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Adhesive Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 3: Types of Adhesives

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm


Department for Cutting and Joining Manufacturing Processes (tff)
University of Kassel, Germany

Quelle: Wikipedia
Definitions
 Adhesive (DIN EN 923)
is a non-metallic material that functions as a
bonding material via surface adhesion (adhesion) and
internal strength (cohesion).
 Main Purpose: Transmission of force

 Sealant (DIN EN 26 927)


is a material that seals a joint by
bonding to the edges of the joint.
 Main Purpose: Sealing of surfaces to prevent the discharge of liquid
Every adhesive can seal, but every sealant can also bond!
2
Agenda

 Introduction

 Chemically Reacting Adhesives

 Physically Bonding Adhesives

 Examplary Selection of Adhesives

3
Adhesives – Possible Classifications
 There are many possibilities to classify adhesives, depending on…

 Specific Application

 Geometry of the Bond

 Chemical Basis of the Adhesive

 Strength Class

 Outward Form

 Number of Components within the Adhesive

 Setting Mechanism

4
Specific Applications

Phenolic resin adhesives, acrylates, epoxy resin adhesives,


Bonding of Metals
polyurethane adhesives, polyester resin adhesives

Bonding of Synthetic Materials Solvent-based adhesives, acrylates, epoxy resin adhesives

Polyurethane adhesives, silicone adhesives, epoxy resin


Bonding of Glass
adhesives, cyanacrylate

Bonding of Ceramics Phenolic resin adhesives, epoxy resin adhesives

Bonding of Wood Polyvinyl acetate adhesives (PVAC)

Bonding of Leather Rubber adhesives

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 5


Geometry of the Bond

Rotationally Symmetric Axially Symmetric Asymmetric

 Screwing  Level  Shaft – Level


 Pipe- Connections  Rectangular  Level - Level
 Shaft- Connections  Overlapping (level)
 Corner Joint
 Edgefolding Adhesion
 Butt-Joints

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 6


Chemical Basis

Organic Adhesives
Inorganic Adhesives
Natural Basis Artificial Basis

Protein, Carbohydrates, Acrylates, Polyurethanes, Metal Oxides, Silicates,


Natural Resins Epoxies Borates, Phosphates

Silicones
(Compound with organic and inorganic characteristics)

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 7


Strength Classes

 Structural Bonds Strength

(i.e. 1-C-Epoxy Resin)

 Semi-Structural Bonds
(i.e. 2-C-PUR)

 Fixation Bonds
(i.e. Fast-Setting Adhesive)

 Elastic Bonds
(i.e. 1-C-PUR)

 Sealing Bonds
(i.e. Acrylate-Sealant)
Source: TC Kleben
Elasticity 8
Outward Forms

Fluid Adhesives Adhesive Putty Solid Adhesives

Hotmelt Adhesives, Powder


Reaction Adhesives, Larch Resin,
Adhesives,
Adhesive Varnish, Pastes Canada Balsam
Adhesive Films

i.e.: Metalworking industry i.e: Visual industry i.e.: Furniture Industry

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 9


Number of Components within the Adhesives

2 Components 3 Components
1 Component (1C)
(2C) (3C)

- Epoxy - Epoxy - Acrylates


Resins Resins - Epoxy
Polyurethanes Polyurethanes Resins
- Acrylates - Acrylates
- Silicones - Silicones

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 10


Setting Mechanisms

Chemically Reacting
Physically Bonding
Cold Setting Hot Setting

Polymerisation Adhesives Hotmelt Adhesives


Polyaddition Adhesives Solvent-Based Adhesives
Polycondensation Adhesive Plastisols

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 11


Criteria for the Classification of the Setting Mechanism
 Condition of the molecules at the beginning of the bonding process

Reaction Adhesives Setting Adhesives


Polymers are formed out of monomers Polymers are already complete

Small, reactive molecules (monomers) are Using either solvents or high


made into long, partly interlinked temperatures the polymers are made
molecules (polymers) through a chemical wettable. When the solvent evaporates or
reaction. the adhesive cools down, it hardens.

 chemically hardening  physically bonding


Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 12
Adhesives - Overview
Chemically Hardening Physically Bonding

Polyaddition Through Solidification


Epoxy Resins Hotmelt Adhesives
Polyurethanes

Polycondensation Through Evaporisation


Silicones Solvent-Based Adhesives
MS-Polymers Dispersions
Phenolic Resins Contact Adhesives
Polyester Resins
Permanently Adhesive
Polymerisation Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
Cyanacrylates Butyle Rubbers
Methyl Methacrylates
Anaerobic Adhesives
Radiation Curable Through Gelling
Adhesives Plastisols
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 13
Agenda

 Introduction

 Chemically Reacting Adhesives

● Polyaddition Adhesives

● Polymerisation Adhesives

● Polycondensation Adhesives

 Physically Bonding Adhesives

 Examplary Selection of Adhesives

14
2C-Adhesives in General
 Two-Component-Adhesives

 Two adhesive monomers are used that are spatially apart


 One of the monomers contains resin monomers, whilst the other contains hardeners
 Need to be brought to react by mixing them
 The so created polymer/resin is the cured adesive

Processing
 Mixing Ratio
 Rate of Dilution
 Pot Life

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 15


Pot Life – Processing Time of 2C-Adhesives

The time in which the reactive adhesive has to be used after


all components have been mixed

 Means the time in which the completed adhesive mixture can be used, i.e. the
processing time at room temperature
 Begins with the first encounter of the adhesive monomers
 Ends when the curing process has gone so far that hardness and viscosity
have increased measurably and further processing is no longer possible

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 16


2C-Adhesives in General
 Pot life is dependent on the surrounding temperature and the quantity

Time
[min]

Example according to
20 data sheet: 10 min at
20°C
Rule:
An increase in temperature
10 of 10°C reduces the pot life
to half
5

0 10 20 30 40
Temperature [°C]
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 17
Curing of 2C-Adhesives

Curing time Period of time that an adhesive needs to reach at least handling strength or,
at the latest, its final strength.

100%
Festigkeit

Gelpunkt
Gel point

0% Time
Handling
Strength Final
Strength
Pot life
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 18
Influence of the Temperature on Chemical Reactions
 Influence of the temperature on the speed of reaction during the curing
process of reactive adhesives
The higher the temperature, the quicker the curing process will be
The lower the temperature, the slower the curing process will be
Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit

Rule:
An increase in temperature of
10°C reduces the pot life to half
and therefor doubles the speed of
reaction

Temperature
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 19
Types of Adhesives

Chemically Curing
Adhesives

Polyaddition Polymerisation Polycondensation

Epoxy Resins Cyanacrylates Silicones

Methyl
Polyurethanes MS- Polymeres
Methacrylates
Anaerobic
Phenolic Resins
Adhesives

Radiation Polyester Resins


Curable
Adhesives
20
Polyaddition
 Two (or more) different types of monomers react with each other
 The monomers must each posses at least two reactive centers (functional
groups) so that a polymer chain can be formed

Monomers,  Epoxy Resins


i.e. Resin & Hardener
● 1C-Epoxy Resins
● 2C-Epoxy Resin

 Polyurethane
● 1C-Polyurethane
Formed
polymer chains ● 2C-Polyurethane

21
Epoxy Resins
 Are called so, because they are made out of compounds with epoxy-groups

O Epoxy-group
HO H2N
H C C Alcohol Amine

H H

 React with copmpounds that have H-atoms at O or N, i.e. alcohols and amines
 After the reaction, there are no more epoxy-groups

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer 22


Verlag
Epoxy Resins – Reaction Mechanism
 Important: Alcohols and amines can react once per H-atom


H  O 1 H O H
2  R 1
R O H C C H C C R
H 2
H R O H

2
R

O
H H
H  H N H
2  1 C C
R N H C C R H C C H
O 1 H H 1 O
H H H R R

23
Epoxy Resins – Starting Compound
 Bisphenol A as most important basic element
Oligomeric Epoxy Resin

long chain diamine (Hardener)


Glycidyl ether
Cure
Diglycidyl ether from
Bisphenol A
24
1C-Epoxy Resins – Characteristics

Reaction mechanism: Polyaddition

Type of polymer: Duromer

Cure: Hot-setting

Very high, heat and media


Strength:
resistant

Disadvantages: Brittle, cool storage

Structural adhesive bonds in


Fields of application:
automobiles

Quelle: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 25


2C-Epoxy Resins – Characteristics
Reaction mechanism: Polyaddition

Type of polymer: Duromer

Cure: Room temperature (cold-setting)

Strength: Rigid and highly strong bond, media


resistant

Low flexibility, low adhesive strength


Disadvantages:
in comparison to the hot-setting 1C

Structural bonds
Fields of application: (Automobiles and wind power
stations)
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 26
Polyurethanes – Reaction Mechanism
 Are called so because the adhesive molecules contain urethane-groups
 Basic materials are isocyanates und alcohols
O
H
C
2
R O
N 1
Alkohol R
Isocyanat

O
2 1
R C R
O N
Urethan H
27
2C-Polyurethanes – Reaction Mechanism

n HO – (CH2)X – OH + n O = C = N – (CH2)Y – N = C = O
Diol Diisocyanate

Addition Reaction

HO – (CH2)X – O – C – N – (CH2)Y – N – C – O – (CH2)X – O – C – N – (CH2)Y – N = C = O


O H H O O H
n-1
Polyurethane

28
1C-Polyurethanes – Reaction Mechanism

Addition reaction
R N C O + H OH R N C OH
water
Isocyanate
(from the air or the
surface of the bonding H O
elements) Derivative of carbamide acid
decomposition (unstable)
reaction
R N C OH R NH2 + CO2
Amine Carbon dioxide
H O

Addition reaction
R NH2 + O C N R R N C N R
Amine Isocyanate
H O H
Substituted urea
29
1C-Polyurethanes – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Polyaddition

Type of Polymer: Duromer

Through humidity at room


Cure:
temperature

Hard and brittle with low


Strength:
strength
Not UV-stable, danger of
Disadvantages: foaming, isocyanates are
harmful to health
Insulating technology, windows,
Fileds of Application:
glazing

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 30


2C-Polyurethanes – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Polyaddition

Type of Polymer: Duromer

Cure: Room Temperature

Strength: Hard with high degree of strength

Not UV-stable, isocyanates are


Disadvantages:
harmful to health, foaming

Production of connection elements


Fields of Application: (vehicle and container constructions,
building industry )

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 31


Polymerization
 Chain polymerization
 Monomers link continuously to a growing polymer (chain growth)
 triggered by radicals and anions/cations

Radical/Ion Monomer Monomer Monomer

Monomer
Radical/Ion Monomer Monomer Monomer
P o l y m e r
32
Polymerization
 A CC-double bond must be in the monomer molecule

Polyethylene Polypropylene
Radical Anion
PE PP
H N
H 2C CH2 C CH2 CH3 C
H CH2
H 3C C H 2C C H 2C C
C O C O
F F H O O
C C C CH2 CH3 CH3
F F Cl
Polytetrafluor- Polyvinyl chloride Polystyrene Polymethyl methyacrylate
Polymethyl cyanacrylate
ethylene (Teflon) PVC PS PMMA

33
Radical Polymerization
 Start reaction
● Initiator molecule is split into two radicals
● Radical breaks open a multiple bond  growable primary radical

 Growth Reaction
● Radical reacts with monomer, takes electron from the double
● Repititious linkage of monomer to molecule chain

 Termination Reaction
● Growth of polymer chain is disrupted, recombination of radicals

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 34


Radical Polymerization

Start Reaction Initiator molecule  2 I*

35
Radical Polymerization

Growth Reaction I* + M  I-M*


*+M M*

Termination Reaction * + I*  I
*+ *

36
Radical Polymerization

Growth:

37
Methyl Methacrylates – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Radical chain polymerization

Typ of Polymer: 2-C, Thermoplastics

Reacts relatively quickly,


Cure:
good wettability

Strengtht: High

Disadvantages: Strong smell, mostly brittle

Gap bridging
Fields of Application:
(not by No-Mix)

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer 38


Verlag
Anaerobic Adhesives – Process

1. Metal-ion catalysed decomposition of the hydroperoxide as source for the


formation of free radicals ( base metals have a higher tendency to set
electrons free)

2. Agglomeration of radicals to monomers


3. If oxygen were available, the radicals would react with that and not with the
monomers

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer 39


Verlag
Anaerobic Adhesives – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Radical Chain Polymerization

Type of Polymer: 1-C, Duromeres

Absence of oxygen and presence of


Cure:
metal-ions

Permanently strong, resistant to media


Strength:
and temperatues

Brittle, specific, according to building


Disadvantages:
element

Metal joints, screw retentions,


Fields of Application:
production of hub-shaft-connections
40
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer
Verlag
Radiation Curable Adhesives – Characteristics
Photoinitiated radical chain
Reaction Mechanism:
polymerization

Type of Polymer: 1C-Adhesive


Through radiation with UV-light or
Cure: visible light, short curing period, high
final strength
Strength: High final strength

Joining elements must be permeable


Disadvantages: for radiation, limit of layer thickness
(about 5mm)

Joining of Glass, Joining of transparent


Fields of Application:
synthetic materials

Quelle: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 41


Anionic Polymerization

H C≡N H C≡N H C≡N


C C A C C- C C
- H COOR
A H COOR H COOR

H C≡N H C≡N
-
A–C–C C=C
H COOR H COOR
n
Polyalkylcyanacrylate

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer 42


Verlag
Cyanacrylates – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Anionic Polymerization

Type of Polymer: 1-C, Thermoplastics

Room temperature,
Cure:
reacts quickly

Strength: High

Sensitive to humididty,not
Disadvantages:
temperature stable, brittle

Fields of Application: Fast-setting-adhesives

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 43


A-B-Procedures
 Component A contains a methyl-methacrylate
monomer as main component and a sufficient amount
of accelerator
Joining Element 1
 Component B contains the same amount of methyl-
methacrylate and the hardener Component A:
Monomer + Accelerator
 Bonding Mechanism
● Components are both distributed on the joint area and Component B:
mixed through the fixation pressure or… Monomer + Hardener
● Both components on separate joint areas and then the
connection with the joint elements Joining Element 2

 Good gap bridging (up to 3mm)

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 44


Hardener- Varnish Procedure (No-Mix-Procedure)

Joining Element 1

Monomer + Accelerator
Joining Element 1

Monomer + Accelerator + Hardener

Solvent + Hardener Joining Element 2

Joining Element 2

Advantages:
low thickness of adhesive layer (0,3 - 0,4 mm)
long pot life
Source: Kleben, Habenicht , Springer Verlag 45
Direct Addition of Hardener
 The hardener is added to the monomer-accelerator mixture
shortly before application („mix-system“), comparable with 2C-
systems
 Harder than paste or powder
 Low degree of strength (1-3%) needs a good intermixture
 Not suitable for monomers that react quickly

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 46


Polycondensation

Monomer A Monomer B

P o l y m e r

+
Elimination
Products
47
Polycondensation Adhesives

Polyester

Phenolharze

Silicone

48
Polyester – Reaction Mechanism

Polyethylen
terephthalate

49
Polyester Resin

Reaction Mechanism: Polymerization

Type of Polymer: 2C, Duromeres

Cure: Room temperature or heat

Strength: Higher strength

Disadvantages: Brittle

Fields of Application: Repair filler material

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 50


Phenolic Resins- Reaction Mechanism

Bakelite

51
Phenolic Resins - Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Polycondensation

2C, Duromere
Type of Polymer:

Cure: Hardening under pressure

High strength, high heat resistance,


Strength:
high peeling resitance

Disadvantages: Tendency to turn yellow, brittle

Vehicle consruction, material


Fields of Application:
compound, furniture industry
52
Silicones – Reaction Mechanism

H 3C CH3 H 3C CH3
O CH3 O O CH3 O
H 3C Si O Si O Si CH3 H 3C Si O Si O Si CH3
O CH3 O CH3
H 3C n CH3 n

H 2O H 2O O O

H 3C CH3
O CH3 O CH3
H 3C Si O Si O Si CH3 H 3C Si O Si O Si CH3
O CH3 O O CH3 O
H 3C n CH3 H 3C n CH3

+ 4 H 3C O H

53
Silicones – Characteristics

Reaction Mechanism: Polycondensation

Type of Polymer: 1C, Elastomere

Hardening through humididty, slow


Cure:
hardening
Low strength, elastic, weather and
Strength: media resistant, great range of
temperature application
Bad adhesion after wetting, danger
Diasadvantages: through cracks, danger through
silicone oils
Sealants in aeroplanes, electronics
Fields of Application:
and bath room
54
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag
Agenda

 Introduction

 Chemically Reacting Adhesives

 Physically Bonding Adhesives

● Through Solidification

● Through Evaporisation

● Permanently Adhesive

● Through Gelling

 Examplary Selection of Adhesives


55
Physically Bonding Adhesives

 Generally consist of preformed polymers


 Depending on the situation, either stabilizers, softeners or filler materials are added
 Hardening happens through a change in state of aggregation (without changing the material)
 There is no chemical reaction

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 56


Physically Bonding Adhesives - Overview

Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive

Solvent-based Pressure Sensitive


Hotmelt Adhesives Plastisols
Adhesives Adhesive

Dispersion
Butyle rubber
Adhesives

Contact Adhesives

57
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Hotmelts Solidification Evaporization


Permanently
Adhesive
Pressure
Gelling

Characteristics Hotmelts
Solvent-based
Adhesives
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesives
Contact
Adhesives

 Occur in a one component, hard and solvent-free form


 Thermoplastic Polymers that bond through solidification
 Viskosity at working temperature influences the strength (the higher the viscosity , the higher the
strength at higher temperatures)
 Application in furniture and packaging industry, electrics
 Characteristic parameters of some hotmelts:

Basis of Softening Range in °C Melting Viscosity Processing Temperature


Adhesive in Pa*s in °C
Polyamide 95 – 175 1 – 20 120 – 240
Polyester 50 – 230 20 – 2.000 150 – 240
EVA 90 - 200 20 – 10.000 max. 200
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer 58
Verlag
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Hotmelts – Ingredients Hotmelts


Solvent-based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive
Ingredients Effect on Characteristics

Determine the characteristics of the adhesive layer,


Basis polymers
such as adhesion, strength and temperature
(z.B. EVA, PP, PB, PA)
behaviour

Increase adhesion, wetting characteristics, increase


Resins
in adhesion and viscosity

Softeners Increase the flexibility

Stabilisers, Antioxidants Decrease change through oxidation

Filler Material, Extenders Increase in strength and reduction of costsF

Change of the open time, the softening point and


Waxes
the viscosity
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 59
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Hotmelts – Solidification Evaporization


Permanently
Adhesive
Pressure
Gellingn

Advantages and Disadvantages Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

• no Solvents
• no mixing of components
Advantages • very short bonding periods
• thermically disconnectable and rebondable adhesion

• tendency to crawl at high temperatures


• high temperature stress on the bonding elements
• melting unit is necessary
Disadvantages • low temperature stability
• high procedural viscosity as a solvent containing and monomer-based
adhesive

Quelle: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 60


Physically Bonding Adhesives

Hotmelts – Solodification Evaporization


Permanently
Adhesive
Pressure
Gelling

Different Procedures Hotmelts


Solvent-based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesives
Butyle Rubber
Pastisols

Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

Hotmelt is heated joining elements are joints via


the hotmelt

Hotmelt is applied
joining elements
to joining elements are fixated

Joining elements joining elements


are bonded are joined under
directly pressure

61
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Solvent-Based Adhesives Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Pastisols

Adhesive
Cotact
Adhesive

 Polymers (PVA, acrylates) are dissolved in organic solvent


 The adhesive bonds through the evaporization of the solvent and is hardened
through the physical interaction between the polymer chains
 Application to joining element partial evaporization of solvent
joining
 Adherence to the remaining drying period
 Fixation pressure is necessary
 Potential danger from the solvents (inflamable and toxic)
 Often used when gluing paper, wood and ceramics

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 62


Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solvent-Based Adhesives – Solidification Evaporization


Permanently
Adhesive
Gelling

Pressure
Influence of temperature on the evaporization of solvent Hotmelts Solvent-Based Sensitive
Adhesive
Plastisols

Dispersion Butyle Rubber


Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

100 [%]
Amount of solvent in the adhesive
layer

Room temperature

Higher temperature

Time t
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 63
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Dispersion Adhesives – Solidification Evaporization


Permanently
Adhesive
Pressure
Gellingn

Characteristics Hotmelts
Solvent-Based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

 Polymers (PVA, Acrylate, PU) are, as solid particles, in a watery dispersion agent
 Bonding via the evaporization of the water, or rather the intrusion into the joining
elements
 Not suitable for materials with even or non-permeable surfaces
 Hardening period increases with the degree of humididty of the joining elements, as
this prolongs the evaporization of the water from the dispersion
 Mainly used for wooden materials
 Advantage: Water used as solvent  cheap and non-toxic
 Disadvantage: Sensitive to frost, cannot be used after defrosting

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 64


Physicaly Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Film Formation of a Dispersion Hotmelts Solvent-Based


Adhesives
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubbere
Plastisols

Adhesives
Contact
Adhesives

Water evaporates or intrudes into Increase of polymer concentration


joining elements

Formation of film (adhesive layer) Polymer particles flow into each other

Formation of adhesive forces at the


Adhesive bonding to work material
surface of the material (adhesion)

lSource: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 65


Physically Bonding Adhesives

Phases of Hardening of a Solidification Evaporization Permanently


Adhesive
Pressure
Geling

Dispersion Adhesive Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesive
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

• defined by the thickness of the adhesive layer, room and


joining element temperature, as well as the humididty and
Open time absorbtion characteristics of the substrate

• defined by the applied temperature whilst bonding,


Pressure • measured in minutes
period

• important if temperatures during the pressing time were low


(about 50C)
Post-bonding
period • before the processing of the joining elements

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag


66
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Permanently

Dispersion Adhesives –
Solidification Evaporization Gelling
Adhesive
Pressure
Hotmelts Solvent-Based Sensitive Plastisols
Selected basic polymers and there appplication Adhesives
Dispersion
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Adhesives
Contact
Adhesives

Homopolymer Polyvinyl Acetate-


Joining of wood and paper
Dispersions
Good adhesion on lower energetic surfaces
Copolymer Vinyl Acetate Dispersions
(i.e.. PVC)
Acrylate-Dispersions Pressure sensitive adhesive and permanent adhesive

Polyvinyliden-Dispersions Used in food packaging


Butadiene-Styrene-Dispersions Concealing of aluminium foil on paper

Good adhesion and high flexibility even at low


Polyurethane-Dispersions temperatures, can be combined with other polymer
dispersions  Used to conceal elements in film systems

Polychloroprene-Dispersions Shoe industry


Alternative to the solvent-based pressure sensitive
Rubber-Dispersions
adhesive
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 67
physically Bonding Adhesive

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Contact Adhesive Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesives
Dispersion
Sensitive
Adhesive
Butyle Rubber
Plastisols

Adhesives
Contact
Adhesives

 Polymers such as rubber and polyurethane are suitable for contact adhesives
 Adhesive is contained within an adhesive
 Solvent needs to evaporate completely before the joining elements can be fixated
 seemingly dry adhesive films on the surfaces of the joining elements
 Joining elements bonded through high pressure which leeds to a bond with high strength
 Processing of contact adhesives:
● One-sided joining (wet bonding): Adhesive is applied only to one joining element (only possible
with materials that are permeable for solvents)
● Two-sided-joining (contact adhesion): Adhesive is applied to both joining elements, airing of the
joint area, pieces are pressed together within the processing time

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 68


Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Evaporization Permanently Gelling


Adhesive
Pressure

Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesives
Sensitive
Adhesives
Plastisols

Dispersion Butyle Rubber


Adhesives
Contact
Adhesives

 Consist of polymers that are permanently adhesive and that are applied onto support
materials
 Elements of adhesive tapes
 Polymers like rubber plus waxes and resins
 Exemplary support materials: Glass fabric, synthetic materials /metal foil, paper
 Adhesion achieved through pressure formation of adhesion forces
 Appliance to support material through
● Radiation hardening of reactive solvent-free systems
● Appliance with organic solvents
● Application as melt

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 69


Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Butyle Rubber Adhesive Hotmelts


Solvent-Based
Adhesive
Sensitive
Adhesive
Plastisols

Dispersion Butyle Rubber


Adhesive
Contact

 Synthetic material also called Isobutene-Isoprene-Rubber (PIB)


Adhesive

Characteristics
 High adhesiveness
 Good sealing qualities and therefore low gas permeability
 Absorbs vibrations and shocks
 Resistance to acids and bases
 Good resistance to weather and ozone
 High electrical insulation properties
 Can be bought as sealant, adhesive tape or injectable material
 Is used in air pipes, inner sides of tyres, bladders, seals

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 70


Physically Bonding Adhesive

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive
Pressure

Plastisols Hotmelts Solvent-based


Adhesive
Sensitive
Adhesive
Plastisols

Dispersion Butyle Rubber


Adhesive
Contact
Adhesive

 Are made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles and softeners


 Small polymer particles are evenly distributed in the fluid phase (dispersion)
 Adhesive layer is formed after heating (120-180°C)
 PVC particles swell and absorb the softeners (Sol-Gel-Process)
 Hardening occurs after gelling under heat
 Formable adhesive layer
 The possible separation of acids from the PVC is problematic
 Usage as adhesive sealant in car-body-constructions and as sealant as well as in
bottle caps

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag


71
Physically Bonding Adhesives

Solidification Permanently Gelling


Evaporization
Adhesive

Plastisols – Sol-Gel-Process
Pressure
Solvent-Based Sensitive Plastisols
Hotmelts
Adhesive Adhesive
Dispersion Butyle Rubber
Adhesive
Two-phase system (Sol) is changed into an Contact
Adhesive
one-phase system (Gel) through the
absorbtion of softeners

Paste of hard PVC-


Swelling of the paste
grains in fluid softener
at 40°C
(Plastisol)

Sol-Gel-Process at
160 to 180 °C:
Pre-gelling at 100 to
Transformation of
120°C
fluid sol into hard,
irreversible gel
Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 72
Agenda

 Introduction

 Chemically Reacting Adhesives

 Physically Bonding Adhesives

 Examplary Selection of Adhesives

73
Procedure

1. Defining of requirements
2. Systematic search for types of adhesives
3. Evaluation of the considered adhesives
4. Search for specific products (producer of the adhesive)
5. Possibly verification of the adhesive with the specification sheet

Source: Kleben, Habenicht, Springer Verlag 74