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Article 1: Overview of Asthma

Asthma is a disease of the lungs that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. Common
symptoms of asthma are wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, tightness or pressure.
Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. Some
common features of asthma are inflammation, airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. Some risk factors
for asthma are a family history of asthma, regular lung infections, presence of allergies, exposure to
tobacco smoke, low birth weight, and being male.

The current rise in asthma cases among children is alarming. Asthma may occur at any age but is very
common in children. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future.
Experts don't agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas:

- Children are being exposed to more triggers (things that bring on asthma attacks; dust, tobacco smoke,
pollution)
- Children don't have strong immune systems (they aren't exposed to many childhood diseases.)
- Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role.

Asthma is a disease that causes many problems for the patient. However, it can be controlled. With the
right information and medical attention medical professionals can prevent many deaths.

Article 2: Information for the Patient

Asthma is a disease of the lungs that causes wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and difficulty breathing.
It can be very scary for the patient. Luckily, asthma and its effects are reversible with medication. There
are a few options for asthma treatment:

- Breathing machines (or nebulizers) are machines that turn liquid medication into mist. A mask is used
and treatment takes about 10-15 minutes and is given several times per day.
- Inhalers are common for older patients and medication is breathed in using a spacer.
- Syrups and other oral medications are available, but aren't useful for asthma attacks because their
effects take time.

Asthma attacks are the periods when symptoms suddenly become worse. Some common triggers for
these attacks are exercise, infections, dust, tobacco smoke, allergens, cold air and nervousness. Limiting
exposure to these triggers may help improve quality of life. When an asthma attack occurs, take your
medication according to your asthma action plan, wait 10 to 15 minutes if symptoms worsen or don't
improve immediate medical attention may be necessary. Some danger signs are severe wheezing or
coughing, trouble walking, and blue lips or fingernails. If any of these danger signs occur go to the
emergency room or call 911.

Asthma is a lifelong disease. Some people have fewer attacks as they grow older, but most patients see a
return of symptoms in their 30s and 40s. The effects of asthma attacks on the lungs can cause serious
problems later in life. Proper management of asthma is very important.

Some of the more common symptoms are frequent urination. infection. as well as increased skin. When blood sugar is not controlled.which could lead to kidney failure and heart disease .possibly leading to nerve damage. High blood sugar can cause dehydration. It is thought to be caused by an environmental trigger (possibly a virus or toxin but doctors aren't sure. fatigue. both fasting and after meals. and irreversible damage to small blood vessels in the kidney. Dehydration associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) causes increased thirst and dry mouth. Because of the high risks associated with hyperglycemia and the difficulties associated with therapy. The cells of the body starve and the blood sugar level rises. Type 1 diabetes can present at any age but usually presents before the age of 20 and the symptoms are subtle. Management requires exercise.a disease that affects the eyes and vision . and vaginal infections. urinary tract. meal planning. Article 2: Type 1 Diabetes Information for the Patient Type 1 diabetes is a disease that destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. blurred vision and dehydration complications. eyes and heart. . Diagnosis is usually made by detection of abnormalities in blood glucose levels and by glucose or ketone bodies in the urine. patients are in danger of developing several serious diseases and complications. the body cannot produce sufficient insulin supplies.Article 1: Overview of Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease. these cells are damaged and cannot produce enough insulin to supply the body. insulin helps move sugar and other nutrients from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. It is an autoimmune disease. is important. These services are often covered by most insurance plans and can be a great benefit to patients. it is suggested patients visit a diabetes counselor for regular monitoring. By attacking the insulin-producing cells. Beta cells produce insulin. are not transported into the cells. unexplainable weight loss.retinopathy .) This trigger causes the immune system to attack beta cells in the pancreas.kidney damage . and after the immune system damages enough beta cells. and insulin therapy (insulin injections. In the body. counseling and follow-up. There are diabetes counselors who can help patients take control of their disease.circulatory problems . and amputation Quality of life can be maintained by keeping blood sugar levels in target ranges. weight loss. When the body destroys the beta cells nutrients.) Careful monitoring of blood sugar levels. which means the body's immune system is attacking itself. Cells use sugar as energy for all of their functions. especially sugar. . Filtering of glucose by the kidneys results in large amounts of water loss causing dehydration. hunger after meals.

Article 1: Overview of Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is the most common of the two forms of diabetes. Treatment of type 2 diabetes is usually managed with oral medication. Kidney damage is cause by destruction of the small vessels in the nephrons allowing protein to flow into the urine. The three most notable are retinopathy. This can be done with blood sugar monitors. In type 2 diabetes. When insulin resistance occurs. Obesity (the condition of being overweight) is a major factor in causing type 2 diabetes. Insulin moves nutrients into the cells of the body. the function of the kidney declines and leads to kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease. There are medications that help increase insulin production and medications that increase the cells' sensitivity to insulin. This uses insulin injections. and people with metabolic syndrome (problems with hypertension and cholesterol issues. Type 2 Diabetes: Information for the Patient Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin or the body doesn't recognize the insulin. exercise and weight loss can make dramatic changes for the better. dry mouth.) and the cells of the body are unable to function properly. and circulatory problems. Proper management of blood sugar levels isn't easy. In type 2 diabetes. kidney damage. insulin replacement therapy may be necessary. among others. If oral therapy fails. Some common symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar are frequent urination. risk of ulcers. Uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to kidney failure.) The origin is still unknown but it is probably a combination of factors. Exercise. Circulatory problems and nerve damage are cause by a hardening of the arteries. Retinopathy is caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina. The damages and problems in the body caused by diabetes can often go unnoticed until they are serious. Type 2 diabetes can affect anyone at any age but is more common in overweight populations. but aggressive therapy and control can greatly improve quality of life and lengthen life expectancy. vision problems. people with a family history of type 2 diabetes. These blood vessels begin to leak fluid into the retina which leads to blurred vision. fatigue. affecting 90% or greater of the people with diabetes. the cells of the body starve and many problems occur. the pancreas produces insulin but the cells of the body become resistant or the amount of insulin produced is not enough. the elderly. Constant monitoring of blood sugar levels several times per day is very important. Many life-threatening problems can occur with uncontrolled blood glucose levels. As this neuropathy continues. increased thirst. The initial damage to the body can go unnoticed but the damage is severe. called insulin- resistance. weight loss and diet management can be very effective means of managing type 2 diabetes initially. Glucose builds up in the blood stream (hyperglycemia. This causes loss of sensation. and numbness in the hands and feet. heart disease and even amputation. infection and can lead to amputation. . Combination therapy may also be required.

When the joint becomes painful. inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining. Gout. Arthritis is not always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs. gender. Treatment for arthritis generally involves pain management. the cartilage of the bone slowly wears away with age and the bones rub together. Lastly. When the cartilage is warn down. swelling. pain. and stiffness. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and produce fluid in the joint lining. Arthritis also occurs more often in women than men. 2. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint that is warm to the touch. Some common symptoms of arthritis are redness.) In rheumatoid arthritis. If the disease lasts long or occurs repeatedly. All of this causes pain. Treatment will vary with the type of arthritis and the patient. and being overweight. pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medication should be taken to relieve the pain and swelling. splints and supporters to help support the joints especially during strenuous activities. it can lead to tissue damage. Factors to take under consideration are age. joint pain. One way is to avoid activities that cause pain.Article 1: Overview of Arthritis Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation. This adds to the swelling along with the inflammatory response of the body. In osteoarthritis. the body�fs immune system begins to attack the joints of the body causing the joint lining to swell. the space in the joint becomes smaller and the bones may rub together. there are some risk factors for arthritis. warmth around the joint. With age. 3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This is the most prevalent. The three most common types of arthritis are: 1. overall health and medical history. it can permanently damage the bone. redness and loss of function. There are many types of arthritis and in general the causes are still unknown. the cartilage in the joints wears down causing the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis. lifestyle factors. Arthritis is very common and affects almost a third of the American population. To diagnose arthritis a variety of blood tests and x-rays may be necessary. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints like needles. exercise and relaxation. the patient should use braces. A physical therapist can advise exercise routines that help maintain joint mobility. osteoarthritis. Work conditions that require heavy lifting and being overweight cause heavy stress on the joints of the body. This joint inflammation causes swelling. The goals of arthritis treatment are to avoid pain and further destruction of the joint. Article 2: Arthritis Information for the Patient Arthritis is caused by inflammation inside the joints of the body. stiffness. pain and stiffness. However. current medications. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and treatment may vary depending on the type of arthritis the patient has. swelling and distress for the patient. If the joint lining continues to grow. tenderness. Surgery to correct the joint damage may also be an option. . These may include age. In the joint. These crystals cause swelling and severe pain.

There are many specialties for APNs. Nurses are responsible for the treatment. Three main types of nurses are LPNs. Nurses play a very important part of direct patient care and maintaining health in the community. prescribe medication. diagnose disease. The art of nursing makes dramatic differences in patient outcomes and disease treatment. RNs provide direct care. response. An RN (registered nurse) has a university degree in nursing and often is responsible for supervising the tasks of LPNs. They are also responsible for maintenance of health and education for the patient. responsibilities. They work under other health care professionals to provide patient care. work in research and educate patients and other healthcare professionals. They provide direct care. care and safety of patients. An APN (advanced practice nurse) has a masters or doctoral degree.Article 1: The Nurse Nurses are healthcare professionals with a very wide range of duties. Nurses provide direct care and monitor symptoms. They perform simple and some complex medical procedures. RNs and APNs. . and progress in patient care. patient education and make decisions about proper patient care. and specialties. An LPN (licensed practical nurse) usually has less than 2 years of training.

Pharmacist work in: Pharmacist specialties include:  community pharmacies  community pharmacists  hospitals  hospital pharmacists  clinics  nuclear pharmacists  pharmaceutical companies  clinical research pharmacists  government offices  consultant pharmacist . The pharmacist fills prescriptions from doctors. Another responsibility of the pharmacist is to manage and monitor patient medication profiles. With their position in the community and because they are very accessible. and how to use the medication correctly. The pharmacist has many responsibilities. Article 1: The Pharmacist Pharmacists are healthcare professionals that deal primarily with dispensing medications and managing patient medication regimens. and other healthcare professionals to provide medication to the patient. side effects. Roles of the pharmacist:  Reviewing and monitoring patient medication regimens  General health advice  Counseling patients about disease states and medication  Dispensing medication by prescription  Counseling patients about the best use of medication Pharmacists work in a variety of places with many different specialties. pharmacists play a major role in patient care. Pharmacists are often the first person patients ask for medical advice. proper prescribing and drug safety. Pharmacists must check for drug interactions. The pharmacist also counsels the patient about medication. physicians. The pharmacist works closely with patients.

physical therapists work in home daycare centers. Physical therapy treatment is provided under the care of a physical therapist. physiotherapeutic techniques. and assisting devices. integumentary and neurological conditions. Outside of the hospital.  Musculoskeletal physiotherapy uses a variety of techniques to treat heart and lung diseases such as asthma. cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. schools. bandages. The physical therapist is responsible for diagnosis. rehabilitation centers and for athletic clubs. Treatment may involve patient education. assessment and treatment of disease or disability.Article 1: Physical Therapy The physical therapy department is much broader than just rehabilitation. nursing care centers. .)  Integumentary physiotherapy deals primarily with treatment of the skin. clinics. Rehabilitation spans all four of these categories. The conditions physical therapists manage are musculoskeletal. also known as a physiotherapist. This may include care of wounds. cardio-pulmonary. and scar reduction  Neurological physiotherapy use exercise to help improve motor function.

In the hospital the radiology department is often one of the first places physicians turn to for diagnosis. without dangerous radiation.  Diagnostic radiology uses imaging to diagnose disease.Article 1: Radiology Radiology is a medical specialty that uses images to diagnose disease. which are used to evaluate bony structures and soft tissue. The radiology department provides many services in the hospital. which use x-rays and computers to make 3-D images of soft tissues. which are used to see soft tissue structures in real time.  MRI scans. which give the best images of soft tissue structures.  CT scans.  Radiation therapy uses radiation to treat diseases. .  Ultrasounds. Some include the following:  X-rays. Radiology is divided up into several fields. but patients must stay still for very long periods. Physicians that specialize in radiology are called radiologists.  Interventional radiology uses imaging to guide procedures.