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EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA

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**The Bloch Sphere
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Ian Glendinning February 16, 2005

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QIA Meeting, TechGate 1 Ian Glendinning / February 16, 2005

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VCPC

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EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA

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Outline

• Introduction • Deﬁnition of the Bloch sphere • Derivation of the Bloch sphere • Properties of the Bloch sphere • Future Topics

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QIA Meeting, TechGate 2 Ian Glendinning / February 16, 2005

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VCPC

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EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA

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Introduction

The Bloch sphere is a geometric representation of qubit states as points on the surface of a unit sphere. Many operations on single qubits that are commonly used in quantum information processing can be neatly described within the Bloch sphere picture.

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QIA Meeting, TechGate 3 Ian Glendinning / February 16, 2005

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Qubit states with arbitrary values of γ are all represented by the same point on the Bloch sphere because the factor of eiγ has no observable eﬀects. φ and γ are real numbers. 2005 % .VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Deﬁnition of the Bloch sphere It turns out that an arbitrary single qubit state can be written: θ θ |ψ = eiγ cos |0 + eiφ sin |1 2 2 where θ. TechGate 4 Ian Glendinning / February 16. This is the Bloch sphere. and we can therefore eﬀectively write: θ θ iφ |ψ = cos |0 + e sin |1 2 2 & QIA Meeting. The numbers 0 ≤ θ ≤ π and 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π deﬁne a point on a unit three-dimensional sphere.

TechGate 5 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % .VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Bloch Sphere & QIA Meeting.

centered on the origin. TechGate 6 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % . If z = x + iy.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Derivation of the Bloch Sphere The Bloch Sphere is is a generalisation of the representation of a complex number z with |z|2 = 1 as a point on the unit circle in the complex plane. where x and y are real. & QIA Meeting. then: |z|2 = = = z∗z (x − iy)(x + iy) x2 + y 2 and x2 + y 2 = 1 is the equation of a circle of radius one.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Unit Circle & QIA Meeting. 2005 % . TechGate 7 Ian Glendinning / February 16.

2005 % . TechGate 8 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Polar Coordinates & QIA Meeting.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Polar Coordinates For arbitrary z = x + iy we can write x = r cos θ. & QIA Meeting. TechGate 9 Ian Glendinning / February 16. y = r sin θ. 2005 % . so z = r(cos θ + i sin θ) and using Euler’s identity: eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ we have z = reiθ and the unit circle (r = 1) can be written in the compact form: z = eiθ Notice that the constraint |z|2 = 1 has left just one degree of freedom.

& QIA Meeting. rβ and φβ . and the normalization constraint ψ|ψ = 1 requires that: |α|2 + |β|2 = 1 We can express the state in polar coordinates as: |ψ = rα eiφα |0 + rβ eiφβ |1 with four real parameters rα . φα . TechGate 10 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Qubit States A general qubit state can be written |ψ = α|0 + β|1 with complex numbers α and β. 2005 % .

the only measurable quantities are the probabilities |α|2 and |β|2 . & QIA Meeting. giving: |ψ = rα |0 + rβ ei(φβ −φα ) |1 = rα |0 + rβ eiφ |1 which now has only three real parameters. So. TechGate 11 Ian Glendinning / February 16. rα . because: |eiγ α|2 = (eiγ α)∗ (eiγ α) = (e−iγ α∗ )(eiγ α) = α∗ α = |α|2 and similarly for |β|2 . 2005 % .VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Global Phase Invariance However. and φ = φβ − φα . so multiplying the state by an arbitrary factor eiγ (a global phase) has no observable consequences. rβ . we are free to multiply our state by e−iφα .

rα )! & QIA Meeting.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Normalization Constraint In addition we have the normalization constraint ψ |ψ = 1 Switching back to cartesian representation for the coeﬃcient of |1 |ψ = rα |0 + rβ eiφ |1 = rα |0 + (x + iy)|1 and the normalization constraint is: |rα |2 + |x + iy|2 = rα 2 + (x + iy)∗ (x + iy) = rα 2 + (x − iy)(x + iy) = rα 2 + x2 + y 2 = 1 which is the equation of a unit sphere in real 3D space with cartesian coordinates (x. 2005 % . y. TechGate 12 Ian Glendinning / February 16.

2005 % . TechGate 13 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Spherical Polar Coordinates & QIA Meeting.

& QIA Meeting. and remembering that r = 1. we can write: |ψ = = = z|0 + (x + iy)|1 cos θ|0 + sin θ(cos φ + i sin φ)|1 cos θ|0 + eiφ sin θ|1 Now we have just two parameters deﬁning points on a unit sphere. TechGate 14 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Spherical Polar Coordinates Cartesian coordinates are related to polar coordinates by: x = y z = = r sin θ cos φ r sin θ sin φ r cos θ so renaming rα to z. 2005 % .

TechGate 15 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Half Angles But this is still not the Bloch sphere. π 2 π 2 ⇒ |ψ = eiφ |1 may generate all points on the Bloch & QIA Meeting. 2005 % . What about the half angles? Let |ψ = cos θ |0 + eiφ sin θ |1 and notice that θ = 0 ⇒ |ψ = |0 and θ = which suggests that 0 ≤ θ ≤ sphere.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Half Angles Consider a state |ψ corresponding to the opposite point on the sphere. π − θ . which has polar coordinates (1. φ + π) |ψ = cos(π − θ )|0 + ei(φ+π) sin(π − θ )|1 = = |ψ = − cos(θ )|0 + eiφ eiπ sin(θ )|1 − cos(θ )|0 − eiφ sin(θ )|1 −|ψ So it is only necessary to consider the upper hemisphere 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . TechGate 16 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2 as opposite points in the lower hemisphere diﬀer only by a phase factor of −1 and so are equivalent in the Bloch sphere representation. & QIA Meeting. 2005 % .

& QIA Meeting. 2005 ⇒ θ = θ 2 % .VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Bloch Sphere We can map points on the upper hemisphere onto points on a sphere by deﬁning θ = 2θ and we now have θ θ iφ |ψ = cos |0 + e sin |1 2 2 where 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π are the coordinates of points on the Bloch sphere. TechGate 17 Ian Glendinning / February 16.

because opposite points are equivalent on the θ sphere. there is a 2 to 1 homomorphism of SU(2) on SO(3) • Notice also that as we cross the θ -equator going south. we eﬀectively start going north again on the other side of the Bloch sphere. TechGate 18 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2 where all the points on the θ ‘equator’ are mapped to the single point θ = π. the ‘south pole’ on the Bloch sphere • This is okay. 2005 % . since at the south pole |ψ = eiφ |1 and φ is a global phase with no signiﬁcance.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Bloch Sphere • Notice that θ = 2θ is a one-to-one mapping except at θ = π . (Longitude is meaningless at a pole!) • Rotations in a 2D complex vector space contain a double representation of rotations in 3D real space • Formally. & QIA Meeting.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Properties of the Bloch Sphere • Orthogonality of Opposite Points • Rotations on the Bloch Sphere & QIA Meeting. 2005 % . TechGate 19 Ian Glendinning / February 16.

TechGate 20 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 cos cos π−θ 2 π−θ 2 |0 + ei(φ+π) sin |0 − eiφ sin π−θ |1 2 π−θ |1 2 θ 2 π−θ 2 % θ 2 cos π−θ 2 − sin sin .VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Orthogonality of Opposite Points Consider a general qubit state |ψ θ θ iφ |ψ = cos |0 + e sin |1 2 2 and |χ corresponding to the opposite point on the Bloch sphere |χ = = So χ|ψ = cos & QIA Meeting.

2005 % . so π χ|ψ = cos = 0 2 and opposite points correspond to orthogonal qubit states. with θ = θ/2. TechGate 21 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Orthogonality of Opposite Points θ 2 π−θ 2 θ 2 π−θ 2 χ|ψ = cos cos − sin sin But cos(a + b) = cos a cos b − sin a sin b. & QIA Meeting. the two points are also orthogonal .90◦ apart. Note that in the coordinate system we used in the derivation of the Bloch sphere.

y and z ˆ ˆ ˆ axes: Rx (θ) ≡ e−iθX/2 Ry (θ) ≡ e−iθY /2 Rz (θ) ≡ e−iθZ/2 In order to evaluate these exponentials. Y and Z matrices are so-called because when they are exponentiated.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Rotations on the Bloch Sphere The Pauli X. 2005 % . sin θ sin φ. let’s take a look at operator functions. which rotate the Bloch vector (sin θ cos φ. cos θ) about the x. & QIA Meeting. TechGate 22 Ian Glendinning / February 16. they give rise to the rotation operators.

If f (x) has a power ∞ series expansion f (x) = i=0 ci xn then we have f (A) ≡ c0 I + c1 A + c2 A2 + c3 A3 + · · · & QIA Meeting.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Operator Functions If A is a normal operator (A† A = AA† ) with spectral decomposition A = a a|a a| then we can deﬁne f (A) ≡ a f (a)|a a| It is possible to use this approach to evaluate the exponentials of the Pauli matrices. but it turns out to be simpler to use the equivalent power series deﬁnition of an operator function. TechGate 23 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % .

we therefore have A2 A3 A4 A5 e =I +A+ + + + + ··· 2! 3! 4! 5! A Now. TechGate . 2005 and in the special case that A2 = I e iθA & QIA Meeting. consider eiθA e iθA (θA)2 (θA)3 (θA)4 (θA)5 = I + iθA − −i + +i + ··· 2! 3! 4! 5! θ2 I θ3 A θ4 I θ5 A = I + iθA − −i + +i + ··· 2! 3! 4! 5! % 24 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Operator Exponential For the case of the exponential function.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Operator Exponential θ2 I θ3 A θ4 I θ5 A I + iθA − −i + +i + ··· 2! 3! 4! 5! θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5 1− + + ··· I + i θ − + + ··· A 2! 4! 3! 5! e iθA = = eiθA = cos(θ)I + i sin(θ)A Now. & QIA Meeting. so we can use this equation to evaluate the rotation operators. the Pauli matrices have the property that X 2 = Y 2 = Z 2 = I. 2005 % . TechGate 25 Ian Glendinning / February 16.

2005 % . TechGate 26 Ian Glendinning / February 16.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ The Rotation Operators Rx (θ) ≡ cos θ −i sin θ θ θ 2 2 e−iθX/2 = cos I − i sin X = 2 2 −i sin θ cos θ 2 2 cos θ − sin θ θ θ 2 2 e−iθY /2 = cos I − i sin Y = 2 2 sin θ cos θ 2 2 e−iθ/2 0 θ θ −iθZ/2 e = cos I − i sin Z = 2 2 0 eiθ/2 Ry (θ) ≡ Rz (θ) ≡ & QIA Meeting.

& QIA Meeting. We also see that the rotation operators do not in general keep the coeﬃcient of the |0 component of the qubit state real. To compare rotated states to see if they correspond to the same point on the Bloch sphere. so we see that the X operator is equivalent to a rotation of 180◦ about the X axis.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ An Example Rotation Consider: cos π 2 −i sin π 2 −i sin π 2 cos π 2 0 −i −i 0 = −iX Rx (π) = = Which is equal to X up to the global phase of −i. TechGate 27 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % . it is necessary to multiply each one by a phase to make the |0 component of its state real.

we have to multiply this state by a phase eiα/2 . ˆ & QIA Meeting. TechGate 28 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % . as you would expect for a rotation around the z axis.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Another Example Now consider e−iα/2 0 0 eiα/2 cos θ 2 eiφ sin θ 2 e−iα/2 cos θ 2 eiα/2 eiφ sin θ 2 Rz (α)|ψ = = In order to make the coeﬃcient of |0 real. giving cos θ e−iα/2 cos θ 2 2 eiα/2 = eiα/2 eiφ sin θ eiα eiφ sin θ 2 2 so the net eﬀect is to change φ to φ + α.

Z) of Pauli matrices. where ˆ Rn (θ) ≡ exp(−iθˆ · σ/2) n ˆ and σ denotes the three component vector (X. Furthermore. ny . then it ˆ can be shown that the operator Rn (θ) rotates the Bloch vector by an ˆ angle θ about the n axis. Y.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis If n = (nx . nz ) is a real unit vector in three dimensions. it is not hard to show that (ˆ · σ)2 = I. TechGate 29 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 θ 2 θ 2 I − i sin I − i sin θ 2 θ 2 n·σ ˆ (nx X + ny Y + nz Z) % . and n therefore we can use the special case operator exponential and write Rn (θ) ˆ = cos = cos & QIA Meeting.

TechGate 30 Ian Glendinning / February 16. For example. θ = π. and n = ( √2 . consider α = π/2. 0. & QIA Meeting.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Arbitrary Unitary Operator It can be shown that an arbitrary single qubit unitary operator can be written in the form U = exp(iα)Rn (θ) ˆ For some real numbers α and θ and a real three-dimensional unit 1 1 vector n. √2 ) ˆ ˆ U π π = exp(iπ/2) cos I − i sin 2 2 1 1 1 = √ 2 1 −1 1 √ (X + Z) 2 which is the Hadamard gate H. 2005 % .

2005 % . and a rotation through 720◦ is needed.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Rotations and Phase The double representation of rotations in 3D space has the interesting consequence that rotations of 360◦ do not restore the phase to its initial value. TechGate 31 Ian Glendinning / February 16. but in relation to other qubits there is a diﬀerence & QIA Meeting. For example: Rz (0) = Rz (2π) Rz (4π) I (1) = −I = I For an isolated qubit this has no physical signiﬁcance.

a 720◦ rotation is needed to restore it • What’s more.VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Orientation-Entanglement Relation • e. TechGate 32 Ian Glendinning / February 16. a rotation of 360◦ of an electron about its ‘spin’ axis changes its state . 2005 % . this kind of phenomenon is not restricted to the world of quantum mechanics • It aﬀects the ‘orientation-entanglement relation’ of objects in everyday 3D real space • And I have a demo! & QIA Meeting.g.

VCPC ' EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING AT VIENNA $ Future Topics • Proof that Rn (θ) rotates the Bloch vector by an angle θ about ˆ the n axis ˆ • Generalisation of the Bloch sphere to mixed states • Generalizations to more qubits & QIA Meeting. TechGate 33 Ian Glendinning / February 16. 2005 % .

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