r t a i n e d a n d i n ­ p r o d u c t is s p e c i f i e d d u r i n g t h e design process, b u t
formed. w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d wishes f r o m all t h e o t h e r

Extruder: Plastic granules — c o n t i n u o u s l e n g t h o f stages i n m i n d .

plastic p r o f i l e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d cross s e c t i o n . It is i m p o r t a n t t o realise t h a t F i g u r e 4 s h o w s t h e


B e f o r e t h e p r o d u c t is used t h e user has b r o u g h t general course of an i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured

it f r o m a dealer, w h o i n t u r n has b r o u g h t i t f r o m p r o d u c t . I n p r o d u c t s t h a t are designed a n d m a d e b y

t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r . W h e n i t has e i t h e r served its p u r ­ t h e same p e r s o n t h e f i r s t t w o processes can be c o m ­


b i n e d . N o t e also t h a t t h e r e m a y be o t h e r i n p u t t o
pose, w o r n o u t o r b r o k e n , i t is d e s t r o y e d .
t h e design process o t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n o n need
If these events are a r r a n g e d in sequence, w e c a n
o r f u n c t i o n , such as an idea f o r a p r o d u c t o r n e w
i l l u s t r a t e t h e life o f t h e p r o d u c t as s h o w n i n F i g u r e
competing products. The input shown in F i g u r e
4 . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t is t h e use f o r w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t
4 , h o w e v e r , is c o n s i d e r e d t h e general o n e , because
is i n t e n d e d . T h e f i r s t phase is t h e design process i n
in t h e o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s o n e s t i l l has t o g o b a c k a n d
w h i c h possible m e t h o d s o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e user needs
start w i t h t h e n e e d .
are examined, a n d in w h i c h the finally chosen

Feed-back information
r 1 Γ
Information
Of need _
DBSIGK/

Specificaéion
of Ihe product

UAKJUrACTUI^E DESmUCT/ON )Ñaste


/f^iv mater Lais ^ SALE h
mo^terials

Product
Object in
Object in,
first state second state
USIKJQ PKOCESS

Figure 4 Showing the processes in the life of a product


Creation of a Product 7

1.3 Properties o f the product T h e a i m in d e s i g n i n g is t h a t t h e q u a l i t i e s p r e s e n t


in t h e finished p r o d u c t s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e
A n y o b j e c t ( p r o d u c t , m a c h i n e , o r s y s t e m ) possesses p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e d . A s t h i s a i m , h o w e v e r , is n o t al-
characteristic p r o p e r t i e s . S o m e o f these p r o p e r t i e s ways achieved, w e must distinguish between the
may be d e s i r e d , b u t o t h e r s m a y be m o r e o r less desired p r o p e r t i e s a n d t h e realised ones.
unwanted. The most important p r o p e r t y o f all is Thus w e c a n arrive at a m o d e l o f t h e design
t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t , because it is process as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 5. T h i s s h o w s t h e step-
t h i s t h a t helps t h e user in his n e e d . T h e o t h e r desir- b y - s t e p process f r o m t h e analysis o f t h e p r o b l e m t o
able p r o p e r t i e s m a y b e : pleasing a p p e a r a n c e , ease o f the finished product.
handling, safety, durability and reliability. I n t h e i n i t i a l analysis stage, t h e p r o b l e m is ex-
Before the product is designed the required a m i n e d f r o m all sides. T h i s results o n t h e o n e h a n d
p r o p e r t i e s s h o u l d be listed b y t h e designer, p e r h a p s in a c o n c r e t e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e desired f u n c t i o n ,
in c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e user. D u r i n g t h e design a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n a list o f t h e desired p r o p e r -
period when the product is c r e a t e d , it is these ties w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t m u s t m a k e u p
p r o p e r t i e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e decisions a n d c h o i c e s the b a c k g r o u n d f o r the selection o f solutions.
t h a t are m a d e . N e x t f o l l o w s t h e stage o f s y n t h e s i s , i.e. t h e stage
Unfortunately o n e c a n n o t design a p r o d u c t in in w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t is c r e a t e d . T h i s is d o n e b y
such a w a y t h a t t h e desired p r o p e r t i e s are d e t e r m i n e d r o u g h l y d e t e r m i n i n g step b y step o n t h e basic p r o p e r -
o n e a f t e r t h e o t h e r , f o r t h e y are n o t i n d e p e n d e n t ties of structure, f o r m , material, dimension, and
variables. We f i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t f i v e p r o p e r t i e s c a n surface.
be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m all o t h e r s , in t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y W h e n t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are d e c i d e d o n , t h e
completely define the p r o d u c t . T h e y are: design o f t h e p r o d u c t is f i n i s h e d , a n d i t c a n be m a n u -
f a c t u r e d . A f t e r m a n u f a c t u r e the p r o d u c t exists, and
For the product as a whole: S t r u c t u r e (i.e. t h e possesses s o m e 'realisedproperties., which hopefully
elements o f the are close t o t h e ' d e s i r e d p r o p e r t i e s ' t h a t w e r e f o r m u -
product and their l a t e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l analysis.
relationship)
For each element: Form 1.4 The step-by-step creation o f t h e p r o d u c t
Material
Dimension T h e design m o d e l s h o w n in F i g u r e 5 is a g r e a t l y
Surface s i m p l i f i e d o n e , t h a t serves o n l y t o give a general v i e w
o f t h e design process. I t c a n n o t be used as a recipe
These f i v e p r o p e r t i e s are t h e basic properties. It for d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t . I t c a n , h o w e v e r , be elab-
is i m p o r t a n t t o emphasise t h a t these are t h e variables o r a t e d t o t r y t o achieve t h i s . A s w e are p r i m a r i l y
which t h e designer c a n m a n i p u l a t e , a n d i t is b y concerned w i t h the quality of ' f o r m ' , we will only
successively deciding on these that a product is m a k e t h e m o d e l m o r e d e t a i l e d in t h e stages w h e r e
c r e a t e d . T h u s all t h e o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s , desirable as t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are l a i d d o w n .
well as u n d e s i r a b l e , are d e r i v e d from the basic We c a n call t h e d e t a i l e d m o d e l the product syn-
properties. thesis, as i t s h o w s t h e i n d i v i d u a l steps t h r o u g h w h i c h

BASIC PJ^0P£R:T/£3

Structure
Form REALISED
DESlfZED
PIZOPEfZr/äS Uc^tercaL P/^OPE/ZTIEö
DimenscoK
Sur/Uce

Figure 5 Tfie basic properties are the variables which the designer can manipulate. The other properties of the product
depend on these
8 Creation of a Product

PROBLEM
ANALYSIS

MAI/<J FUNCTIONS
C

IZ
I
τ SUB FUNCriOKJS
AND MEANS
e

I
A BASIC STZUCTUI^B

ΟϋΑΝΤίπερ
STICUCJUKE

TOTAL FOIZM V1 w FO/^M OF


THE ELEMENTS
Ma Lena ί

Surß\ce

Figure 6 The product synthesis. A model of the design process showing the stages
in the creation of a product

the product is c r e a t e d , see F i g u r e 6. T h e black d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . In t h e p r o d u c t s y n ­


a r r o w s s h o w t h e t i m e sequence. T h e p r o d u c t syn­ thesis t h i s v e r y important stage is d i v i d e d into a
thesis takes as its s t a r t i n g p o i n t the t w o outputs series o f steps, b e g i n n i n g w i t h a d i v i s i o n o f t h e de­
f r o m t h e p r o b l e m analysis, n a m e l y o n t h e one h a n d sired f u n c t i o n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s . T h e n f o l l o w s an
t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e desired f u n c t i o n - the main e x a m i n a t i o n o f possible means o f realising t h e sub-
function (possibly several s u b - o r d i n a t e m a i n func­ functions, a combination of these into a basic
tions) on the other hand the list of desired s t r u c t u r e a n d f i n a l l y an a d a p t a t i o n i n t o a q u a n t i f i e d
p r o p e r t i e s , w h i c h can also be d e s c r i b e d as c r i t e r i a structure, where critical parameters are o p t i m i s e d
f o r an o p t i m u m p r o d u c t . and where the relative arrangement o f the elements
In Figure 5 w e saw t h a t the n e x t step is t h e is d e t e r m i n e d .
Creation of a Product 9

Form is t r e a t e d in t w o parallel b r a n c h e s , since Sub-functions and means


t h e t o t a l f o r m a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t ele-
B y means, w e u n d e r s t a n d a s o l u t i o n , i.e. a m e t h o d , a
m e n t s are d e t e r m i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h e d e t a i l e d
sub-system or an element, with which a given
form of the elements includes a specification of
f u n c t i o n c a n be realised. T h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a i n
m a t e r i a l s , d i m e n s i o n s a n d surfaces.
f u n c t i o n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s a n d f u r t h e r i n t o sub-sub-
We see f r o m t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s . F i g u r e 6, t h a t
f u n c t i o n s , e t c t a k e s place a l t e r n a t e l y w i t h t h e search
t h e c r i t e r i a f o r an o p t i m u m p r o d u c t are used t h r o u g h
f o r means t o realise these. O n e possible p r o c e d u r e
t h e w h o l e design process as a g u i d e l i n e a n d c o n t r o l
consists o f a r r a n g i n g a so-called f u n c t i o n / m e a n s t r e e .
f o r each step w h e r e a d e c i s i o n is t a k e n .
F i g u r e 7 s h o w s h o w t h e f i r s t stages in t h e f u n c t i o n /
T h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs o u t l i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l
means t r e e f o r an a u t o m a t i c t e a m a k e r m a y l o o k .
stages in t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s a n d t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s
T h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e f u n c t i o n / m e a n s t r e e c a n be d e t a i l e d
are g i v e n .
u n t i l t h e means b e c o m e m a c h i n e e l e m e n t s , o r p a r t s
o f m a c h i n e e l e m e n t s . We s t o p w h e n w e have f o u n d
means t o t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s u b - f u n c t i o n s .
Main functions
Basic structure
T h e main function o f a p r o d u c t is t h e w a y in w h i c h
o u t p u t is d e t e r m i n e d b y i n p u t . If w e c o n c e i v e t h e A s o l u t i o n is a c h i e v e d b y c o n n e c t i n g o n e process f o r
p r o d u c t as a c o m p o u n d s y s t e m w e c a n discuss f u n c - each s u b - f u n c t i o n , w h i c h w e call t h e basic s t r u c t u r e .
t i o n s at all levels f r o m the function of the total T h e basic s t r u c t u r e c a n be expressed in b l o c k d i a -
s y s t e m ( m a i n f u n c t i o n , o r p o s s i b l y several parallel grams, working (or basic) drawings (machine
m a i n f u n c t i o n s ) t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f sub-systems a n d symbols, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric symbols, etc)
of elements (sub-functions). o r o t h e r w i s e s i m p l i f i e d d r a w i n g s . N o d e c i s i o n s are
T h e idea o f f u n c t i o n is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o o l f o r made at this stage as to 'quantities' such as
a n a l y s i n g a p r o b l e m i n t o a series o f c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d dimensions, relative arrangement etc. Figure 18
c o m p o n e n t s t h a t express w h a t t h e p r o d u c t m u s t be s h o w s d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e t e a m a k e r (see
able t o d o . Figure 7 ) .

/ \ FUAJCT/OKJ

MEAKJS

Te(Pi process w¿M Normal tea process Tea process wLtk


per/i/iSCOH
tea eKtract

Com bene i^ater / Co^troL \ I Separate ¿ea\^


and tea ieav^es ^breNin^ Urne' from tea Leares

Pass through
i^ecittn^ sc/ir/fice mter^iea Tea -^yvcpiterl f^eynove
both
léa^Aj^kyater
Γ
/Jeasure Measure tea Kieasi/ire time dependant
tokeaUyi^ \ to keatu^g elemnh time concentration \ stñte in tke process

Figure 7 The function/means tree for an automatic teamaker


10

Figure 8 Alternative basic structures for an automatic teamaker


Creation of a Product 11

Figure 9 Quantified structures for the main elements of a teamaker


12 Creation of a Product

Quantified structure Total form

T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e is one w h e r e t h e i m p o r t a n t The total form of the product is determined


p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s are o p t i m i s e d alternately with the form of the elements. The
and s p e c i f i e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t requirements of the total design depend on the
of the elements. H o w e v e r , n o t h i n g is y e t decided p r o d u c t w e are d e a l i n g w i t h . If a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a are
c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m design o f t h e e l e m e n t s . D i f f e r e n t i m p o r t a n t (i.e. in cars, b o a t s , c a m e r a s , e t c ) t h e design
q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s are s h o w n in F i g u r e 9. o f t h e e l e m e n t s m u s t be a d a p t e d t o t h e t o t a l d e s i g n .

Figure 10 Suggestions for tfie total form of the teamaker


Creation of a Product 13

4.

Le<^f spring 'Pen

maij be Msed y

^1 J
Cast

Figure 11 S/<etches made in connection with the detail design elements of the teamaker

If t e c h n i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a are w h a t m a t t e r s extremely u s e f u l , see F i g u r e 1 1 . G r a d u a l l y , as t h e


m o s t (i.e. c a r b u r e t t o r s , g e a r b o x e s , satellites, e t c ) t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s is s e t t l e d , t h e sketches are re­
design o f t h e e l e m e n t s m u s t t a k e precedence over placed by layouts, prepared w i t h a drawing machine,
t h e t o t a l design. a n d scale d r a w i n g s .
T h e f i n a l design o f each e l e m e n t requires decisions
on material, dimension, surface, tolerance and
Form of the elements production technology.
The elements of the product are s p e c i f i e d in
T h e f o r m design o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s is m a d e w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s w h i c h express f o u r o f t h e f u n d a ­
at t h e d e t a i l design stage o f t h e p r o d u c t . T h e v a r i o u s mental properties, f o r m , material, dimension and
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l areas s u r f a c e , as w e l l as f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n such as q u a n t i ­
m a k e a g o o d s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s stage. T h e c r i t e r i a ties t o be p r o d u c e d , possible m a n u f a c t u r i n g process,
w h i c h m a t t e r at t h i s stage are p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d n u m b e r of the d r a w i n g , date, etc. The f i f t h funda­
by f u n c t i o n , strength and manufacturing methods. mental property, the structure, is specified in
Typical a c t i v i t i e s at t h i s stage are, f i r s t o f a l l , assembly d r a w i n g s w h i c h s h o w h o w t h e c o m p o n e n t
calculation, sketching and drawing. Free-hand elements are t o be a s s e m b l e d , see F i g u r e 12. T h e
sketches d o n e in a q u i c k a n d l i g h t t e c h n i q u e are f i n i s h e d t e a m a k e r is s h o w n in F i g u r e 13.
14 Creation of a Product

Ί5)

Figure 12 Assembly drawing and


working drawing

Product syntfiesis

Each phase in the product synthesis brings the 1. T h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s ,


designer nearer his goal - t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . In 2. Examination of the solutions,
spite o f t h e c h a n g i n g c o n t e n t s o f t h e phases t h e y all 3. E v a l u a t i o n a n d c h o i c e o f s o l u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r
show a typical course: work.
Creation of a Product 15

T h i s c o u r s e is i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 4 , w h e r e t h e
n u m b e r o f s o l u t i o n s is s h o w n as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e .
Each p e a k c o r r e s p o n d s t o a phase in t h e product
synthesis.
T h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s is c a r r i e d o u t b y gener­
a t i n g ideas e i t h e r i n t u i t i v e l y o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , the
m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e phase.
T h e a i m in s e e k i n g m a n y s o l u t i o n s in a given phase
is t o e x p l o r e t h e ' s p a c e ' c r e a t e d b y t h e great n u m b e r
o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . I t is s e l d o m pos­
sible t o e x a m i n e all s o l u t i o n s , as t h e y are u s u a l l y
i n n u m e r a b l e . B u t t h e ' s o l u t i o n s p a c e ' s h o u l d s t i l l be
examined thoroughly so t h a t all t h e m a i n t y p e s o f
solution are i n c l u d e d . O n l y t h e n w e can say with
reasonable certainty that w e can c h o o s e t h e best
solution.
T h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s o l u t i o n s is m a d e o n t h e
basis o f c r i t e r i a w h i c h v a r y w i t h t h e phase a n d t h e
degree o f d e t a i l in t h e s o l u t i o n s . A n i n t u i t i v e e v a l u ­
a t i o n m a y t h u s be s u f f i c i e n t in t h e e a r l y phases, w h i l e
later o n it m a y be necessary t o a p p l y q u i t e a n u m b e r
of mutually weighted criteria.
T h e final result — the p r o d u c t — thus depends o n
t w o fundamentally different factors, firstly on the
ideas t h a t are b o r n , a n d s e c o n d l y o n t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t
decide w h i c h ideas are c h o s e n . A closer analysis o f
Figure 13 The finished teamaker (The Laboratory for
Engineering design. The Technical University of Denmark) t h e idea o f f o r m can be m a d e f r o m these t w o p o i n t s
of view. Thus the next chapter deals with the
m e t h o d s t h a t c a n be a p p l i e d in s e a r c h i n g f o r f o r m
ideas, w h i l e C h a p t e r 3 ' F o r m F a c t o r s ' is a b o u t t h e
factors t h a t make up the background f o r the selection
criteria.

Number of
solutionis
£xciniLhation
ofsoLiAtcoMS

T^me

Figure 14 The search for and examination of solutions, evaluation and choice
are a characteristic sequence in the product synthesis
2 METHODS USED IN FORM DESIGN

2.1 Limitations 19

2.2 Structure variation 21

2.3 Form variation 48

17
2. Methods Used in Form Design

2.1 Limitations

The final decisions o n a p r o d u c t ' s f o r m normally T h e c a l c u l a t o r f u l f i l l s t h e same n e e d f o r a n E u r o p e a n


t a k e place in t h e last phases o f t h e design process, as t h e abacus f o r a C h i n e s e .
b u t i t is i m p o r t a n t t o realise t h a t b e f o r e t h i s , t h e T h e w a y in w h i c h t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n is b r o k e n
designer has a l r e a d y been reflecting and making d o w n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e means c h o s e n ,
d e c i s i o n s t h a t have a f u n d a m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e t o s a t i s f y t h e s u b - f u n c t i o n s is j u s t as i m p o r t a n t f o r
f o r m . In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ( s e c t i o n 1.4) w e saw t h e design as t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n . T h i s c a n be i l l u ­
an example of this. L e t us, h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r a strated by a comparison of t w o products w i t h the
number of examples w h i c h more directly illustrate same m a i n f u n c t i o n b u t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c ­
t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e early decisions o n t h e f o r m o f ture.
the product. F i g u r e 16 s h o w s t w o d i f f e r e n t j a c k s , b o t h w i t h
T h e main f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t — established the main f u n c t i o n - t o transform a rotational manual
d u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase o f p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s - has a movement i n t o a very p o w e r f u l vertical one. The
c r u c i a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e t y p e o f p r o d u c t , e.g. w h e t h e r f o r m o f t h e t w o j a c k s d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y , because
i t is a m a c h i n e o r a t o o l . T w o p r o d u c t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t d i f f e r e n t means have been used t o realize t h e i n d i ­
m a i n f u n c t i o n s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be so d i f f e r e n t t h a t i t vidual sub functions, i.e. the basic structure is
is i m p o s s i b l e t o create o n e ' i n b e t w e e n ' - t h e y are different. We c a n also n o t e t h a t t h e f o r m o f one
s i m p l y f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . F i g u r e 1 5 s h o w s an c a n n o t be g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e d i n t o t h e f o r m o f t h e
e x a m p l e o f t h i s , n a m e l y a c a l c u l a t o r a n d a n abacus. other.

Figure 15 Desk calculator arid Japanese abacus or counting frame. The two products fulfil the same need, but the main
function is different (Desk calculator reproduced by courtesy of Canon)

19
20 Methods used in form design

Figure 16 Two car jacks


having the same main func­
tion (i.e. similar input and
output) but different basic
structures

Basic
structure

-o

Figure 17 Two valves with the same basic structure but with different quantified structures. The lower illustration shows
how one structure can be gradually changed into the other
Methods used in form design 21

T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e brings us t o a level in t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s are v a r i e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e


p r o d u c t synthesis where w e can m o v e gradually f r o m whole s o l u t i o n space is c o v e r e d . T h e q u e s t i o n o f
o n e s o l u t i o n t o a n o t h e r . I n F i g u r e 17 t h e t w o valves which p a r a m e t e r s c a n be p r o f i t a b l y v a r i e d w i l l be
have d i f f e r e n t quantified structures b u t t h e same examined in the following chapters, where the
basic structure, i.e. from the point of view of m e t h o d s are r e l a t e d t o t h e last phases i n product
f u n c t i o n t h e y c o n t a i n t h e same e l e m e n t s . T h e y are synthesis, namely the quantified structure, the
distinguished b y t h e d i f f e r e n t f o r m design o f the total f o r m and the f o r m o f the elements.
e l e m e n t s a n d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t angle o f t h e s p i n d l e
and the handwheel. The w a y in w h i c h the form
design o f t h e t w o valves can be m o d i f i e d , so t h a t w e 2.2 Structure variation
can m o v e g r a d u a l l y f r o m o n e t o t h e o t h e r , is also
illustrated. Tfie structure variation method
F o r m synthesis m e t h o d s a i m t o cover t h e w h o l e
range o f design s o l u t i o n s . We have seen t h a t f o r a C o n s i d e r t h e t h r e e c o f f e e m a k e r s s h o w n in F i g u r e
c h o s e n basic s t r u c t u r e t h e f o r m design c a n be c h a n g e d 1 8 . T h e y all w o r k o n t h e same p r i n c i p l e (i.e. w i t h a
s m o o t h l y f r o m one solution t o another. The methods s i m i l a r basic s t r u c t u r e ) . B u t w h y are t w o o f t h e m
for form synthesis can therefore be naturally alike, while the t h i r d o n e is q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ? The
d e s c r i b e d as v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d s w h e r e s o m e charac- a n s w e r lies in t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e .

Figure 18 Three different coffee makers with the same basic structure. The
shape of the top two products is a/most idéntica/. Why is the one below different?
(Courtesty of Melitta, NG Electric, Braun)
22 Methods used in form design

In t h e f i r s t t w o t h e r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e f o r a n y t w o p r o d u c t s gives a c o m m o n de­
c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s is s i m i l a r , w h i l e i n t h e last o n e sign c h a r a c t e r , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s
i t is d i f f e r e n t . T h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o m ­ p r o d u c e w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e d e s i g n .
ponent elements is an important feature of a T h e s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d is a n easy m e t h o d
quantified s t r u c t u r e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e is o f g e n e r a t i n g ideas f o r alternative structures. The
t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p a r t s , in t h i s case t h e sizes o f m e t h o d is based o n t h e v i e w t h a t a n u m b e r o f sug­
t h e c o n t a i n e r s a n d t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n these. gested s o l u t i o n s are needed b e f o r e a s o l u t i o n c a n
T h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f d e f i n i t e l y be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as g o o d . T h e m e t h o d has
the component e l e m e n t s can be used as v a r i a t i o n been t r i e d in d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s i t u a t i o n s , a n d i t can
p a r a m e t e r s in t h e search f o r design s o l u t i o n s . T h i s be a p p l i e d at m a n y levels, e.g. in b o t h t h e b u i l d i n g
method can be called 'the structure variation u p o f t h e t o t a l s y s t e m a n d in t h e c r e a t i o n o f small
method.' The greatest effect is achieved if the sub-systems.
i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d ( p o s s i b l y m o d e l l e d Q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e can be used f r o m t w o p o i n t s
in t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s ) i n a t e c h n i q u e w h e r e all super­ o f v i e w , w h i c h d i f f e r in w h e t h e r the f u n c t i o n a l c o n ­
f l u o u s details are l e f t out. In t h i s w a y o n e saves n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s is i n c l u d e d o r n o t . If
t i m e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s o l u t i o n s as w e l l as these f u n c t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s are i g n o r e d , t h e s t r u c ­
clarity when comparing them. t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d gives a n u m b e r o f suggestions
Figure 19 s h o w s t h e basic s t r u c t u r e f o r coffee f o r a v e r y r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t . If t h e
makers, together w i t h h o w a number of quantified functional connections are included, we get a
s t r u c t u r e s c r e a t e d b y v a r i a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e arrange­ d e f i n i t e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e basic s t r u c t u r e ,
m e n t and o f the dimensions o f the elements. w i t h t h e a i m o f o p t i m i s i n g a n d s p e c i f y i n g t h e para­
Figure 20 shows examples of typical coffee meters involved. This is s h o w n by the examples
m a k e r s . It d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w a c o m m o n quantified given i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

V a r i a t i o n of relative arrangement

w
a
Figure 19 Quantified structures for coffee ma/<ers
23

Figure 20 Various types of coffee makers. See


a/so quantified structures in Figure 19 (Courtesy
of Siemens, Krups, Me/itta, Ptii/ips, and Braun)
24 Methods used in form design

Structure variation of tfie main elements s o r t i n g o f t h e s o l u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o such c r i t e r i a as


space, o p e r a t i o n a n d a p p e a r a n c e .
The elements t h a t most influence a p r o d u c t ' s f o r m Figure 21 shows a n u m b e r o f q u a n t i f i e d structures
design are, o f c o u r s e , t h e m a i n ones. We m a y t h e r e ­ for a vacuum cleaner, t o g e t h e r w i t h the relative
fore conveniently apply the structure variation arrangement of the three main elements. The func­
m e t h o d t o a f e w o f the main elements o f the p r o d u c t , tional connection between the elements is not
in o r d e r t h a t a f i r s t s u r v e y o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e indicated. Figure 22 shows some m o d e r n vacuum
design m a y be c a r r i e d o u t . T h e sketches o r m o d e l s cleaners, w h e r e w e can see h o w g r e a t l y t h e relative
m a d e a t t h i s stage give a b a c k g r o u n d f o r a f i r s t r o u g h arrangement o f the elements influences the design.

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES
SYMBOLS

Variatior^ of relative arrangement


jTTI tor
Mote

1S I Dust container

Mouthpiece

etc

Ml. Μ

Μ S.
s—

Μ Μ

Figure 21 Quantified structures for vacuum cleaners


25

Figure 22 Vacuum cleaners with different quantified structures. (See also Figure 21). (Courtesy ofNilfisk and Miele)
26 Methods used in form design

Let us now see how the structure variation be d r a w n very quickly. The t w o microscopes in
nnethod can be a p p l i e d t o a m i c r o s c o p e . T h e basic F i g u r e 2 4 are c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t quantified
s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m i c r o s c o p e is c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y t h e s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h c a n be c l e a r l y seen f r o m t h e i r v e r y
lenses a n d image planes i n v o l v e d . T o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n t designs.
d e r i v e d s t r u c t u r e , o n e needs i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e size O f t e n i t is possible t o use y e t a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n
a n d f o c a l l e n g t h o f t h e lenses, t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n p a r a m e t e r , n a m e l y t h e n u m b e r o f each o f t h e c o n ­
t h e m and their relative arrangement. Figure 2 3 shows s t i t u e n t t y p e s o f e l e m e n t . In p r i n c i p l e a v a r i a t i o n o f
quantified structures based on variation of the the n u m b e r belongs t o t h e basic s t r u c t u r e , b u t in
relative arrangement of the tube and the object cases w h e r e a n e l e m e n t can be d i v i d e d i n t o several
plane in relation t o t h e table. or d o u b l e d — w i t h o u t altering the character o f the
The functional connections between the elements basic s t r u c t u r e — t h e n u m b e r m a y w i t h e q u a l r i g h t
(e.g. t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e rays a n d f o c u s s i n g ) are n o t be v a r i e d u n d e r t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e .
included in t h e q u a n t i f i e d structures, b u t t h e y can

BASIC STRUCTURE
QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

Variation of relative a r r a n g e m e n t •4

1«^ I
Γ

Figure 23 Quantified structures for a microscope


27

Figure 24 Microscope with different quantified structures.


(Courtesy of Olympus and Monolynx)
28 Methods used in form design

F i g u r e 2 5 s h o w s possible q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s f o r In F i g u r e 2 5 , n o t e t h a t t h e range o f s o l u t i o n s is
r o a d r o l l e r s , w h e r e t h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s are t h e n a r r o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t all t h e
relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e n u m b e r o f t h e e l e m e n t s . w h e e l s m u s t be o n t h e same l e v e l , a n d t h a t n o ele­
T h e e l e m e n t s w e e x a m i n e are: w h e e l s , engine a n d m e n t m a y lie b e l o w t h i s level.
p o s i t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t o r . O n l y r o a d rollers b u i l t o n In F i g u r e 2 5 , n o t e also t h a t t h e k e y t o t h e syste­
the t r a d i t i o n a l principle, where rolling wheels and matic arrangement covering the whole spectrum of
t r a n s p o r t w h e e l s are i d e n t i c a l are c o n s i d e r e d . solutions lies in t h e small f r a m e d f i g u r e s . These

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURFi^
SYMBOLS
O Wheel

lEl Engine

!
Variation of: Relative arrangement
-Number Operator

E L E M E N T S ON
ONE LEVEL

2 Wheels

OOdllH] OOEll OiOSl O M O

OÍEO O m o Jooia isioo

OMO ΒΟΪΟ ?!E O G lOO


Figure 25 Quan tified structures for road rollers
29

3 Wheels

Id
OOiEQO )?OIñlO

4 Wheels

)?ΟΪΕθΟ OO ο Ϊ ε ι ο

Figure 25 (continued)
30

E L E M E N T S ON
TWO LEVELS

2 Wheels

...|... -I !•··
o m o m o o

oof οίο οίο ίο o


3 Wheels

OOOE\ OÖmO OmOO ΞΟ

doof οοίο οοϊο^ cíoo Ιοοο

Ä
4 Wheels

o o ö o J m

Ε···
oooo oooo
Figure 25 (continued)
31

E L E M E N T S ON
TWO LEVELS

2 Wheels 3 Wheels

• m l
O OOO )00
OO
i. W h e e l s

oooo ooo

ELEMENTS ON
THREE LEVELS

MM.

3 Wheels
2 Wheels
..|„ /El)
É)" \ S o l O \OOo/
Í Wheels

oooo
Figure 25 (continued)
32 Methods used in form design

f i g u r e s express t h e levels o n w h i c h t h e e l e m e n t s lie a reasonable n u m b e r ( f o u r , in t h i s case) o f c a t e g o r i e s ,


i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e a r t h . O f c o u r s e an e l e m e n t (e.g. W h e n a given s t r u c t u r e is c h o s e n f o r closer e x a m i n -
t h e e n g i n e ) m a y lie o n a level b e t w e e n t h e ones w e a t i o n o n e m u s t s t i l l feel f r e e t o v a r y t h e a r r a n g e m e n t
are c o n s i d e r i n g , b u t as t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s are o b v i o u s l y of the elements, although within narrow limits,
i n n u m e r a b l e w e begin b y d i v i d i n g t h e p r o b l e m i n t o Figure 26 shows some m o d e r n existing road rollers.

Figure 26 Road rollers. (See also Figure 25)


33

Figure 26 (continued)
34 Methods used in form design

Range of solutions for two and three t h e angle o f t h e t w o e l e m e n t s can be v a r i e d g r a d u a l l y ,


elements b u t t h e range o f s o l u t i o n s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e
angles s h o w n .
I t is necessary t o ask ' H o w m a n y q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c ­ T h e relative arrangement o f three elements o f t h e
t u r e s is i t realistic t o d r a w u p , a n d is i t possible t o get same o r d e r o f size c a n be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e same c o n ­
a clear v i e w o f t h e w h o l e range o f s o l u t i o n ? ' In m a n y siderations. Figure 2 8 shows a n u m b e r o f possibilities
cases t h i s can be d o n e if o n l y t h e m o s t important at t h e s h o w n level o f d e t a i l . T h e great n u m b e r o f
e l e m e n t s are i n c l u d e d as a basis f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n s . solutions that emerge through a permutation of
The possibilities for t w o and three elements are three different elements in each o f the positions
examined below. s h o w n w i l l a l w a y s be q u i c k l y l i m i t e d w h e n w o r k i n g
If w e e x a m i n e t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f two o n a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s is s h o w n
e l e m e n t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal size w e can d r a w i n t h e e x a m p l e o n page 4 2 .
u p t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s s h o w n in F i g u r e 2 7 . O b v i o u s l y

ARRANGEMENT OF TWO ELEMENTS:

Remember:

i.e. one inside t h e o t h e n

Figure 27 Possibilities for the relative arrangement of two elements


35

Figure 28 Possibilities for the relative arrangement of the three elements


36 Methods used in form design

Structure variation in connection witfi boat b e i n g used as t h e s o u r c e o f energy f o r the


function p u m p . As the boat rocks, a p e n d u l u m o n a vertical
axis swings f r o m side t o side a n d t h i s drives a p i s t o n
The functional connection between the most import­ pump. The inset of Figure 29 shows the basic
a n t e l e m e n t s is expressed i n t h e basic s t r u c t u r e , m o s t structure.
o f t e n in s o m e s o r t o f s k e t c h s h o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e F i g u r e 2 9 also i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e are
of the design, where c o m m o n l y accepted symbols m a n y possible v a r i a t i o n s , as t h e r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t
f o r k n o w n elements (machine, h y d r a u l i c , pneumatic, a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s c a n be c h a n g e d c o n t i n u o u s l y . I t
e l e c t r i c s y m b o l s , e t c ) are used. So l o n g as t h i s s k e t c h is t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t o m a k e t h e v a r i a t i o n s a t t h e
expresses t h e basic s t r u c t u r e i t is e x e m p t f r o m a n y c o r r e c t stage, w h i c h means t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f ele­
definite dimensions or form, but it may be the ments considered must not be too great (less
starting point f o r a series o f q u a n t i f i e d structures important ones are k e p t f o r later), and that the
built on the structure variation method with the parameters must be v a r i e d in s u i t a b l e steps. T h u s
relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d d i m e n s i o n s as p a r a m e t e r s each suggested s o l u t i o n s k e t c h e d m u s t be t h o u g h t
f o r each separate e l e m e n t in t h e basic s t r u c t u r e . of as r e p r e s e n t i n g a c a t e g o r y of solutions. Later,
Figure 2 9 shows the q u a n t i f i e d structure f o r a w h e n c h o o s i n g t h e best suggestions, t h e i n d i v i d u a l
baling p u m p intended f o r keeping a m o o r e d boat categories m a y be e x a m i n e d m o r e c l o s e l y .
empty of water by the rocking m o v e m e n t of the
37

BASIC STRUCTURE
QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

Pendulunn W a t e r out
V a r i a t i o n of: R e l a t i v e a r r a n g e n n e n t
- Dinnensions
O'

Piston p u m p ] ^

7777777 W a t e r in

RELATIVE ARRANGEMENT

H D
777Z7Z7 -CID
////////'

CUD
DIMENSIONS

to v a r y : Α , Β , L , D , V :

-CID; -fe
///////

7777777

O'
o
Ώ
77777 77777

Figure 29 Quantified structures for a baling pump


38 Methods used in form design

Figure 3 0 shows a n u m b e r o f q u a n t i f i e d structures section. Figure 31 shows examples of structure


for a gear, drawn up on t h e basis o f t h e basic variation f o r a labelling machine. The t o p illustration
structure illustrated in t h e inset. Here t h e r e l a t i v e shows q u a n t i f i e d structures f o r f o u r existing labelling
a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s are n o t i n d e p e n ­ m a c h i n e s , a n d a n u m b e r o f o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s are
d e n t l y v a r i e d . W h e t h e r i t is u s e f u l t o k e e p t h e t w o s h o w n below. Finally, Figure 3 2 shows some quanti­
p a r a m e t e r s separate d u r i n g t h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s fied structures for an excavator, and Figure 33
depends o n the nature o f the p r o b l e m , a fact w h i c h demonstrates h o w t h r e e o f these are e m p l o y e d in
is also evident from the other examples in this existing excavators.

BASIC STRUCTURE

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES
Ψ777Λ

Variation o f : Relative a r r a n g e m e n t
-Dimensions
v////\
ν////λ Z77/A

4-

Figure 30 Quantified structures for a gear


39

BASIC STRUCTURE

Roll of l a b e l s
Motor
QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

Mj Roll for
Variation o f : R e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t
- Dimensions
^^?¿>C s u p p o r t i n g
(9) strip I
Label

U existing labelling machines:

0
Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s

® (M) Θ
®

Ms)®®
Figure 31
31 Quantified structures for a labelling machine
40

BASI C STRUCTURE

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

Variation parameters

Arrangement
Dimensions

Figure 32 Quantified structures for an excavator


41

Figure 33 Excavators wit/i different quantified structures. (See a/so Figure 32)
42 Methods used in form design

A coherent example: a tea-maker A m o n g t h e s o l u t i o n s i n F i g u r e 3 4 are s o m e w h i c h


c a n be e x c l u d e d o n t h e basis o f c r i t e r i a s u c h as
In t h i s s e c t i o n w e w i l l e x a m i n e h o w t h e t w o s t r u c t u r e handling (the teapot ought not to be inside the
variation methods can be e m p l o y e d successively. other containers) a n d q u e s t i o n s o f space (e.g. t h e
For example, consider a tea-maker, where boiling t h r e e e l e m e n t s i n a r o w c a n be o m i t t e d ) .
w a t e r is p o u r e d o n t o t e a leaves, a n d w h e r e t h e t e a The next step in deciding on more detailed
brews before the leaves are removed from the quantified structures consists of connecting the
f i n i s h e d t e a . We i m a g i n e t h a t w e have reached a usable s t r u c t u r e s i n F i g u r e 3 4 w i t h a basic s t r u c t u r e
stage i n t h e design w o r k w h e r e d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c ­ which it is assumed has been c h o s e n b e f o r e the
t u r e s have been c o n s i d e r e d , so t h a t t h e q u a n t i f i e d r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t s was c o n s i d e r e d .
s t r u c t u r e m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e inset i n F i g u r e 3 5 s h o w s a r o u g h s k e t c h o f a sug­
As a first approach t o the q u a n t i f i e d structure we g e s t i o n f o r a basic s t r u c t u r e . T h e m a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n
m a y l o o k at the relative arrangement o f the three shows t w e n t y d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i f i e d structures expres­
main elements: a container f o r cold water, one f o r sing t h e relative arrangement o f t h e elements a n d
tea t h a t is b r e w i n g , a n d f i n a l l y o n e f o r t h e f i n i s h e d the functional relationship between t h e m .
t e a , w h e r e t h e l a t t e r m a y perhaps be a t r a d i t i o n a l It is p o s s i b l e , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e d i a g r a m s i n F i g u r e
teapot. The m a n y possibilities illustrated in Figure 3 5 , t o discard some structures. T h e factors t h a t can
2 8 are r e d u c e d since s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h are s y m m e t r i c a l be used as c r i t e r i a a r e : p r i c e ( c o m p l e x i t y ) , appear­
round a vertical axis are identical. The relative ance, h a n d l i n g a n d effectiveness. T h e final c h o i c e o f
a r r a n g e m e n t s are s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 4 . N o t e h o w t h e s t r u c t u r e c a n o n l y be s a f e l y m a d e a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g
simple sketches contribute to making systematic the design possibilities for some of the most
v a r i a t i o n easy. V a r i a t i o n s c a n be m a d e b y d r a w i n g promising structures.
f r o m one solution t o another.
43

SYMBOLS

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES [K\ Boiler

B r e w i n g vessel
Variation of r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e n n e n t

(ψ) Teapot

SS-

ra g l ® Θ' ®

^ ^ i ^ ^msi m
Ί2. 3&

SS
TU

"i^ ffi.

8 "2
1®! IIL
El
43

Figure 34 Relative arrangement of boiler, brewing vessel and teapot for design of the teamaker
44

BASIC S T R U C T U R E

QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES

V a r i a t i o n o f relative a r r a n g e m e n t
κ tÉ

Heating element w h i c h forces the


boiling water into the brewing
vessel. A f t e r b r e w i n g , a r e m a i n i n g
a m o u n t o f w a t e r is b o i l e d , w h e r e b y
t h e tea is f o r c e d i n t o t h e t e a p o t

Ti
ΐ

\—I

7^
Ο­
}
1^
ΙΟ 2 2 . - 1
I 21-2.

Figure 35 Basic structure arid twenty quantified structures for an automatic teama/<er. (The figures refer to Figure 34)
45

Figure 35 (continued)
46 Methods used in form design
Structure modelling d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e see page 5 6 ) . A s t h e i n ­
t e n t i o n o f s u c h a m o d e l is t o f i n d o u t w h i c h r e l a t i v e
W h e n v a r y i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e i t is a l w a y s necessary t o a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e e l e m e n t s are r e a l i s t i c , t h e m o d e l
visualise t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . D i a g r a m s w i t h simplified m u s t be c o n s t r u c t e d in such a w a y t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s
s y m b o l s are s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h i s c a n be can be q u i c k l y m o v e d t o n e w p o s i t i o n s . F o r t h i s p u r ­
seen f r o m the previous examples in t h i s section. pose bricks of polystyrene are e x t r e m e l y useful,
Making three-dimensional models may, however, p a r t l y because t h e y are easy t o c a r v e , a n d p a r t l y be­
also be r e l e v a n t . F i g u r e 3 6 s h o w s s o m e s t r u c t u r e s f o r cause t h e i r l i g h t w e i g h t a l l o w s a b r i c k t o be h e l d
a tea m a k e r m o d e l l e d w i t h s i m p l e t o y b r i c k s . (See fast i n a n y p o s i t i o n b y j u s t b e i n g pressed d o w n o n t o
also F i g u r e 3 4 ) . a t h i n s p i k e . N o t e here t h a t w e are t a l k i n g about
Where more complex s t r u c t u r e s are b e i n g c o n ­ structure models and n o t about f o r m models. This
s i d e r e d , sketches are n o t s u f f i c i e n t , a n d In s u c h cases means t h a t t h e c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s o n l y need t o be
t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l l i n g is t h e o n l y possibility. m o d e l l e d b y t h e space t h e y w i l l o c c u p y a n d n o t b y
A t y p i c a l t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l is s h o w n i n F i g u r e t h e i r f o r m d e t a i l s . (See also c h a p t e r 5, w h i c h also
37, where quantified structures for a test tube deals w i t h t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e m o d e l s ) .
filling machine are s h o w n . ( F o r a more detailed

Figure 36 Mal<ing three-dimensional models of quantified structures for a teamaker with the aid of toy bricks. (See also
Figure 34)
47

Figure 37 Three-dimensional models of quantified structures for a test tube filling machine. On an evaluation of space and
handling conditions the best structure may be chosen
48 Methods used in form design
2.3 F o r m variation

The idea of functional surfaces


In t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i t was s h o w n h o w t h e basis
f o r t h e fornn design o f a p r o d u c t is laid d o w n by
choosing the quantified structure. Once this choice
has been m a d e i n a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t t h e a c t u a l f o r m
design w o r k c a n s t a r t . A s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o d u c t
synthesis s h o w e d , t h e r e are t w o aspects o f t h e design
t h a t m u s t be t r e a t e d c o n c u r r e n t l y , n a m e l y t h e t o t a l
f o r m of the product and the f o r m of the individual
e l e m e n t s . T h e m e t h o d s t h a t m a y be e m p l o y e d f o r
these t w o a c t i v i t i e s are b r o a d l y s i m i l a r . So i n t h e
following pages, w h e r e w e have used e x a m p l e s o f
e l e m e n t d e s i g n , t h e m e t h o d s d e m o n s t r a t e d can be
t r a n s f e r r e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e t o t a l design a n d vice versa.
H o w c a n o n e m a k e a s t a r t o n t h e f o r m design o f
a s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t ? We m u s t ask ourselves w h a t i t is
t h a t characterises t h e e l e m e n t i n q u e s t i o n . T h e ele­
Figure 39 The functional surface for the two bottle
ment is a p a r t o f b o t h a basic s t r u c t u r e a n d o f a
openers
q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e . We c a n t h e r e f o r e say t h a t t h e
e l e m e n t has been d e f i n e d o n l y b y its f u n c t i o n a n d
b y its f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o its s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e US select a s i m p l e e l e m e n t - a b o t t l e o p e n e r . F i g u r e

s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e f o r m design m u s t c o n s e q u e n t l y 3 8 s h o w s t w o t y p e s o f o p e n e r w h i c h d o n o t appear

be t o f o r m u l a t e t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e e l e m e n t m u s t per­ t o have m u c h i n c o m m o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e f u n c t i o n a l

f o r m . Thereafter one can sketch the most i m p o r t a n t surfaces are almost identical, see Figure 39. A

surfaces - o r f u n c t i o n a l surfaces - a n d f r o m these b o t t l e o p e n e r possesses t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces as

t h e rest o f t h e e l e m e n t m a y be d e s i g n e d . s h o w n . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t y p e s illus­
t r a t e d consists i n t h e d i f f e r e n t spacial a r r a n g e m e n t
In t h i s b o o k a f u n c t i o n a l s u r f a c e is t a k e n t o m e a n
o f t h e m a t e r i a l c o n n e c t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces.
a surface t h a t has an a c t i v e f u n c t i o n d u r i n g use - for
We c a n t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f y t w o steps in t h e design
e x a m p l e , t h e s l o t i n t h e head o f a s c r e w , t h e area o f
o f an e l e m e n t , o n t h e o n e h a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
i m p a c t o n t h e head o f a h a m m e r ; t h e surface o f a
f u n c t i o n a l surfaces a n d , o n t h e o t h e r , d e c i d i n g h o w
c h a i r seat; t h e cogs o n a w h e e l , e t c .
these w i l l be c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . A s a l r e a d y m e n ­
We now examine the connection between the
t i o n e d . F i g u r e 3 9 s h o w s t h i s last s t e p , w h i l e Figure
f u n c t i o n a l surfaces a n d t h e f o r m . F o r e x a m p l e , let
40 illustrates how other arrangements of the
functional surfaces give rise t o o t h e r f o r m design
possibilities.
Functional surfaces are t h e basis o f t h e form
design o f a n y p r o d u c t . I t is t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o
discuss i n m o r e d e t a i l w h a t , in f a c t , f u n c t i o n a l sur­
faces are. I n a p r o d u c t c o n s i s t i n g o f m o r e t h a n o n e
e l e m e n t t h e r e are t w o t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces -
external and internal. External surfaces have an
active f u n c t i o n in relation t o t h e surroundings, such
as a h a n d l e , a s u p p o r t i n g su'-face, e t c . T h e i n t e r n a J
surfaces have a n a c t i v e f u n c t i o n in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r
elements o f the p r o d u c t .
T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d b y i m a g i n i n g a p r o d u c t as
a system consisting o f a n u m b e r o f elements w i t h
Figure 38 Two different bottle openers with apparently certain relationships to each other. The vice in
nothing in common F i g u r e 4 1 m a y t h u s be d e s c r i b e d as a s y s t e m s h o w n
49

Figure 40 Different cfioices of functional surfaces give rise to different design possibilities

Figure 41 A vice. The starting point for Figures 42 to 44


50 Methods used in form design

in F i g u r e 4 2 , w h e r e t h e e l e m e n t s are r e p r e s e n t e d b y As s h o w n in Figure 4 4 , a specific arrangement


blocks and the relationship between t h e m and the of functional surfaces c a n be t h e basis f o r m a n y
s u r r o u n d i n g s b y lines. f o r m designs, a n d o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s c a n give o t h e r
If w e c o n s i d e r a p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t o f t h e vice e.g. series o f f o r m designs. In t h e c h a p t e r o n t h e f o r m
t h e s l i d i n g j a w , w e c a n see t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s c o r r e ­ variation m e t h o d w e described t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e
spond exactly t o t h e above m e n t i o n e d functional form design w o r k c a n be t a c k l e d o n t h e basis o f
surfaces. T h e s l i d i n g j a w has a n e x t e r n a l surface, functional surfaces. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s i t
c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h presses o n t h e sub­ w i l l be a p p a r e n t h o w a great deal o f e f f o r t is n e e d e d
j e c t as w e l l as o f t h e t o p h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e . T h e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are t o be used
i n t e r n a l surfaces c o n s i s t o f t h e h o l e f o r t h e s p i n d l e i n o r d e r t h a t a f i r m a n d b r o a d basis f o r t h e design
and t h e t w o holes f o r t h e rods. T h e f u n c t i o n a l w o r k is a c h i e v e d .
surfaces are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4 3 .

LIMIT OF
THE SYSTEM OBJECT

1
FÍJAME WITH
SPIKJDLE
FIXED JAW

HANDLE

I .

Figure 42 A vice. Relationship of elements

Figure 43 A vice. The functional surfaces of the sliding jaw


51

Figure 44 Suggested form designs for tfie sliding jaw, based on two different groups of the functional surfaces
52 Methods used in form design

Tfie metfiod of variation of thie functional g e o m e t r y a n d d i m e n s i o n . Figures 4 5 a n d 4 6 s h o w a


surfaces number of examples o f products, where the func­
tional surfaces are e m p h a s i s e d . T h e products are
A specification of the parameters t h a t determine the p r e s e n t e d i n pairs in o r d e r t h a t t h e f o u r variation
f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f an e l e m e n t m a y f o r m t h e basis p a r a m e t e r s m a y be o b s e r v e d , p a r t l y f o r t h e i n t e r n a l
o f v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d s f o r g e n e r a t i n g ideas. B y syste­ a n d p a r t l y f o r t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l surfaces. As
m a t i c v a r i a t i o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s i t b e c o m e s possible these are n a t u r a l l y a p a r t o f t h e f i n a l f o r m w e shall
t o list a n u m b e r o f a r r a n g e m e n t s o f f u n c t i o n a l sur­ m e e t t h e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s again in c o n n e c ­
faces f o r a given e l e m e n t . T h e r e l e v a n t p a r a m e t e r s tion with the later s e c t i o n o n t h e f o r m variation
t h a t can be v a r i e d are: n u m b e r , a r r a n g e m e n t , f o r m method.

NUMBER ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS

Figure 45 Examples of variation of internal functional surfaces based on tfie four variation parameters. Tfie examples
sfiown are — a hinge, overhead projector, a socket for a camera lens and a socket for an electric light bulb
53

NUMBER ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY DIMENSIONS

Figure 46 Examples of variation of external functional surfaces based on the four variation parameters. The examples are
- a wheel for a chair, an electric drill, a hotplate andan electric switch
54

STARTING P O I N T :
Lid w i t h p a c k i n g

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES

Variation parameters :
- Number
-Arrangement
-Dimension
- Form geometry

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

1= =ÍB ¿=

Figure 47 Variation of functional surfaces for a lid with packing - number, arrangement
Methods used in form design 55

In t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs i t w i l l be s h o w n h o w T h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s m a y g e n e r a l l y be f r e e l y
v a r i a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m a y be a p p l i e d v a r i e d inside t h e l i m i t s w h e r e t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces
in a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . T h i s is t o design an area o f c a n f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n . I f t h e f u l l range o f s o l u t i o n s
packing r o u n d a lid, cover, cork or similar object. is t o be t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e d i t w i l l be necessary t o
T h e p r o b l e m is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 4 7 ( i n s e t ) . A n evaluate t h e l i m i t s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r a m a t e r s .
e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m o n t h e basis o f v a r y i n g A s an o v e r a l l c h e c k o n t h e l i m i t s i t m a y be u s e f u l
t h e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s m a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , give t o e x a m i n e t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces w i t h t h e greatest
t h e suggestions s h o w n in Figures 4 7 a n d 4 8 . These e x t e n t a n d t h o s e w i t h t h e smallest e x t e n t . S u c h sur­
m u s t n o t be regarded as f i n a l suggestions, b u t o n l y faces m a y be s u i t a b l y c a l l e d m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m
as categories o f s o l u t i o n s , as each o f t h e suggestions surfaces, see F i g u r e 4 9 .
shown must be f u r t h e r elaborated at the detail
design stage.

DIMENSION

FORM GEOMETRY

5z ^ ^

Figure 48 Variation of functional surfaces for a lid witfi packing — dimension, form geometry

MINIMUM SURFACE MAXIMUM SURFACE

Figure 49 Minimum and maximum functional surface for a lid witfi packing
56 Methods used in form design
It is, o f c o u r s e , a personal m a t t e r w h e t h e r one T h e c o n v e y o r ' s f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m u s t f o r m a
decides t o a p p l y t h e v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s s y s t e m a t i ­ s u p p o r t so t h a t t h e t u b e s c a n n o t f a l l over. A m a x i ­
cally, or whether one s i m p l y uses m a x i m u m and m u m s u r f a c e is easy t o d e f i n e , n a m e l y a h o l e w i t h
minimum surfaces supplemented by a few possi­ a r o u n d b o t t o m , w h i c h can c o m p l e t e l y s u r r o u n d the
b i l i t i e s in b e t w e e n . In a n y case, a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e test t u b e . A m i n i m u m s u r f a c e is t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h r e e
variation of number, arrangement, f o r m geometry p o i n t s s u p p o r t i n g t h e t a b l e , b u t as t h e t u b e must
and dimension is i m p o r t a n t , w h e t h e r i t is a p p l i e d n o t be able t o f a l l o v e r b y a c c i d e n t , i t m u s t be sup­
consciously o r is s i m p l y p a r t o f t h e a t t i t u d e with p o r t e d o n a t least f i v e o r six p o i n t s . T h e design o f t h e
w h i c h o n e a t t a c k s a given t a s k . L e t us t h e r e f o r e c o n ­ c o n v e y o r is s h o w n in F i g u r e 5 1 . I t is c o n s t r u c t e d so
sider s o m e details in a s p e c i f i c m a c h i n e o n t h e basis t h a t t h e t u b e s are s u p p o r t e d a t f i v e p o i n t s b y t h e
of a more flexible a t t i t u d e , while primarily studying c o n v e y o r and at a s i x t h one, b e l o w , by a f i x e d table
m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m surfaces. t o p o v e r w h i c h t h e t u b e s slide. M i n i m u m surfaces
Figure 5 0 shows a machine t h a t can carry o u t a for the conveyor have been chosen in t h i s case
n u m b e r o f processes w i t h t e s t t u b e s in c o n n e c t i o n because t h e c o n v e y o r , as w e l l as t h e t e s t t u b e s , goes
w i t h n u t r i e n t s f o r tests o n b a c t e r i a . T h e processes t h r o u g h b o t h the heater and t h e c o o l i n g zone and
t h a t t h e test t u b e s go t h r o u g h a r e : s t e r i l i s a t i o n ( b y so t h e h e a t c a p a c i t y o f t h e c o n v e y o r needs t o be
heat), cooling, filling w i t h n u t r i e n t , closing w i t h a kept to a m i n i m u m .
sterile w a d o f c o t t o n w o o l a n d l a b e l l i n g . T h e t u b e s T h e l o a d i n g s y s t e m is a f u n n e l - s h a p e d m a g a z i n e
are loaded manually, transported through the w h i c h c a n t a k e t h i r t y t e s t t u b e s . T h e t u b e s are passed
machine on a continuous circular conveyor and taken a l o n g b y b e i n g grasped o n e at a t i m e b y a d r u m ,
o u t by hand. w h e r e u p o n t h e y are s w u n g d o w n i n t o t h e c i r c u l a r

Figure 50 Machine for filling test tubes. This machine carries out automatic sterilisation,
filling with the correct dose, corking and labelling of test tubes (Inst, for Product Development,
The Technical University of Denmark)
57

FROM A B O V E SIDE V I E W

Toothed wheel

Guide rail

Test tube

Figure 51 The functional surfaces in the circular conveyor in the test tube machine are designed as minimum surfaces
58

FUNCTION

/////////////////λ

MAXIMUM SURFACES MINIMUM SURFACES

Figure 52 L oading system for the test tube filling machine. The actual design as well as other functional surfaces are shown
59

FUNCTION

MAXIMUM SURFACES MINIMUM SURFACES

Figure 53 Unloading system of tfje test tube filling machine


60 Methods used in form design

c o n v e y o r as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 5 2 . If t h e l o a d i n g s y s t e m Banned areas:
is c o n s t r u c t e d using m a x i m u m surfaces t h e t u b e s 1. Areas in space which are structurally con­
m u s t be s u p p o r t e d a n d g u i d e d as m u c h as possible. ditioned must not be o b s t r u c t e d , i.e. other
T h e result can be seen at t h e b o t t o m l e f t in F i g u r e e l e m e n t s m u s t n o t be h a m p e r e d ( t h i s applies
5 2 . T o design t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces as m i n i m u m t o b o t h stationary and movable elements).
ones, t h e desired f u n c t i o n m a y be achieved as l o n g 2. Areas in space w h i c h are f u n c t i o n a l l y con­
as t h e t u b e s are c o n s t a n t l y s u p p o r t e d at f o u r p o i n t s , ditioned must not be o b s t r u c t e d , (e.g. t h e
see F i g u r e 52, b o t t o m r i g h t . In t h e m a c h i n e , t h e o b j e c t s in t h e process, rays o f l i g h t a n d jets o f
l o a d i n g s y s t e m is designed using m a x i m u m surfaces water).
t o p r e v e n t damage t o t h e t u b e s a n d t o p r e v e n t t h e 3. Areas in space w h i c h are o p e r a t i o n a l l y con­
o p e r a t o r g e t t i n g his f i n g e r s t r a p p e d . ditioned must not be o b s t r u c t e d (e.g. r o o m
W h e n , a f t e r t h e c y c l e is c o m p l e t e d , t h e test t u b e s f o r a h a n d , r o o m f o r an o p e r a t o r , e t c ) .
leave t h e c i r c u l a r c o n v e y o r t h e y are grasped b y a O n t h e basis o f these b a n n e d areas o n e can n o w
d r u m w h i c h passes t h e m u p i n t o a m a g a z i n e , w h e r e d r a w u p a n u m b e r o f f o r m design suggestions t h a t
t h e o p e r a t o r can r e m o v e t h e m . T h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r o u g h l y s h o w w h e r e in space t h e c o n n e c t i o n s m u s t
u n l o a d i n g d r u m is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 5 3 , t o p . T h e be p u t . T h e n e x t step is t o d e c i d e o n t h e f o r m geo­
d r u m r o t a t e s o n a s l o p i n g axis, so t h a t t h e test t u b e s m e t r y a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s — f i r s t as r o u g h sketches
are m o v e d in a h y p e r b o l o i d p l a n e . W h e n t h e t u b e s and, thereafter, in d e t a i l drawings, judged on for
have c o m p l e t e d a h a l f c i r c u i t t h e y are f o r c e d u p i n t o instance t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a (see also
t h e m a g a z i n e . If m a x i m u m surfaces are used f o r t h e Chapter 3).
d r u m , w e get a design l i k e t h e one b o t t o m l e f t in It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g c o m ­
F i g u r e 5 3 . A m i n i m u m s u r f a c e w i l l be c o m p l e t e l y m e n t s t h a t t h e f o r m design o f an e l e m e n t c o n t a i n s
analogous t o t h e c i r c u l a r c o n v e y o r in F i g u r e 5 4 , as both a qualitative and a quantitative part. Any
i t is s u f f i c i e n t t o have t w o p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t above d e c i s i o n o n d i m e n s i o n s is i r r e l e v a n t u n t i l i t has been
a n d t w o b e l o w as w e l l as a p o i n t in t h e m i d d l e a n d decided how the material will be a r r a n g e d , e.g.
o n e at t h e b o t t o m . In t h e m a c h i n e , t h e d r u m is w h e t h e r a f u n c t i o n a l surface w i l l be s u p p o r t e d at o n e
designed w i t h f u n c t i o n a l surfaces close t o t h e m a x i ­ p o i n t o r at several. T h e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s a n d t h e
mum. Here again, t h e m a i n reason is t o prevent relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e l o n g t o
damage t o t h e test t u b e s . t h e q u a l i t a t i v e p a r t o f t h e f o r m d e s i g n , w h i l e geo­
m e t r y and dimension belong t o the quantitative one.
The f o l l o w i n g section explains h o w the variation of
Restrictions on form design p a r a m e t e r s can be a p p l i e d .

Let us i m a g i n e t h a t w e have a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e f o r m
design o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f an e l e m e n t . H o w
t h e n d o w e m o v e o n f r o m t h e r e ? A s has a l r e a d y The form variation method
been m e n t i o n e d , t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m u s t be
c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . T h e p r o b l e m is n o w t o arrange The variation parameters: number, arrangement f o r m
t h e c o n n e c t i o n s so t h a t t h e e l e m e n t can f u n c t i o n geometry and dimension, are general f o r m para­
i n use. T h e role o f t h e e l e m e n t w h e n in use m u s t m e t e r s , a n d w e have a l r e a d y s h o w n h o w these m a y
t h e r e f o r e be assessed a n d t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . be used in t h e search f o r possible f u n c t i o n a l sur­
T h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m a y have t o be t a k e n a c c o u n t faces. T h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e f o u r p a r a m e t e r s w i t h
o f in t h e f o r m design o f an e l e m e n t can be f o r m u l a t e d the f o r m of the material that connects the functional
as f o l l o w s : surfaces is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 5 4 a n d 5 5 .
Methods used in form design 61

Number

Figure 54 The variation parameters of number and arrangement can be used in connection with arranging the materia/
area to connect the functional surfaces. The examples show two sprinkler valves and two motor lawn mowers
62

Dimension

Figure 55 The variation parameters of form geometry and dimension can be used to specify the form when the materia/
area (see Figure 54) has been chosen. The examp/es show two nutcrac/cers and two c/amps
Methods used in form design 63

T a k i n g a t y p i c a l exannple - the frame in a hy­ In o t h e r w o r d s t h e f r a m e m u s t be designed so t h a t


d r a u l i c press - w e n o w observe h o w t h e v a r i a t i o n t h e t w o f u n c t i o n surfaces are c o n n e c t e d i n a w a y
parameters can be used in d e s i g n i n g an e l e m e n t . T h e w h i c h t a k e s a c c o u n t o f t h e b a n n e d areas, a n d w h i c h
f r a m e o f t h e press c o n t a i n s t w o f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, allows it t o fulfill its f u n c t i o n — t o t r a n s m i t t h e
namely the fastening areas for respectively the necessary f o r c e s .
h y d r a u l i c c y l i n d e r a n d t h e pressure p l a t e , see F i g u r e Figure 57 shows h o w the variation of number
5 6 . W h e n d e s i g n i n g t h e f r a m e t h e r e are t h r e e b a n n e d and arrangement of elements may be used to
areas: examine where t h e material can lie. A f t e r t h a t , t h e
1. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r t h e p i s t o n in all its variation of f o r m geometry and dimension make
positions; it possible to detail a number of rough design
2. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r an o b j e c t o f a c l o s e l y suggestions o r f o r m c o n c e p t s .
d e f i n e d m a x i m u m size; F o r c o m p a r i s o n . F i g u r e 5 8 s h o w s t h e design o f a
3. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r t h e o b j e c t t o be p u t n u m b e r o f e x i s t i n g presses.
i n t o a n d t a k e n o u t o f t h e press.

FUNCTIONAL SURFACE

A f f i x i n g of hydraulic c y l i n d e r
BANNED AREA
Room for t h e object t o be
p r e s s e d , and room f o r the
piston

FUNCTIONAL SURFACE

A f f i x i n g of p r e s s u r e plate BANNED AREA


Room f o r the o b j e c t and f o r
h a n d s a n d a r m s w h i l e loading
and unloading

Figure 56 Functional surfaces and banned areas in connection with the form design of a frame for a hydraulic press
64

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameters : Number


-Arrangement
-Form geometry
-Dimension

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY

DIMENSION

On o;
Figure 57 Form concepts for a frame for a hydraulic press
65

Figure 58 Hydraulic press. See also Figure 57


66 Methods used in form design

A m o r e d e t a i l e d use o f t h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s f o r m p r o p o s a l s as s h o w n In F i g u r e 6 0 . N o t e t h a t i t
is possible t h r o u g h a closer i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l is useful to work at two levels of abstraction,
areas b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n surfaces. T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d n a m e l y , w i t h a series o f s o l u t i o n s w h e r e n u m b e r a n d
in t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e . a r r a n g e m e n t are v a r i e d ( F i g u r e 5 9 ) a n d o n e w h e r e
F i g u r e 5 9 s h o w s t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces i n a f o r k f o r m g e o m e t r y a n d d i m e n s i o n are v a r i e d ( F i g u r e 6 0 ) .
j o i n t w i t h a single b e a r i n g a t o n e e n d a n d double N o t e also t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n i l l u s t r a t i o n
bearings a t t h e o t h e r . I n v a r y i n g t h e m a t e r i a l area technique.
i t is a p p r o p r i a t e t o use t h r e e sorts o f s y m b o l s ; a T h e f o r m p r o p o s a l s m u s t n o w be f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d ,
line for something that is a p p r o x i m a t e l y a rod a n d i t b e c o m e s necessary t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n
( s t r a i g h t o r c u r v e d ) , a h a t c h e d p l a n e f o r s o m e t h i n g t h e f o r m f a c t o r s (see p. 9 8 ) t h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t . I n
f l a t , a n d f i n a l l y a h a t c h e d area f o r s o m e t h i n g s o l i d , the example of the fork joint, the manufacturing
i.e. m a t e r i a l i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . Va^-iation o f f o r m process b e c o m e s a decisive f a c t o r f o r t h e c h o i c e o f
geometry and dimension can r e s u l t i n a series o f design, c o m p a r e Figures 6 0 a n d 9 8 .

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES
FORM CONCEPTS

V a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s : Number^ arrangement
Φ:.
RODS

PLANES

SOLID

COMBINATIONS

Figure 59 Form concepts for a for/< Joint at the most abstract level, where the number and arrangement of the material
areas are examined
67

FORM CONCEPTS

RODS

PLANES

SOLID

i 1
1 ,
* 1

COMBINATIONS

I — •

Figure 60 Form concepts for a forl< joint drawn up on the basis of Figure 59 and variation of form geometry and
dimension. (See also Figure 98)
68 Methods used in form design

F i n a l l y t h e f o r m v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d w i l l be illus­ m a t e r i a l m a y be a r r a n g e d f r e e l y in space a n d F i g u r e
trated by a slightly more complex example, a 6 2 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f suggested f o r m designs d r a w n
m i c r o s c o p e . We have a l r e a d y s t u d i e d t h e q u a n t i f i e d u p b y v a r y i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s a n d arrange­
structure for a microscope designed o n t h e t r a d i ­ m e n t . A d i v i s i o n i n t o r o d s , planes a n d s o l i d shapes
t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , see F i g u r e 2 3 . has been m a d e , as in t h e p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e . Note
If t h e t u b e is m a d e v e r t i c a l o r s l i g h t l y s l a n t i n g t h a t f o r some o f the parameters one can consider
t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e design o f t h e f r a m e m a y be maximum and m i n i m u m values. F i g u r e 6 3 s h o w s
illustrated as s h o w n in Figure 6 1 . The most im­ f o r m concepts arising o u t o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e f o r m
p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f t h e f r a m e are surfaces geometry and the dimension.
f o r f i x i n g t h e t u b e , t h e stage, t h e a d j u s t i n g knob I n F i g u r e 6 2 a n d 6 3 i t c a n be seen t h a t v a r i a t i o n
a n d t h e m i r r o r as w e l l as t h e s u p p o r t i n g base. T h e of number and arrangement can be c a r r i e d out
b a n n e d areas are t h e t u b e , t h e stage, t h e a d j u s t i n g q u i t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , w h i l e it is u n r e a l i s t i c t o w o r k
k n o b , t h e m i r r o r a n d t h e t a b l e t o p as w e l l as t h e systematically when varying form geometry and
rays f r o m t h e l i g h t source t h r o u g h t h e m i r r o r t o t h e d i m e n s i o n . Here t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e is t o
o b j e c t a n d o n t o t h e t u b e . T h e r e are also b a n n e d c o m b i n e t h e suggestions a r i s i n g f r o m v a r y i n g n u m b e r
areas over t h e t u b e ( w h e r e t h e o p e r a t o r is l o o k i n g ) and arrangement with different basic geometric
a n d o p p o s i t e t h e stage a n d t h e a d j u s t i n g k n o b ( w h e r e shapes a n d use t h i s as a s o u r c e o f ideas f o r form
t h e o p e r a t o r ' s hands m u s t have r o o m t o w o r k . ) suggestions. Figure 6 4 s h o w s a series o f existing
W h e n t h e above c o n d i t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d t h e f r a m e microscopes.
69

Functional surface for the frame

Banned a r e a s for t h e frame

Figure 61 Functional surfaces and banned areas for the frame of a microscope
70

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES

FORM CONCEPTS Tube

Variation p a r a m e t e r s : Number - Stage


-Arrangement

S u p p o r t i n g base

RODS

7 ^cy

PLANES

-7
SOLID

COMBINATIONS

Figure 62 Form concepts for ttie frame of a microscope


71

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameters: Form g e o m e t r y , d i m e n s i o n

RODS

3^
5 5
7 7· ¿

PLANES

SOLID

COMBINATIONS

4
J

Figure 63 Form coricepts for the frame of a microscope


72

Figure 64 Various types of microscope (See also Figures 62 and 63). (Courtesy of Olympus, Carl Zeiss, Carl Zeiss JENA,
Leitz, Ealing Beck, Vickers)
73

Figure 64 (continued!
74 Methods used in form design

The form division method

If t h e e x a m p l e s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n are s t u d i e d t h e d i v i s i o n m a y be d o n e f o r reasons o f f u n c t i o n ,
c l o s e l y o n e m o r e p a r a m e t e r can be i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s , s e c o n d l y f o r p h y s i c a l reasons, i.e. w h e t h e r t h e ele­
t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s v a r i a t i o n , c a n give rise t o ideas m e n t s c a n be separated f r o m each o t h e r , a n d t h i r d l y
f o r a n u m b e r o f suggestions f o r t h e design. If t h e f o r visual reasons.
m i c r o s c o p e s i n F i g u r e 6 4 are c o m p a r e d i t is o b v i o u s A deliberate variation o f the n u m b e r o f elements
t h a t o n e m i c r o s c o p e f r a m e consists o f m o r e e l e m e n t s may be s u i t a b l y c a l l e d t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n method,
than another. b e a r i n g i n m i n d , t h a t i t m a y be a q u e s t i o n o f a d i v i s i o n
This choice of dividing i n t o more elements or i n t o m o r e e l e m e n t s as w e l l as an i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a
integrating i n t o a f e w is a c h o i c e w h i c h is a l w a y s f e w — p o s s i b l y i n t o a single w h o l e o n e .
available. The division need not lead to more In the examples on the following pages the
p h y s i c a l l y separate e l e m e n t s , as i t m a y be caused b y physical and the visual divisions are considered.
a visual d i v i s i o n o f a p h y s i c a l l y w h o l e e l e m e n t . F i g u r e Incidentally it is n o t s t a t e d w h e t h e r t h e e l e m e n t s
6 5 illustrates t h e points o f view f r o m w h i c h a p r o d u c t are p h y s i c a l l y separable o r n o t , as e i t h e r t y p e m a y
o r a m a c h i n e m a y be d i v i d e d i n t o e l e m e n t s . F i r s t l y , be possible w h e n a s p e c i f i c design is c o n s i d e r e d .

PRODUCT

ELEMENTS ELEMENTS
Functional division Visual division

ELEMENTS
Physical division

Figure 65 Different points of view according to which a product may be divided into elements
Methods used in form design 75

F i g u r e 6 6 s h o w s a p a w l w i t h f o u r f u n c t i o n a l sur­ design p r o p o s a l s s h o w n . N o t e t h a t t h e n u m b e r of
faces, — t h e area o f t h e b r e a k i n g f u n c t i o n , t h e area p a r t e l e m e n t s goes f r o m 1 ( c o m p l e t e i n t e g r a t i o n ) t o
o f t h e b e a r i n g , t h e area o f f i n g e r pressure a n d t h e 5. I t m u s t be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n has
area o f pressure f o r a m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m , w h i c h m u s t n o f u n c t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , b u t i t m a y be v e r y i m ­
be m o v e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p a w l b e i n g re­ p o r t a n t f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process a n d so f o r
leased. If i t is assumed t h a t t h e p a w l m u s t be f o r m the economics.
designed a p p r o x i m a t e l y as s h o w n in t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , In F i g u r e 6 6 p a w l 4 w i l l be t h e cheapest o n e i f
t h a t is t o say t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l areas are laid d o w n , only o n e is t o be m a d e , w h e r e a s p a w l 1 m a y be
t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d m a y give rise t o t h e f o r m cheapest i n mass p r o d u c t i o n .

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES APPROXIMATE DESIGN

FORM CONCEPTS

V a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r : Form d i v i s i o n

Í 2 ^ L=röHi

Figure 66 Form concepts for a pawl based on variation of the form division
76 Methods used in form design

We w i l l n o w d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f ideas t o w h i c h t h e f o r m
f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d o n an e l e m e n t b y o n e m o r e d i v i s i o n m e t h o d gives rise. Here a g a i n , an essential
example. The b e a r i n g in Figure 67 contains two factor in the choice of form design w i l l be the
areas o f b e a r i n g a n d a s u p p o r t i n g s u r f a c e , a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process.
a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m design is s h o w n . T h e rest o f t h e

APPROXIMATE DESIGN

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation p a r a m e t e r : Form division

Figure 67 Form concepts for a double bearing


Methods used in form design 11

In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was m e n ­ c h o s e n , p l a c e d side b y side as s h o w n i n t h e inset i n


t i o n e d t h a t t h e m e t h o d s in q u e s t i o n m a y be used F i g u r e 6 8 . ( I n t h e same w a y o t h e r shapes o f c o n ­
in d e s i g n i n g e i t h e r e l e m e n t s o r c o m p l e t e p r o d u c t s . tainer may be examined). In the illustration a
T h i s also applies t o t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d . number of possibilities are i l l u s t r a t e d f o r division
A s an e x a m p l e let us s t u d y t h e tea m a k e r in or integration of the three elements comprising
F i g u r e 3 5 . I t is assumed t h a t w e w i l l e x a m i n e t h e b o i l e r , b r e w i n g vessel a n d p l i n t h .
f o r m s t h a t are possible if b o x s h a p e d c o n t a i n e r s are

ARRANGEMENT OF APPROXIMATE
ELEMENTS DESIGN

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameter: Form


division
Κ

Figure 68 Form concepts for a teamal<er. (See also Figure 35)


78 Methods used in form design

A more flexible application of the f o r m division f o r d e c i d i n g t h e c h o i c e o f f o r m design w i l l be t h e


m e t h o d is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 6 9 , w h e r e a c a l c u l a t o r is manufacturing process, t h e appearance, cleaning,
b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . T h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r v a r i a t i o n are e t c . (see also C h a p t e r 3 ' F o r m f a c t o r s ' ) . A number
n u m e r o u s , as a n y p l a n e w h a t s o e v e r can be i n t e g r a t e d o f c a l c u l a t o r s are s h o w n , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , i n Figures
i n t o o r separated f r o m t h e o t h e r planes. T h e c r i t e r i a 70 and 7 1 .

APPROXIMATE DESIGN

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation p a r a m e t e r : Form d i v i s i o n

Figure 69 Form concepts for a calculator


79

Figure 70 Types of calculator. (See also Figures 69 and 71). (Courtesy of Olympia, .Facit and Cannon)
80

Figure 71 Types of calculator. (See also Figures 69 and 70). (Courtesy of Olympia, Diefil and Facit)
Methods used in form design 81

If i t is c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n o f d i v i s i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t s m a y be n o t e d ,
t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m a y f o r a given p r o d u c t p r o d u c e (see F i g u r e s 7 2 t o 7 6 ) . I t is o b v i o u s f r o m t h e ex-
m a n y d i f f e r e n t a n d e x c i t i n g designs. I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e ampies that a change in the form division may
be u s e f u l t o s h o w a n u m b e r o f e x a m p l e s o f p r o d u c t s occasionally cause a radical a l t e r a t i o n of a well-
p r e s e n t e d i n pairs, so t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f o r m known product.

Figure 72 Pneumatic motors with a different form division, (A tias Copeo L td.)
82

Figure 73 Motor bicycles with different form division

Figure 74 Watering cans with different form division


83

Figure 75 Petrol pumps with different form division. (Danish Industrial Syndicate Ltd.)

Figure 76 Hole punches with different form division


84 Methods used in form design

A coherent example: a pulley

It is u s u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o v a r y t h e f i v e f o r m varia­ 7 8 possible m a t e r i a l areas are s h o w n based o n a


t i o n p a r a m e t e r s in t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : n u m b e r a n d variation of numbers and relative a r r a n g e m e n t . A
arrangement; f o r m geometry and d i m e n s i o n ; f o r m d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l areas i n t o t h e f o r m o f r o d s ,
d i v i s i o n . I t is, h o w e v e r , n o t c e r t a i n t h a t i n a given planes o r solids is u s e f u l . F i g u r e 7 9 s h o w s h o w , b y
situation all five parameters can be used. For varying the f o r m geometry and the dimension, a
instance, t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f a m a t e r i a l area m a y be n u m b e r o f m o r e s p e c i f i c f o r m design ideas c a n be
r u l e d b y so m a n y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e r e is o n l y one g i v e n . Possible f o r m divisions f o r a few of these
place f o r i t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r m g e o m e t r y m a y be ideas are s h o w n in F i g u r e 8 0 .
d e c i d e d in advance. B u t t h i s takes us o n t o t h e c r i t e r i a T h e final decision o n the f o r m depends largely
and c o n d i t i o n s that apply in a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , o n t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g process
w h i c h is t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r 3 . A n e x a m p l e o f t h e (see s e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) a n d p o s s i b l y also o n an e v a l u a t i o n
general s i t u a t i o n , w h e r e all f i v e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s of t h e appearance. B y using s k e t c h e s , m o d e l s and
can be used, is s h o w n b e l o w . scale d r a w i n g s o n e can d e c i d e o n all t h e details,
T h e o b j e c t t o be e x a m i n e d is a p u l l e y , e.g. a c o n ­ which are t h e n d o c u m e n t e d i n a set o f working
v e y o r b e l t . T h e p u l l e y has t w o f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, drawings w i t h the a c c o m p a n y i n g assembly d r a w i n g .
t h e r o l l i n g surface a n d t h e bearings. Naturally this plan, w h i c h corresponds t o Figures
V a r i a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces has been c a r r i e d 7 7 t o 8 0 , is v e r y s c h e m a t i c . T h i s is in o r d e r t o u n d e r ­
o u t in F i g u r e 7 7 , w h e r e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s as line t h e steps o n e m u s t basically t a k e in d e s i g n i n g .
w e l l as m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m surfaces are illus­ A more relaxed attitude to this will probably be
trated. T w o g r o u p i n g s o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces have more realistic, as can also be seen f r o m t h e case
been chosen f o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d in F i g u r e h i s t o r y in C h a p t e r 5.
85

STARTING POINT:
FUNCTIONAL SURFACES
Pulley and bearings

Variation paranneters : Number


-Arrangement
-Form geometry
-Dimension

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY

DIMENSION

MAXIMUM SURFACES MINIMUM SURFACES

Possibly

Figure 77 Variation of functional surfaces for a pulley on a conveyor belt


86

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES 1
FORM CONCEPTS

V a r i a t i o n p a r a n n e t e r s : Nunnber, a r r a n g e m e n t

RODS

SHEETS

SOLID

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES 2

RODS

SHEETS

SOLID

Figure 78 Form concepts for a pulley at the most abstract level, where the number and arrangement of the material areas
are examined
87

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameters: Form geometry, dimension

1
7ZZZ
^ ^ ^ ^

^ 3

F/^íyre 7 P F o r m concepts for a pulley arrived at by varying the form geometry and dimension of selected solutions from
Figure 78
88

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameter: Form division

τΠΙΖΖΤΤΠΖΖΣΖΐ y// ΤΤ7777


V/Λ

πΤΊΖΖΖΖΙ x^xvwv x^xxVVS

τζζζζζ/Δ yyyy yyyuu^

στττΤΤΤΤΖ

7/y/ y y y yy y y

/ / / / / /
/ / / y/ /

^ / / X //.¿y^A ^ZTZZZ.

2a

V2ZZZZZZZZ2L ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

I
yyyyyyyy^yyy. IZZZZZZZZZZZZI

y////////yyyr

I
Figure 80 Form concepts for a pulley. Two of tfie suggested solutions in Figure 79 have been detailed to a certain level
by varying the form division. For the final detailed design the design engineer must first decide on the manufacturing
processes to be used. (See also Figure 95)
l\/lethods used in form design 89

The application of form synthesis methods m a k e t h e basis f o r an a t t i t u d e o f m i n d w h i c h results


in a s h a r p e n e d awareness o f w h a t o n e is w o r k i n g w i t h
H a v i n g s t u d i e d t h e basis o f f o r m synthesis m e t h o d s , in a real s i t u a t i o n (structure, functional surfaces,
i t is n o w possible t o l o o k a t t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h e f o r m ) , a n d w h i c h leads t o a greater w e a l t h o f ideas
methods for varying the structure, functional sur­ t h r o u g h a m o r e o r less s u b c o n s c i o u s f o r m v a r i a t i o n .
faces a n d f o r m m a y all be a p p l i e d i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t
situations, for i n s t a n c e , (as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d ) in
deciding o n b o t h the total f o r m and the details o f Making models
p r o d u c t . T h e m e t h o d s also m a y be used f o r c o m ­
p o u n d products (machines, apparatus, etc) and f o r W h a t e v e r t h e p r o d u c t , t h e f o r m design w o r k can be
products consisting of only one element (bottle carried o u t w i t h the help of different kinds o f models.
o p e n e r s , f i t t i n g s , jugs, e t c ) , e x c e p t t h a t in t h i s case F o r a design e n g i n e e r t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t k i n d o f
t h e s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d is e x c l u d e d . m o d e l s are g r a p h i c a l ones, i.e. sketches a n d d r a w i n g s .
Of course, in d e m o n s t r a t i n g these m e t h o d s it We have, t h e r e f o r e , so f a r e x c l u s i v e l y used these
has n o t been t h e i n t e n t i o n t o argue t h a t t h e y m u s t when describing the f o r m variation methods. Other
all be a p p l i e d t o all t h e e l e m e n t s in a p r o d u c t . T h i s categories o f m o d e l s , h o w e v e r , are also r e l e v a n t f o r
is u n r e a l i s t i c . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e m e t h o d s c a n t h e design engineer.
give rise to a conscious systematic approach to Form models can be used in many different
s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s , so t h a t these p r o b a b l y s i t u a t i o n s i n a design p r o j e c t .
are designed as w e l l as possible. T h e m e t h o d s m a y
also be used t o great advantage in a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e The decisive factor is:
o n e has g o t s t u c k i n d e s i g n i n g a given e l e m e n t . w h a t t h e m o d e l w i l l be used f o r .
I n t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e design e n g i n e e r On the basis of this can be decided:
a n d t h e process t e c h n i c i a n , t h e idea o f functional h o w d e t a i l e d t h e m o d e l m u s t be, a n d
surfaces can be especially v a l u a b l e . If, f o r i n s t a n c e , a o f w h a t m a t e r i a l i t m u s t be m a d e .
f o r m d e t a i l is discussed because t h e f o r m a n d t h e
manufacturing process might have been better A c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n o n t h e degree o f d e t a i l a n d
m a t c h e d , i t is easier t o a l t e r t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n ­ t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l is necessary f o r an o p t i m u m
n e c t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a n t h a t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, m o d e l , i.e. o n e w h i c h as c h e a p l y as p o s s i b l y expresses
because these are a d j u s t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g surfaces w h a t is n e e d e d . T h e use t o w h i c h t h e m o d e l is p u t t o
in o t h e r elements. a f f e c t s t h e c h o i c e o f degree o f d e t a i l a n d o f m o d e l l i n g
Apart f r o m t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d occasions f o r m a t e r i a l a n d t h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s on
using f o r m variation methods, the l a t t e r can also pages 9 0 - 9 2 .
90 Methods used in form design

Figure 81 Model of a diesel engine mounting constructed


in foam rubber, Witt) rough models such as these it is
possible to obtain a first impression of the correlation
between rigidity and the different stiffeners

F i g u r e 8 1 s h o w s s o m e m o d e l s t h a t have been used


for an evaluation of the relative rigidity of dif­
f e r e n t l y designed m o u n t i n g s f o r diesel engines. T h e
m o d e l s are used in t h e e a r l y design stages w h e n i t
has t o be d e c i d e d w h e r e in space t h e m a t e r i a l m u s t
be c o n c e n t r a t e d (in t h e f o r m of ribs). Relatively
r o u g h m o d e l s o f f o a m r u b b e r s are t h e r e f o r e s u i t a b l e ,
p a r t l y because t h e y are q u i c k a n d c h e a p t o m a k e ,
and partly because t h e degree o f rigidity can be
assessed b y s l i g h t f i n g e r pressure, as t h e b u l g i n g can
be seen.
F i g u r e 8 2 s h o w s a m o d e l o f t h e tea m a k e r discus­
sed in C h a p t e r 1. T h e m o d e l has o n l y been used t o
assess t h e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g use a n d i t is, t h e r e f o r e ,
v e r y r o u g h l y c o n s t r u c t e d in p l a s t i c f o a m . T h e m o d e l
was n o t t o be used f o r j u d g i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e , as i t
w o u l d t h e n have h a d t o be m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d so be­
c o m e t o o e x p e n s i v e . T h e appearance was j u d g e d o n
the background of another type of model, namely,
t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l sketches.

Figure 82 Model of a teamaker in plastic foam. This


model can be used to evaluate the conditions during use
Methods used in form design 9 1

Figures 83 and 84 show t w o models that have test tube filling machine (Figure 50) previously
both been used to assess operation, space and mentioned, and Figure 84 shows a model of a
appearance. Both are made of plastic f o a m , card- machine for the automatic labelling of filled test
board and w o o d . Figure 8 3 shows a m o d e l o f the tubes.

Figure 83 Model of test tube filling machine (see Figure 50). The
materials used are plastic foam, cardboard and wood. The model is
used for evaluation of conditions during use. (Courtesy of The
Institute for Product Development, Technical University of Denmark)

Figure 84 Model of a machine for the auto­


matic labelling of filled test tubes. It is made of
plastic foam and cardboard and used for an
evaluation of conditions during use as well as
appearance. (This was a student project from the
Laboratory of Engineering Design, University
of Denmark)
92 Methods used in form design

T h e m o d e l in F i g u r e 8 5 has been used t o e v a l u a t e demonstrate the instrument t o potential customers


t h e basic f o r m o f a c o i n - o p e r a t e d t e l e p h o n e ; i t is before i t was i n p r o d u c t i o n . I t is m a d e o f plaster
made of clay. Figure 86 shows a model of the o f paris a n d is so d e t a i l e d as t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e
finished telephone. The latter has been used t o f r o m t h e real t e l e p h o n e .

Figure 85 Mode/ of a pay te/epfione made in


clay. It is used to evaluate tfie basic shape of the
telephone. (See also Figure 86). (The model
was made by Henning Andreasen for GNT
Automatic Ltd)

Figure 86 Mode/ of pay te/ephone made in


p/aster of paris. It is so detai/ed as to be indis­
tinguishable from the finished te/ephone. (This
model was a/so made by Henning Andreasen)
3 FORM FACTORS

3.1 The origination of form requirements 95

3.2 The interdependence of the basic properties 97

3.3 Design factors 99

3.4 Production factors 102

3.5 Sales and distribution factors 116

3.6 Factors concerning the product in use 118

3.7 Destruction factors 140

3.8 Evaluation of form design suggestions 140

93
3. Form Factors

3.1 The origination o f f o r m requirements

T h e great m u l t i p l i c i t y o f f o r m design possibilities through the criteria that are formulated. In the
that may be d r a w n up in a s p e c f i c s i t u a t i o n — middle are t h e f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s - structure,
either b y s u c h m e t h o d s as w e r e d e s c r i b e d in t h e form, material, dimension and surface — which
previous chapter or simply by intuition - may s p e c i f y t h e p r o d u c t . These p r o p e r t i e s are s p e c i f i e d
frighten the unprepared. The question quickly in t h e product synthesis in s u c h a w a y t h a t the
arises of how to reject t h e u n s u i t a b l e solutions. criteria are f u l f i l l e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e . From the
It was seen earlier h o w t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s m a y basic p r o p e r t i e s are d e r i v e d all o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s o f
be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a continuous alternation be­ t h e p r o d u c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f u n c t i o n , w h i c h is t h e
t w e e n s e a r c h i n g f o r a n d s e l e c t i n g ideas, a n d i t was c e n t r a l p r o p e r t y i n t h e process o f use.
m e n t i o n e d t h a t o n e o u g h t o n l y t o select i f s u i t a b l e If we consider the basic p r o p e r t y of form in
c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n are present. p a r t i c u l a r , w e f i n d t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e s arise, o n t h e
T h e c r i t e r i a used are f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e designer one hand, from the product factors mentioned
o n t h e basis o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . a b o v e , a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , f r o m t h e o t h e r basic
As all t h e stages i n t h e life o f t h e p r o d u c t ( F i g u r e 4 ) p r o p e r t i e s , as these are n o t i n d e p e n d a n t variables.
can give rise t o d e m a n d s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s in re­ T h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e f o r m o n t h e o t h e r basic
spect o f t h e p r o d u c t w e can get a general idea o f p r o p e r t i e s w i l l be discussed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .
w h e r e these o r i g i n a t e . T h e s i t u a t i o n m a y be d e s c r i b e d The remainder o f t h e c h a p t e r deals w i t h t h e de­
as a f o r c e f i e l d w h e r e a n u m b e r o f f o r c e s t r y t o p u l l p e n d e n c e o f f o r m o n t h e p r o d u c t f a c t o r s , w h i c h in
t h e p r o d u c t in d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . T h e f i n a l p r o d u c t t h i s c o n n e c t i o n are c a l l e d f o r m f a c t o r s . T h e f o l l o w i n g
w i l l t h e n r e p r e s e n t an e q u i l i b r i u m — a c o m p r o m i s e p a r a g r a p h s are o n l y i n t e n d e d t o h i n t at t h e i n f l u e n c e
- w h e r e t h e f o r c e s b a l a n c e d each o t h e r . F i g u r e 8 7 o f t h e separate f o r m f a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e
i l l u s t r a t e s these c o n d i t i o n s . O n t h e o u t s i d e are a the interplay. A more p r o f o u n d study of certain of
number of requirements, product factors, stemming t h e f a c t o r s , e.g. ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t ' d e s i g n , c a n
from the life o f the p r o d u c t , w h i c h influence it be f o u n d in o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e .

95
96

DESIGN FACTORS

1. D e s i g n e n 2. Company: 3. Society:
Ability/knowledge A i m s of the c o m p a n y Laws
Imagination Know-how Norms/standards
Creativity Working conditions Possible f i n a n c e
Habit Economics Resources
Attitude Contracts Patents
Personal taste Licences Registration of patterns
Expenditure of time Service p o l i c y
P r o d u c t series
PRODUCTION FACTORS Company's identity

1. M a n u f a c t . process:
Feasibility
Economics
Operator situation

Assembly:
Feasibility
Economics
Operator situation

U s i n g process: 2. User: 3 Environment:


Input F i t t i n g a n d r u n n i n g in Influence of p r o d u c t
Output Normal operations on environment
Nature of function Occasional operations Influence of environment
Feasibility of f u n c t i o n Emergency operations on product
Quality of function F a c t s a p a r t f r o m d i r e c t use
Economics
P r e c o n d i t i o n s o f user
Subjective conditions

Figure 87 Survey of the life of the product


Form factors 9 7
3.2 The interdependence o f t h e basic have been c o n s i d e r e d . I t is t h e r e f o r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t
properties to recognize the interplay between the basic
properties and the f o r m .
The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o n t h e f o r m is
STmrm d i r e c t , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d (sections 2.1 a n d 2 . 2 )
FOltM and illustrated in Figure 8 8 . T h e dependence o f t h e
MATERIAL f o r m o n t h e m a t e r i a l , d i m e n s i o n a n d s u r f a c e is a l i t t l e
more difficult to identify, because it takes place
-blMENSIOSJ
indirectly.
The interaction o f the material and f o r m occurs
in t w o w a y s . F i r s t l y , t h e f o r m d e p e n d s o n t h e p r o ­
duction processes by which the material can be
T h e f a c t t h a t t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are n o t i n d e p e n d e n t s h a p e d , a n d so t h e f o r m d e p e n d s i n d i r e c t l y o n t h e
can be seen in practice by the impossibility of material. Secondly, the properties of the material
deciding o n t h e m separately. T h e structure c a n n o t p l a y a m a j o r role in d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f o r m e.g. t h e
be f i n a l l y chosen until the consequences t o the s t r e n g t h , e l a s t i c i t y a n d w e i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l (see
f o r m have been e s t i m a t e d , a n d t h e f o r m c a n n o t be Figure 89).
determined until material, dimensions and surface

Figure 88 Two drawing instruments with different structures. This illustrates the dependence of form on structure

Figure 89 Springs made of two different materials - rubber and steel. The different properties of the
materials result in very different form designs
98 Form factors

T h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o n t h e f o r m is e.g. t h e p r i c e o f t h e m a t e r i a l a n d t h e w e i g h t , also
i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9 0 . W h a t c o u n t s here is t h e f a c t change. T h e influence o f the surface o n t h e f o r m
that, with t h e change o f size o f t h e o b j e c t , t h e t a k e s place i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e c h o i c e o f p r o d u c -
p r a c t i c a b l e p r o d u c t i o n processes a l t e r . T h e c r i t e r i a , t i o n process.

Figure 90 Cog-wheels showing the influence of the


dimensions (size) on the form

Figure 91 The separate products in a product series are usually so designed that they have the
greatest possible number of common form features (Danfos Ltd.)
Form factors 99

3.3 Design factors

The designer The company

T h e designer has a decisive i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o r m o f A m o n g the m a n y p r o d u c t factors that stem f r o m the


t h e p r o d u c t , as he is t h e o n e w h o m u s t b o t h p r o d u c e c o m p a n y t h e f o l l o w i n g m a y be m e n t i o n e d — c o m ­
the ideas and choose the design. The designer pany objectives, know-how, working conditions,
affects t h e f o r m p a r t l y t h r o u g h a b i l i t y , k n o w l e d g e e c o n o m i c s , c o n t r a c t s , licences, service p o l i c y , e t c .
a n d i m a g i n a t i o n — as f a r as s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s is c o n ­ N o n e o f these have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o r m .
cerned. Choice is influenced by the designer's A l l t h e same, i t w i l l o f t e n be t h e case t h a t t h e
personal t a s t e , a t t i t u d e a n d h a b i t s . E v e n w h e n t h e f o r m o f a greater o r lesser p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t s
s t i p u l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o r m design are b i n d i n g , t h e r e is have a c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r . T h i s f a c t is m o s t c l e a r l y
always some freedom for the imagination of the seen in p r o d u c t series, i.e. g r o u p s o f p r o d u c t s w i t h
designer t o c o m e i n t o p l a y . t h e same o f r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s . A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n
in F i g u r e 9 1 .

Figure 92 A group of products with common form features can help to make up the identity of a
company (Bang and Olufsen)
100 Form factors

Sometimes a firm tries c o n s c i o u s l y t o m a i n t a i n a N o r m s a n d s t a n d a r d s e x i s t i n areas w h e r e s a f e t y


c e r t a i n i d e n t i t y . T h e a i m o f such a c o m p a n y i d e n t i t y f a c t o r s are decisive, o r w h e r e f r e q u e n t use m a k e s
is t o create f a i t h i n t h e c o m p a n y , as w e l l as t o m a r k standardisation necessary, for example: nuts and
its p r o d u c t s as against o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e p r o d u c t s , bolts, washers, fish boxes, railway carriages, and
so t h a t t h e user e x p e r i e n c e s t h e c o m p a n y a n d its containers.
p r o d u c t s i n t h e same w a y each t i m e . Pattern r e g i s t r a t i o n is a legal p r o t e c t i o n , w h i c h
T h i s — t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e user i n says t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e have n o r i g h t t o s i m p l y c o p y
m a n y cases uses several c o n n e c t e d o r r e l a t e d p r o d ­ an o r i g i n a l l y designed p r o d u c t . T h e l a w o n p a t t e r n s
ucts from the same company — leads to the says a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s :
e x p e d i e n c y o f a i m i n g a t c o m m o n f e a t u r e s in appear­
ance. S u c h a ' h o u s e s t y l e ' m a y be based o n c o m m o n A p a t t e r n means i n t h i s l a w t h e m o d e l f o r the
f o r m t r a i t s as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s a p p e a r a n c e o f an a r t i c l e o r f o r a n o r n a m e n t .
a n d surfaces. T h e p e r s o n w h o has p r o d u c e d a p r o t o t y p e , o r t o
w h o m t h e p e r s o n ' s r i g h t has been t r a n s f e r r e d , m a y
in accordance w i t h this law by registration acquire
a monopoly for commercial exploitation of the
Ttie society design.
The pattern will only be registered if its is
T h e r e are t w o aspects o f t h e s o c i e t y in w h i c h t h e essentially different from w h a t was k n o w n be­
p r o d u c t w i l l be u s e d , t h a t m u s t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t fore the date o f application.
i n t h e f o r m design ( a n d , o f c o u r s e , also e a r l y o n i n
t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t ) . These are f i r s t l y , c o n ­ In designing a p r o d u c t , p a t e n t registration may
sideration of the members of the society, and come into the picture in t w o ways - partly as
s e c o n d l y , c o n f o r m i n g t o its n o r m s a n d laws. A m o n g limitations o f t h e design p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i f registered
t h e m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t is t h e products o f a similar nature exist in t h e market,
user, a f a c t w h i c h w i l l be discussed later i n this a n d p a r t l y as a p r o t e c t i o n f o r o n e ' s o w n p r o d u c t .
c h a p t e r . T h e r e are also all t h e p e o p l e w h o c o m e i n t o F i g u r e 9 3 s h o w s an e x a m p l e o f a r e g i s t e r e d p r o d u c t .
c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o d u c t . These m a y be p e o p l e w h o Patents m a y also p l a y a p a r t as c o n d i t i o n s in
have to listen to their neighbour's motor lawn d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t , so t h a t c e r t a i n f o r m p o s s i b i l i t i e s
m o w e r , t o an a e r o p l a n e o r a s p e e d b o a t , a n d all t h o s e m u s t be l e f t o u t , i f t h e y are d e s c r i b e d i n a n e x i s t i n g
w h o each d a y have t o l o o k a t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s cars, patent. Normally, patents concern principles and
e x c a v a t o r s a n d cranes, buses, t r a i n s , e t c . structures.
101

Figure 93 A patented photocopier. The characteristic of this particular photocopier is the fact that
the original is put in from above and the copy is produced vertically (Zeuthen and Aagaard Ltd.)
102 Form factors

3.4 Production factors

O n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t o be f a c e d Figure 95 shows different d e t a i l e d designs f o r a


w h e n designing a p r o d u c t is h o w t h e production pulley {see also Figures 77 to 80). From these
w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t . P r o d u c t i o n c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o d i a g r a m s i t c a n be seen t h a t t h e r e is a close r e l a t i o n ­
t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t h e p a r t s , t h e assembly a n d t h e ship between elements, the m a n u f a c t u r i n g and the
testing and control. The manufacturing and the a s s e m b l y processes.
assembly processes are very closely linked to F i g u r e 9 6 s h o w s t w o bearings w h e r e t h e h o u s i n g
t h e f o r m o f t h e parts. o f o n e b e a r i n g is m a d e in o n e piece (cast) a n d , t h e
In s e c t i o n 2.3 o n f o r m v a r i a t i o n , t h e different s e c o n d is m a d e o f pressed sheet i n t w o p a r t s t h a t are
e x a m p l e s d i d n o t e n d w i t h d e t a i l e d design sugges­ s u b s e q u e n t l y a s s e m b l e d . F i g u r e 9 7 s h o w s t w o ver­
t i o n s , b u t w i t h a series o f f o r m c o n c e p t s . T h e r e is sions o f a f r a m e f o r an e l e c t r i c i t y m e t e r . Here again
a n a t u r a l reason f o r t h i s , n a m e l y t h a t a p r o d u c t o r o n e v e r s i o n is m a d e i n o n e piece (pressure d i e c a s t ) ,
a part cannot be designed in d e t a i l u n t i l o n e has w h i l e t h e o t h e r o n e is m a d e o f s t a m p e d o u t p a r t s
chosen the material, manufacturing process and t h a t are assembled b y s p o t - w e l d i n g . I n b o t h cases
assembly process. there are d i f f e r e n c e s in c h o i c e o f material, form
T h e stages in t h e design o f an e l e m e n t are s h o w n d i v i s i o n , m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d a s s e m b l y processes.
in Figure 9 4 , starting f r o m considerations o f f u n c ­ If we return t o the model o f the f o r m design
t i o n a l surfaces over t w o f o r m c o n c e p t levels t o t h e stages i n F i g u r e 9 4 i t m u s t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o give an
c h o i c e o f processes a n d a f i n a l design o f d e t a i l s . T h e e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e s y n t h e s i s m a y l o o k i n t h e last
l o o p r o u n d t h e c h o i c e o f processes means t h a t , a t stages. In F i g u r e 9 8 w e have t a k e n as a s t a r t i n g
any point, i t is possible t o s p l i t t h e e l e m e n t into p o i n t t h e earlier m e n t i o n e d f o r k j o i n t (see Figures
several part elements which are later assembled. 59 t o 6 0 ) . The f o r m concept on w h i c h the detailed
Correspondingly, it is s o m e t i m e s possible t o i n t e ­ design p r o p o s a l s are b u i l t is s h o w n t o p l e f t , a n d i t is
grate several e l e m e n t s i n t o o n e . T h e stage o f f o r m assumed t h a t t h e j o i n t is a p p r o x . 1 0 0 m m l o n g a n d
d i v i s i o n / f o r m i n t e g r a t i o n m u s t t h u s be t h o u g h t o f as t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l is steel. We f i r s t e x a m i n e b y w h i c h
a last level o f ideas, w h i c h m a y be used i f o n e can­ processes o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f processes t h e f o r k j o i n t
not easily produce a n d assemble o n e ' s elements. can be manufactured as one element. Next, we

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES

FORM CONCEPTS:
M a t e r i a l areas
(number, arrangement)

FORM CONCEPTS:
Form geometry
Main dimension
F o r m d i v i s i o n -f
choice of material

Choice of manufacturing FORM DIVISION


processes a n d assembly processes FORM INTEGRATION

DETAILED DESIGN

Figure 94 Ttie form design stages in a design project The stages are gone through for each element
Form factors 103

A L T E R N A T I V E FORM DESIGNS

D i f f e r e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l processes

Cast Turned

77W/////ZZZZZZL VZZZZZZ^^ZZZZZZ VZZZZZ 7ZZZZ

EZZZ VzzzzzZ¿2zzzzzA 777777. 7777.

V/yyy/y/yy/777777. ^ZZZZZZZTZZZZZZ V77ZZ77. 7ΖΖΖΔ

Vz//////7?7/77^ V7VZZ. ^72Z^

Welded/turned/bolted Welded/tu rned/screwed

ΤΓ///////λ

SS

VZZZZ.

Turned/bolted Welded/turned/bolted

///////////?. ^///777/7/77l

7ZZZZZZZZZZZZL ^ ζ ζ ζ ζ ζ ζ ζ Ά ^
I
Turned/screwed/bolted Turned/screwed/bolted

>/// / / ///////.

7^ZZ2ZZZ1 ~V ' ///////7ZZZ2. ^^ZZZZZZZZZZ^

•ΪΣΖΖΖΖΖΖΖ221 ^ZZZZZZZZZZSZ2

Turned/pressed/bolted Turned/shrink fitted/pressed

^ZZZZZZZZZZZZ 777/////77777?.

wzzzzzzzzzzz
72ZZZZZZ7ZL -ξΖΖΖΖΖΖΖΙΖΖΖΖΑ

///^//////. 77ZZZZZZZ71 -m %///7//7////7/\

Figure 95 DiffererJt detailed designs for a pulley. (See also Figures 77 to 80)
104 Form factors

suggest f o u r n e w f o r m c o n c e p t s b y f o r m d i v i s i o n , n o t all are e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n ,


a n d f i n a l l y each o f these is e x a m i n e d f o r p o s s i b i l i t i e s T h e c h o i c e d e p e n d s o n s u c h f a c t o r s as t h e n u m b e r
f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h e elements and f o r t h e assembly to be produced, the tolerance required, surface
process. r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d m a n y o t h e r f a c t o r s . These r e q u i r e -
A l t o g e t h e r t h e e x a m p l e gives f o u r t e e n p r a c t i c a l ments will be d e a l t w i t h more thoroughly in t h e
w a y s in w h i c h t h e j o i n t can be p r o d u c e d . O b v i o u s l y f o l l o w i n g section.

Figure 96 Two bearings where the


casings are respectively cast and made
from pressed sheets assembled with
bolts (Courtesy SKF)

Figure 97 Two frames for an elec­


tricity meter. One frame is pressure
die cast and the other is punched out,
bent and spot-welded
Form factors 105

Milled Milled Milled

Cast/milled Extruded/sawn/milled

NEW F O R M CONCEPTS BY F O R M DIVISION:

Figure 98 Examples of interplay between form concept, form division and choice of manufacturing and assembly
processes. (See also Figures 59 and 60)
106 Form factors

The manufacturing process

A c o n d i t i o n f o r b e i n g able t o c h o o s e an o p t i m u m n o t excuse t h e designer f r o m k n o w i n g intimately


manufacturing process is that the best possible the existing processes. T h e designer must know
a g r e e m e n t can be a c h i e v e d b e t w e e n t h e design a n d a b o u t t h e f o r m g e o m e t r i e s t h a t c a n be c r e a t e d w i t h
t h e process r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s means t h a t t h e o r d e r a given process, i n c l u d i n g t h e t o o l s a n d f i x i n g s . He
shown in Figure 94 — form concept, choice of m u s t also k n o w w h a t m a t e r i a l s c a n be used i n t h e
manufacturing and assembly processes, design of process a n d t h e t o l e r a n c e s w h i c h c a n be a c h i e v e d a n d
details — m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t t h e s u r f a c e f i n i s h . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n as a b a c k ­
first the form concepts are drawn up, then the g r o u n d t h e designer m u s t be able t o design his o b j e c t
process p o s s i b i l i t i e s are e x a m i n e d , a n d f i n a l l y the so t h a t i t is c h e a p t o m a n u f a c t u r e .
f o r m c o n c e p t a n d t h e processes are c h o s e n as f a r as H o w in p r a c t i c e is i t possible t o c h o o s e t h e best
p o s s i b l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I t is t h u s u s u a l l y n o t e n o u g h possible f o r m c o n c e p t a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g process?
t o adjust the detailed f o r m t o t h e process, i f an O b v i o u s l y t h i s c a n o n l y be d o n e f r o m a n u m b e r o f
o p t i m u m p r o d u c t is t o e m e r g e . criteria which may be d i v i d e d into the following
The problem of choosing the manufacturing pro­ categories: feasibility, economics and operator
cess b e f o r e t h e design o f t h e details has been t a k e n situation.
too far often occurs in discussions between the
designer a n d t h e process t e c h n i c i a n . T h e f o r m e r o f t e n Tfie manufacturing process: feasibility
t e n d s t o f o r g e t t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process so t h a t
t h e l a t t e r has n o p o s s i b i l i t y o f o p t i m i s i n g his c o n ­ The factors concerning feasibility in connection
t r i b u t i o n . T h e ideal w o u l d be if t h e process t e c h n i c i a n w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f process are as f o l l o w s :
c o u l d c o m e i n t o t h e p i c t u r e e a r l y so t h a t he c o u l d form geometry,
t a k e p a r t in assessing t h e f o r m c o n c e p t s at t h e f i r s t material,
stage. In a possible discussion of proposals for size/dimensions,
a l t e r a t i o n s based o n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process, t h e surface r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
idea o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces is v a l u a b l e . A f u n c t i o n a l tolerance requirements,
surface can o n l y be a l t e r e d if o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s are f o r m (availability) of the i n p u t materials.
m a d e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y elsewhere in t h e s y s t e m , w h i l e The first three factors decide w h e t h e r a given
an a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e areas b e t w e e n t h e functional process is at all possible. Each process has its o w n
surfaces can be m a d e w i t h m u c h greater f r e e d o m . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s , as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 9 9 .
A s a rule t h e designer m u s t have an i n t i m a t e k n o w ­ When initially considering various processes one
ledge o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes available. T h e s h o u l d n o t c h o o s e t h o s e a t t h e e x t r e m e s , so t h a t t h e
f a c t t h a t (in t h e bigger f i r m s ) t h e r e m a y be process size is t h e o r e c t i c a l l y possible b u t in p r a c t i c e d i f f i c u l t
t e c h n i c i a n s w h o can assist in t h e d e t a i l e d design does t o achieve.

R ( m m ) = 0.4,0.8, 1.0,1.2

m
Dimensions Dírnrrí)
Possible 1 - - 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 , 5 - 1 5 0 0
Usual -10- 1 . 5 0 0 a - 3 6 0

Figure 99 Possibilities concerning form geometry and dimensions that can be realised by turning
Form factors 107

I — • Force a c t i n g d u r i n g manufacture

S t i f f e n i n g rib

Figure 100 Bearings bracket where the forces acting on it during manufacture have been taken into consideration, so that
the tolerances can be maintained

T h e f a c t o r s o f surface a n d t o l e r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s Tfie manufacturing process: economics


m u s t also be i n c l u d e d w h e n c h o o s i n g t h e process. I t involved in tfie choice of process
is n o t e n o u g h t h a t these r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n t h e o r e t i ­
c a l l y be m e t , b u t t h e y m u s t also a p p l y t o t h e s p e c i f i c E c o n o m i c f a c t o r s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f
o b j e c t . T h e e x a m p l e in F i g u r e 1 0 0 s h o w s a b e a r i n g process are:
b r a c k e t , t h e design o f w h i c h is s u i t e d t o t h e f o r c e s t h e n u m b e r o f processes r e q u i r e d ,
t h a t act o n it d u r i n g p r o d u c t i o n . T h e o n l y purpose materials: supply, price, q u a n t i t y or o w n manu­
t h e s t i f f e n i n g r i b serves, in t h i s case, is t o r e s t r i c t t h e facture;
flexibility during the production sufficiently for q u a n t i t i e s t o be p r o d u c e d ;
t h e desired t o l e r a n c e s t o be a c h i e v e d . machinery;
T h e last f a c t o r m e n t i o n e d in t h e list is t h e f o r m i n v e s t m e n t in n e w m a c h i n e r y ;
of the materials used. It is necessary t h a t t h e re­ special t o o l s .
quired m a t e r i a l s e x i s t o r c a n be o b t a i n e d in the A n o b j e c t m a y be p r o d u c e d d i r e c t l y i n o n e p r o ­
desired f o r m . cess, i f o n e is l u c k y , o r in several successive processes.
108 Form factors

Figure 101 Two versions of control wfieels in a pfiotocopier. In tfie prototype tfie wfieel is turned and milled (left), wfiile
in tfie final version it is die-cast (rigfit). (Courtesy of Zeuthen & Aagaard Ltd.)

The economics of the manufacture depend on w h i c h machinery, investment in new machinery and
a n d h o w m a n y processes m u s t be gone t h r o u g h be­ special tools - are closely connected with the
f o r e t h e o b j e c t is f i n i s h e d . O n e m u s t also c o n s i d e r q u a n t i t i e s t o be p r o d u c e d .
t h e necessary t r a n s p o r t , h a n d l i n g a n d ' f i x i n g s ' be­
t w e e n t h e separate processes.
T h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e desired m a t e r i a l s m u s t be 77?^ manufacturing process: tfie operator
examined. I t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d w h e t h e r t h e y c a n
be b o u g h t in the required f o r m , and under what A t t h e same t i m e as a n o b j e c t is d e s i g n e d a n d a p r o ­
cess d e c i d e d o n , a j o b f o r an o p e r a t o r is l a i d d o w n .
conditions, or whether the company itself must
T h i s m u s t be d o n e as a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t , w h e r e t h e
produce them.
operator's situation is used t o i n f l u e n c e t h e form
T h e q u a n t i t y i n w h i c h t h e o b j e c t is t o be p r o d u c e d
design a n d t h e c h o i c e o f process. O n e m u s t ensure
is decisive when deciding which manufacturing
t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c a n c a r r y o u t t h e process a p p r o ­
processes w i l l be e c o n o m i c . Processes t h a t r e q u i r e b i g
priately without unnecessary w o r k load and risk
i n v e s t m e n t s i n t o o l s a n d m a c h i n e r y (e.g. d i e c a s t i n g
and, f o r instance, w i t h o u t unnecessary demands f o r
a n d d r o p f o r g i n g ) can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d w h e r e large
p r e c i s i o n o r speed.
numbers of objects are involved, while those
B u t even i f i n p r i n c i p l e t h e o p e r a t o r ' s c o n d i t i o n s
processes t h a t are i m m e d i a t e l y available (e.g. t u r n i n g ,
m a y be a l l o w e d f o r , t h e r e is s t i l l a decisive f a c t o r re­
m i l l i n g a n d w e l d i n g ) are w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n
m a i n i n g . Has t h e c o m p a n y t h e necessary k n o w - h o w ,
o f single o b j e c t s o r series o f o b j e c t s . F i g u r e 1 0 1 s h o w s
c a n o t h e r s be t r a i n e d , o r m u s t n e w w o r k e r s be e m ­
an e x a m p l e o f t h i s .
A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , t h e last t h r e e f a c t o r s — ployed?
Form factors 109

77?^ manufacturing process: tfie economics


of tfie detailed design

A f t e r the f o r m concept and the manufacturing pro­ h o w e v e r , be l a i d d o w n w i t h a v i e w t o as e c o n o m i c a


cess are c h o s e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f f e a s i b i l i t y , f o r m design as p o s s i b l e . T h e y a r e :
e c o n o m i c s a n d o p e r a t o r s i t u a t i o n t h e r e is s t i l l the
n u m b e r and nature of 'fixings',
d e t a i l e d design t o be d e c i d e d (see F i g u r e 9 4 ) . T h e
number and nature o f tools,
last t a s k is t o design t h e d e t a i l s in such a w a y t h a t
n u m b e r a n d e x t e n t o f processes,
t h e o b j e c t c a n be m a n u f a c t u r e d in t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e
accessibility f o r tools,
way by the chosen process, a n d t h a t t h e d e s i r e d
c o n s u m p t i o n o f materials.
f u n c t i o n m a y be s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l realised.
F o r m design g u i d e l i n e s f o r all t h e usual processes These g u i d e l i n e s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 0 2 t o
can be f o u n d in t h e specialist l i t e r a t u r e , a n d t h e r e ­ 106. Figure 107 shows a c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e in w h i c h
f o r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v a r i o u s processes w i l l many of the economically important factors are
n o t be discussed here. A f e w general g u i d e l i n e s c a n . mentioned.

ECONOMICS: N u m b e r and n a t u r e o f ' f i x i n g s '

y//////////A

mm/.
Milled
F l a m e cut

Figure 102 Form designs that ta/<e into account the economics of production
110

ECONOMICS: Number a n d n a t u r e of t o o l s

τ—π

Ί N\

r I 3
τ

2 different parts 2 identical parts

+ 1

rrl////

Figure 103 Form designs that take into account the economics of production
111

ECONOMICS: N u m b e r and extent of processes

-2L

w w///////\

'// / / / /
standard bushes
7/7//4νλ'7Ά
V / / / / / / ,

πττττττπ,
//Λ

Τ-Π

J 1 1. I 1 1 I I I Μ 1 1 I

Ί ι I I I I Μ I Μ I I /'
1
^ t -ττΓΤ

Figure 104 Form designs that ta/ce into account the economics of production
112

ECONOMICS: A c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r tools

3 7Α>7Τ7Τ,

m
la
I i

Figure J 05 Form designs that take into account the economics of;fig:^uction

ECONOMICS: C o n s u m p t i o n of materials

F/^¿/re 106 Form designs that take into account the economics of production
113

5 OOP pieces a y e a r

starting material: P2P brass r o d

manufacture: turning
thread cutting
milling

consumpt. of material: o b j e c t 2 5 gr.


shavings 7P gr.

investment: nil

p r o d u c t i o n cost: 5Pp

5 0 OOP pieces a y e a r

starting material: P2P brass r o d

manufacture: h o t pressing
turning
thread cutting

Consumption of mat: o b j e c t 2 5 gr.


shavings 2 5 gr.

investment: £9PP

production cost: 35p

2PP PPP pieces a y e a r

starting material: 1 2 m m h e x a g o n a l brass r o d


1.5 m m brass s t r i p

manufacture: turning
thread cutting
punching
assembly

consumption of material: o b j e c t 2 P gr -H 3 gr
shavings 2 P gr
c u t 2 gr

investment: £36PP

p r o d u c t i o n cost: 25p

Figure 107 Three versions of a thread spindle corresponding to different product quantities. The most important economic
factors are listed
114 Form factors

Assembly

T h e close c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e assembly process T h e l o w e r i l l u s t r a t i o n shows an e x a m p l e o f h o w a


a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes was m e n t i o n e d o n t r a d i t i o n a l w a y o f f i t t i n g a p i n c a n be s i m p l i f i e d i f
page 1 0 5 a n d is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . t h e assembly process is c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t o u t .
T h e assessments t h a t m u s t be m a d e b e f o r e c h o o s i n g A f t e r t h e a s s e m b l y process has been c h o s e n ( a n d
an assembly process are (as in t h e case o f t h e m a n u ­ t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g ones as w e l l ) t h e p r o d u c t d e t a i l s
f a c t u r i n g process) f e a s i b i l i t y , economics and situ­ m u s t be designed i n s u c h a w a y t h a t an o p t i m u m
a t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t o r , a n d t h e f a c t o r s are c o m p l e t e l y a s s e m b l y c a n be a c h i e v e d . A s a c h e c k t h e f o l l o w i n g
parallel t o t h e f a c t o r s in c h o o s i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g list o f general s u b - o p e r a t i o n s i n a s s e m b l y m a y be
process (see pages 1 1 0 - 1 1 2 ) . F i g u r e 1 0 8 s h o w s e x ­ used:
amples f r o m a p h o t o c o p i e r w h e r e t h e p r o t o t y p e a n d
the final m a c h i n e are c o m p a r e d . T h e illustration recognise line u p
s h o w s , a b o v e , an e x a m p l e o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e grasp f i t in
n u m b e r o f o p e r a t i o n s in f i t t i n g a m i r r o r c a n be re­ m o v e t o c o n t a c t area m o v e a l o n g c o n t a c t area
d u c e d i f o n e goes t o t h e expense o f a d i e cast t o o l . orientate secure

PROTOTYPE FINAL VERSION

Mirror

Clip

Cog w h e e l
Loose p i n

Figure 108 Comparison between form design details in a prototype (function model) and the final version of a photocopier.
Above, fixing a mirror to a frame; below, fixing a cog wheel on an axle (Courtesy Zeuthen & Aagaard Ltd.)
Form factors 115

Figure 109 shows examples o f the w a y in w h i c h s w i t c h . O n t h e b u t t o n is p r i n t e d t h e w o r d STOP,


some sub-operations can be made easier by the a n d i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t i t is p u t o n t h e r i g h t w a y
form design. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s apply whether up, the b o t t o m is designed w i t h a g r o o v e t h a t c o r ­
the assembly is m a n u a l o r a u t o m a t i c . F i g u r e 110 r e s p o n d s t o a k n o b o n t h e edge o f t h e h o l e .
s h o w s t h e assembly o f a s t o p b u t t o n in an e l e c t r i c

ASSEMBLY :

To ease o r i e n t a t i o n

To ease i n s e r t i o n

'/////•'/,

I !
1
i

Figure 109 Form design details that illustrate how the assembly is taken into account

Figure 110 Form design details that ensure a stop button is fitted in the correct position (Danfoss Ltd.)
116 Form factors
3.5 Sales and d i s t r i b u t i o n factors

Factors that influence distribution a n d sales c o n ­ d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p r o d u c t are t o o great f o r i t t o be


s t i t u t e a large a n d m i x e d g r o u p m a d e u p p a r t l y o f economically transported and on whether, for
t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as p a c k a g i n g , p a c k i n g , i n s t a n c e , i t c a n pass t h r o u g h a d o o r .
transport and warehousing, partly of market con­ A n example o f t h e w a y in w h i c h a suitable f o r m
ditions and partly of the sales s i t u a t i o n of the design c a n m a k e f o r c o n v e n i e n t t r a n s p o r t m a y be
company. i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e l a w n m o w e r in F i g u r e 1 1 1 . B y f a r
Transport considerations mean that one must t h e biggest p a r t o f s u c h a l a w n m o w e r is t h e h a n d l e ,
t h i n k a b o u t possible results o f s h o c k s a n d s h a k i n g . which i f m a d e i n o n e piece w o u l d t a k e u p a dis­
D e l i c a t e p a r t s m a y have t o be s e c u r e d ; d a m p , d i r t , proportionate amount o f space. T h i s w a s , i n d e e d ,
c o r r o d i n g f u m e s , etc m u s t also be c o n s i d e r e d . If t h e t h e case i n m a n y e a r l y m o d e l s . A s o l u t i o n t o t h i s
w e i g h t o f t h e p r o d u c t c a n cause p r o b l e m s i t m a y be p r o b l e m m a y be seen i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , as t h e h a n d l e
necessary to divide big heavy parts i n t o smaller is d i v i d e d in t w o places, so t h a t i t c a n be p a c k e d
elements. One must also c h e c k on whether the w i t h o u t taking up more room than the cutting unit.

Figure 111 Lawn mower where the handle is divided


in two places solely for reasons of packaging and trans­
port (Courtesy of Ginge Fabrikker Ltd)
Form factors 117

M a t t e r s t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t in w a r e h o u s i n g w i t h storage, o n the one hand t h e objects must take


nnay, f o r i n s t a n c e , be r e d u c i n g t h e space o c c u p i e d , u p as l i t t l e space as possible (i.e. t h e y m u s t be stack-
nnininnising t h e s e n t i t i v i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t t o d a m p a b l e ) , a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y m u s t be easy t o
a n d d i r t e t c , a n d t o ensure t h a t several o b j e c t s o f separate. A l t e r a t i o n o f t h e angle gives m o r e c o m p a c t
t h e same s o r t c a n be s t a c k e d . F i g u r e 1 1 2 s h o w s h o w s t a c k i n g . S q u a s h i n g i n t h e s t a c k can be p r e v e n t e d b y
s t o r i n g c o n d i t i o n s c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e design o f p l a s t i c a vertical rib.
b u c k e t s . T h e r e are here t w o p r o b l e m s i n c o n n e c t i o n

A l t e r a t i o n of a n g l e g i v e s m o r e c o m p a c t stacking;

S q u a s h i n g in t h e s t a c k can be p r e v e n t e d by α
vertical r i b :

Figure 112 Form design details on a plastic bucke t, where storage is taken in to accoun t (Courtesy Superfos Emballage L td.)
Ί18 Form factors

3.6 Factors concerning the p i o d u c t in use

Process evaluation: Input, output and


function

W h e n a p r o d u c t is b e i n g used t h e user o f t h e p r o d u c t o f i r o n s f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . Here t h e shape o f


achieves a desired process (see also page 6 ) . S u c h a t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u r f a c e against t h e m a t e r i a l has been
process m a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , be t h e d r i l l i n g o f holes preserved a l m o s t u n a l t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e ages. T h i s
(electric d r i l l ) , t h e m i n c i n g o f meat (meat m i n c e r ) , shape has t w o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f i r s t t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s
the moving of water (pump) and the moving of f o o d a f l a t , s m o o t h s u r f a c e area against t h e m a t e r i a l , i n
( f o r k ) . T h i s is t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t ( t h e m a i n order that this may itself be m a d e s m o o t h , and
f u n c t i o n , see also page 9 ) ; o n e can t h i n k o f t h e usage secondly t h a t i t is p o i n t e d so t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l is
a n d t h e f u n c t i o n as t w o sides o f t h e same c o i n ; t h e s p r e a d o u t b e f o r e i t is pressed s m o o t h .
usage m a y be d e s c r i b e d b y t h e o b j e c t t h a t alters a N e x t , let us l o o k a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f u n c t i o n o n
c o n d i t i o n , w h i l e t h e f u n c t i o n describes t h e s i m u l ­ t h e f o r m . F u n c t i o n s c a n be f o u n d a t m a n y levels i n a
t a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t (or t o o l ) . We t h u s product and the main f u n c t i o n may thus affect the
get p r o d u c t f a c t o r s f r o m b o t h t h e o b j e c t — i n t h e total form of the product and the sub-functions
s t a r t i n g state these are c a l l e d i n p u t a n d i n t h e f i n a l the f o r m o f the elements. The influence o f the func­
state o u t p u t - a n d f r o m t h i s f u n c t i o n . t i o n s is, h o w e v e r , v e r y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i n t e n d e d
If w e f i r s t e x a m i n e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n p u t and f u n c t i o n s . In c e r t a i n cases t h e r e is a n unambigous
output o f t h e f o r m design o f a p r o d u c t w e must connection between function and form, as for
r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e areas w h e r e i t is in c o n t a c t w i t h instance in the cam and the m i r r o r in Figure 114
its s u r r o u n d i n g s are t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l surfaces (top).
(see page 4 8 ) . I t is o n these surfaces t h a t i n p u t a n d In o t h e r cases a c e r t a i n c o n n e c t i o n e x i s t s , even
o u t p u t have t h e i r greatest i n f l u e n c e . C o u n t l e s s ex­ though there is s o m e f r e e d o m . T h e p r o p e l l e r and
a m p l e s o f such an i n f l u e n c e m a y be m e n t i o n e d , f o r t h e t h r e a d are e x a m p l e s o f t h i s . F i n a l l y t h e r e are
e x a m p l e , n u t s t h a t a f f e c t t h e f o r m o f an o p e n - e n d e d s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e r e is n o c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
o r a b o x s p a n n e r , a p u n c h i n g t o o l t h a t t r a n s f e r s its function a n d t h e f o r m , as f o r instance, the case
f o r m t o the object, etc. Figure 113 shows a n u m b e r r o u n d a meter or a c o m p u t e r .
119

Figure 113 Irons from different periods. The functional surface which rubs against the material in all these designs is
unchanged. (The two lower illustrations are by courtesy of Rowenta and Philips)
120

Figure 114 Interaction between function and form. Above, absolute connection; centre, a certain degree of connection;
below, no connection
Form factors 121

Process realisation: Realisation of tfie


function

I t is o b v i o u s t h a t t o m e r e l y state t h e r e is a m o r e o r less T h e f o r m e r m a y i n v o l v e s u c h f a c t o r s as:


close connection between function a n d f o r m , as f u n c t i o n i n t e r v a l (can t h e f u n c t i o n be realised in
d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , is n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s t r u c t i v e , t h e d e s i r e d size?)
but a description of the factors that come into play quality of the output
m a y i l l u m i n a t e i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s f o r t h e designer. exactness ( p r e c i s i o n )
The functional factors may be d i v i d e d into two capacity
categories: speed o f t h e process
realisation effectiveness.
quality of function. E x a m p l e s o f t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f s o m e o f these
f a c t o r s o n t h e f o r m o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are
s h o w n in Figure 115.

UNLOADING MAGAZINE
IN TEST TUBE M A C H I N E

The g l a s s e s r u n up Interrupting projections


and f a l l d o w n give s m o o t h f i l l m g

B E N D I N G TOOL FOR A COIL


Shape o f c o i l unacceptable

Shape o f coil g o o d

Figure 115 Examples of the way in which the feasability of a desired function is tied in with the form design of a functional
surface. Above, an unloading magazine in a test tube machine (see also Figure 53); below, a bending tool for a coil of thick
copper wire
122 Form factors

Process realisation: Quality of tfie function

W h e n i t has been d e c i d e d t h a t a given f u n c t i o n is These factors can be t a k e n into account by

possible, t h e n e x t stage is t o establish u n d e r w h a t c h o o s i n g a n d b u i l d i n g - i n s u i t a b l e q u a l i t i e s such as:

c o n d i t i o n s t h i s w i l l be d o n e a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h strength
t h e d e s i r e d f u n c t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d . T h e f u n c t i o n a l rigidity
f a c t o r s at t h i s stage m a y be c a l l e d q u a l i t y o f f u n c t i o n hardness
factors, f o r example: elasticity, etc.
is t h e f u n c t i o n r e p r o d u c i b l e F i g u r e 1 1 6 s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f f o r m designs t h a t
parameter sensitivity take the above-mentioned quality of f u n c t i o n factors
reliability into consideration.
safety
stability.

Fiaure 116 1 A bolt where deeper bends reduce the slot sensitiv i tity. 2. Connection between mo mechamcal parts
fbere the sJmbly is most rigid if th^ through the middle 3 and 4. Form designs that g,ve
strength. 5 and 6. Form designs that provide rigidity (a truck body and supporting frame for a diesel engineer)
Form factors 123

User or operator: A survey of tfie factors

T h e user n a t u r a l l y demands certain things of the t h i s k n o w l e d g e t o g e t h e r w i t h a general a p p r e c i a t i o n


p r o d u c t . O n e o f t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l o f these is of the interplay between 'man and the machine'
that the product must be s i m p l e t o use, i.e. t h a t ( w h i c h is c o v e r e d in e r g o n o m i c s ) , so t h a t t h e p r o d u c t
its use m u s t be easy a n d u n c o m p l i c a t e d w i t h the is d e s i g n e d as s u i t a b l y as possible. If a designer over­
least possible m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e f f o r t . looks this very important background knowledge
In o r d e r t o t a k e a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f such re­ t h e r e s u l t is o f t e n a p r o d u c t t h a t m a y be e i t h e r d i f ­
q u i r e m e n t s t h e designer m u s t a c q u i r e — o r at least f i c u l t t o use, o r gives a b a d w o r k i n g p o s t u r e ( a n d
be able t o f i n d - information on the dimensions, r e s t u l g i n g in b a c k t r o u b l e ) , o r t h a t m a y h o l d risks o f
senses, perception, muscular performance, tired­ w r o n g o p e r a t i o n , e t c . A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n in F i g u r e
ness, e t c o f t h e h u m a n b o d y . If t h e r e are special F i g u r e 1 1 7 . Here t h e design o f t h e l a t h e is such t h a t
categories of users, such as h a n d i c a p p e d people, an o p e r a t o r w i t h n o r m a l b o d y d i m e n s i o n s cannot
children, etc, special attention must be given to a v o i d an u n r e a s o n a b l e p o s t u r e , w h i c h p u t s a great
t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I t is t h e n t h e designers j o b t o u t i l i s e s t r a i n o n his b a c k .

Figure 117 A lathe in which the design does not take into account the requirement of a good working posture
124 Form factors

F i g u r e 1 1 8 s h o w s an exannple o f a p r o d u c t w h e r e The interaction between man and the machine


t h e design t a k e s t h e greatest possible a c c o u n t o f t h e w i l l n o w be s t u d i e d m o r e c l o s e l y . W e can t h i n k o f a
user's s i t u a t i o n . T h e noise m e t e r is b u i l t so t h a t a t m a c h i n e a n d a n o p e r a t o r as a s y s t e m t h a t c a n a c t o n
the top t h e r e is a d i r e c t i o n a l microphone which t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s i n a d e s i r e d w a y , i.e. t o m a k e use
p i c k s u p a n d r e c o r d s t h e noise c o m i n g i n . T h e t o p o f t h e p r o d u c t . Figure 1 1 9 shows such a m a n / m a c h i n e
part of the instrument almost a bottleneck t o avoid system, where the interplay between the machine
r e f l e c t i n g surfaces t h a t m a y have a n e f f e c t o n t h e and the operator a n d b e t w e e n t h e m a n d t h e sur­
exactitude of the microphone. r o u n d i n g s is s h o w n .
T h e noise m e t e r is also designed so t h a t i t is c o m ­ The interaction between the machine and the
f o r t a b l e t o h o l d w h e n m e t e r i n g . H a n d l i n g is t a k e n operator may be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r categories, in­
i n t o consideration by a suitable arrangement o f such volving a number of factors:
e l e m e n t s as c o n t r o l k n o b s , d i a l s , e t c . These are de­ handling conditions in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h instal­
signed i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e y are easily accessible lation and running in.
when the instrument is d i r e c t e d t o a given noise normal operation, e.g. nature of job, good
source. working p o s t u r e , s a f e t y , easy movements and
accessibility.
o c c a s i o n a l o p e r a t i o n , e.g. c l e a n i n g , m a i n t e n a n c e ,
adjustments a n d repairs.
e m e r g e n c y o p e r a t i o n , e.g. e m e r g e n c y s t o p and
fire.
A p a r t f r o m these f o u r categories w h i c h c o n c e r n
the operation o f the machine under various c i r c u m ­
stances t h e r e are f o u r a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t have
no direct connection w i t h the operation. T h e y are:

circumstances outside direct o p e r a t i o n , e.g. i n ­


s t a l l a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , storage space,
economics, e.g. i n i t i a l c o s t , r u n n i n g c o s t s , de­
preciation,
user r e q u i r e m e n t s , e.g. a d v a n c e knowledge, in­
struction, training, education,
subjective circumstances, e.g. psychological
c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n o p e r a t i n g t h e m a c h i n e , appear­
ance.

F r o m the above eight categories, t h e following


have a close connection with the form: normal
operation, occasional operations and subjective
c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These w i l l be f u r t h e r s t u d i e d i n t h e
following section.

Figure 118 A noise meter designed with con­


sideration of the circumstances under which
it will be used
Form factors 125

SYSTEM

MACHINE J OPERATOR

J
SURROUNDINGS

Figure 119 l\^a η/machine system

User or operator: Normal operations

Among the factors which concern the normal


o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e m u s t be m e n t i o n e d :

nature o f the j o b (aim: a meaningful j o b ) ,


good w o r k i n g posture,
safety,
easy m o v e m e n t s ,
accessibility,
convenient communication w i t h the machine,
n o u n p l e a s a n t noise, h e a t , r e f l e c t i o n s , e t c . Figure 120 The two possibilities for errors in transferring
information from A to Β

The three factors of w o r k i n g posture, movements


a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y are c l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h t h e d e s i g n . the one hand i n f o r m a t i o n m a y be l o s t , o r wrong
T h i s is p r i m a r i l y a q u e s t i o n o f t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n m a y be a d d e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g pages o u t ­
h u m a n d i m e n s i o n s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , so line a n u m b e r o f circumstances t h a t can c o n t r i b u t e
t h a t o n e c a n a v o i d b a d l y designed p r o d u c t s s u c h as t o clear a n u n a m b i g o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
t h e l a t h e i n F i g u r e 1 1 7 . T h e r e are a n u m b e r o f b o o k s operator and the machine.
o n e r g o n o m i c s a n d a n t h r o p o m e t r y (i.e. t h e s t u d y o f L e t us t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e m a n / m a c h i n e
the measurements o f the h u m a n b o d y ) w h i c h cover system in Figure 119. A more detailed model is
this subject. s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 1 . T h e o p e r a t o r c a n , i n p r i n c i p l e ,
Communication between the operator and the be thought of as c o m p r i s i n g three sub-systems,
machine involves many design aspects that are n a m e l y t h e s e n s o r y a p p a r a t u s (eyes, ears, e t c . ) , t h e
worthy of further examination. Without suitable decision apparatus (the brain), and m o t o r apparatus
c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e p r o d u c t c a n n o t be used as de­ ( h a n d s , a r m s a n d legs). T h e m a c h i n e m a y be d i v i d e d
s i r e d . W h e n i n f o r m a t i o n is c o n v e y e d f r o m o n e place i n t h e same w a y i n t o t h r e e s u b - s y s t e m s ; t h e process
t o a n o t h e r t h e r e is a l w a y s t h e risk o f e r r o r . T h i s can system, the supervision system and the operating
h a p p e n in t w o w a y s , as s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 0 . O n system.
126 Form factors

MAN/MACHINE SYSTEM

Γ
MACHINE OPERATOR

"supervisión p Sensory
system ^ apparatus

Process ρ Decision
system Λ apparatus

Operating Motor
apparatus

Figure 121 The most important elements and relationships in a man/machine system

T h o s e parts o f t h e m a c h i n e w h i c h are i n d i r e c t illustrated in Figure 122. Supervision areas and


c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e o p e r a t o r ( t h e h a t c h e d areas o p e r a t i n g areas are o f t e n p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a c o n t r o l
i n t h e f i g u r e ) are k n o w n as t h e s u p e r v i s i o n s area, t h e area, w h i l e t h e o p e n process area is k e p t a p a r t f r o m
o p e r a t i n g area a n d t h e o p e n process area. T h e m u t u a l these. E x a m p l e s o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e areas are
i n f l u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e sub-systems is d e m o n s t r a t e d s h o w n in Figure 123 and 1 2 4 .
i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n . T h e t h r e e areas are s y m b o l i c a l l y

C o n t r o l area

Figure 122 The three areas of a machine with which the operator is in contact
127

Figure 123 Control area


and open process area
in a grinding machine and a hydraulic press
128

Figure 124 Control area


and open process area
in a copying camera and an electric cooker
(Courtesy of Esk o fot Ltd. and S.A.G. Ltd)
Form factors 129

O n a m a c h i n e , t h e c o n t r o l areas a n d t h e open o p t i m i s e d . T h i s does n o t m e a n t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t


process area s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d i n such a w a y t h a t must be as g r e a t as possible ( b l a c k / w h i t e , r e d /
t h e y are c l e a r l y separated. This is h e l p f u l to the green e t c . ) as t h i s m a y m a k e e v e r y t h i n g seem t o
operator and furthers communication between h i m flicker. On the contrary, it means that the
and the machine. Sometimes the control area is contrast must be a d a p t e d so t h a t the figure
p l a c e d i n a separate u n i t w h i c h is p h y s i c a l l y a p a r t stands o u r c l e a r l y f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d w i t h o u t
from the machine. This may either be d u e t o a distracting and t i r i n g the eye.
n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n , as e.g. in n u m e r i c a l l y Dimensions between the individual figure and
c o n t r o l l e d m a c h i n e t o o l s , w h e r e t h e c o n t r o l u n i t is the remaining figures must be a d j u s t e d . There
separate f r o m t h e rest, o r i t m a y also be because m u s t n o t be f i g u r e s t h a t g e t l o s t in t h e c r o w d .
s p e c i f i c advantages in use m a y be g a i n e d . T h e l a t t e r
G o o d l i g h t i n g m u s t be assured.
m a y be q u i c k e r a n d m o r e c o n v e n i e n t h a n d l i n g , t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e m o t e c o n t r o l , greater s a f e t y f o r t h e D i s t r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s m u s t be m i n i m i s e d . These
o p e r a t o r o r perhaps o n l y greater f l e x i b i l i t y all r o u n d . may be e.g. r e f l e c t i o n s , a f t e r images, powerful
A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 5 . sources near a n d d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e s v e r y close t o .
O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e c o n t r o l area is p l a c e d i n
o r o n t h e m a c h i n e i t m a y be e m p h a s i s e d in v a r i o u s Figure 126 shows a p h o t o c o p i e r where the figure
w a y s . A n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r in t h i s c o n n e c t i o n is t h e g r o u n d e f f e c t is u t i l i s e d t o e m p h a s i s t h e c o n t r o l area
so-called ' f i g u r e o n g r o u n d e f f e c t ' , w h i c h is a f u n d a ­ a n d m a k e i t clear.
m e n t a l e f f e c t in a n y visual p e r c e p t i o n . T h e ' f i g u r e T h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o f a c o n t r o l panel c o n -
o n g r o u n d e f f e c t ' tells us t h a t w h e n w e l o o k we stutute two categories, namely the signalling
a l w a y s n o t i c e o b j e c t s o r f i g u r e s , w h i c h t h e r e b y be­ i n s t r u m e n t s ( t h e s u p e r v i s i o n area) a n d t h e o p e r a t i n g
come significant, while the background dwindles and i n s t r u m e n t s ( t h e o p e r a t i n g a r e a ) . We have p r e v i o u s l y
perhaps h a r d l y leaves a t r a c e i n o u r consciousness. seen h o w t h e m a c h i n e m u s t be designed in s u c h a
If o n e w a n t s t o d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g , i t m a y w a y t h a t t h e c o n t r o l areas s t a n d o u t as a clear a n d
t h u s be d o n e b y u s i n g a f i g u r e t h a t stands o u t c l e a r l y w e l l d e f i n e d p a r t o f t h e m a c h i n e . T h e f o l l o w i n g pages
against t h e b a c k g r o u n d . O n t h e basis o f these facts outline some principles f o r arranging the individual
o n e can f o r m u l a t e s o m e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e design c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e c o n t r o l panel w i t h regard t o ef­
o f the c o n t r o l area: fective c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the operator and the
machine.
T h e contrast in f o r m , c o l o u r and surface ( t e x t u r e ) T h r e e m a i n p o i n t s m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e lay­
b e t w e e n t h e f i g u r e a n d t h e b a c k g r o u n d m u s t be o u t o f a c o n t r o l p a n e l , n a m e l y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f use

Figure 125 Electric scales, where the


control area is separate from the process
area (the tray). (Courtesy of Bizerba)
130 Form factors

a n d t h e i n n p o r t a n c e o f t h e separate elennents, as w e l l
as t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e l a y o u t . T h i s means t h a t t h e m o s t
o f t e n used e l e m e n t s , a n d , f o r i n s t a n c e , an e m e r g e n c y
s t o p are p l a c e d c e n t r a l l y . W h i l e , g e n e r a l l y , i t is n o t
d i f f i c u l t t o decide w h i c h elements belong t o the t w o
f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d g r o u p s i t is a m o r e d e m a n d i n g t a s k
t o a r r a n g e t h e e l e m e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r i n a
m a n n e r t h a t is clear a n d s i m p l e t o grasp. H e r e , h o w ­
ever, p e r c e p t i o n p s y c h o l o g y m a y h e l p us, e s p e c i a l l y
t h e b r a n c h c a l l e d gestalt p s y c h o l o g y . T h e m o s t i m ­
p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n are t h e ideas o f
g r o u p a n d p a t t e r n c r e a t i o n o n t h e basis o f closeness
and similarity.
On control panels w i t h m a n y s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s ,
e.g. l i g h t s , s w i t c h e s a n d h a n d l e s , i t is u s e f u l t o d i v i d e
these into smaller groups t h a t are easy t o scan.
V a r i o u s means m a y be used f o r t h e g r o u p i n g , n a m e l y
either collecting the elements i n t o smaller groups by
arranging them closer t o g e t h e r , or differentiating
t h e m b y g r o u p s , e.g. each g r o u p its o w n c o l o u r . I t is
also p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e t o f o r m g r o u p s b y d i v i d i n g
t h e area o f t h e c o n t r o l panel i n t o d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s
w i t h t h e a i d o f lines a n d c o l o u r s .
F i g u r e 1 2 7 s h o w s s c h e m a t i c a l l y a c o n t r o l panel
Figure 126 A photocopier with the control w i t h 5 0 e l e m e n t s . If these are a r r a n g e d as i n ( a ) , t h e y
emphasised (Courtesy Oce-Helioprint Ltd) w i l l f o r m a n area o f a u n i f o r m s t r u c t u r e , w h e r e i t is
d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y a given e l e m e n t . In ( b ) t o (e) t h e

O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o

o o o o o

Figure 127 A control panel with many similar elements


131

Figure 128 Grouping the elements on the background of closeness and similarity (Courtesy IBM)

Figure 129 An element that stands out in an otherwise homogeneous row catches the attention. The picture showspart
of a control panel on a computer (Courtesy IBM)
132 Form factors

g r o u p i n g is d o n e r e s p e c t i v e l y b y d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e , t h e m . Figure 128 shows yet another example o f this,


different colour, division b y line a n d d i v i s i o n b y If, o n a c o n t r o l p a n e l , t h e r e is a r o w o f s i m i l a r
c o l o u r e d areas. These d i v i s i o n s m e a n t h a t o n e c a n e l e m e n t s t h e y w i l l be p e r c e i v e d a s a h o m o g e n o u s r o w
q u i c k l y — w i t h o u t c o u n t i n g — p o i n t t o a given ele- w h e r e n o e l e m e n t stands o u t . O n e does n o t n o t i c e
m e n t . In o t h e r w o r d s , b y g r o u p i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o n e the separate elements. Now, if one of these is
can ensure much quicker identification of the a l t e r e d , i t w i l l a t o n c e be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m
separate e l e m e n t s t h a t i f o n e h a d t o c o u n t t o f i n d t h e o t h e r s . T h i s f a c t m a y be used in t w o w a y s ;

Figure 130 A control panel with groups formed on the basis of proximity, similarity and framed
sections (Courtesy DISA Electronic Ltd)
Form factors 133

A r o w o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s o u g h t t o have t h e same together in a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t are c o l l e c t e d in one


' n o r m a l ' p o s i t i o n , i.e. all p o i n t e r s are v e r t i c a l a n d group o n the panel, either by placing the elements
all lights are o n d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n , e t c . If o n e o f in the individual f u n c t i o n a l groups closely together
t h e e l e m e n t s gets o u t o f t h e n o r m a l p o s i t i o n i t (proximity), by making them similar in f o r m or
w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n , and thus en­ colour (similarity), or by dividing the panel into
sure t h a t t h e a l t e r a t i o n is n o t i c e d . See Figure sections indicated by lines, c o l o u r s o r areas. An
129. e x a m p l e is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 0 .
If o n e o f t h e e l e m e n t s is especially i m p o r t a n t i t A n operationally-determined layout of a control
c a n be p l a c e d i n a r o w o f o t h e r s t h a t are s i m i l a r panel m a y be e x p e d i e n t if t h e e l e m e n t s are used each
t o each o t h e r . T h e o n e t h a t is d i f f e r e n t w i l l s t a n d time in a c e r t a i n s e q u e n c e . In t h i s case i t w i l l be
o u t . A s an e x a m p l e m a y be m e n t i o n e d a d i a l w i t h natural to place t h e e l e m e n t s in an o r d e r corre­
a d i f f e r e n t shape f r o m t h e o t h e r s , o r a red emer­ s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s e q u e n c e , so t h a t b y m o v i n g o n e ' s
gency stop placed between black c o n t r o l knobs. f i n g e r s f r o m o n e b u t t o n t o t h e n e x t t h e sequence is
G r o u p i n g b y f u n c t i o n is o f t e n used as a basis f o r f o l l o w e d correctly (Figure 131).
control panel layout. The elements t h a t belong A p r o c e s s - d e t e r m i n e d l a y o u t o f a c o n t r o l panel is

Figure 131 Operationally determined layout of a


control panel. The elements of the panel are arranged
in the order in which they must be operated (Courtesy
Watson-Marlow Ltd)

Figure 132 Process-determined


layout of a control panel. The
picture shows the control panel
of a grass drying plant (Courtesy
of Atlas Ltd)
134 Form factors

n a t u r a l if t h e e l e m e n t s o n t h e panel c o n t r o l a n u m b e r H o w m u c h regard o n e s h o u l d p a y t o these f a c t o r s


o f c o m p o n e n t s i n a process s y s t e m . T h e panel m a y depends o n b o t h the p r o d u c t and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .
in t h i s case, as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 2 , be designed as a T h e designer m u s t r e m e m b e r t o c o n s i d e r f r o m w h i c h
s i m p l i f i e d d i a g r a m o f t h e process w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l points of view t h e f a c t o r s s h o u l d be t a k e n into
e l e m e n t s o n t h e panel so a r r a n g e d t h a t i t is easy t o a c c o u n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h e t h e r t h e p r o d u c t m u s t be
see t o w h i c h p o i n t i n t h e process s y s t e m t h e y c o r r e ­ easy t o c l e a n , o r w h e t h e r i t s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d so
spond. that cleaning is unnecessary. Also whether the
p r o d u c t m u s t be easy t o a d j u s t a n d r e p a i r , o r w h e t h e r
it must be b u i l t i n s u c h a w a y t h a t parts o r sub­
User or operator: Occasional operations systems are replaced instead. Easy cleaning is
a c h i e v e d f i r s t o f all b y e n s u r i n g easy access a n d b y
Occasional o p e r a t i o n s are a c t i v i t i e s in connection a v o i d i n g slots a n d holes t h a t c a n c o l l e c t d i r t (see
w i t h the machine, which d o not concern the normal Figures 133 and 134). The r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r s are
operations, but which are necessary f o r t h e con­ taken into consideration b y a design w h i c h also
t i n u o u s use o f i t . These are: gives a c c e s s i b i l i t y , s i m p l e a s s e m b l y / d i s m a n t l i n g of
c o m p o n e n t s , c o n v e n i e n t w e i g h t a n d size o f these
cleaning, a n d s a f e t y w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g these j o b s .
maintenance,
servicing,
adjusting,
repairs.

Figure 133 Meat mincers with suction feet. On the left is a design where meat juices and liquid may run down into the
foot which cannot be taken apart. On the right a new design where cleaning has been taken into consideration
Form factors 135

Figure 134 Suggested designs for the ho/der of a dia/ysis ceil (artificial kidney). The equipment is used in a hospital environ­
ment, where easy cleaning is an important requirement. The design shown in the lower illustration is therefore preferable
136 Form factors

User or operator: Subjective circumstances

S o m e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , Figure 135 shows t w o microscopes f r o m d i f f e r e n t


most difficult factors in d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t con­ periods, which b o t h give an a e s t h e t i c experience.
c e r n t h e user's s u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e t o i t : · The particular conditions concerned in aesthetic
design w i l l be discussed in greater d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 4 ,
psychological facts, w h i c h deals e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e
appearance. product.
It is d i f f i c u l t t o draw the line b e t w e e n style,
T h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t s c o n c e r n t h e user's r e a c t i o n f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t . W h i l e s t y l e is a s o r t o f c o m m o n
to the product; t h e user m a y , f o r instance, feel d e n o m i n a t o r f o r w h a t is c u r r e n t i n a c e r t a i n p e r i o d
repulsed/attracted, unsure/confident, oppressed/free w i t h regard t o t h e design o f p r o d u c t s in i n d u s t r y ,
w h i l e using i t (see F i g u r e 1 9 0 ) . These f a c t o r s m a y b e a p p l i e d a r t s , a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d a r t , f a s h i o n is s h o r t
d i f f i c u l t t o assess at t h e design stage, b u t if o n e feels lived and o f t e n attached t o certain products. T h u s
that there may be p r o b l e m s , a three-dimensional t h e f a s h i o n in cars, f o r i n s t a n c e , has n o t h i n g t o d o
m o d e l m a y be n e e d e d . w i t h t h e f a s h i o n in t h e design o f d o m e s t i c a p p l i a n c e s .
F r o m t h e user's v i e w p o i n t t h e appearance o f t h e Figures 136 and 137 show examples of style and
product plays an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . W h e n evaluating fashion.
t h e a p p e a r a n c e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c a n be m a d e b e t w e e n A l s o , h a b i t m u s t n o t be o v e r l o o k e d w h e n d e s i g n i n g
the aesthetic element a n d the influence o f style, a p r o d u c t . If t h e r e is a w i d e s p r e a d h a b i t u a l idea o f
f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t . T h e a e s t h e t i c side is t i m e l e s s a n d w h a t t h e design s h o u l d b e , i t c a n be c a t a s t r o p h i c f o r
universal b e a u t y , w h i l e s t y l e , f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t de­ a c o m p a n y t o i g n o r e t h i s . O n e o f t h e best k n o w n
p e n d o n t i m e a n d place.

Figure 135 New and old microscopes. However, they both provide an aesthetic experience. (New
microscope is by courtesy of Wild Heerbrugg Ltd.)
Form factors 137

e x a m p l e s o f t h e f o r c e o f h a b i t is t h a t o f s h i p s , w h i c h t h a t i t was t h o r o u g h l y researched b o t h t e c h n i c a l l y
even t o d a y are m o s t l y b u i l t w i t h a f u n n e l , t h o u g h a n d o p e r a t i o n a l l y i t d i d n o t s e l l , because t h e f o r m
these b e c a m e unnecessary w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f was too remote from the traditional idea which
t h e diesel e n g i n e . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e is t h e t r a n s i s t o r people had o f w h a t a transistor radio should look
radio s h o w n in Figure 1 3 8 ( l e f t ) . In spite o f t h e f a c t like (Figure 138, r i g h t ) .

Figure 136 The influence of style on form illustrated by telephones and switches (Courtesy of G NT Automatic Ltd, and
LK-NESLtd)

Figure 137 Fashion:


Three makes of car
having almost iden tical
designs
138 Form factors

Environment

T h e e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t w i l l be used In cases w h e r e a p r o d u c t m i g h t p o s s i b l y d a m a g e
is i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e design in t w o w a y s . O n t h e o n e o r p e r h a p s r u i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h e design m u s t be
hand the environment may have t o be p r o t e c t e d s u c h t h a t t h i s does n o t h a p p e n . If a p r o d u c t is t o be
against t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t a n d , o n t h e o t h e r , d i r e c t l y o p e r a t e d b y a user, o n e m u s t be a w a r e o f t h e
t h e p r o d u c t m a y have t o be p r o t e c t e d against t h e i n f l u e n c e s t o w h i c h t h i s p e r s o n is e x p o s e d t o and
effects o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . t a k e these i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e d e s i g n . If i t is a p r o d u c t

Figure 138 Habit. Two transistor radios showing traditional and unusual designs. The design on the right is immediately
recognisable as a transistor radio (Courtesy Bang & Olufsen)

Figure 139 Two oil-fired boilers for different environments, namely a utility room which requires cleanliness and muffling
anda cellar without particular requirements
Form factors 139

t h a t w i l l be used in a f a c t o r y o n e m u s t t h e r e f o r e , heat, m u f f l e noise, d a m p v i b r a t i o n s , etc. A n example


t h r o u g h t h e d e s i g n , ensure t h a t t h e r e is n o d e t e r i o ­ is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 9 .
ration of the w o r k i n g environment. Obviously, the T h e p r o d u c t is e x p o s e d t o a n u m b e r o f m o r e o r
same c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m u s t be s h o w n i f p e o p l e , m a y less u n c o n t r o l l e d i n f l u e n c e s s u c h as h i g h t e m p e r a ­
have t o pass near t h e p r o d u c t . In t h e instances m e n ­ t u r e s , c o r r o d i n g l i q u i d s a n d gases, f o r c e s , v i b r a t i o n s ,
t i o n e d t h e p r o d u c t m a y have t o be s h i e l d e d against e t c . T h e r e f o r e i t m u s t be d e s i g n e d so t h a t i t c a n resist
these f a c t o r s a d e q u a t e l y .

Figure 140 A pressure switch on three different covers to


protect it from damp - normal, drip-proof and ray-proof
(Courtesy Danfoss Ltd)
140 Form factors

T h e design is i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l a given s o l u t i o n . W h e n e v a l u a t i n g a n u m b e r o f f o r m
and consequently by the choice of manufacturing design suggestions (see C h a p t e r 2 o n ' F o r m s y n t h e s i s
process. It w i l l also be a f f e c t e d b y t h e possible need m e t h o d s ' ) o n e gets a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e d i f f e r e n t
f o r special c o v e r i n g , p r o t e c t i v e shields, e t c . A n ex­ suggestions f u l f i l l t h e c r i t e r i a i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . T h e
ample is s h o w n in Figure 1 4 0 , w h e r e a pressure problem may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the following ex­
s w i t c h is designed f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . a m p l e . W h i c h o f t w o suggested s o l u t i o n s is t h e best
A t t h e t o p , is a n o r m a l s w i t c h f o r o r d i n a r y f a i r l y d r y o n e , w h e n o n e s o l u t i o n is c h e a p t o p r o d u c e , r e l a t i v e l y
r o o m s , in t h e c e n t r e a design t h a t is d r i p p r o o f , i.e. complicated to operate, expensive t o run and of
p r o o f against d a m p a n d d u s t , a n d a t t h e b o t t o m a g o o d a p p e a r a n c e , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s o l u t i o n is dearer
ray p r o o f t y p e s w i t c h i.e. a c o m p l e t e l y enclosed t o p r o d u c e , easy t o o p e r a t e , c h e a p t o r u n a n d o f an
a n d v e r y t o u g h v e r s i o n f o r use i n s p e c i a l l y e x p o s e d u n f o r t u n a t e appearance? T h e answer m u s t n a t u r a l l y
locations. d e p e n d o n w h a t o t h e r c r i t e r i a s h o u l d also be t a k e n
i n t o a c c o u n t , as w e l l as w h a t w e i g h t t h e i n d i v i d u a l
c r i t e r i a m u s t be given c o m p a r e d t o each o t h e r . T h e
3.7 Destruction factors evaluation of a number o f suggested s o l u t i o n s is
therefore a d i f f i c u l t task.
T h e f i n a l process t h a t a p r o d u c t goes t h r o u g h d u r i n g E v a l u a t i o n m a y be c a r r i e d o u t b y a n u m b e r o f
its l i f e ' (see page 6 ) is d e s t r u c t i o n . A l l p r o d u c t s are m o r e o r less f o r m a l i s e d t e c h n i q u e s . These r u n f r o m
d e s t r o y e d e i t h e r b y a gradual b r e a k i n g d o w n t h r o u g h a quite informal evaluation based o n i n t u i t i o n to
environmental influences or by destruction by m a n , o n e w i t h several b a l a n c e d c r i t e r i a t h a t are w e i g h e d
i.e. i n c i n e r a t i o n , c r u s h i n g , m e l t i n g , c u t t i n g u p , e t c . separately, after which a complete evaluation is
T h e d e s t r u c t i o n f a c t o r s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o e n v i r o n ­ m a d e a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n rules. T h e c h o i c e o f t e c h ­
m e n t considerations, possibilities f o r recycling and n i q u e f o r e v a l u a t i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e level o f d e t a i l i n g
the consumption of resources i n t h e destruction at which t h e suggested s o l u t i o n s are formulated.
process. These t e c h n i q u e s w i l l n o t be discussed here as t h e r e
E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m a y be decisive as is a great deal o f l i t e r a t u r e a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d o n t h i s
t o w h e t h e r active d e s t r u c t i o n is c o n t e m p l a t e d . I f t h e subject.
p r o d u c t , a f t e r i t has served its p u r p o s e c o n s t i t u t e s a C o m m o n t o all e v a l u a t i o n s i t u a t i o n s is t h e f a c t
danger, an eyesore o r s o m e o t h e r n u i s a n c e , i t m a y t h a t t h e suggested s o l u t i o n s m u s t be m o d e l l e d (in
be designed in such a w a y t h a t i t is easy t o d i s m a n t l e t h e w i d e s t sense, e.g. i n a s k e t c h o r i n a t h r e e - d i m e n ­
o r d e s t r o y , o r m a t e r i a l s m a y be used w h i c h ensure s i o n a l m o d e l , see C h a p t e r 2 ) , so t h a t o n e c a n e x a m i n e
t h a t t h e n a t u r a l d e s t r u c t i o n is speeded u p . t h e q u a l i t i e s t o be e v a l u a t e d , such as space, o p e r a t i o n ,
Possibilities f o r recycling material, components appearance, etc. The various suggested solutions
o r sub-systems o u g h t t o be c o n s i d e r e d in t h e d e s i g n . w h i c h m u s t be e v a l u a t e d c o n c u r r e n t l y , m u s t neces­
F o r i n s t a n c e i t m a y be t h a t a t i n y a l t e r a t i o n in t h e s a r i l y be m o d e l l e d w i t h t h e same degree o f d e t a i l , so
design makes possible a simple dismantling of a that a solution that might possibly be more
given component or an easy separation of two t h o r o u g h l y w o r k e d o u t is n o t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y given
m a t e r i a l s . A s t h e s u p p l y o f o u r r a w m a t e r i a l s be­ preference over the others.
comes shorter i t m a y b e c o m e m o r e usual t o take W h e n a series o f suggested s o l u t i o n s has been
this factor i n t o account. e v a l u a t e d t h e r e w i l l u s u a l l y be m o r e o r m o r e s o l u t i o n s
T h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f resources in d e s t r u c t i o n is t h a t t u r n o u t t o be b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . T h e best
m a i n l y a question o f using m a n p o w e r , energy and one, or possibly a f e w o f t h e best o n e s , m u s t be
equipment. f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d , w h i c h gives rise t o a n e w series o f
solutions at a m o r e d e t a i l e d l e v e l . Here again o n e
must evaluate and make a choice, but this time
3.8 Evaluation or f o r m design suggestions according to other (more detailed) criteria. After
t h i s , n e w details are a d d e d , a n d so t h e process c o n ­
O b v i o u s l y n o t all t h e f o r m f a c t o r s o r f o r m c r i t e r i a t i n u e s w i t h f u r t h e r s o l u t i o n s u n t i l all t h e d e t a i l s have
p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d c a n be f u l l y a c c o m o d a t e d in been d e c i d e d .
4 APPEARANCE OF THE PRODUCT

4.1 T h e idea o f appearance 143

4.2 F o r m elements 147

4.3 C o m b i n i n g f o r m elements 151

4.4 Means o f e x p r e s s i o n 166

141
4. Appearance of the Product

mPOZJANCE OF
f o r e c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d a n d , o f c o u r s e , i t is t h i s f a c t
THE APP£A/^AMC£ w h i c h gives rise t o m u c h d i s c u s s i o n w h e n a n o b j e c t
l o o k s pleasing.
W h e n d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t o n e c a n n o t leave its appear­
JeoueiCery
ance o u t o f a c c o u n t , b u t t h e degree t o w h i c h t h i s
CLothes
influences the f o r m depends o n the t y p e of p r o d u c t
Furniture
i n q u e s t i o n . F o r c e r t a i n p r o d u c t s , a p p e a r a n c e is a
Domestic
appLiOinces basic q u a l i t y . T h i s a p p l i e s f o r i n s t a n c e t o j e w e l l e r y ,
(^adio, TV c l o t h e s a n d f u r n i t u r e . T h e r e are also p r o d u c t s w h e r e
tape recorders the appearance is immaterial, e.g. carburettors,
Offcce
f e r r u l e s , nails a n d screws. A l l other products are
mackcues
U(>\chLne tooLs s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n these e x t r e m e s , as suggested
Contractors in t h e table o n the left.
pLarit What exactly is g o o d a p p e a r a n c e , a n d w h a t is
BLectrLCaL
characteristic for a product that we would call
b e a u t i f u l ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n s w e r has
Values
never been f o u n d . T h e nearest o n e c a n get is t h a t i t
ÑaiÍS, sere ω s
is possible t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s t h a t t o g e t h e r
give us an idea o f w h y s o m e t h i n g s are u g l y , w h i l e
o t h e r s are b e a u t i f u l . A e s t h e t i c s , i.e. t h e s t u d y of
b e a u t y , is c o n c e r n e d w i t h these q u e s t i o n s . I t is n o t
possible t o d r a w u p rules t h a t w i l l ensure a b e a u t i f u l
p r o d u c t , b u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d w e c a n give s o m e
g u i d e l i n e s , w h i c h a designer c a n use w i t h a c e r t a i n
probability o f a reasonable r e s u l t . T h e rest o f t h i s
c h a p t e r deals w i t h s u c h g u i d e l i n e s .
S p e c u l a t i o n o n w h y c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s c a n give a n
4.1 The idea o f appearance o n l o o k e r an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e has a l w a y s engaged
h u m a n i t y . S o m e p e o p l e have f o u n d b e a u t y in n a t u r e ,
Aesthetics o t h e r s i n s t r i c t g e o m e t r i c shapes a n d o t h e r s again i n
s w e l l i n g curves a n d garish c o l o u r s . These p e o p l e m a y
T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a p r o d u c t is a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e all be r i g h t i n t h e i r o w n w a y . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n taste
choice of structure, f o r m , material, dimension and o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e c o u l d o f t e n be t h e reason w h y
surface ( i n c l u d i n g c o l o u r ) , in o t h e r w o r d s e x a c t l y t h e s o m e a r t i c l e s are f e l t t o be b e a u t i f u l , w h i l e o t h e r s
f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s t h a t w e r e discussed i n C h a p t e r 1 . are n o t . However, if s o m e t h i n g is r e a l l y beautiful
A p p e a r a n c e can o n l y be e v a l u a t e d subjectively, m o s t p e o p l e c a n agree. T h e r e f o r e , i t m u s t be possible
as i t can be equated with t h e visual impression t o f i n d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are c o m m o n t o
given b y t h e f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s . A p p e a r a n c e t h e r e ­ t h e f e e l i n g w h i c h gives o n e an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e .

143
144 Appearance of tfie product

Figure 141 An aesthetic product characterised by unity and order (Courtesy Bang & Olufsen)

B e a u t y m a y i n t h e f i r s t instance be c h a r a c t e r i s e d A harmonic unit may be a c h i e v e d i f t h e c o m ­


b y its o p p o s i t e - ugliness. W h e n an a r t i c l e is f e l t t o ponent e l e m e n t s are r e l a t e d in s o m e w a y , e.g. b y
be u g l y i t m a y be because i t is d i s c o r d a n t , s h o d d y , c o m m o n f o r m (basic shapes, c u r v e s , e t c . ) , s i m i l a r i t y
careless, b i t t y , d e f e c t i v e o r b a d l y m a d e . B e a u t y is t h e in s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e and in t h e choice o f c o l o u r s ,
c o m p l e m e n t o f ugliness, a n d f r o m t h i s w e m a y get (see F i g u r e 1 4 2 ) .
an i n d i c a t i o n o f w h a t b e a u t y is. O n e m u s t , h o w e v e r ,
r e m e m b e r t h a t b e t w e e n ugliness a n d b e a u t y lies t h e
Order
neutral a n d u n i n t e r e s t i n g . So b e a u t y m u s t possess
other qualities apart f r o m n o t being ugly. T h e most T w o o f t h e qualities already m e n t i o n e d in connec­
i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are u n i t y a n d o r d e r , (see t i o n w i t h ugliness w e r e carelessness a n d d i s o r d e r . I t
Figure 141). is t h e r e f o r e n a t u r a l t o e x a m i n e h o w f a r t h e idea o f
O r d e r ' belongs t o t h e aesthetic p r o d u c t . Sometimes
o r d e r in i t s e l f m a y s a t i s f y a n a e s t h e t i c n e e d .
Unity T h e h i g h e s t degree o f o r d e r - s t r i c t r e p e t i t i o n -
will, however, often become t o o m o n o t o n o u s , while
A p r o d u c t o u g h t t o appear as a f i n i s h e d c o m p l e t e a freer and more varied order can make the p r o d u c t
u n i t , w h e r e t h e separate e l e m e n t s a n d details be­ an e x c i t i n g sensual e x p e r i e n c e . T h e degree o f o r d e r
l o n g t o g e t h e r i n a logical a n d h a r m o n i c w a y . T h e r e t h a t is m o s t s u i t a b l e d e p e n d s o n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f
m u s t be n o e l e m e n t s t h a t s t a n d o u t as i f t h e y d i d t h e p r o d u c t , i n t h e sense t h a t t h e m o r e c o m p l e x t h e
not b e l o n g , a n d t h a t arouse q u e s t i o n s o r s u r p r i s e . p r o d u c t t h e h i g h e r a degree o f o r d e r is n e e d e d . H o w
I t w i l l also be u n f o r t u n a t e i f t h e p r o d u c t l o o k s as if e l e m e n t s c a n be a r r a n g e d w i t h a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y is
s o m e p a r t is m i s s i n g . I t c a n be g e n e r a l l y said t h a t m o r e closely e x a m i n e d in section 4 . 3 . T h e i m p o r t a n c e
a n y d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n mars t h e of order f o r aesthetic experience is i l l u s t r a t e d in
appearance. Figure 143.
145

Figure 142 Unity and iack of unity. Above, a programmable machine tool that constitutes a harmonic unit (courtesy
Vilh. Pedersens Machine Factory Ltd.). Below, a car where the superstructure and the chassis do not seem to belong together
146

Figure 143 Order and disorder. Above, an offset writing machine where
the separate form elements express order in respect of both form and
arrangement. (Courtesy of Helioprint Ltd). Below, a typical prototype that
bears the stamp of disorder. In this case one does not worry about appearance
but about function
Appearance of tfie product 147

4.2 F o r m elements

Most industrially m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s are built t h e m a i n visual d i r e c t i o n s , a n d i t


up of a n u m b e r o f elements o f a relatively simple is n a t u r a l t o t h i n k i n t e r m s o f these
g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m . In t h e m o r e c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s a n d directions.
m a c h i n e s t h e e l e m e n t s are p u t t o g e t h e r i n t o sub­ Models. W h e n i t is necessary t o s u p p l e m e n t
s y s t e m s , w h i c h again are o f t e n i n t h e f o r m o f k n o w n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t h i s m a y be d o n e
g e o m e t r i c a l shapes. by using a m o d e l . By far t h e m o s t
T h e p r o d u c t is t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y widely used t y p e o f m o d e l is a
a number of ' f o r m elements', which together make d r a w i n g , m o s t o f t e n in r i g h t - a n g l e d
u p t h e o u t e r f o r m . These f o r m e l e m e n t s h e l p t o give projection. In this sort of pro­
t h e p r o d u c t its c h a r a c t e r , w h e t h e r t h i s f a c t has been j e c t i o n m u c h t h e easiest o b j e c t s t o
t a k e n deliberate advantage o f or n o t . sketch are those that broadly
T h e f o r m e l e m e n t s t h a t are m e t m o s t o f t e n are consist of planes parallel to the
t h e basic shapes o f t h e c u b e — t h e c y l i n d e r , the p r o j e c t i o n planes.
sphere, t h e p y r a m i d , t h e c o n e a n d t h e e l l i p s o i d o r Technologies. Manufacturing processes favour
parts o f t h e s e , see F i g u r e 144. The box and the o b j e c t s w i t h planes at r i g h t angles
c y l i n d e r are t h e f o r m e l e m e n t s m o s t o f t e n u s e d , w i t h t o each o t h e r a n d t h o s e t h a t c a n
the result t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r o d u c t s consist o f be t u r n e d o n a l a t h e .
lines a n d planes a t r i g h t angles t o each o t h e r . Several The above c o m m e n t s must n o t be r e g a r d e d as
reasons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n m a y be m e n t i o n e d : arguments f o r t h e f o r m elements always having t o
The Mind. ' T h e e y e ' is n a t u r a l l y u s e d - t o per­ be s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m s , f o r n a t u r a l l y t h e de­
c e i v i n g v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l as signer has a l w a y s his f r e e d o m inside t h e l i m i t s o f t h e

BASIC SHAPES
O o
/7\
PARTS OF BASIC S H A P E S

Figure 144 Form elements


148 Appearance of the product

c r i t e r i a . H o w e v e r , if a n u m b e r o f p r o d u c t s are s t u d i e d used as means o f g e t t i n g ideas, b o t h w h e n w o r k i n g


o n t h e basis o f t h e f o r m e l e m e n t s t h e y consists o f , i t on the total f o r m and w h e n deciding o n the f o r m
w i l l be f o u n d t h a t t h e basic shapes i n F i g u r e 144 of t h e e l e m e n t s (as d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 3 ) . I t is,
have been used. F i g u r e 1 4 5 s h o w s t h i s f o r a n u m b e r h o w e v e r , n o t e n o u g h t o m e r e l y emphasise t h e i m ­
o f s m a l l c o m p o n e n t s . In t h e m o r e c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s p o r t a n c e o f t h e idea o f f o r m e l e m e n t s . T h e designer
s h o w n i n Figures 1 4 6 t o 1 4 9 t h e basic shapes are must k n o w that the correct integration of the f o r m
used i n t h e f o r m design o f t h e smallest e l e m e n t s u p elements is essential to the appearance of the
to the construction of the total system. product. The following section, therefore, shows
T h i n k i n g in t e r m s o f f o r m e l e m e n t s is i m p o r t a n t w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n several f o r m e l e m e n t s are p u t
t o t h e designer, because t h e basic shapes can be t o g e t h e r , a n d w h a t can be d o n e t o achieve a har­
m o n i o u s result.

Figure 145 A number of


smaller components in
which the form elements
from Figure 144 can be
recognised
149

Figure 146 Fresh water plant. Note the


clearly defined fornn elements both in
the total form and in the details (Courtesy
of Atlas Ltd)

Figure 147 An automatic lathe with many form elements (Courtesy of Boehringer)
150

Figure 148 l\nicroscope built up of simple


geometric basic forms (Courtesy of Carl Zeiss)

Figure 149 Excavator built up of pronounced form elements (Courtesy of J. C. Bamford Exc.)
Appearance of tfie product 151

4.3 Combining f o r m elements

Visual balance

L e t us e x a m i n e t w o isolated f o r m units or form central l i n e . V i s u a l b a l a n c e is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure


elements and try to combine them. If t h e form 1 5 0 (c) t o ( e ) , w h e r e (c) s h o w s i t a c h i e v e d b y s y m ­
e l e m e n t s are m o v e d t o w a r d s each o t h e r w e n o t i c e m e t r y , ( d ) an a s y m m e t r i c a l balance a n d (e) a visual
t h a t , a t a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e , t h e y seem t o b e l o n g t o ­ imbalance.
g e t h e r a n d have f o r m e d a g r o u p (see F i g u r e 1 5 0 (a) I f a g r o u p o f f o r m e l e m e n t s are n o t i n balance
a n d ( b ) ) . T h e idea o f g r o u p is f u n d a m e n t a l t o o u r t h e y m a y ' o f f e n d the eye'. One m u s t especially guard
visual p e r c e p t i o n . If w e s t u d y a n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s against cases w h e r e t h e t o t a l f o r m is v e r y n e a r l y s y m ­
i n a g r o u p t h e y w i l l a f f e c t each o t h e r , a p a r t f r o m m e t r i c a l , b u t n o t q u i t e . A g o o d rule o f t h u m b is, t h a t
j u s t s e e m i n g t o b e l o n g t o g e t h e r . We w i l l feel that t h e f o r m m u s t be e i t h e r s y m m e t r i c a l o r s u f f i c i e n t l y
t h e e l e m e n t s are v i s u a l l y m o r e o r less i n b a l a n c e . a s y m m e t r i c a l f o r i t t o be c l e a r l y d e l i b e r a t e a n d n o t
A visual balance m a y be a c h i e v e d b y s y m m e t r y , s i m p l y lopsidedness.
or it m a y be a s y m m e t r i c a l . In t h e l a t t e r case t h e Figures 151 and 1 5 2 s h o w e x a m p l e s o f visual
c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s m u s t be s h a p e d a n d a r r a n g e d balance on the f r o n t of t w o meters. Figure 153
i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e r e s h o w s a v a c u u m p u m p i n visual i m b a l a n c e ( i t l o o k s
seems t o be t h e same ' w e i g h t ' (a c o m b i n a t i o n of as i f i t w i l l t o p p l e o v e r ) , a n d F i g u r e 1 5 4 a v i s u a l l y
form and colour) on both sides o f an imaginary balanced vertical drill.

Figure 150 The group effect between two elements (a and b), visual balance (c, symmetrical; d, asymmetrical) and visual
imbalance (e)
152

Figure 151 Visual balance through symmetry (Courtesy of Bruel & Kjaer)

Figure 152 Visual balance without symmetry (Coutesy of DISA Electronic Ltd.)
153

Figure 153 Vacuum pump which gives an impression of


visual imbalance

Figure 154 Vertical drill in visual balance


154 Appearance of tfie product
Rfiytfim

In the section of aesthetics (page 143) it was c o n s t i t u t e an u n i n t e r e s t i n g r o w . H o w c a n w e m a k e


mentioned that one important characteristic of the g r o u p o f elements m o r e exciting? We can i n t r o ­
b e a u t i f u l p r o d u c t s is o r d e r . A t t h e same t i m e i t was duce a certain variation which we repeat with
emphasised that the degree of necessary order suitable intervals. This 'order with variation' or
d e p e n d s o n t h e degree o f c o m p l e x i t y . T h e idea o f ' R h y t h m ' m a y be c a r r i e d o u t b y u s i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n
o r d e r is t h u s m o s t p r o n o u n c e d w h e n m a n y e l e m e n t s p a r a m e t e r s f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . These are a r r a n g e m e n t ,
are p r e s e n t . d i m e n s i o n , n u m b e r and f o r m o f elements (this in­
L e t us c o n s i d e r a great n u m b e r o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s cludes their c o l o u r ) . Figure 1 5 5 b shows t h e elements
as s h o w n in Figure 155a. The arrangement where i n g r o u p s w h e r e r h y t h m is i n t r o d u c e d i n d i f f e r e n t
t h e y are e q u a l l y spaced represents t h e h i g h e s t degree ways.
o f order, b u t p u t together in this w a y t h e elements

b NUMBER

ARRANGEMENTS φ ® © © ® ® ® ® © ® ^

DIMENSION O ^ ©

S H A P E A N D COLOUR

© ^ *0 O Q O © Q O O ^ O O ^ ©

ο ® ο · ο © ο · ο ® ο · ο ο ο

Figure 155 Rhythm through variation of arrangement, dimension, number and form of the elements
Appearance of the product 155

T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r h y t h n n is i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a R h y t h m based o n v a r y i n g t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s
g r o u p o f e l e m e n t s d e p e n d s , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , c a n also be a p o w e r f u l t o o l . I n t h e cars s h o w n i n
not only on the c o m p l e x i t y (number and dissimilarity F i g u r e 1 5 7 t h e shape o f w i n d o w s a n d d o o r s is e m -
of t h e e l e m e n t s ) b u t also o n p e r s o n a l t a s t e . F i g u r e phasised b y t h e s y s t e m o f lines w h i c h t h e y f o r m . T h e
1 5 6 s h o w s a design o f a s h i p ' s t r a n s m i t t e r w h e r e a r r a n g e m e n t , shape a n d angle o f t h e lines t o g e t h e r
rhythm helps to make the appearance exciting, f o r m a r h y t h m , t h a t has a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r f o r t h e
R h y t h m has been a c h i e v e d b y v a r y i n g t h e arrange- d i f f e r e n t cars,
ment and the dimensions.

Figure 156 A ship's transmitter. The rhythm is achieved by


varying the arrangement and the dimensions of the deals;
alternating between rectangular and round elements and
making the module heights different
156

Figure 157 Three cars where the prominent lines give different rhythms
Appearance of tfie product 157

Proportions

The idea of u n i t y , m e n t i o n e d in the section on A rectangle with this ratio between its sides is
aesthetics is an i m p o r t a n t í/íya/zY/. T h e f o r m e l e m e n t s characterised by b e i n g d i v i s i b l e i n t o a square a n d
m u s t be s u i t e d t o each o t h e r i n a logical a n d har­ another r e c t a n g l e w i t h t h e same r a t i o b e t w e e n its
m o n i o u s w a y , a n d c o m m o n f e a t u r e s in t h e i r s u r f a c e , sides, see F i g u r e 1 5 8 . T h r o u g h o u t t h e ages m a n y
s t r u c t u r e a n d c o l o u r are t h e r e f o r e necessary. O n e o f p e o p l e have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s r e c t a n g l e t o be p e r f e c ­
t h e p a r a m e t e r s t h a t can h e l p t o u n d e r l i n e t h e o v e r a l l tion.
i m p r e s s i o n is t h e p r o p o r t i o n . R a t i o s such as 2 : 3 , 3 : 5 , 5 : 8 , 8 : 1 3 e t c are even
M a n has a l w a y s been p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e idea c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o t h e G o l d e n S e c t i o n . These
of a connection between p r o p o r t i o n and beauty. p r o p o r t i o n s are a p p l i e d i n a great m a n y areas. F o r
There are examples of ideal measurements for instance, textbooks on photography teach the
b e a u t i f u l h u m a n beings, a n d f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e G o l d e n advisability of placing the most i m p o r t a n t part o f
S e c t i o n , w h i c h is a m a t h e m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d r a t i o t h e p i c t u r e i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t d i v i d e s t h e sides i n
b e t w e e n t w o lines A a n d B, d e f i n e d b y the ratio 2:3 o r 3 : 5 . These p r o p o r t i o n s m a y be
recognised in m a n y p r o d u c t s .
A Β
Β A-B.

T h i s gives: Í 2 = i / 2 ( i + / 5 ) - 1 . 6 1 8 .
Β

Figure 158 Above, division of a line by the Golden Section. Below, a rectangle in proportions corresponding to the
Golden Section
158 Appearance of tfie product

R e p e a t e d use o f c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n s in t h e ele­ i s a t i o n , a n d also f l e x i b i l i t y , b u t a d i s c u s s i o n o f these


ments o f a p r o d u c t m a y , a m o n g other things, result is o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h e b o o k . U s i n g m o d u l e s t o
i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s . T h i s m a y also d i v i d e an area i n t o s e c t i o n s , e.g. o n c o n t r o l panels, is
contribute greatly t o the p r o d u c t a p p e a r i n g as a a convenient way of f i t t i n g elements o f different
harmonious unit. Figure 159 shows a g r a m o p h o n e , sizes as a w h o l e .
where there are f o u r similar rectangles a n d two F i g u r e 1 6 0 s h o w s a h a e m o d i a l y s i s a p p a r a t u s , i.e.
squares. a c o n t r o l u n i t used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n a r t i f i c i a l
A c o n v e n i e n t aid t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s kidney for treating patients w i t h chronic kidney
is t h e use o f m o d u l e s , t h e basic size o r a basic area, c o m p l a i n t s . D i a l s , c o n t r o l l a m p s , e t c are g r o u p e d in
w h i c h i n v a r i o u s w a y s c a n be a s s e m b l e d i n t o larger s e c t i o n s c r e a t e d b y d i v i d i n g t h e o u t e r area i n t o 3 ,
e l e m e n t s . M o d u l e s can n a t u r a l l y have m a n y other respectively 5, parts. T h e modules o f height and
advantages such as r e d u c i n g costs t h r o u g h s t a n d a r d ­ w i d t h are i n t h e r a t i o o f 5 : 3 .

Figure 159 Division of the surface of a record player. The division contains rectangles and two squares
(Courtesy of Bang & Olufsen)
159

Figure 160 Use of modules in dividing up tfie front of a haemodialysis apparatus


(Courtesy of the Institute of Product Development, The Technical University of
Denmark)
160 Appearance of the product

Lines and planes

O c c a s i o n a l l y , w h e n f o r m e l e m e n t s are p u t t o g e t h e r The qualities of u n i t y and order depend on the


unexpected visual effects will arise. The visual r u n o f t h e lines a n d planes. O n e t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y
i m p r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d w h e n l o o k i n g a t a u n i t is n o t t r i e s t o give t h e p r o m i n e n t lines i n t h e p r o d u c t t h e
just t h e sum of the impressions f r o m the elements. same c h a r a c t e r , e.g. s t r a i g h t lines, curves a n d lines
These i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r v i s u a l l y . T h e visual e f f e c t a t a c e r t a i n angle, see F i g u r e s 1 6 1 a n d 1 6 2 .
is t h e reason w h y o n e m u s t p a y a t t e n t i o n t o the Continuity in t h e r u n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l lines is
lines a n d planes i n a p r o d u c t , so t h a t a f o r m design also s i g n i f i c a n t . F i g u r e 1 6 3 s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f t h e
c a n be c r e a t e d w h e r e these are in r e l a t i o n t o each w a y i n w h i c h a d i s c o n t i n u o u s r u n o f lines a t t r a c t s
other. attention unfavourably.

Figure 161 Pumps and scales marked by, respectively, curved and flat planes (Courtesy of DAE Pumps Ltd and Rex
Scales Factory Ltd)
161

Figure 162 A perfusator (a box for preserving and transporting living kidneys before a transplant). In the form are found
a number of similarly inclined lines (Courtesy of the Lab. of Engineering Design, The Technical University of Denmark)
162

Figure 163 Examples of lines which attract unfavourable attention


Appearance of the product 163

Joints

J o i n t s b e t w e e n f o r m e l e m e n t s c a n give rise t o b o t h 2. The joint is e m p h a s i s e d a n d d e l i b e r a t e l y used


constructional a n d visual problems. If t w o planes as p a r t o f t h e f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o d u c t .
o r edges m e e t t i g h t l y w i t h an uncovered dividing T h e r e are several methods which c a n be used t o
line i t w i l l o f t e n d e m a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e exactitude achieve this — distance between the elements —
a n d p a r a l l e l i s m . It is, t h e r e f o r e , w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t grooving - staining the groove dark - covering
from a visual point of view one can a d o p t two the joint with a moulding or something similar.
attitudes t o joints:
Figures 164 to 167 show different examples of
1. T h e e l e m e n t s are so designed t h a t t h e j o i n t on ways of solving the p r o b l e m of joints.
t h e w h o l e i s u n n o t i c e d , t h a t is t o say t h a t t h e de­
m a n d f o r e x a c t i t u d e is a c c e p t e d o r t h a t t h e joint
is h i d d e n , e.g. b y p a i n t .

Figure 164 Different possibilities for joining two elements end-on


Figure 165 Different possibilities for joining two elements at right angles

Figure 166 Examples of joints. (See also Figures 164 and 165)
165

Figure 167 Examples of joints. (See also Figures 164 and 165)
166 Appearance of tfie product
4.4 Means o f expression

Lightness

Based o n associations w h e n l o o k i n g a t t h e f o r m In t h e first example, t h e lower part o f t h e object


there are c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s w h i c h are e x p e c t e d i n has been s h a p e d as a p l i n t h o r legs, w h i c h gives
a p r o d u c t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t is f e l t t h a t t h e f o r m the impression that t h e object does n o t rest so
can express something. This fact m a y be c o n ­ heavily o n t h e f o u n d a t i o n . T h e o t h e r e x a m p l e is
s c i o u s l y used b y t h e designer, e i t h e r t o emphasise a projecting part which c a n be m a d e l i g h t e r b y
certain o f t h e p r o d u c t ' s characteristics o r t o m i t i ­ sloping the b o t t o m line upwards.
gate possible u n d e s i r a b l e ones. Figures 1 6 9 a n d 1 7 0 s h o w h o w t h e d i a g r a m m a t i c
One quality that c a n be stressed t h r o u g h t h e e x a m p l e s i n F i g u r e 1 6 8 c a n be a p p l i e d i n d e s i g n i n g
f o r m is lightness. F i g u r e 1 6 8 s h o w s t w o s i t u a t i o n s products.
w h e r e a n o b j e c t seems t o have been m a d e l i g h t e r .

W/////// /}//////hr /y>////y/.7* \jyy//^/7

//} / ///7f7

Figure 168 Two situations where the object appears to have been made lighter
167

Figure 169 Products where the form expresses lightness (see also Figure 168). The objects shown are: top left, a vibration
meter. (Courtesy of Bruel and Kjaer); top right, a teamaker. (Courtesy of Lab. for Engineering Design, The Technical
University of Denmark). Below, a workbench. (Courtesy of Brown and Sharpe)
168

Figure 170 Further products where the form expresses lightness (see also Figure 168). The objects shown are: top left, a
photocopier. (Courtesy of Eskofot Ltd); middle and bottom left, front of car and side view of car front (Courtesy of
Sunbeam and Opel); middle right, a TV set (Courtesy of Bang and Olufsen); bottom right, an operating console (Courtesy
of Digital Equipment Corp.)
Appearance of tfie product 169

Weight and stability

T h e means t h a t c a n be used t o express w e i g h t a n d s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f w a y s i n w h i c h these t w o e f f e c t s


s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h the f o r m , aim at placing the centre c a n be used t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e s t a b i l i t y o f a b o x -
o f g r a v i t y l o w d o w n . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e s l o p i n g lines s h a p e d b o d y . I n s o m e o f t h e suggestions t h e f o r m is
o r ' h e a v y ' curves are u s e f u l . I t is a f a c t , as f a r as d i v i d e d i n t o t w o f o r m e l e m e n t s , w h i c h at t h e same
s l o p i n g lines are c o n c e r n e d , t h a t a single l i n e ex­ t i m e gives g r e a t e r f r e e d o m i n c h o o s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s .
presses i n s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e t w o lines l e a n i n g t o w a r d s P r o d u c t s , w h i c h as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n are
each other express a h i g h degree o f s t a b i l i t y , as h e a v y a n d s o l i d , c a n be s h a p e d so t h a t t h i s is ex­
shown in Figure 171a. Figure 171b demonstrates pressed i n t h e f o r m . F i g u r e 1 7 2 s h o w s s o m e m a c h i n e s
how bodies w i t h slightly c o n c a v e sides are h e a v y that convey stability and strength.
c o m p a r e d t o b o d i e s w i t h c o n v e x sides. F i g u r e 1 7 1 c

////////// //////////////

Figure 171 l\/leans of expressing weight and stability


170

Figure 172 Products designed in a way tfiat accentuates weight and stability, left, two fork lift trucks. (Courtesy of
Crown); top right, a lathe (Courtesy of Drehbank, Colchester); bottom right, an excavator (Courtesy of J. C. Bamford
Excavators Ltd)
Appearance of tfie product 171

Movement

An impression of movement a n d speed c a n , like s l o p i n g o r s l i g h t l y c u r v e d lines at a r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t


s t a b i l i t y , be a c h i e v e d b y using s l o p i n g lines, a l t h o u g h angle t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o v e m e n t , see F i g u r e 1 7 3 .
i n a n o t h e r w a y . T w o lines t h a t m e e t in a p o i n t give The movement may be further emphasised by
associations w i t h an a r r o w , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e angle a c c e n t i n g lines i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o v e m e n t , as w e
b e t w e e n t h e m is n o t t o o great. I t is t h e r e f o r e possible k n o w f r o m 'speed s t r i p e s ' o n w h i c h are p a i n t e d o n
to let the form underline movement by using s o m e cars a n d r a i l w a y carriages, e t c .

Figure 173 Products designed in way tfiat emphasises speed


5 CASE HISTORY: CHROMOSOME APPARATUS

5.1 Introduction to the project 175

5.2 Basic structure 179

5.3 Quantified structure 182

5.4 Form of the total system 186

5.5 Form of the elements 196

173
5. Case History:
Chromosome Apparatus

5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the project


ProUem
In the previous chapters we have attennpted to
e s t a b l i s h a systennatic approach a n d an organised
s y s t e m b y w h i c h i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o g o t h r o u g h
t h e f o r m d e s i g n stages o f a p r o j e c t . T h e e x a m p l e s ,
b y a n d large, have been t a k e n o u t o f t h e s e t t i n g i n
w h i c h t h e y have — o r m i g h t have — b e l o n g e d . F o r
t h i s r e a s o n i t has n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o give a m o r e

and means d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t is p o s s i b l e
t o a p p l y t h e s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s in a design p r o j e c t .
I t is o b v i o u s l y u n r e a l i s t i c t o w o r k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y
t h r o u g h all t h e e l e m e n t s i n a c o m p l e x p r o j e c t . B u t
i f o n e has a b s o r b e d t h e s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s t h e r e is
a basis f o r an a t t i t u d e t o t h e w o r k o f d e s i g n i n g w h i c h ,
31
i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , results i n a m o r e o r less c o n s c i o u s
m Basic a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e system u p t o a certain manageable
striActure stage, w h i l e for especially difficult o r c r i t i c a l ele­
m e n t s o n e uses t h e t h o r o u g h s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e .
B y m o r e c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f o r m design stages
Total Jorm
i n a single design p r o j e c t i t s h o u l d be possible to
Element observe, how in different situations one changes
b e t w e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d r a w n u p series o f s o l u t i o n s
and a m o r e free and relaxed w a y o f w o r k i n g w i t h
f o r m design ideas. T h e p r o j e c t , w h i c h is d e s c r i b e d
b e l o w , is t h e design o f an a p p a r a t u s f o r c h r o m o s o m e
a n a l y s i s . T o e n a b l e t h i s case h i s t o r y t o be seen i n
the right perspective the table o n the left shows w h i c h
p a r t s o f t h e c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t are b e i n g s t u d i e d .
C h r o m o s o m e s carry o u r inherited characteristics.
I n each cell i n t h e h u m a n b o d y is a c o m p l e t e c o l l e c ­
t i o n o f t h e s e . T h e y are f o u n d in t h e so-called genes,
w h i c h n o r m a l l y e x i s t in a cell n u c l e u s separate f r o m
t h e rest o f t h e c e l l . W h e n t h e cell d i v i d e s , w h i c h o f
c o u r s e is a c o n d i t i o n f o r a n y g r o w t h a n d l i f e , t h e

175
176 Case history: chromosome apparatus

genes g a t h e r i n t o l o n g t h r e a d s t h a t n o w f i l l t h e w h o l e
c e l l . These t h r e a d s are w h a t w e call c h r o m o s o m e s .
I n a m i c r o s c o p e t h e c h r o m o s o m e s m a y l o o k as s h o w n
i n F i g u r e 1 7 4 . W h e n t h e cell d i v i s i o n is c o m p l e t e d
the chromosomes divide lengthwise, whereby the
n e w cell n u c l e i are c r e a t e d , t h a t f o r m t h e basis f o r
t w o n e w cells.

I
N o r m a l h u m a n beings have 4 6 c h r o m o s o m e s , b u t
t h e r e m a y be a b n o r m a l c h r o m o s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n s ,
which result in various diseases. In cases where
s o m e b o d y ' s c h r o m o s o m e s are e x a m i n e d a c h r o m o ­
some analysis is carried out, which produces a
so-called k a r y o t y p e d i a g r a m , w h e r e p i c t u r e s o f t h e
i n d i v i d u a l c h r o m o s o m e s are a r r a n g e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ,

I
see F i g u r e 1 7 5 .

11
C h r o m o s o m e analysis is used i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s ,
i n c l u d i n g diagnosis a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f embryonic
f l u i d as w e l l as research. T h e reason w h y c h r o m o ­
s o m e analysis c a n be used i n diagnosis is t h a t t h e r e
is a connection between certain diseases (e.g.
mongolism) and the chromosome composition of
Figure 174 Miscoscope pictures of chromosomes the patients. Examination of embryonic fluid is
in a cell u n d e r t a k e n i f t h e r e is a s u s p i c i o n t h a t an e m b r y o
m a y have a n a b n o r m a l c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n .
I n a slide p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e e m b r y o n i c f l u i d o n e
c a n observe t h e c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d so

1
ii π
2 3 4 5

II If II Ir II nil I
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 X

Μ II II II Η
13 14 IS 1β 17 18

Μ t i t i ti Y Figure 175
19 20 21 22 Karyotype diagram
Case history, chromosome apparatus 177

ascertain w h e t h e r t h i s is n o r m a l o r i f t h e r e is s o m e - a n d g l u e i n g o n t o a s t a n d a r d d i a g r a m all t h e c h r o m o -
t h i n g w r o n g . E x a m i n a t i o n o f p a r e n t s - t o - b e is m a d e somes. A f t e r t h a t t h e k a r y o t y p e is r e a d y , a n d an
i f t h e r e is a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a c h i l d m a y be b o r n a c t u a l assessment o f t h e c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n
with a chromosome abnormality. From such an c a n be m a d e . T h e p r o c e d u r e i n t h e m a n u a l process
e x a m i n a t i o n o n e c a n e s t i m a t e h o w great t h i s p r o b - here d e s c r i b e d is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 1 7 6 .
a b i l i t y is. C h r o m o s o m e analysis is used i n research I n assessing t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m a k i n g t h e c h r o m o -
examine whether diseases w i t h so f a r unknown s o m e analysis a u t o m a t i c , o n e w i l l realise t h a t t h i s
causes m a y be d u e t o c h r o m o s o m e a b n o r m a l i t y . A may be d o n e at m a n y levels. In m a n y places, f o r
chromosome analysis comprises the following i n s t a n c e , p e o p l e are d e v e l o p i n g a s y s t e m t h a t a u t o -
stages: t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e cells, p r e p a r a t i o n m a t i c a l l y carries o u t all t h e p a r t i a l processes, f r o m
of the cell, staining (to make the chromosomes more s e e k i n g o u t a s u i t a b l e cell u p t o t h e f i n i s h e d k a r y o -
d i s t i n c t ) a n d a n a c t u a l analysis, i n w h i c h t h e k a r y o - type or similar computer material. Even if such
t y p e is m a d e . systems may technically function they have a
O n l y t h e a c t u a l analysis w i l l be discussed h e r e . n u m b e r of drawbacks. For one t h i n g , they require
T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t is a p r e p a r e d s l i d e , w h i c h is p u t t h a t a c o m p u t e r is a v a i l a b l e , also t h a t an o p e r a t o r
i n t o a m i c r o s c o p e . T h e slide c o n t a i n s several cells, is p r e s e n t , w h o - depending on the system - must
a n d i t is t h e f i r s t j o b o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y assistant t o c a r r y o u t v a r i o u s assessments f o r t h e process t o be
f i n d a s u i t a b l e cell (i.e. o n e w i t h d i s t i n c t c h r o m o - possible.
somes t h a t d o n o t o v e r l a p ) . W h e n a cell has b e e n The basis for the present project was t h a t it
f o u n d a p h o t o g r a p h is t a k e n . F o r s a f e t y , o n e u s u a l l y was considered probable that a solution with a
takes one m o r e p h o t o g r a p h o f a n o t h e r suitable cell. s m a l l e r degree o f automation would be m o r e ad-
L a t e r , w h e n t h e l a b o r a t o r y assistant gets t h e p h o t o - vantageous than either the manual or the fully
graphs b a c k f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e k a r y o t y p e c a n a u t o m a t i c process. So t h e basic idea f o r t h e p r o j e c t
be p r e p a r e d . T h i s is d o n e b y c u t t i n g o u t , a r r a n g i n g b e c a m e t o design an a p p a r a t u s w h i c h b y i t s e l f c a n

- SUde

j Kiicroscope

Photogrfipk

£7 ¿7 a Ρ17 a
cr L7 an ¿y ^

k(^roti)pe

Figure 176 The manual process in mal<ing Karyotypes


178 Case history: chromosome apparatus

SUcLe Ckromosome kar

Figure 177 The chromosome apparatus as a black box

carry out the operations that the laboratory be a k a r y o t y p e d i a g r a m p r i n t e d o n d u r a b l e m a t e r i a l


assistant h a d p r e v i o u s l y p e r f o r n n e d , b u t w h i c h m a k e s s u i t a b l e f o r a r c h i v e storage.
use o f his a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y t h e c h r o m o s o m e s . I n H o w t h e process i n F i g u r e 1 7 7 c a n be s p l i t i n t o
t h i s w a y i t b e c o m e s possible t o p e r f o r m t h e c h r o m o ­ p a r t i a l processes w i l l n o t be f u r t h e r discussed h e r e .
s o m e analyses i n c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r t i m e , as w e l l The division may be made in many ways, and
as t o m a k e t h e a p p a r a t u s c h e a p e r , because t h e c o m ­ Figure 178 shows the preferred procedure. It w i l l
plicated operations - t o seek o u t a n d recognise t h e be seen f r o m the figure that i t has b e e n clearly
chromosomes - are performed by the operator, d e c i d e d w h i c h p a r t i a l processes t h e o p e r a t o r a n d t h e
while the trivial, troublesome and t i m e consuming a p p a r a t u s each w i l l p e r f o r m .
m o r e m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s are c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e T h e m a i n f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e c h r o m o s o m e appar­
apparatus. A further advantage over the manual a t u s m u s t c a r r y o u t m a y b e seen i n F i g u r e 1 7 8 . These
m e t h o d is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e k a r y o t y p e is o b t a i n e d are t o c r e a t e a visual p i c t u r e , t o d e l i m i t t h e p a r t i c u l a r
w h i l e t h e slide is i n t h e m i c r o s c o p e i n t h e p o s i t i o n p a r t o f t h e slide, t o o r i e n t a t e i t , t o c l a s s i f y i t ( i n t h e
w h e r e t h e cell i n q u e s t i o n is s h o w n . T h i s m a k e s i t k a r y o t y p e ) , a n d t o e x p o s e i t . I t has been d e c i d e d t o
possible t o compare the karyotype with the cell perform the function o f c r e a t i n g a visual picture
p i c t u r e in a n y cases o f d o u b t . T h e task can n o w be w i t h a traditional microscope, and the f u n c t i o n of
f o r m u l a t e d in m o r e d e t a i l . e x p o s i n g as i n an o r d i n a r y c a m e r a w i t h a s h u t t e r .
We want to design a s y s t e m w h i c h , b y using The three central main functions remain: delimita­
h u m a n a b i l i t y t o recognise p a t t e r n s , m a k e s possible t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e slide p a r t .
an increase o f t h e analysis c a p a c i t y o f a c h r o m o ­ I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n these t h r e e f u n c t i o n s are t a k e n
s o m e l a b o r a t o r y . T h e o u t p u t f r o m t h e analyses m u s t as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e search f o r basic s t r u c t u r e s .

APPA/^ATUS ΟΡΕΙ^ΑΎΟΙ^ APPAKAIUS

Mark in DeCimit slide part


store In/or on
wkctke^r used
5e*k and recognise Orientate slide part
cMrom.
SUde Create Infor on.
picture
Visual cLassLJLcation
pUtiAre Classify slide part
feed in pas and
orientation Inf or. on pos
and orientation

Information on ex posare
Expose

FUm

Figure 178 Chart showing the main functions which must be carried out by the chromosome apparatus
Case history: chromosome apparatus 179

DeUkKit ckosen 5.2 Basic structure

ckrom.Jirom total T h e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s t h a t fornn t h e basis f o r d e v i s i n g


muroscope p/ct. basic s t r u c t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d In t h e t a b l e o n t h e l e f t .
The nneans t h a t c a n realise these are s h o w n in
Figure 1 7 9 . I t is a s s u m e d t h a t o p t i c a l o r o p t i c a l /
p h o t o g r a p h i c s o l u t i o n s are u s e d , a n d n o t f o r i n s t a n c e
electronic ones (see page 182). The methods in
F i g u r e 1 7 9 are s h o w n a t a r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t l e v e l ,
w h i c h keeps t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s d o w n t o a reasonable
n u m b e r . T h e n e x t step w i l l n o w be t o c o m b i n e t h r e e
functions into different basic s t r u c t u r e s . A great
n u m b e r o f c o m b i n a t i o n s are t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ,
but many o f t h e s o l u t i o n s are c o m p l i c a t e d , a n d
several have o t h e r o b v i o u s d r a w b a c k s c o m p a r e d t o
other solutions. These m a y be r e j e c t e d straight
a w a y . I n o r d e r t o progress i t is necessary t o d e t a i l
the solutions further. This is d o n e by examining
CUsslJ^ chrotn.
h o w a p e n c i l o f l i g h t c a n b e m o v e d , as s h o w n i n
Figure 1 8 0 , a n d also h o w i t c a n be t u r n e d , w h a t
m e c h a n i c a l m o v e m e n t s are necessary, e t c . T h e m a n y
possibilities can only be assessed after various
calculations and experiments, and the criteria which

QDQ BD comes into t h e p i c t u r e a t t h i s stage a r e , p i c t u r e


q u a l i t y , space r e q u i r e m e n t s , m e c h a n i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s ,
special c o s t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t i m e t a k e n , e t c . T h e f i n a l
α α α q a a
c h o i c e is o n l y m a d e a f t e r a n u m b e r o f basic s t r u c t u r e s
have been d r a w n u p .

KJew ptciure

\PAPEI^lFim 1
>^3 MampuLeite cut out
paper part picture

OKIEkllAlE
¡PAPflC/F/LU ]
01 03

PnnUnj
I CLASSIFY

\papei^Jfilm]
K1

Figure 179 Means of realising tfie functions of delimitation, orientation and classification
180 Case history: chromosome apparatus
F r o m o u r knowledge o f the partial solutions in d e l i m i t a t i o n w i t h t h e a i d o f a s l i d i n g lens, a n d classifi­
F i g u r e 1 8 0 t h e n u m b e r o f basic s t r u c t u r e s m a y be c a t i o n b y means o f a t i l t i n g m i r r o r . O r i e n t a t i o n is
r e d u c e d t o f o u r t e e n realistic suggested s o l u t i o n s as performed by Abbe's prism.
s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 8 1 . In t h e p u r e l y o p t i c a l s o l u t i o n s O n e i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e basic s t r u c t u r e has n o t
we have n o t distinguished between the different y e t been m e n t i o n e d , n a m e l y t h e p a r t w h i c h i n v o l v e s
part solutions w i t h m i r r o r s , lenses a n d p r i s m s i n t h e o p e r a t o r . A m o n g a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s i t has
Figure 180, b u t solutions t h a t include optical fibres been d e c i d e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r w i l l have a p i c t u r e o f
are s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y , as t h e y are essentially d i f f e r e n t t h e slide o n a screen i n f r o n t o f h i m . T h e i n p u t t o
f r o m the others. the apparatus will t a k e place i n s u c h a w a y t h a t
T h e basic s t r u c t u r e w h i c h w a s f o u n d t o be m o s t i n f o r m a t i o n o n d e l i m i t a t i o n a n d o r i e n t a t i o n is given
s u i t a b l e is s h o w n i n d e t a i l i n F i g u r e 1 8 2 . T h e s t a r t i n g t h r o u g h a mechanical viewfinder, w h i c h t h e operator
p o i n t is t h e s o l u t i o n n u m b e r 2 i n F i g u r e 1 8 1 , a n d points at t h e desired c h r o m o s o m e , w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n
the following part solutions from Figure 180 — o n - t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is passed t h r o u g h a k e y b o a r d .

M//^J^0KS

Ύ77Ζ777
1 -T7777? ////
Λ

2co-ord 2co-ord 2 CO-Ord

LENSES

2co-ord 2 co-ord 2 co-ord


P/^/SUS

^r9rr -iTTzr -rrrrr 777^ TTTTT τττττζτ


2 CO-ord 2CO-ord
FIBKB OPT/CS

2 co-ord

Figure 180 /\/leans of realising the function of "moving" a ray of light


181

OPTICAL


W

1^

^ΖΤΖΆ
ra
•/////////A

FIßR'E OPTIC BUNDLE

\ OPTICAL/PHÓfÓQI^APHIC

fJicroscope

fjam ^ Pkoto^rapUic
peeper hAorabU Lens
(d^UmUation)

Figure 181 Showing the fourteen best basic structures Abhe'^s presto
rf > (onentatíonj

FUm

Tiltit^'ß mirror
(cívtsst/icatioti)

Figure 182 The best basic structure


182 Case history: chromosome apparatus

5.3 Quantified structure

O n t h e basis o f t h e c h o s e n basic s t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e n u m b e r o f sketches are m a d e , as s h o w n i n Figure


182 a n u m b e r of crucial specifications and the main 183. T h e s e , h o w e v e r , c a n o n l y give a c e r t a i n general
d a t a m u s t be l a i d d o w n , so t h a t a k a r y o t y p e o f t h e impression of the possibilities, while a m o r e detailed
d e s i r e d q u a l i t y c a n be p r o d u c e d . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t assessment of the quantified structure requires a
d a t a o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s u b - s y s t e m s are e x a m i n e d t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e m o d e l . T h i s is m a d e o f
a n d d e c i d e d o n ( t y p e o f m i c r o s c o p e , f i l m cassette, p l a s t i c f o a m i n s u c h a w a y t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s c a n
l e n g t h o f l i g h t rays, e t c ) a n d a f t e r t h a t , m o d e l l i n g be easily m o v e d a b o u t . F i g u r e 1 8 4 s h o w s a n u m b e r
of v a r i o u s q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s c a n t a k e p l a c e , as o f t h e best q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s .
described in Chapter 2. In the first instance a

SYMBOLS

ffl
Μ
Μ
o
Kiicroscope o


F

Film cassette
i EM
F5

K^ovinj system Ο
5

Ο
or
Ys Μ L
η

Figure 183 Quar)tified structures on ttie basis of the best basic structure shown in Figure 182
Case history : chromosome apparatus 183

The three-dimensional structure models make it d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t i n g lenses) a n d t o t h e A b b e ' s p r i s m .


possible t o evaluate s u c h aspects as w o r k i n g space In this w a y t h e picture o f the desired c h r o m o s o m e
f o r t h e operator, mechanical c o m p l e x i t y , heat ( f i l m is f o c u s s e d a n d o r i e n t a t e d . T h e t i l t i n g m i r r o r , w h i c h
n o t t o o close t o t h e l a m p ) , h e i g h t , w i d t h a n d d e p t h performs the classification of the chromosome
of the instrument etc. On t h e basis o f s u c h an p i c t u r e , is p o s i t i o n e d t h r o u g h a m o v i n g s y s t e m t h a t
e v a l u a t i o n t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e m a r k e d B—9 i n is a c t i v a t e d b y a k e y b o a r d w i t h a c o n t r o l k n o b f o r
Figures 1 8 3 a n d 1 8 5 is c h o s e n . each c h r o m o s o m e .
T h e c h o s e n s t r u c t u r e is s h o w n in greater d e t a i l in Apart from the karyotype, the chromosome
Figure 184. The operator has in f r o n t of him a a p p a r a t u s m u s t also be able t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e w h o l e
screen o n w h i c h is p r o j e c t e d a p i c t u r e o f t h e cell c e l l . T h i s t o t a l p i c t u r e c a n be t a k e n w h e n t h e d i a ­
w i t h the chromosomes. Information on the position p h r a g m is r e m o v e d a n d t h e t i l t i n g m i r r o r is p u t in
a n d o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h o s e n c h r o m o s o m e is t r a n s ­ the mid position.
ferred mechanically to the movable lens (three

Tilting mirror

Abbe's prism

Moveable lens

Film cassette Keyboard

Moving system

Figure 184 The ciiosen quantified structure


184

Figure 185 Quan ti fied three-dimensional structures modelled in plastic foam. Some of the elemen ts are
fixed on spikes, so that they can be easily moved around
185

Figure 185 (continued)


186 Case history: ctiromosome apparatus

5.4 Form o f the total system

D u r i n g the w o r k o f f o r m designing the c h r o m o s o m e The ideas are m o d e l l e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s as t h e


a p p a r a t u s t h e r e is i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w o r k o n w o r k progresses. D e p e n d i n g o n t h e s i t u a t i o n r o u g h
t h e o u t e r f o r m a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s , as is sketches, scale drawings, and three-dimensional
g e n e r a l l y expressed in t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s . T h e models in plastic f o a m , w o o d and cardboard are
description on the following pages o f t h e w a y in used. These m o d e l s have been v e r y important in
w h i c h t h e f o r m o f t h e t o t a l s y s t e m is d e c i d e d o n , connection with the choice o f f o r m c o n c e p t , see
m u s t t h e r e f o r e be seen as parallel t o t h e n e x t s e c t i o n Figures 1 9 0 a n d 1 9 4 .
on the f o r m of the elements. The criteria that c o u n t w h e n choosing between
T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e in F i g u r e 1 8 5 is t a k e n as a l t e r n a t i v e designs, s t e m f i r s t o f all f r o m t h e user a n d
t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . As t h e f i l m cassette m u s t n o t be f r o m t h e p r o d u c t i o n . A s f a r as t h e user is c o n c e r n e d ,
e x p o s e d t o false l i g h t , a n u m b e r o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t i t is a q u e s t i o n of working posture, accessibility,
e l e m e n t s m u s t be e n c l o s e d i n a l i g h t p r o o f s c r e e n i n g . cleaning, adjustment and maintenance, psychological
T h e v e r y f i r s t r o u g h design p r o p o s a l s are a r r i v e d a t factors (how is t h e apparatus experienced?) and
by varying the f o r m geometry and the f o r m division, a p p e a r a n c e ( u n i t y , o r d e r , visual b a l a n c e ) . F r o m t h e
as s h o w n in Figures 1 8 6 a n d 1 8 7 . T h e pages f o l l o w i n g production come criteria in c o n n e c t i o n with the
Figure 194 describe how t h e design is gradually manufacturing process, choice of material, pro­
chosen. d u c t i o n quantities and assembly.
187

SCALE 1:10

Operativy area

^ / ^

Figure 186 The starting point for form designs is obtained by drawing contour lines closely around the elements to be
screened. Varying the form geometry gives the first rough form design suggestions
188

FOm DIVISIOKJ

•Starting point

Figure 187 Variation of form division. These sl<etches form the starting point for a number of the suggestions on the
following pages
Figure 188 The first series of form concepts
Figure 189 A general problem is examined, namely the form design of the screen around the operator's mirror. Form
geometry and form division are used as variation parameters
Figure 190 A number of detailed form concepts which appear fairly realistic. A three-dimensional model of the suggestion
bottom right showed, however, the unfortunate psychological effect that the apparatus is felt to be oppressive, almost
like a wall in front of the operator
192

Mecessarif arefis of mteñal


6H open design

Figure 191 On the basis of the experience gained from the previous suggestions we can examine the possibilities of more
open form designs. At the top can be seen the areas the elements occupy, and three possible areas of material are shown
Figure 192 Examination of tfie problems surrounding a partly open framework. Variation of the form division is shown
below
194

Figure 193 Two realistic design suggestions


195

Figure 194 Form models corresponding to the two suggestions in Figure 193. Before the final choice can be made one
form model must be painted. This makes it possible to assess whether the problems of the visual balance indicated in
Figure 192 can be overcome by an appropriate choice of colour
196 Case history: chromosome apparatus

5.5 Form of the elements

T h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s a v e r y c o m ­ point for a number of suggestions, where the


plex series of activities, partly because t h e r e are a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e areas o f m a t e r i a l is v a r i e d . T h e
m a n y elements o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t character, p a r t l y f r a m e is an e x a m p l e o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e f o r m
because their details are designed simultaneously o f an e l e m e n t is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e external f o r m
w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s , d i m e n s i o n s a n d surfaces, o f t h e a p p a r a t u s , as p a r t o f t h e f r a m e is v i s i b l e a n d
a n d f i n a l l y , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , because t h e ex­ even c o n s t i t u t e s an essential part of the external
t e r n a l f o r m is c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e f o r m o f t h e form.
e l e m e n t s . F i r s t , i t m u s t be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e r e is T h e f u r t h e r o n e advances i n d e t a i l i n g t h e e l e m e n t s
an intermediate stage i n v o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s o n sub­ of the c h r o m o s o m e apparatus, the more the character
systems, such as a t r a n s f e r m e c h a n i s m f r o m view o f t h e f o r m design w o r k is a l t e r e d t o w a r d s d e c i d i n g
f i n d e r t o p r o j e c t i n g lens, a n d a c o n t r o l s y s t e m t h a t on a number of details in connection with the
transfers information from the keyboard to the functional surfaces. I t is f i r s t o f all a q u e s t i o n of
tilting mirror. These sub-systems are treated in d e c i d i n g o n t h e p o i n t s w h e r e t h e e l e m e n t s are t o be
e x a c t l y t h e same w a y as t h e t o t a l s y s t e m , t h a t is t o j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , as s h o w n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Figure
say that one goes through the stages of basic 1 9 9 , w h i c h deals w i t h t h e base b o x a n d t h e c o v e r i n g
structure, q u a n t i f i e d structure, etc. corresponding t o screens. O n e o f t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l areas o f great
a new product synthesis on a s m a l l e r scale. An i m p o r t a n c e is t h e v i e w f i n d e r s h o w n in F i g u r e 2 0 0 .
e x a m p l e is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 9 5 , w h i c h deals w i t h T h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s are
transmission mechanisms t o the t i l t i n g m i r r o r . Figure m o s t l y concerned w i t h t w o things. First the f u n c t i o n ,
1 9 6 s h o w s h o w s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n can be a p p l i e d t o i.e. precision, reliability, stability, strength and
such a s u b - s y s t e m . rigidity, and secondly the p r o d u c t i o n , manufacturing
The form design o f t h e f r a m e is i l l u s t r a t e d in process, p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t i e s , a s s e m b l y , a n d as a
Figures 1 9 7 a n d 1 9 8 . These s h o w h o w t h i n k i n g i n consequence of these an essential criterion —
terms of functional surfaces gives a clear s t a r t i n g p r o d u c t i o n costs.
197

PUr\ of siiniñi€¿r(f

The mirror mtAst be


If tke mirror CS
tcUabCe in two directions tdbed io the extent
at nykt tingles. of finite V the ray
is (ottered2V

filhi cassette

TKANSMISSIOKJ SJECHAKJISMS:
Transmission of a morement in the
fiimpLfine to tke m error-with tke
tutrnin^ angle halted

Figure 195 Basic structures for transmission systems for a tilting mirror
198

Figure 196 Variation of quantified structure for a tilting mirror. Ttie chosen structure is shown at the bottom right on
the final version
199

130

Space needed
f(?r kands

Possible arrangement of
tke lomr part of tkefrange o.^.

Figure 197 The first stages in the form design of the frame. Top, the functional surfaces are indicated and the banned
areas made clear. Bottom, arrangement of the areas of material are examined
200

Figure 198 The form design of the frame and the total form design are closely connected. In accordance with Figure 193
a total form design is chosen where part of the frame in the shape of a column is visible. Various areas of material with a
column are shown above. Below, the chosen frame
201

J'

-Τ 1
1 CT

Joint here

/
/

Fram-e nsMe
from mfronet

Figure 199 A base box and covering screens. Examination of possibilities of lightproof joints tfirough varying the
functional surfaces
202

Variatton of JtAyictíoyicil surfaces for /infers


parffinneters: number, arran^enierit^ dLmenscon^ form.

Arranqetyfenb

Ñumber/firranfiement
Porous/sponji)

o)mo)Cö)o io)

Dimenscon

Fotm qeometrti

Figure 200 Variation of functional surfaces for tfie viewfinder. Tfie design cfiosen is shown in the photograph
203

Figure 201 Tlie completed chromosome apparatus (Courtesy of Lab. of Engineering Design, The Technical University
of Denmark)
204 Case history: chromosome apparatus
T h e design o f all t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e c h r o m o s o m e t h e b o o k , e s p e c i a l l y i n C h a p t e r 2 . T h r o u g h a case
a p p a r a t u s is d e c i d e d a f t e r d r a w i n g u p sketches a n d h i s t o r y i t is possible t o s h o w t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n
plans, a n d t h e e l e m e n t s are f i n a l l y s p e c i f i e d i n a set t h e search f o r ideas a n d e v a l u a t i o n , a n d t o s h o w h o w
o f w o r k i n g a n d assembly d r a w i n g s w h i c h f o r m t h e s i t u a t i o n s arise i n w h i c h t h e f o r m m e t h o d s c a n be
basis f o r the production. When the apparatus is applied. Finally a difference in the technique of
assembled t h e t i m e has c o m e f o r t e s t i n g , a n d f o r a m o d e l l i n g m a y be o b s e r v e d (especially d r a w i n g t e c h ­
realistic e v a l u a t i o n o f w h e t h e r i t a c t u a l l y possesses nique). T h e examples o u t of c o n t e x t must illustrate
the expected qualities. Small corrections and a m e t h o d as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e i n t h e a c t u a l
i m p r o v e m e n t s are a d d e d , a n d t h e c o m p l e t e d c h r o m o ­ a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d s i t is i m p o r t a n t t o be
s o m e a p p a r a t u s appears f i n a l l y as s h o w n i n F i g u r e able t o h u n t d o w n s o l u t i o n s as q u i c k l y as possible.
201. F r o m the study of the creation of the chromo­
I t m u s t o n c e m o r e be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t n o t all t h e s o m e a p p a r a t u s i t is e v i d e n t t h a t i n t h e f i n a l i n s t a n c e
stages i n t h e p r o j e c t have been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s case the systematic methods described in Chapter 2 m a y
h i s t o r y , (see t h e d i a g r a m i n t h e m a r g i n o n page 1 8 3 ) . be a p p l i e d i n t w o w a y s . O n e is e x a c t l y as d e s c r i b e d
A number of experiments concerning physical i.e. f o r a s y s t e m a t i c s u r v e y o f t h e possible s o l u t i o n s .
feasibility, the electrical control system, various The other - a n d perhaps m o s t i m p o r t a n t - w a y is
c a l c u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s have been t o a c q u i r e t h e a t t i t u d e b e h i n d t h e m e t h o d s , so t h a t
omitted. o n e a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h i n k s i n t e r m s o f t h e ideas a n d
T h e case h i s t o r y as o u t l i n e d a b o v e has a n essential variation patterns described, and only uses the
a i m w h i c h is t o f o r m a c o n t r a s t t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y methods consciously in particularly difficult or
drawn up but unconnected examples throughout critical situations.
Index

Abacus, 19 D i m e n s i o n s , 7, 9 , 1 3 , 2 2 , 3 6 , 5 2 . 6 0 - 6 2 , 6 6 , 6 8 , 8 4 , 9 5 ,
Abbe's p r i s m , 180, 185 9 7 , 107, 116, 130, 153, 154
Accessibility t o machine, 126 Dirt, 116, 117, 138
Aesthetic criteria, 12, 6 0 , 134, 143, 144, 154 Distribution factors, 116
A n t h r o p o m e t r y , 124 Durability, 7
Appearance, 5 , 4 2 . 7 8 , 8 4 , 9 0 , 9 1 , 100, 134, 140, 143, 1 7 1 ,
184
A s s e m b l y processes, 1 0 2 , 1 0 6 , 1 1 4 , 1 1 5 , 1 8 4 Economics criteria, 1 3 , 7 5 , 99, 106, 108, 109, 114, 125
sub-operations, 114, 115 Effectiveness, 4 2
A u t o m a t i c lathe, 169 Elasticity, 122
Automatic teamaker, 9 - 1 3 , 1 5 , 4 2 - 4 6 , 7 7 , 9 0 , 167 Electricity meter, 104
Elements,
arrangement of, 32, 34, 4 2 , 4 6 , 60, 6 8 , 1 5 1 , 154, 155
Baling p u m p , 3 6 , 3 7 design o f , 13, 2 2 , 2 4 , 2 6 , 2 8 , 3 2 , 3 4 , 3 6 , 4 8 , 6 3 . 7 7 , 8 9 ,
B a n n e d areas, 6 0 , 6 3 . 6 8 , 6 9 118,196
Bearings, 7 6 division of, 74—76, 102
B e a u t y , 1 4 3 , 144, 157 Emergency stopping, 125, 130
Boilers, 137 E n v i r o n m e n t , 3, 1 3 7 , 139
Bottle opener, 48 Ergonomics, 123, 126
Excavator, 4 0 , 4 1 , 150, 170

Calculators, 19, 7 8 - 8 0
Car j a c k s , 1 9 Fashion, 135
Chromosome apparatus, 175—204 Fire, 125
Clamps, 6 2 Fork joints, 66, 67
Cleaning, 7 8 , 1 2 5 , 1 3 2 F o r m , 3, 4 , 7 , 9 , 13, 15, 3 6 , 4 8 , 9 5 , 9 8 , 9 9 . 118. 1 2 1 . 143
Coffee makers, 2 1 - 2 3 concepts, 64. 66. 67, 70, 7 1 , 75, 76. 86. 87, 88, 102,
Cogwheels, 9 8 104, 105, 106
Colour, 154 design, 1 9 , 9 4 - 9 6 , 1 0 0 , 108, 109, 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 , 1 2 2 , 196,
Company identity, 100 200
Contracts, 99 division m e t h o d , 7 4 - 7 8 , 8 1 , 8 4 , 104, 105. 193
C o n t r o l areas, 1 3 0 - 1 3 4 elements, 13, 147, 148. 1 5 1 . 160, 163, 186
design o f , 1 3 3 - 1 5 8 restriction o n , 6 0
Conveyor belts pulleys, 8 5 - 8 8 , 103 synthesis m e t h o d s , 2 1 , 8 9
Corroding fumes, 116 variation, 48. 50. 6 1 , 66, 68, 89, 90, 102
F u n c t i o n (of p r o d u c t ) , 5, 7, 9 , 19, 2 1 , 3 6 , 6 2 , 7 4 , 9 5 , 1 0 9 ,
118, 1 2 1 , 122. 132
Damp, 116, 117, 138 sub f u n c t i o n s , 19, 2 6
D a m p vibrations, 137 Function factors,
Delimitation, 177, 180 feasibility o f , 121
Design, 6 , 7, 1 2 , 13. 2 1 , 4 2 . 5 0 . 6 0 , 6 6 , 9 6 , 9 9 . 1 0 6 . 1 2 3 . interval, 121
124, 126, 137, 138 quality of, 1 2 1 , 122
solutions, 2 1 , 22 F u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 4 8 - 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 6 , 5 7 , 6 0 , 6 1 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 6 8 ,
Designer, 6 , 1 4 , 8 9 , 9 0 , 9 5 , 9 9 , 1 0 6 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 3 , 1 4 3 , 147 69, 75, 8 4 , 8 5 , 8 9 , 106, 118, 1 2 1 , 196
Destruction, 6. 9 6 . 139 arrangement of. 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 1 , 8 4 , 8 5 , 86
Dialysis ceil, 1 3 2 dimension of, 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 0 , 6 1 , 6 2 , 66, 68. 84, 85, 87

205
206 Index

F u n c t i o n a l surfaces continued Operation of machinery,


external, 48, 50, 5 2 , 1 2 2 emergency, 125
geometry, 52, 53, 55, 56, 60, 6 1 , 62, 66, 68, 84, 85, 87 normal, 1 2 5 - 1 3 3
internal, 48, 50, 52 occasional, 125, 132
maximum, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 84, 85 Operation of product, 9 2 , 187
m i n i m u m , 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 84, 85 Operator situation, 106, 108, 114, 125, 126, 180
number, 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 1 , 84. 85, 86 Order, 144, 154, 186
variation parameters, 5 2 , 5 5 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 77, 84 Orientation, 177, 180

Geometry of f o r m , 106, 107


Grinding machine, 129 Packing, 116
Parameter sensitivity, 122
Parts, 1 0 2
Habit, 135, 136 Pattern registration, 100
Handling, 7 , 4 2 , 125 Pawl, 75
Hardness, 1 2 2 Perception, 130, 133
Heat, 137 Petrol p u m p s , 8 3
H y d r a u l i c press, 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 5 , 1 2 9 Photocopier, 1 0 1 , 108, 114, 168
Physical d i v i s i o n , 7 4
Planes, 1 6 0
Input materials, 107, 108 Pneumatic motors, 81
installation, 125 Precision, 196
Investment, 108 Prices, 4 2 , 9 8
Irons, 119 Process t e c h n i c i a n , 8 9 , 1 0 6
Product,
design o f , 7 7 , 8 9 , 9 9 , 1 0 0
Joints, 1 6 3 - 1 6 5 factors, 9 5 , 9 6 , 9 9 , 118
life of, 6, 9 5 , 9 6
properties o f 7, 9 5 , 9 7 , 143
Karyotype, 176, 177, 182, 185 quality of, 107, 108
synthesis, 8 , 9 , 1 4 , 2 1 , 9 5 , 186
weight, 116
Labelling machines, 39 Production,
Licences, 9 9 a s s e m b l y processes, 1 0 2
Lighting, 130 costs, 1 9 6
Lightness, 1 6 6 - 1 6 8 factors, 9 6 , 102
Lines, 160 manufacture of parts, 102
Proportions, 157, 158
Psychological factors, 134
Machinery, 107, 108, 124, 125, 130
Maintenance o f machine, 125, 132
M a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s , 5, 6 , 6 6 , 7 5 , 7 6 , 7 8 , 8 4 , 8 9 , 1 0 2 ,
106, 107, 109, 114, 138, 145, 147, 187, 196 Recycling material, 139
economics o f . 1 1 1 , 113, 1 1 4 - 1 1 7 Reliability,7, 122, 196
Market conditions, 116 Repairs, 1 2 5 , 132
Materials, 7, 1 3 , 8 4 , 9 0 , 9 7 , 9 9 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 5 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 1 , R h y t h m , 154, 155
113, 146, 1 5 1 , 195 Rigidity, 122, 196
M a x i m u m f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 5 5 , 5 6 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 8 4 Road rollers, 2 8 - 3 3
Microscope, 26, 27, 6 8 - 7 4 , 134, 150
M i n i m u m f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 5 5 , 5 6 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 8 4
Models, 4 6 , 9 0 - 9 3 , 134, 140, 148, 147, 182, 186, 196,
203 S a f e t y , 7, 1 0 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 6
Modules, 158 Sales, 9 6 , 1 1 6
M o v e m e n t , 171 Service p o l i c y , 9 9 , 1 3 2
S h a p e , see F o r m
Society, 100
Noise, 1 2 6 , 141 Solutions, 14, 1 5 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 28, 3 4 , 3 6 , 4 2 , 66, 9 5 , 140, 180
range o f , 3 4
Space, 4 2 , 6 0 , 9 2 , 117
Offset w r i t i n g machine, 146 Springs, 103
O p e n process area, 1 2 7 , 1 3 0 S p r i n k l e r valves, 6 1
Operating area, 1 2 7 , 130 Stability, 124, 169, 196
Index 207

Storing c o n d i t i o n s , 117 U n i t y , 144, 158, 187


Strength, 122, 196 User, 1 1 8
S t r u c t u r e , 7, 8, 9 , 13, 19, 2 2 , 3 6 , 8 9 , 9 5 , 1 0 3 , 143
basic, 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 2 , 4 4 , 4 8 , 1 7 9 , 1 8 0 , 1 9 6 , 197
modelling, 46 V a c u u m cleaners, 2 4 , 2 5
quantified, 12, 2 1 , 22, 24, 26, 28, 3 4 - 4 4 , 4 6 - 4 8 , 6 8 , V a c u u m p u m p , 153
191,194, 205, 207 Valve, 3
variation, 2 1 , 22, 24, 26, 36, 38, 42, 89 Variation parameters, 52, 55, 63, 66, 77. 84
Style, 135 Vertical d r i l l . 153
V i b r a t i o n meter, 167
Visual balance, 1 5 1 - 1 5 3 , 160, 186
Telephone, 93 Visual division, 74
Test t u b e f i l l i n g m a c h i n e , 4 6 , 4 7 , 5 6 , 5 7 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 9 2 .
121
Thread spindles, 113 Warehousing, 116, 117
Tolerance requirements, 107 W a t e r i n g cans, 8 2
Tools, 1 0 7 - 1 0 9 Weight, 116, 132, 169, 170
Transporting p r o d u c t , 116 Working posture, 123, 126

Related Interests