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Performing Arts Consist of dance, music, opera, magic, spoken words, and circus arts.

The term performing arts made its appearance in the English language on 1711. Involves the use of performers and an audience. differs from the other forms of visual arts insofar as the artist uses himself or herself as a medium for art. As a medium of art, the artist’s presence in front of an audience acts as a way conveying meaning. Areas of Performing Arts 1. Music 2. Theater 3. Opera 4. Cinema 5. Dance 6. Ballet Music Music is an art form that relies on sound as its medium. Sound as a medium is produced through varying vibrations produced in the air. Music is a temporal arrangement of tones or sounds that has a varying cultural effect on its audience. Music is not only enjoyed through sound, but rather through the silences and rests in which a series of notes are played. Qualities of Sound 1. Timbre 2. Pitch 3. Intensity 4. Duration Timbre is the quality of tone that enables us to differentiate one type of sound from another sound. Timbre is the result of the varying factors that affects vibrations in an instrument involved in the production of sound. • Piano • Oboe • Timbre  Suede- Brett Anderson  Rico Blanco  Coheed and Cambria - Claudio Sanchez  Queen - Freddy Mercury Pitch is the highness or lowness of the tone relative to the frequency of vibrations that it produces.

Pitch allows the varying arrangement of scales or set of note into different degrees of highness or lowness. Scales are the arrangement of notes in arranged and fixed intervals that are played in varying pitches or “octaves.” In Western music, pitches are arranged in 12 different levels called octaves. One can play the same note in a different octave. Also, the arrangement of notes in Western music is done through a full-step or a half-step (or semi-tone and whole-tone). Intensity Refers to the loudness or softness of a sound. Can be produced by the force, pressure, or impact of an object that produces sound. Crescendo refers to the increase in intensity or volume of the sound, Decrescendo on the other hand is the gradual decrease in intensity. In Italian, the following words refer to the softness to the loudness of sound: (pianissimo, piano, forte, fortissimo). Elements of Music Rhythm is the most basic element of music. is the movement of various tones and silences through time. it is the actual arrangement of long and short notes, and their distinct accentuation through a piece. it is the regularity of a beat that allows emphasis, accent or stress in music. Melody is the motif and melodic line that is added alongside rhythm. it is the element of music that allows us to tap into the emotions of the sounds that we hear. it contains four characteristics namely: dimension, progression, direction and register. Properties of Melody  Dimension refers to the length of the melody that is repeated throughout the song.  Progression is the movement of a note from one range to another range of pitch. In contrast to dimension, progression is the emphasis on the length of silence.  Direction is the vertical movement of the song’s pitch.  Register refers to the dominant pitch of the entire song.

Stringed 2. These instruments are fretless. Lutes These are instruments that have strings that are taut over a resonator and a neck. Style Refers to the common themes that make up the artist’s repertoire. Percussion 4. or dissonance. an example of a harmonic set of notes is found in chords. while homophonic texture refers to the blending of two instruments or sounds (i. guitar. The player implements the changes in pitch and tones by pressing the string towards the neck. Guitars Guitars have similar designs to that of the lute. Texture The consistency in which notes are played by itself or alongside others. thus requiring the user to have a very good sense of detecting the changes in pitch. The most expensive violin that has ever been auctioned. . or steel). and dark (slow and loud). Violin Violins have curved strings in order to allow the player to bow the strings individually. Wind 3. Tone Color is the changes in loudness or softness of an entire musical piece. when the sound is unpleasant). and Zithers. Lutes are usually played through plucking and are consist of the following parts:  Neck with or without frets. It can be light (soft and fast). Lead vocals and backup vocals).  strings (either gut. since they are notes played on the same set of scale. Guitars vary from shape size and materials. Monophonic texture refers to a single instrument or timbre of sound. nylon. Viola. Human Voice Stringed Instruments These are instruments that have strings that are extended and attached to box or a resonator in which its vibrations are amplified. and the Double Bass. belly for amplifying the sound. Musical Instruments Musical Instruments are classified according to the following groups: 1. Acoustic guitars in turn use steel strings. and the Baglama or saz. It also allows the musician to take note of timing that is involved in playing the piece.5 million. while polyphonic texture refers to the harmony of multiple instruments. to which the sound is produced by the friction of the strings from the violin and the horsehair from the bow.  a soundboard to resonate the vibrations of the strings. but varies from the design of its headstock and the range of sound that it can produced.e. and the bridge (string holder). Texture can be described as monophonic. Harps. headstock. the Stradivari violin. Cello. Lutes come in a variety of forms. Form Refers to the overall design or planned intention of the artist/composer. is worth $3. while electric guitars use magnets to generate electrical signals to amplify the vibration of the strings. It refers to how the overall theme or themes of the song is distributed. Classical Guitars have fewer frets and often use gut or nylon strings. It is the combination of how the artist manipulates pitch. Parts:  Head Stock  Tuning pegs / Machine head  Bridge  Sound Board  Strings  Frets  Belly String Choir are played through the use of a bow (bowing). or the speed in which a musical piece moves. Stringed instruments are classified as Lutes. Part of a song’s tone color is modified by the tempo. the result of harmony is either consonance (when the sound is pleasant. The types of Stringed Choir are classified from their range of pitches from highest to lowest: Violin.Harmony is the simultaneous sounding of tones. homophonic and polyphonic. many of which would include the violin. A guitar is played either through plucking or with a plectrum (pick). harmony and the melody of a song.

particularly to the blowing (or in some instances. In this group. such as socialinteraction. Percussions These are instruments that generates sound through the impact of another medium(i. Wind Instruments are instruments that generates sound through the use of air. religious rituals.e. brass instruments do not necessarily imply that the instrument is made out of brass. size of vocal chords. . produce sound by creating the vibration at the edge of the instrument. Lip pressure also plays an important role in changing the pitch and tone of the instrument. timpani. A flute for example will change its pitch by the change of air hole in which the vibration is produced. Zithers are stringed instruments that do not extend farther than the soundbox. drums. The pitch and tone of the instrument is controlled through valves that regulate the pressure of air inside the instrument. A harpsichord differs from a piano in its inability to control the sustain of the strings. The strings are either plucked by hand or by a plectrum. The Floyd-Rose design follows the same principle of tuning from violins through the use of bridge tuners.Various designs have been implemented in guitars. Woodwinds are instruments that produces sound through the vibration of air flowing through a sharp edge that vibrates inside the instrument when it is blown. but often times it is used as courting ritual. Harpsichord is a stringed instrument that uses levers to pluck and to mute the strings. Piano A piano is a stringed instrument that plays note by hitting the string with a felt covered hammer. Reeds. Dance is also considered as a non-verbal method of expression. Woodwind instruments are classified into two groups: Flutes and Reeds Flutes. Solid body and hollow body guitars can sometimes implement different bridges that would allow the user to change the pitch of the guitar by bending or putting the string. etc. drumsticks. Woodwind instruments are not necessarily made out of wood. maracas. and pianos.) or through shaking and vibration. on the other hand produce sound by the sharp reed that vibrates when air passes through it. Harps Harps are stringed instruments that are plucked on a perpendicular frame. Like woodwind instruments. bongo. etc. sucking) motion that is applied through the instrument. using varying wood materials. Dance is an art form that uses the body as a medium of communication that is usually accompanied by music. ma)et. These instruments rely on electricity to passively or actively create impulses to the amplifier. etc. Dance is utilized for different purposes. harpsichords. It is some cultures dance is also used to tell a story or myth. Saxophone Brass Flute Brass Instruments Brass instruments produce sound through the compression of air through the instrument. Electric Guitars are solid body guitars made out of varying types of wood that are cut and glued together. Electric Guitars produces electrical signals through the vibration of strings on coiled magnets called pickups. zithers ranges from dulcimers. The Human Voice The human voice is controlled by the vocal chords that generate vibrations from the air coming from the lungs. xylophone. cymbals. and entertainment. It is influenced by various factors. They are classified as either woodwinds or brass instruments. Elements of Dance Content or theme is the general mode in which the dancers are able to communicate their intention to the audience. Dance is usually intended for a couple to perform different maneuvers and physical movement. These magnets generates electricity in the same manner as generators and dynamos. such as the size of one’s diaphragm. This would include the instruments (but is not limited to). as we$ as shapes and other accessories.

and perspective. and the ability to maintain balance in one’s movements. which refers to ballroom dances. Spectacle is the overall visual effect of dance to the audience. Movement allows the audience to relate or “connect” with the performers as these movements are often observed in everyday situations such as reactions. Ballet Comes from the Italian word ballo.e. and stage acting. The dynamics of movement can either be slow. fast. animation. Ballet emphasizes man’s conquest of the forces of nature. it involves scenery. can sometimes be shot through film. and dancing. Vaudeville is the combination of musicals. The first films that were produced did not have included sound in it. thus requiring a narrator and a performer to play some background music. floating motions on one’s toes. There are two modes of singing in an opera: recitative (a series of lines sung to imitate the inflection or normal sound of speech) and aria (a melodic expression of a character). Space . The word Opera itself is a derivative of the Latin word Opus or “work.). costume. It is always dramatic and utilizes theatrical elements such as is the sense of reality in which a film is shot. Ballet was professionalized by Jean-Baptise Lully when the Royal Academy of Music and Dance was established.It involves a setting. Musicals differs from Operas in so far as there is a greater emphasis on spoken dialogue and the use of the common language of the audience. . and implemented in various ways (i. backdrop. Cinema Cinema began as a modern innovation of photography taken continuously to depict motion. Ballet was formalized when Louis XIV commissioned Piere Beauchamps to report the contemporary foot and arm positions and patterns of during this time. Cinema and Other Performing Art Forms Vaudeville is a theatrical show that originated in Northern America during the 1880’s. Opera Opera is an art-form that narrates a story through a musical scoreand spoken words. moods. The script or the narrative of a story in an opera is referred to as a “libretto” or little book. The first actual ballet performance was entitled “Ballet Comique de la Reine. props and stage setup. Marie Ann de Camargo contributed to the contemporary design of ballet skirts (tutu) and slippers. divided by an intermission to allow the actors to rest and set the props on stage. can often last from two 10-15 minute act. or other props that would be utilized by the dancers. time. It includes the arrangement of movement (choreography). a usual performance would have at least two acts. It narrated the story of Odysseus and his encounter with the enchantress Circe. Music accompanies the general theme of dance by providing rhythm and accentuation to the emotions that is evoked by the movements of the dancers. Vaudeville is the contemporary equivalent of a variety show. and stories as part of its program. to several acts that would last for several hours. etc. and facial expression. It is a form of performance that expresses a narrative through movement and dance. Movement is the element of dance that can express the inner state or condition of the content to its audience. gestures. sharp.” Aria Recitativo Musicals are theatrical performances that involves song and dance to a general theme and narrative. relaxed. The success of Vaudeville ended with the introduction of cinema and television in the 1930’s. slapstick comedy. singing. or an idea in which the entire performance is based on.” it was produced in1581 by Catherine Medici for her daughter in law. information. Musicals can also have elaborate choreography. light. puppets. effortless. or fluid. Themes would often involve the type of story that is narrated through physical movement or the emotions that the dancers wishes to convey. and dancing to convey stories and emotions. costumes. when the dancer overcomes the forces of gravity through leaping. Elements of Cinema 1. Cinemas in the pre-war and post-war eras would show films that have news. It integrates acting.

is taken when the camera is far away from the object. Parkour is a derivative of the French word “l'art du déplacement” or the “art of movement. motion-blur). Horizontal shots allow the director to move the perspective closer or farther from the done by cutting up several scenes into one coherent logical order.e. 4.  Long-shot . a French naval officer who traveled to Africa and admired the skills of moving by its people.  Close up .is the shot that has an average distance from the object. . it captures the details of the scene as well as the object of the shoot. editing effects. A scene shot on the top of a skyscraper can make things look small.” Parkour was created by Georges Hérbert.  Medium shot . creating a wide perspective of the scene. Hérbert had a vision on Parkour’s philosophy when he coordinated the evacuation of 700 people on Saint-Pierre Martinique during a volcanic eruption. 6. Slow motion shots are taken to create dramatic effects (i.e. if taken at an angel above the object it is a vertically downward shot. That is "être fort pour être utile" (be strong to be useful). split screens. it also highlights certain areas of scene or the object. in fighting scenes or car chase scenes). Shooting angle -is the perspective of the viewer from the scene of the shoot. The goal of Parkour is to move about in an area (preferably an urban environment). Lighting -is another means of giving the illusion and depth of a scene. Montage . Scale -refers to the size of objects on the screen and their relation to an area.2. Parkour Is a non-competitive discipline from France that is intended to overcome any physical barrier in one’s environment. with very little resistance. A montage would also make use of transitions. 5. and the like to emphasize change and progress. Time -allows the director shift play with the drama of the scene. while a close up shoot of an object or person can reveal the smallest details. This reduces the time it takes to show a series of events without leaving the audience wondering about what actually happened. 3. while fast moving shoots allow speeding up the scene (i. If taken below the object it is a vertically upward positioned at a very close distance to the object.