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Pump Head

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**Before we can discuss pump head, we must understand the difference between an open hydronic system
**

and a closed hydronic system. It is important to know whether the pump serves an open or a closed

system, because the pump head calculation depends on the type of system that the pump serves.

In a closed system, the fluid is not exposed to a break in the piping system that interrupts forced flow at

any point. In an open system, it is. In a closed system, the fluid travels through a continuous closed piping

system that starts and ends in the same place--- there is no break in the piping loop. The vast majority of

hydronic piping systems are closed. The most common open system is the cooling tower portion of a

chilled water system, as depicted below. A break in the piping system occurs where the water exits the

spray nozzles, and is exposed to air in the fill section of the tower. The water collects in the cooling tower

sump before being pumped around the loop again. Note that the chilled water side of this diagram (the

right side) is closed. Because it is closed, an expansion tank absorbs any thermal expansion of the fluid.

Open systems don’t require expansion tanks, as the fluid is naturally free to undergo thermal expansion.

Figure 1: Closed and Open Hydronic Systems

What is Pump Head?

** Units of Measure: In the U.S. system, head is measured either in PSI or in "feet of head"
**

(usually abbreviated to "feet").

** Pump Head is the total resistance that a pump must overcome. It consists of the following
**

components:

o Static Head: Static head represents the net change in height, in feet, that the pump must

overcome. It applies only in open systems. Note that in a closed loop system, the static

head is zero because the fluid on one side of the system pushes the fluid up the other

side of the system, so the pump does not need to overcome any elevation.

o Friction Head: This is also called pressure drop. When fluid flows through any system

component, friction results. This causes a loss in pressure. Components causing friction

include boilers, chillers, piping, heat exchangers, coils, valves, and fittings. The pump

must overcome this friction. Friction head is usually expressed in units called "feet of

head." A foot of friction head is equal to lifting the fluid one foot of static height.

The graphs below are from the ASHRAE Fundamentals Book. Therefore at typical velocities of 2-6 fps. pressure head exists. based on proper velocity and pressure drop. Step 1: Lay out the piping system using logical routing as determined by the building requirements. Common applications include condensate pumps and boiler feed pumps.31 = 11. the velocity head is a fraction of a foot. of P/100 equivalent feet minimum to 4 ft. so the differential head in this application is 5 X 2. One PSIG equals 2. 2. but the pipeline velocities used in hydronics are so low that this head is negligible. the velocity head is theoretically a consideration. Note each terminal unit and its GPM. or heat exchanger. we can say that: 1. the pump must overcome a pressure head of 5 PSIG. so velocity head is not a consideration. Condensate pumps often deliver water from an atmospheric receiver to a deaerator operating at 5 PSIG. For closed systems: Pump head = the sum of all friction pressure drops Where: Friction pressure drop = piping pressure drop + terminal unit pressure drop + source unit pressure drop* + valve pressure drop + accessories pressure drop. Steps in Calculating the Pump Head Basically. Step 2: Select pipe sizes for each segment. o Velocity Head: Accelerating water from a standstill or low velocity at the starting point to a higher velocity at an ending point requires energy. Recommended velocities are: o Pipe Sizes of 2" and Under: 2 fps minimum to 4 fps maximum o Pipe Sizes of over 2": . In closed systems the starting point is the same as the ending point.6. o Pressure Head: When liquid is pumped from a vessel at one pressure to a vessel at another pressure. .31 feet. meaning that in addition to the other heads. we need to plug values into the proper formula above. chiller. Since head loss calculations are really estimates. In an open system. of P/100 equivalent feet maximum Where P is the head loss (also called friction loss or pressure drop).75 ft. and is ignored. For open systems: Pump head = the sum of all friction losses plus the static lift of the fluid plus the pressure head. (Note that the velocity head is defined by the formula V2/2g where V is the fluid velocity in feet per second and g is the gravitational constant 32 feet/second 2. So. this small figure becomes insignificant). which creates the hot or chilled water.’ Pressure head is a consideration only in some open systems. for hydronic applications. Therefore the beginning velocity equals the final velocity. * The "source unit" is defined as the boiler.

.

. Since the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the flow rate. the water level in the tower sump is 28’ above the pump. with the possible result of air binding. strainers.31 feet). Flow through the valve is 21 GPM. showing a cooling tower./PSI = 19. Terminal and Accessory Equipment Including: o Source and terminal Equipment: Consult manufacturer’s catalogs or computer selections.5 PSI. and be reasonably economical to install. To convert PSI units to feet of head: PD in feet = PD in PSI X 2.The recommended ranges ensure that the piping system will be quiet.64 ft. A Cv is defined as the flow at which the valve will have a resistance of 1 PSIG (2. Step 4: Determine the Static Head (Open Systems Only) The static head is simply the total height that the pump must lift the fluid. Once the layout and pipe size for each section has been determined follow these steps: Step 3: Determine Friction Due to Source.31 Example: A valve has a Cv of 10.31ft. o Accessory items include filters. What P in feet must be added to the pump for this item? Answer: Feet in Head = 8.31 Example: A plate and frame heat exchanger printout shows a pressure drop of 8.2’ Special Consideration: Pressure Drops In PSI and Converting PSI to Head Sometimes pressure drops will be given in PSI units instead of feet of head. What is the valve D P in feet of head? PD in Feet = (21/10)2 X 2.5 PSI X 2. However. Remember that the static head is the difference in height that the pump will be required to provide. Therefore. In the drawing below.31= 10. o To determine valve D P refer to curves or Cv ratings. consume reasonable pump horsepower. the static height might appear to be 40’. It applies only in open systems. check valves or multi purpose valves that could have a significant pressure drop that would not be covered under the equivalent feet of piping rule of thumb. use the following formula to calculate the pressure drop through the valve for any flow rate: PD In Feet = (Flow Rate/ Rated Cv)2 X 2. so the pump must only provide a net lift of 12’. the static head is 12’. Note that the minimum velocities are recommended based on the fact that lower velocities will allow air to collect at high points.

tees. if any. etc. valves. Don’t forget to multiply pressure differentials in PSI X 2.31’/PSI.). determine the pressure differential required. Step 6: Determine the "Worst Pressure Drop Loop" and Estimate the Friction Loss for that Loop by Using ‘Equivalent Feet" Because fittings result in more pressure drop than plain pipe.Figure 2." The equivalent length of a piping circuit is the actual measured length plus an allowance for all the fittings (elbows. Static Height Example Step 5: Determine the Pressure Head (Some Open Systems Only) If the system is open. we account for them by using "equivalent length. Long method for determining equivalent length: The table below lists the number of equivalent feet of piping for various fittings and accessories: .

Select the worst loop by inspection. The friction in the worst loop is used as the friction head. etc). This provides speed and a reasonably accurate estimation for "typical" hydronic piping systems. however. a piping system with an extreme number of fittings. . the long method provides better accuracy. As with any rule of thumb.To use this method. watch out for oddball situations (the boiler room is 2 blocks away from the building. Calculate several branches if there is a doubt. if possible. add the equivalent length of each item in the fluid’s path to the actual length of piping to get the total equivalent feet of piping. In such situations.5 to 1. Shortcut method for determining equivalent length: Designers often skip the above method and simply multiply the actual piping length times 1.75 to get the equivalent length. Now multiply the friction loss per 100’ of piping from the ASHRAE charts times the equivalent length in the "worst" loop to get the total piping friction loss.

In the drawing above. Those circuits with less pressure drop than the "worst" circuit will be balanced in the field by partially closing balancing valves (not shown above). Safety factors You may wish to add a safety factor to the calculated head for two reasons: Jobsite conditions may not allow direct routing of piping as shown on the plan. Worst Pressure Drop Circuit Note that the worst loop is simply that the loop that results in the largest total pressure drop. if you are designing a hot water system. Do not add pressure drops from other parallel loops.’ It simplifies the calculations considerably. the "worst case" total friction loss loop is shown in light blue. see the Newsletter section of this WEB site. Assuming that the branch piping for all three circuits is similar. especially in open systems. Therefore. They result in oversized pump impellers that cause wasted energy! Pressure Drop Corrections for Glycol. which results in more friction than hot water. 2. This is one good reason for selecting all piping at the same pressure drop per 100.Figure 3. Note that the friction tables assume cold water. Various sources recommend total safety allowances of 15-25% for friction calculations. Be careful of excessive safety factors. The Summer 2000 newsletter discusses the correction required to calculate the amount of glycol to be circulated to meet a given heat transfer load. because the pressure drop/foot may vary by section. the circuit may have to be analyzed in sections. assume that the pressure drop through Coil 3 and its valve are higher than the pressure drop through Coils 1 and 2. including factors for correcting head calculations. you already have a safety margin of around 12%. For discussions of the effects of glycol. These fluids result in higher pump heads than does water. The interior pipe walls become rough over time due to corrosion. . Some systems utilize either ethylene or propylene glycol mixtures in lieu of water. The Winter 2001 newsletter provides correction factors for pump applications. It would be erroneous to add the pressure drops of the piping shown in black. If there are different pipe sizes on the circuit. Extra length and extra elbows result in added friction. Notes 1. where fresh water makeup brings in a steady supply of corrosion-causing oxygen. This increases friction.

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