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Types of Sentences

A phrase is a group of words not having a subject and a verb (maybe one of them only).
A clause (dependent or independent) is a group of words having a subject and a verb.
An independent clause can stand alone because it has a full idea. Example: Mohamed came late
to school. Thani arrived early. Mohamed and Thani decided to camp in Nazwa.
A dependent clause starts with a subordinator and cannot stand alone. Example: because
Mohamed came late to school. After Thani arrived early. If Mohamed and Thani decided to
camp in Nazwa.
The dependent clause must come with an independent clause in order to be meaningful.
Examples:
Because Mohamed arrived late to school, he received a warning.
After Thani arrived early, he was rewarded.
If Mohamed and Thani decided to camp in Nazwa, they had to get enough water and food.
A simple sentence is actually an independent clause.
Two independent clauses make a compound sentence.
One independent clause and one dependent clause make a complex sentence.
Two independent clauses and one dependent clause make a compound complex sentence.

Label each item below as phrase, dependent clause, independent clause, compound
sentence, complex sentence, or compound complex sentence.
1. The Angles and Saxons, along with other Germanic tribes, began arriving from northern
Europe around A.D. 449. Simple
2. Fought a series of battles against the invaders. Phrase
3. Eventually, however, the Britons were driven to the west (Cornwall and Wales), the north
(Scotland), and across the English Channel to an area of France that became known as Brittany.
Simple
4. Anglo-Saxon culture became the basis for English culture, and their guttural, vigorous
language became the spoken language of the people, the language now known as Old English.
Compound
5. The Norman Conquest ended Anglo-Saxon dominance in England. Simple
6. That the suffering of this world was merely a prelude to the eternal happiness of heaven.
Dependent
7. No one knows exactly when the first Christian missionaries arrived in Britain, but by a.d. 300
the number of Christians on the island was significant. Compound complex
8. The Domesday Book, an extraordinary tax record of every bit of property owned, from fish
ponds to litters of pigs. Phrase
9. With its cast of characters ranging across British society, from the “perfect gentle Knight” to a
common miller, and its use of everyday English rather than elevated Latin or French. Phrase
10. The Canterbury Tales reflected all of these developments. Simple

Editing & Revising


Choose the choice that most effectively or correctly replaces each item below.
1. Vikings invaded in the late eighth and ninth centuries, they plundered monasteries
A. Before Vikings invaded in the late eighth and ninth centuries, they plundered
monasteries.
B. Vikings invaded in the late eighth and ninth centuries and they plundered monasteries.
C. When Vikings invaded in the late eighth and ninth centuries, they plundered monasteries.
D. The Vikings invaded in the late eighth and ninth centuries, they plundered monasteries.
2. While his victory at Hastings, William the Conqueror lost no time taking full control of
England.
A. After his victory at Hastings William the Conqueror lost no time taking full control of
England.
B. After his victory at Hastings, William the Conqueror lost no time taking full control of
England.
C. Before his victory at Hastings, William the Conqueror lost no time taking full control of
England.
D. William the Conqueror lost no time taking full control of England, after his victory at
Hastings.

3. Either Federigo nor his rival is going to marry Monna.


A. Either Federigo nor his rival are going to marry Monna.
B. Neither Federigo or his rival is going to marry Monna.
C. Neither Federigo nor his rival are going to marry Monna.
D. Either Federigo or his rival is going to marry Monna.
4. One of medieval England’s most memorable rulers, when Henry reformed the judicial system
by setting up royal courts throughout the country.
A. One of medieval England’s most memorable rulers, Henry reformed the judicial system
by setting up royal courts throughout the country.
B. One of medieval England’s most memorable rulers Henry reformed the judicial system
by setting up royal courts throughout the country.
C. Henry reformed the judicial system by setting up royal courts throughout the country, one
of medieval England’s most memorable rulers.
D. One of medieval England’s most memorable rulers, the judicial system in the country
was reformed by Henry, who set up royal courts throughout the country.
5. Henry’s son Richard I, known as Richard the Lion-Hearted spent most of his ten-year reign
fighting wars abroad.
A. Henry’s son Richard I, known as Richard the Lion-Hearted spent most of his ten-year
reign fighting wars abroad.
B. Henry’s son Richard I was known as Richard the Lion-Hearted, spent most of his ten-
year reign fighting wars abroad.
C. Henry’s son Richard I, known as Richard the Lion-Hearted, spent most of his ten-year
reign fighting wars abroad.
D. Henry’s son Richard I, knowing as Richard the Lion-Hearted, spent most of his ten-year
reign fighting wars abroad.
6. Not wanting to give the Anglo-Saxons leading roles in England, William therefore divided the
land among his barons.
A. Not wanting to give the Anglo-Saxons leading roles in England, William; therefore,
divided the land among his barons.
B. Not wanting to give the Anglo-Saxons leading roles in England, William, therefore,
divided the land among his barons.
C. Not wanting to give the Anglo-Saxons leading roles in England, William, therefore;
divided the land among his barons.
D. Not wanting to give the Anglo-Saxons leading roles in England, William therefore
divided the land among his barons.

7. They presided over a “court of love,” where lords and ladies come to be entertained by music
and tales of King Arthur and other romantic heroes.
A. They presided over a “court of love,” where lords and ladies would come to be
entertained by music and tales of King Arthur and other romantic heroes.
B. They presided over a “court of love,” where lords and ladies will come to be entertained
by music and tales of King Arthur and other romantic heroes.
C. They presided over a “court of love,” where lords and ladies were coming to be
entertained by music and tales of King Arthur and other romantic heroes.
D. They presided over a “court of love,” where lords and ladies will be coming to be
entertained by music and tales of King Arthur and other romantic heroes.
8. Although Knights received tough training on discipline and chivalry, and they did not always
live up to what was expected from them.
A. Although Knights received tough training on discipline and chivalry they did not always
live up to what was expected from them.
B. Although Knights received tough training on discipline and chivalry, but they did not
always live up to what was expected from them.
C. Although Knights received tough training on discipline and chivalry, yet they did not
always live up to what was expected from them.
D. Although Knights received tough training on discipline and chivalry, they did not always
live up to what was expected from them.