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: r: .rnber in nouns 'l$! -.O3 The past.Do .to7 The past. r33 . 132 THE NOUN PHMSE The. i.1$r' Vonbal nouns 158 .r101 The present perfect tense 'r rilo2.r35 Types of noun 1136 -i142 Gender of nouns t43 * r45 Showing possession through nouns "t47 -15o Cornpound nouns 'r51-i52 Nu.-99 The.88+ 89 Compound tenses .i .past contin uous tense "1OO.perfect continuous tense ro8 -.r59 . i. Dir€ct and indirect objects 18-19 Verbs.1.t.90 -'93' The present simple tense 94-95 The past simple tense 96-97 The present continuous tense 98. 20-27 ..'35 .Have.ts of the sentence .. . aspect . 52 Modalverbs 53-80 Phrasal verbs 8r-87 Simple tenses.10$ The.32-34 Auxiliaryverbs:Be. rl .. : 1.perfecttense .. 1 . : .28 .. .02[ .. THEVERBPHRASE :: .: i .andrtense . c0ntents 5 Parts of speech 11-15 Par.' Types and forms of main verbs . 3t lrr-egulaf'verbs : .5 -'t7' .noun phrase .s l. ..present perfect continuous tense 106 . ...ro9 Future reference '110 -'n7 Active and passive rt8 . rzz Finite and non-finite verbs 123 .r.

3ro The declarative 227 . 202 Personal pronouns 2O3 . 284 Pronouns 200 . r99 Conditional clauses z7-276 Reporting speech 277 -278 PRONOUNS Reported speech 279 . possessives r68 . 2i8 The fu ll stop 3OO .r7o Exclamations. responses 254 .229 The dash 3n Complements 23o . 196 Relative clauses 27O .259 Adjectives and com parison r83 .253 Demonstratives.23] The slash 312 Word order in negative statements 232 . 213 Quotation marks z96 -zg7 I nterrogative pronou ns 214 .r9o Joining clauses z6o .z9t Possessive and demonstrative pronouns 2O9 .r8z Sentences and clauses 258 .3ol The question mark 302 PREPOSITIONS The exclamation marl< 303 Prepositions 219 .words 235 . 2o8 The apostrophe 287 .25o Nouns used without a determiner 166 . 222 The colon 304 . 215 Capital letters zg8 .257 Quantifiers and numbers "tv -177 Distributives. 2]O The comma 292 .z9g Indefinite Pronouns 2i5 . 319 . exclamatives r78.24o 315 .272 Form ofadverbs r97 .r8o Noun ohrases with several determiners r8r.263 Subordination 264 .295 Relative pronouns 2il . 314 The interrogative.165 Vocative 249 .266 ADVERBIALS Adverbial clauses z6t -269 Adverbs and adverbials r9r. 2O5 PUNCTUATION Reflexive pronouns 2c6 .t67 The subjunctive 251 .248 The indefinite and definite article 16z .224 Square bracl(ets 308 Declarative.234 Punctuation in numbers 313 .226 The hyphen 3o9 . r6r The imperative 245.244 Determiners r6o . DECLARATIVE. i nterrogative and i m perative statements 225 . INTERROGATIVE AND IMPERATIVE STATEMENTS Brackets 307 Word order in sentences 223 . 305 The semicolon 306 WORD ORDER.6 Contents contents 7 DETERMINERS AND ADJECTIVES Sentence tags 241. WH.

Grammar .

Jessica lived in Manchester . The mon inthe corner lowered his newspaper.. . e. semicolons. thesubject ofthatverb. Whenever I seeTarfimy I worry about how I look.. Can I helpyou? Grammar describes how we put words together. some otherwords such as an object. All sentences begin with a capital letter and end in either a full stop.These classes are called parts of speech.. and. depending on how it is used. Until tomorrow then. . I can helpyou. commas. a question mark. A sentence can contain one or more clauses. The term clause is used to describe a group of words that contains a verb. often. . We can put words together in many ways to make new sentences.when he had eaten breakfast. Hewas living in Romethatyear. brackets.oran exclamation mark. A sentence can be made up ofany number of words. He left us. When we talk about these marks. Yes. parts of speech rr Parts of speech Sentences are made up ofwords.g.. Each word in a sentence belongs to a particular set orclass. and so on. otfrrst.where I live. fullstops. I tive in Sussex. we are talking about punctuation.

are called simple sentences. These can be put together with main v€rbs rally. however. and third person to mean the person who is spoken about. would have been walking Anoun is a word thatlabelsathing oran idea. theothetday lamthinwng. 1fi person I we znd person you vou A clause always contains a verb. The term is usually kept for words are called auxlliary verbs. time oninal thing . she. in spiteof I canhelpwu. 3rd person he. Untiltomorrowthen. Ordinary verbs are called main verb6. Pronou ns and nou ns can be singu lar or plu ral in g ram matical number table book ugliness See p. does not always haveto be a clause. My brother loves his skateboard. second person if l'm here. wont economize believe A mainverb is sometimescalled a?oing wordl A special grou p ofverlrs A ph rase isjust a group of words. For example. my friend Henry she has seen the filn alteady. When we want to identify the speaker or the person spoken about in Whenever yau need to talkto someone. wh ich 90 togethef natu to form different tenses. overthehi WE nightneed to. A veru tells us about an action or a state of being.258 for more about clauses. just pop in and see grammar.t2 parts of speech parts of speech 13 I can help you if you will let me. we tall< about'first person Many sentences are made up of a single clause.2oo. it they run walk nouns theman themen think believe a girl two girls Asentence. Nounsaresometimes Many words can refef to one thing only or to more than one. theterms slngularand plural for this. to mean the person who is spoken to. we use first person to mean the speaker. We use called 'naming words'. A more generalterm is numb€r. aune 90 thinl< Yes. see p. pronouns singular plural He arrived on Fridoy. Single clause sentences plural' or'third person singular'. cstoinlv not.

on the bridge over the rooftops a mqn atall man in the morning at tne gates theirw their new wide-screen TV the cat th e fat bl a ck-a nd-white cat When a preposition is used in front of a noun. Examples of determiners are definite Heiscomingnow. the cot a man I found him near the gates. . Th e chi I d ren au gh ed hysteri cally. Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by we can replace it with a pronoun. Itwasfairly good" I've been chosen for the school ploy. Honestly. Thiscakeisquite nice. and indefinite articles and possessives. referred to. He was o rothertall man . Many words can act as more than one part of speech. Adjectives are sometimes called'describing words'. I He lifted the box carefully . She ran quickly downthe poth. my aunt theirTV Aconjunction joins two or more nouns orclauses to each other. I bought some bread . I found him there . Christopher and Angus play golftogether on Fridays. He is coming in the morning . instead ofa noun phrase ora noun. Gary saw Sue so he asked her to help him. Ross wos hun gry so he stopped at a burger bar. the two together do the work of an adverb. or idea that is being talked about. sentence. the rain stayed away. Prepositions give information about position or us describe or pick out which particular thing among many is being movement. Adjectives help nouns and verbs. Jamal scored several runs. Apreposition is one of a small group of wordsthatcan be used with An adjective gives more information about a noun. Fortunately . thing. Adeterminer is used to point more precisely to the person. out orwhen and where it takes place. A pronoun is a word that is used adding -ly.t4 parts of speech parts of speech rs lf we do notwantto repeatthe same noun in a sentence ora paragraph or to introduce a sentence. lt is not unusual for an English word to be a noun in one sentence and a verb in another Some adverbs can also be used before adjectives. I wentto the shop and bought some bread.l can't help it. It's a very hot day. An adverb gives information about the way that an action is carried Conj u nctions a re someti mes cal led'joi ni n g words'. She runs half a mile each morning. but I forgot to get the milk.

a single word. object. Rajiv was reoding a new novel. Andrew is a motor-mechanic. Homish gave me a PartY invitation. . The girls had been swimming. They had finished. The new teacher came in. The girls had been swimming. Normally the subject comes before the verb phrase in a Suddenly. a g roup of words that fu nctions as an adverb. . This may be: The most important parts of speech are: r . He felt a bit silly when he realized what he'd done. I'll get some The newteacher camein. Though some adverbials have a fixed position. limited only by the sense of the sentence. An adverbial. o Acomplement. an adverbial phrase. Ruth gave Lauren o nice bunch of flowers. zoo). which includes the main verb and which may have . r33) ora pronoun (see p. The roads getvery slippery inthewinter. The verb phrase. most can be added to a She is riding someone else's horse. See also pp. She uses her skateboard quite a lot. 23o. which is an optional part of the sentence.l'll getsome biscuitsforyou. Complements provide further descriptive detail comes after the verb phrase. the roads get very slippery. Raiiv wos reoding a new novel. it started to rain heavily. the sky was clear. biscuitsforyouwhen l've pouredthe drinks. They hadfinished. z8-87. You probably won't notice it after a while. He became a doctor in zoo5. an adverbial clause. sentence. When I've pouredthe drinks. o The object. They became good friends despite the mistake. She used her old skateboard. a group of words including a verb. sentence in several places. See also p. functions as an adverb. which is eithera noun phrase(see p. ln the morning. ln the winter.With certain verbs. Any number of them can be added. the object normally or a noun phrase. oradjunct.a complement takes the place of an object. Sentences consist of a number of parts. an adverb. . Some verbs may also need an indirect about the subject. See also p. When there is one. zz8. using different parts of speech. )osh found it. such as beand seem. The subject. Mark ployed while lsabel sang.16 parts of the sentence parts of the sentence v Parts of the sentence . which isa noun phrase ora pronoun. which auxiliary verbs to go with it. A complement can be either an adjective Not all verbs need an object.

r8 direct and indirect obiects direct and indirect objects rs Direct and indirect objects When it does not have an obiect it is called an intransitive verb. Our cotdoesn't like milk. . Some verbs must have an adverbial as well as a direct object. you might say'She iswriting' but if you want to tall( about the point of the activity. Rowan bought a magazine. for example to specify a place. phrase. Kim was drawing (a picture).find and owe. Susan bought her rabbit some she putthe umbrella in a corner. The object of a sentence (if there is one) normally comes after the verb Lynn fainted. When a verb has an object it is called a transitive verb. Erica waswriting a letter. everyone wos shouti n g. Robgavemeoboxof chocolates. AmV owes Mark ten pounds. doing. called an indirect object. Some verbs also have another sort of object.'She iswriting a book'. Mike owesTom five pounds. Ann was reading (o letter). An object that follows a verb lil<e this is called the direct object. some never tal(e a direct object. Whetherthere is an object or not depends on the meaning of Patrick screamed. Heplacedthe parcelon thechoir. Rory found a pen. She was riding herhorse. direct object'complements' a verb. lt is usually needed with verbs like give. the verb. I don't like rap music. For example. A direct object is needed where the meaning of the verb req uires An indirect object names the person for or to whom something is something to give it a focus. morefood. This is why we sometimes say that a done. if you want to talk about what someone is Soon. others sometimes tal<e one and sometimes don't. depending on the meaning. we need to name both the thing that is given and the person it is given to. Erica was writing. with give. Katie bought her hamster o new cage. Shewos riding. Stephen gave me some flowers. When a verb has both an indirect and a direct object it is called a " ditransitive verb. Some verbs must always take a direct object. . Some verbs mav be either transitive or intransitive. For example. you might say.

whetherthey are transitive or intransitive. talking. Averb phrase can be a single word or a group of associated words. gone. Stuart drove ocross open desert. . Three boys were kicking a ball oround in the fteld. according to whether or not they are followed by an object. Main verbs are divided or classified in several wavs. the verbs in English are main verbs. swum. and states of mind. Helen feels much happier now. he might have been walking . John was reading Katherine's essay. . into regularand irregularverbs according to the spelling of their hewolks forms. goes. She always liked boats and sailing. Most of of being. this is called a compound verb. the term verb phrase. heiswalking he had walked regular: tolk. or actions. We both readthe same newspaper. See p. swimming. That is. according to whetherthey referto states Fiona is preparing a talkfor nextweek's class.went. I sdw my best friend on Fridav. states These are the verbs that we use to indicate actions and states. He hates losing. Those in the larger group are called main verbs. I can really tlste the herbs in this omelette. according to the way they I already feel that I have known you for ages. swims. The rest are cal led auxiliary verbs. For six hours. I fo rgot th at it w as y o u r bi rth d ay. Verb phrase We were running across the footbail fteld. we use Don'ttell me. I can read.20 verbs and tense verbs and tense 2t Verbs Main verbs Verbs are words that allow us to tall( about activities. he can walk irregular: swim. . When a verb phrase consists of a single word it is called a simple verb. swlm. Suefound a bracelet. They are also called lexical verbs. 8r. processes. going. Paul owned several old motorbikes. This bosket holds quite a lot. . are used. When we want to talk about everything to do with a verb. We both ron away. This scarf belongsto me. talks. he has been walking irregulor: go. Verbs can be divided into two major groups. talked. Many verbs in English are made by combining an auxiliary verb and a main verb.

See pp. and the modal auxiliaries help to express certainty and doubt. 88 for more on tenses. different degrees of to talk about the time when the action or state takes place. the present simple and the time.22 verbs and tense verbs and tense 23 Auxiliary verbs Tense These verbs are used in combination with main verbs in order to allow We use verbs to talk about actions and states. See o. There are several types of auxiliary verb. ln these tenses the main verb is accompanied by one or both of the auxiliary verbs be and hove. The primary auxiliaries help express All main verbs have two simple tenses. The term aspect is used to talk about continuing actions versus completed actions or states. Simple tenses do not have aspect. Aspect The compound tenses of the verb express two aspects . Eng lish verbs also have compound tense forms. past simple. continuing actions lamwalking I lwaswalking sheissinging I shewassinging they are coming I they were coming you are bringing I you were bringing . Verbstenses allow us us to talk about different times or periods of time. presentsimple pastsimpte lwalk lwalked she sings she sang they come they come you bring you brought In these tenses the verb is used on its own without any auxiliary verbs. completion.continuous and perfect.35-74. and different amounts of certainty or doubt.

See pp. The present continuous and the past continuous are formed from eitherthe present orthe past tense ofthe verb be+ the present The two aspects of the verb can be joined so that we can talk about participle (or'-ingform') of the main verb. Julie keeps a diory. Jomes hos been helping usthisweek. Adrian wenthome ot midnight. I have been a teacher for four years. ) ames has helped out before. Can I call you back? He had lived in London for a year before coming to Sussex. I have been studying French for four years. This is called the perfect aspect. timeless states. I had been living in London for four years when I met. . him. have + a past participle. Itwas roiningwhen we came out of school yesterday. So ra a n d Scott we r e I o oki n g fo r a n ew fl at at th e ti m e. the duration and the completion of an action in the same verb phrase. be + -ing). . We use these compound verbs when we want to talk about: she heard a strange noise in the night. Sara and Scott had found their flat by then. He was living in London all that yelr. the completion of an action (using a form of the auxiliary Continuous tenses show duration or continuitv. and habitual shehassung I shehadsung or repetitive actions. He was listening rc the radio when he heard the news. t'm having dinner. The present simple and the past simple of regular verbs are formed I am still studying French. See pp. It is raining hard this morning. 94-97.4 verbs and tense verbs and tense 2s completed actions Simple tenses lhavewalked I lhadwalked Simple tenses show moments in time. See pp. 98-ror. usually -ed). continuous tenses . the continuous nature of an action (using aform of the auxiliary Yesterday he went by car. they have come I they had come youhovebrought I youhodbrought ft tastes good. Rob usually walksto school. by using the baseform oftheverb. )ames is helping out with the children this week. This is called the continuous aspect. 88-8g for more on tense and aspect.

She was lote becluse shehad missed her train" Thepresent perfect and thepast perfect areformed using either the present orthe past tense ofthe verbhave +the past partlclple of the main verb.. ro6..) Could I have a coke. My motherhasbeen helping me. (. Thepast perfect is used to tall( about something that happened in Theywill probably meet us atthe station.. and importance in the present time. a time before a particular time in the past. completion. or to express degrees of time and probability. My sistershavebeen riding allday. Perfect continuous tenses Perfect continuous tenses show duration.and I'm feeling neglected. (That's why she's not here.. (.) Do you like espresso coffee? Hehas nevervisited me. it still has some importance in the present time. Kenhaswolked alltheway from the station. See p.and he's tired.) I don'tlike fried food. Hetold usthat hehad tried it before. See pp. Shehas missed the troin.26 verbs and tense verbs and tense 27 Perfect tenses Other verb forms The present perfect tense shows that an action is completed but that Otherverb combinations are used for positive or negative statements. ro2-r05. I had been working in ltaly that summer. The present perfect continuous and the past perfect continuous are formed using eitherthe present or past tense ofthe verb have +the past participle of be +the present participle of the main verb. I had neverbeen clinbing before our activity holiday lostyeor. please? Youwill be in Edinburghwithintwo hours. . Some of ushad beenwaiting fortwo hourswhenthe doctor appeared. I have been working hard in the garden all day.

state or an action meaning. like. Naomi is expecting a baby. The verb seem has a limited number of adjectives that can be used as its complement. . Sophie has just bought a new camera. verbs relating to the senses . We meanyou no harm. hear.g. Oscar is being nasty but not oscd r is being intelligent. want. verbs relating to emotions. or reading. e. Simon seems happy but not Simo n seems tall. they change their meaning. I hate arguments.lgree. fear.feel. hate. possess I feel unhoppy. The word used as the complernent makes Robbie has seen the ftlm already. own. wish . These flowers smell gorgeous. smell. e. When they are used in continuous tenses. verbs relating to possession . These include: .forget.taste . . Rob wishes he hadn't agreed tothe plan. orwe can adapt other parts of speech. We were tlsting some interesting New Zealand wines. love. There are some uses of the verb bethat allowyou to choose between a Sheis putting on an exhibition ofher photographs.g. You can use your phone to occess the internet. That car belonged to us once. believe. verlrs relating to mental activity. belong. an important d ifference. mean . expect. Verbs of state are not usually used in continuous tenses. e. adore. we can either invent Markisbeing silly but not Mdrk is being toll.28 types and forms of main verl: types and forms of main verb 2s Types of main verb . When we need a verb to describe a new activity. Most verbs describe an action such as walking. e. Verbs of action l'm justfeeling to see ifthe bone is broken.g.g. Action verbscan beexpressed in all thetenses. running. see. John is running for thetroin. Verbs of state Some verbs are used to talk about states of being or states of mind. a new word.

the present participle is made up of the base Form 2: When the present simple tense has a 3rd person singular form + -ing. e. run running stop stopping A special variation of the base form is the to infinitive. -x. lrregularverbs have differentforms. -ss. -sh. See p. Below are the exceptions to the rule: English verbs have up to five different forms. -ch. particularlyforms 3 and 4. Regularverbsareall formed in the sameway. All verbs that subject.g. Verbs ending in -y after a consonant: change y to i and add -es. bid bidding flog flogging Form 5: The present participle is formed from the base form + -ing. pulls torpedo he torpedoes 3 the past simple tense. e. e. As mentioned above. the verb is formed from the base form + -s. carry he carries flv he flies Form r: The present simple tense has all but one of its forms the worry he worries same as the base form. . e.32. present simple tense. pulled focus he focuses 5 the present participle. e. contain a short final vowel in front of a final consonant double the consonant before -ing.g. -zor -zz: add -€s to make the r the base form. buzz it [ruzzes Most verbs are regular. This is the form you normally find in a dictionary.g z the 3rd person singular. pull 3rd person singular.g.g. pulling push he pushes miss he misses . There are a get getting number of uses of a verb where both the words to + the base form put putting must be present. These are: Verbs ending in -o.g. There are some exceptions to the rule.30 types and forms of main verb types and forms of main verb 3r The forms of main verbs As mentioned above. e. by building on the box he boxes base form (form r). pulled catch he catches 4 the past participle. Form 3: The past simple is formed from the base form + -ed.g. sob sobbing Form 4: The past participle is formed from the base form + -ed. the 3rd person singular is formed from the base form + -s. e. e.g. .

base base bet cut let ser spread form pastforms form pastforms burst hir put shed thrust cast hurt shut split upset burn burnt burned smell smelt smelled dream dreomt dreamed spell spelt spelled lean leant leaned spill spilf spilled In Croup B. the past simple and the past participle are catch cought make made the same: f. the base form. bind bound have had bleed bled hear heard bring brought keep kept The three main groups of irregular verbs build built kneel knelt buy bought lay laid In CroupA.32 irreg u lar verbs irregularverbs 33 lrregular verbs Br boseform pastform baseform pastform lrregularverbs are verbs that do notform the past simple tense and the bend bent hang hung past participle byadding -edtothe baseform. the base form.nd found say said r the baseform put z the present simple tense puts 3 the past simple tense put Some of these verbs have alternative spellings for the past participle: 4 the present participle putting 5 the past participle put Bz The pastform may be either a or b. the past simple. the past simple and the past participle have the same learn learnt learned spoil spoilt spoiled form: r thebaseform buv In Croup C. and the past participle all z the present simple tense buys have different forms: 3 the past simple tense bought 4 the present participle buying r the baseform go 5 the past participle bought 2 the tense present simple goes 3 the tense past simple went 4 the participle present going 5 the participle past gone .

Martinwas arrested and held overnight. Amanda had already eaten when we arrived. George and Alice have seen the show llreadv. . don'tyou? . Haveisused to make present perfectand past perfecttenses. Be and have arethe primary auxiliaries.44 for more onhave. Be is used to make present continuous and past continuous tenses break broke broken shrink shrank shrunk fiv flew flown strive strove striven I amworking. and emphatic statements. They had not expected to see us there. give gove given take took taken Rob isusingthe computer. lt is used in forming negatives. awake awoke awoken rise rose risen bear bore borne sow sowed sawn . A primary auxiliary is used begin began begun see saw seen to construct compound tenses. See p. bite bit bitten shake shook shaken blow blew blown show showed shown . questions. See p. These books are sold in supermorkets. . know knew known throw threw thrown We were allwondering obout that. and also for the passive. Stephen hasfinished ftxing the car. 48 for more on do. I do not like sausages at all. Do is the supporting auxiliary. 4o for more on be. Doyou like prawns? You do like prowns. ride rode ridden write wrote written Kevinwasteaching in America in t985. 88-93 for more on simple and compound verb forms. See pp. See p. .34 irregular verbs auxiliary verbs 3s c base bose Auxiliary verbs form pastforms form postforms An auxiliary verb is a verb that is used togetherwith a main verb to onse arose onsen nng rang rung show time and continuity.

I' m. Charlie could go home on Friday. Will. You arelookingforit. hasn't. lt will take any negative immediately after it. e. . We don't (do not) live here. l've. I can't (cannot) come. and the otherverbs listed on pp. don't. auxiliaries except dm. modal auxiliary verbs. 53-54are the . wouldn't. the first l'vefound it. (Tom is here. Haveyou got a mobite phone? Auxiliaries can be combined together in a single verb phrase. For example. You must have been given the wrong number.36 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 3z . She has seen it.) They'd gonewhen I gotthere. I next month. DoVouwantto help us? Charlie must go home on Friday. modal verbs. and have. They have seen it. Auxiliaries are very often used in contracted forms. the contracted form can involve linking the subject and the Sara will have been living in New Zeoland for 2years auxi iary verb i nto a si n g le fo rm e. Charliewill go home on Friday. She has beenthinking. She has not been concentrating. I have seen it. doubtful. may. A modal verb allows us to talk about actions as possible. ltshows tenseand is thefinite partof theverb phrase. or if there is more than one of them.) She had seen it. I am looking for it.) Tom'shere. Charlie may go home on Friday. Sue's (Sue has or Sue is). . . performs these following grammatical functions: (l havefound it. or I do notwantto dothat. (fhey hod gonewhen I gotthere. We'reback! UVe are back!) The auxiliary verb. lt can come before the subject to make a question.g. He hasn't (has not) seen it. g. we'd. a verb phrase may consist of a modal + a form of have + a form of be + a Contracted forms form of a main verb. She isn't (is not) trying. usually called simply. . necessarv. The contracted negative form auxiliary + n't is common with all the She had been thinkina. lt shows number and person agreement with the subject. In the case of be I coutd have been making a bad mistoke by trusting him. auxiliary verb. might.

sentence tags. She's so clever. You had only just bought thot cIrpetwhen the kitchen flooded. Auxiliaries can be used in positive sentences to give emphasis. form of do is used to show emphasis. is aren't L When they are emphatic they are never contracted. We did have a lovely time. accompanied by neither or nor. hadn't. part of a question. such as: a positive addition to a positive statement. when it is . a negative addition to a negative statement. I can't understand It's Katie's birthday on Saturday. -Nor do l. Auxiliaries are used in sentence tags. I wentto the park and Lucy did too. . My dod never eatsmussels and neither do L I don'twantto speaktoWilliam now. and so did Finlay. . I lovedthefrlm.z+tfor more about I do like Penny.38 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 3e In standard British English. Fullforms are usually In the present simple tense and the past simple tenses the appropriate preferred in formal written English. isn't it? You are joking. the contracted form of am not. . Aren't I going to need some motches? You have made o mess! I'm getting a lift with you.Neither can l. aren't l? Thotwas a nice surprise! I am proud of Katie. They are therefore more common in spoken English. So do l. See p. aren'tyou? Auxiliaries are also used to make a short addition to a statement. . Contracted forms are more informal than full forms. accompanied by so ortoo.

some forms of be also have contracted negative forms. See p. we aren'tlote. 88. They are late. You are late. g8 and p. He's notlate. Weweren'tlate. You're here. t am delighted with the news but he is not happy. .40 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 4r Be e m p h a sizes th e n eg ativ e The verb be is used as an auxiliary verb and it can also be used as a main l'm notlote. were. They weren'tlate. be is used to talk about: l'm here. wasn'tlote. lt is commonlyfound joining speech. You are late. I n speech. Some of these forms emphasize the negative. lt has eight different form s: be. Continuoustensesof mainverbs usetheappropriateform of be. present or past. I Iam late. Shewas late. Heisn'tlote. They're here. Thev're notlate. is. followed lrythe past participle. We're here. been. He is being very helpful these days. See p. n8.28.was. Note that the contracted form of they are is spelled they're. 106. are. Theywere late The major uses of be as an auxiliary verb are to form continuous tenses and the passive. I was late. . followed by the present participle (or -ing form). . Wewere late. You're here. . being. We ore late. You aren'tlate. with a suitable adjective. You're notlate. The passive form of a main verb uses the appropriate form of be We have been ready for an hour. You weren'tlate. She wos busy so she was not ableto see me. verb. See p. We're notlate. am. Heis late. o Feelings and states. The present simple tense forms of be are often contracted in normal Theverb beis also used as a main verb. Youwere late. more changes than those of other verbs. and not their which is the possessive form of they. See p. a subjectto its complement. The verb be is irregular. As a main verb. Hewasn'tlate. The present participle isbeing. Youwere lote. The past participle isbeen. Forthiswe use the simpletenses of theverb He's here. Anyform of beis made negative byadding not immediatelyafterit.fhe present simple and past simple tenses make They aren'tlate.

I om frightened. Forthiswe usethecontinuoustenses ofthe To make the continuous tenses of the main verb be we have to use be verb with a suitable adjective. lt +be:we useit as a subjectwhen wearetall(ing abouttime. aren'tthere? . This is a ratherformal use. rz8-r32. weather. distance. See's notvery far . once as an auxiliary and once as a main verb. H u rry u p. I am not being slow. Was he cooki ng dinner when you arrived? The Archbishop is to have talks with the Pope next month. tt'svery expensive to live in London. twice. In this use. . Areyou befter now? ls he freethis morning? The Prime Ministeris to visit Hungary in October. There +is/are is used to tall( about something existing. but. I am being careful. downstairs. and be is sometimes contracted. . it's eight thi rty ! ls it? I didn't knowitwas so late. be is always singular. which often appears in news reports. There are several petrol stations on the way. Therewas a cold wind blowing. Be +theto infinitive is sometimes usedto refertofuturetime. The question form of clauses with the verb be in them is made by . In this use. There isn't enough petrol for the journey. orcost. Come and visit us. You are being so annoying! Youwere being very rude to your mum when I came I know I am being silly. the form thatbe takes may be singular or plural. There's a splretoothbrush in the cupboard.42 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 4t o People's behaviour. It's thirty milesto Closgow. putting the appropriate form of be right in front of the subject. 96. See pp. depending on the number of the noun. It's cold today butitisn'twet.

The verb have has the fo rms'.In speech. someforms of havealso have contracted negative forms. had ='d You'd better go home. have is used to make the perfect tenses of main verbs. They'd notseen him forweeks. deep. .24. has. in my opinion. she's nottold me oboutityet. lan'd leftthem behind. hod. Rachel had notbeen abroad before. They hadn't looked very hard. . appropriateformof have. presenttenseand pasttense negativeformsthatare used less emphatically: I /we /yo u /th ey h aven't. past participleform is had.The past tense and I have never seen such luxury.44 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 4s Have As an auxiliaryverb. he/she/it hasn't t /we /yo u /he /she /it /they ha d n't He hasn't found anywhere to sta1 this holiday. made by adding not oranother negativeword immediatelyafterthe The driver has had his breakfast. bubble bath.The base form of the verb is haye.lm before. 1o2-1o9. We haven'tbeen here before. especially wh en haveis being used as an auxiliary verb. Katie had read aboutthe concertin the newsplper. I had seenthef. The verb haveis used as an auxiliarvverb The perfect tenses of mai n verbs use the appropriate form of have. followed by the past participle. so we con go. I have reod some really good books overthe holidays. She had hardly had time to eotwhen Paul arrived. We've not been here before. The present participle ishaving. present or past. lan's behoved badly. I /we /yo /h u e/she/it /th ey' d not has ='s He's gone on holiday. having. The present and past forms are often contracted in everyday speech. See p. r preseIt tense and past tense forms that emphasize the negative element: The contracted forms are: I/we/you/they've noti he/she/it's not have ='ve l've seen the Queen. . have. see pp. and also as a main verb. The negative of a clause containing a compound verb with haveis She is having o bath atthe moment. She has run a lovely.

We hoven't anything for you today.ltve It is also often used with forms of do to make negatives and Dot/ou haueto leave so soon? questions. With this meaning of have.a day off. Wehad a goodtime. so we can go. He was having a shower when I phoned. Hasshe got my umbrella? -Yes. Didyou have a Eood holiday? and adding nothing to make questions. No thonks. Contractions and weak formsr are not possible with this meaning. . Inthese uses.46 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 4t As a main verb. Have got is an informal form of this main verb use of have. She hasn't got any noney. Haveyou no sense of shame? . . i to express obligation using hdve to or have gotto. Haveyou gotto leove so soon? Doyou have a pen? Does shehave my umbrello? She doesn't have any brothers or sisters. states or conditions. With this meaning He's having. . I don't usually have lunch. . especially in British English.l'm afraid. The driver has had his breakfast. Ihaven't got any brothers or sisters. . I'm having lunch attwelve o'clock. have is used to talk about: . including those such as eating. Doyou havetimeto see me now? . such as possession or relationship. often used in speaking.: . I have something for you. Come and have a sandwich with me. she has. adding only not to make negatives. Have gotis not used with this rneaning. i have is sometimes used alone. continuous tenses are not possible. and leisure. negatives and questions are formed using one of the forms of do. gotto go now. activities.

I didn'tfeedthe cltthis morning. You did notwantit. It is also used to stand in for another verb to avoid repetition. to make a command more persuasive. sentence tags. Wedo notwantit. They do notwontit. Oh dear. he does. . to make the negative form of a command. They did notwontit. Doyou play cricket? . . . You do notwantit. 28. is the same th rou g hout. You did notwantit. She did notwont it. You do notwantit.fhe base form of the verb is do.ttolk! Don't run! . I do notwantit. The past simple form. and short answers. commands. and so dowe. to avoid repeating a main verb in additions. As an auxiliary verb do is used in the following ways: You do notwant it. They did notwantit.l think. The verb do is irregular. See p. doing. did notwantit. don'tyou? I notwantit.l don't. isdone. He does notwont it.246. When do is used as an auxiliaryverb it is a supporting verb.The past participle They often gotothe cineml. As an auxiliary do is not used with modal verbs. Don't run on the road! Don't do it! The present simple tense do and the past simple tense did can be used as an auxiliary verb.48 auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs 4s Do I notwantit. See p. did. Doyou knowwhattime it is? DidTim pay for his ticket l?st nightT It can also be used as a main verb. She did not want it.No. Because a main verb cannot combine directly with negatives or make questions. as shown Do let me see it! on p. did We did notwantit" You did notwantit.39. to help make the negative and question forms of present simple and past simple tenses. lt has five differentforms: do. they did. does. The verb do is used as an auxiliary verb. do Wedo notwontit. The present participle is doing. do is used to .Yes. support the main verb. Did thev tell you the news? -Yes. You did notwontit. They do notwont it Jim likes jazz. did. You livein Clasgow. You do notwant it. Don'ttalk! Don't run! Don'. I Wedid notwantit. He does notwant it. done.

fix. Did Henry do it. .) No. (l'llmowthelawn now. She doesn't (does not) live here now. once as an auxiliary verb and once as a main verb. it has a range of meanings that includes As a main verb.) What does he do for a living? I'lldoyou. The main verb use of do can be used to talk about: She singsbetterthan I do. In speech. perform. l'll do the lawn now. has contracted forms. interrogative sentences.) . Do I do itthiswoy? (t'llpunchyou. Idon't (do not) agreewithyou. . in the past simple tense with auxiliary did. He did something ratherfoolish. 94. then? Are you doing your homework? He didn't do auxiliary verbs auxiliary verbs sr . the negative I dothewashing up every evening. lt is sometimes used in place of a VETDS: more specific verb. (/Ve don't serve coach parties. See also p. h e/she lt doesn' t .then? Didn't Henry do it. She had done enough. In compansons. You hove been doing well this term. It is then used with the full range of tenses and forms. . They didn't (did not) buy ony food. We don't do cooch parties. I didn't do anything wrong. or provide. you don't do it like thot at all. o pr€s€ht t€nse negative forms: What are you doingT I /we /yo u /th ey don't. The positive forms of do cannot be contracted. This means that it is possible to use do twice in negative and This has been done before. in the present simple tense with auxiliary do.habits. o past t€nse negative form: I /we/you /h e/sh e/it /th ey di d n't What are you doing on Sunday? When do is a main verb. know. . so she stopped. plans. do makes negatives and questions like all other main carry out. Thiswhat I usuallv do.

You will be seeing her on Friday at )ackiels house. could you? to express degrees of future possibility. askfor you. Doyouthinkshewill come? -l'm sure shewill. if you like. will.Of course you can. : He rnust not seethis letter. I could bring some more bread home with me tonight. e. when used with a negative. Modal verbs They will do itfor you. . to request or give perrnission for an action to take place Mayl comein? You canborrow my cartonightif youlike. ranging from the definite future. do can be used with modal verbs. but I shouldn't do it. Can I use your phone? . Youcannotborrowmycartonight. may. Modal verbs are a particular kind of auxiliary.ou can. to the possible futu rc.I can do it! . You shouldn't use this computerwithout permission.: .52 auxiliary verbs modal verbs s3 . and the conditionalfuture. could. As a main verb.g. t must get ou r ti ckets todoy. I thinkthat I mighthave caughtyour cold. to make a prohibition. if you ask nicely. I can do it. Modalverbs are used when you need to add special elements of meaning to a main verb. t may be late home tomorrow evening.Ohyes!Sorl. I may not be ableto do it. I could You couldn't do it. Look. to express different degrees of doubt and possibility about the action of the main verb.

Since modal verbs do not have past tense forms. They can refer to There are other contracted forms such as he'll . Form Theweather's so badtheflightcould be late.s4 modalverbs modalverbs ss .1 in spoken Modals can referto a time range that reachesfrom the immediate present English. in reported speech (see p. no-r7. to add politeness to a request which might otherwise sound abrupt. . w o ul d n't. to refer to typical behaviour. John can't cameto my party. They do not have a to infinitive. to make conditionalsentences (see p. . I will/shall -t'll I may be late hometomorrow evening. He may be very cross about all this. You will b e seei n g her o n F ri d ay at J acki e's h ou se. . You will be seeing her on Friday at Jackie's house. All the negative forms can be contracted to form a sing le to some future time. you have to use other verbs to provide some of the modal meanings in the past. When I was little. You mustn't say things like thot. She may be late home. past necessity is expressed by hodto instead of must. I may be lote hometomorrow evening. Hewill be seeing her on Friday. Some modals can refer to a time range that goes back from the immediate present to some indefinite past time.we'll . . I must give in mv essaY today. to express obligation and duty. These co ntracted fo rm s a re especially when they are used with a time adverbial. and habitual action when they are used with a time adverbial. Would you please closethe door. they'll. . so that they can all be used for future reference. She can bevery kind on occosions likethis. I had to visit Auntie May yesterday. H el en ou ght to tell th e truth. Jone. . See pp. the present simple. the base form. shan't.279). w o n't.273). Wewill/shall=we'll I could bring some more bread home with metonight. . e.g. The modals shall and will are usually contracted to '. word s uch as co n't. modal verbs have only one form. They have no -s inflection in the 3rd person singular. I might go to visit Grandmo on Saturday. . which are common in spoken English but rare in written Eng lish. I must visit Auntie MaV today. common in [:oth spoken and written English.l would ride my bike round and round the lawn. It might be all over by thetimewe getthere. U nlike other verbs. to speculate. and only one tense.

negativeform can'tcan be combined with have. be comin g too. but not They ca n have seen him. the main verb will take'the appropriate present or past participle fOfm. Can cannot be combined with the auxiliary form have. ' You could have looked for it yourself. Suewill have beenworried abouther. Position Modals come before any other auxiliary verb or main verb in the verb phrase. lmayhaveupsethimi.:r : . but the other times..E6 modalverbs modalverbs B7 . .l imagine. Modal verbsarefollowed bythe baseformoftheverb ifthereis no other auxiliary verb present. borraw those earrin gs to ni ght. ff one of the auxiliary verbs have or befollows the modal verb. These are cal led semi-modal verbs. He must not be disturbed afterg o'clock. Jo nice might. : They rnoy notwaitfor. He dared to ask meto do his washing! needn'tcomeif that's how shefeels. In negative sentences. : . 1 . . you. .. :' How darehe! They can't have seen him. She Monica needsa new raincsot. ca n nilt resto url nt in town. You shoul d try th at You mustcomeover again sometime. Yes.vau if you're late. not comes immediately after the modal verb and in frontofall the otherverbs. Several verbs act as modals sometimes and as full main verbs at .

) Morag can speak French quite well now. to indicate that you know how to do something. is future. recently taken place. Mary could have stopped the flght but she didn't. Can you get up the stairs without help? You con come overfor dinnerwheneveryou like. (Compare with Both these verbs indicate ability in some respect. it is quite safe here. Cauldis more tentative than con. lf Helen had more money. where the possibility referred to is still uncertain and in the usual in clauses that contain a reference to Dast time. Winston is so strong he con lift me right off my speculate about actions that have .Sue. using . Can I borrow the car tomorrow evening. which is moreformal. Could is Are you able to wolk to the co r? used when the conditions are not met.) When changing sentences from direct to reported speech can is usually changed to could.s8 modalverbs modal verbs 5e Can and could . to express the possibility of an action in the future. Craham can run ten miles in z5 minutes. using the perfectform of hove. she could buy a computer. (Compare with mdy. butwe musttake core. to express the possibility of an action in the present. We can goto Paris nextweeksinceyou arefree. she can look afterthe childrenfor a while. (Compared with be ableto. to show ability to do something. Mary can do these sums. The use of could may. A distinction between can and couldis observed in conditionals. but it depends on our finances. could + the perfect form of have. butl can now. . . I couldn't draw very well when I wos younger. Mum? Could I comewith you on the trip? Bernard said. especially when the possibility is related to plans or projects. We may go to Paris.' May I toke this book home with me? Bernard soid that he could do itforSue. You can dive offthese rocks. Can and could are used: .) Who could/can have broken the window? Who would have guessed thatthey were reloted? When I wasyounger I could ski really well. can indicates ability of a more general nature that includes 'is permitted to'. to make polite requests orto askforpermission: lf Louisa is coming. We could goto Paris nertweekif you arefree. When I wlsyounger I could play tennis really well. We could dive offthe rocks. to talk about actions that were possible but did not happen.'l can do itforyou. . I couldn'tplay chesstwoVears ogo. .

particularlywhen applied toyou. May t have a drink. You may go now. mightis more tentative than may. We m ay/mi ght go to the ci nemo toni ght. . may/might go to the tonight. t . Nicky asked if she could comewith them. verbs modal verbs 6r can May and might : The negativeform is: connot: : Both mayand mightcan be used in requestsand in expressions of I cannot understand why he did it.5o modal. she. possibilityforthe presentandfuture. t:. Might isoccasionally used in formal situations. could . Mayis used to give permission. Mightl oskyou your name? : . Users may downlood formsfrom this website . Mightl suggest a different soilutionz ' . ' May I come with you ?' Nicky asked.] . Mtav and miahtareused as follows: : . Both may and mightareused to express the possibility of some future action.. The weather m ay/mi ght be better to morrow. I can'thelp it. to show that the speaker is allowing something to happen.The weather may/migh:t be better t omorrow. pltease? May I useyour ruler? l've lost mine. I couldn'thelpit. . Craig may/mightknow his results soon. : The contracted negative form is: con't.he. . .soon. We ci nem 0 The contracted negative form is: couldn't. Craig may/might know his results.they or a proper noun. Mayis used to ask permission in a more formal way than can.

becomes could. lf Louisa came. Youmight give me some caketoo. perhaps with some degree of irritation. to make an order appear as a requesq Must mightis used to make the speal<er more remote from the request. . lt can You might givethatidea a bit more consideration. Might is occasionally used when someone is trying to persuade tlrlust is used: another person to do something.6z modalverbs modalverbs 6l . compare with could. might When this sort of statement is made in the neqative or interrogative. Hemightn't have enough money. mum? You can't be serious! Itcan't betrue! . . 'May I come with you?' Nicky asked. Mr Robertson is here. . she might look after the children. Anna. only be used for present and future reference. You must go to sleep now" lf Louisa comes. . This use is a little old-fashioned. Nicky asked if she could come with them . give orders and give advice. come on. it must's brilliant. you usehaveto. 58. to give orders firmly and positively. to speculate about the truth of something. The contracted negative form is: none ot maYn't (rare). You must get one of these nevt smoothie-makers -they're great! When changing sentences from direct to reported speech may usually You must see'Nim's lslond' . Mustis used to express obligation. The contracted negative form is: mightn't. see p. . can is used instead. May is often used for politeness. mightn't we. All pupils must bring a packed lunch tomorrow. LucV. to express obligation. to give advice or make recommendations emphatically. you might tell me what he said! . the if clause can be in the present orthe past tense. You might wantto move o bit closer to the screen. When the past is involved. When mightis used in a conditional sentence. She must be mad! You must be joking! moy Theremust be some mistake. she might look ofter the children. Can Mary be joking? Can she really mean that? We might come and live here.

You must lot cross when the light is red You must not. . . The contracted negative form is: mustn't. You mustn'tworrv so much. soy things like that.' said must f. There mustn'tbe any mistakes in your t a n. . : Mustyou'gososoon? . lt is necessary to change mustto havetowhen changing sentences from direct to reported speech. to talk about an event or state that is unacceptable. /Vlustcan be used in the interrogative. Mustt invite Helen? Doyou haveto go soon? Do t haveto invite Helen? You can use mustwith a negative: . to forbid someone to do something.6+ modalverbs modal verbs 6s . . ' l o ut those forms this eveni n g. lon said that he had to ftll out some forms.wh ale m u st n ot beco m e afti n ct'. The. but many speakers prefer rnust have to instead.

Full forms are normally used. We shall/will be in touch. and are stressed in speech. with questions involving land wewhen the speaker is making a suggestion or offering You will do what I tell you! Janewill goto Mary's even if I haveto carry herthere. with you. with I and we to show intentions and to make oromises. I shall/willtrv to ensurethotyou get a good room.andthey. He'll behome soon. Youwill hoveyour money nextweek. Willis used: The matchwill beflnished by now.willyou please be quiet! Shallis used: to show that someone persists in doing something (full form with stress). The contracted negative form is: won't. . he.Youwill eat chocolate all day long. OhlTony will keep jogging me when I'm trying to write! Nowonderyou feel sick. won't you? English. Will you help me lookfor my purse? Will you come to lunch on Friday? to give orders. is used to mean both shalland will. will Don'tworry. The normal way to express simple future time in English is using the modal verb willfollowed bv the base form of a main verb. . I shan't/won't be late and Helen won't be lote either. The contracted form is: 'il.G6 modalverbs modalverbs 6t Shall and will to insist on something. I think itwill probobly roin tomorrow.she. Eve won't speok to Ho rriet. Any distinction between will and shall is difficult to make in spoken You wi I I fl ni sh yo ur w ork befo re you w atch TV. since the contracted form. to make polite requests and to give invitations. 'll. Shall I help you? Shall I cook supper? Shall we go to the cinema tonight? to show prediction. to give reassurances. Hewill bewell treated. Louisa.

to show politeness in a conditional clause. . You should keep your credit card separate from your chequebook. itis a pity thlt.68 modal verbs modal. Ifyou should decideto go. . I shan'tsay aword. People should reportthis sort ofthing tothe police. Shouldyou need moreinformation.use is used in formal written communication. This is a more formal use than the same expression without should. The modalverb should is used in the following ways: The contracted negative form is: shdnrt (used mainly in British English). 73. They left here at 6 o'clock. . I was quite surprised that he should be doing a job like that. : Theyshoutddowhatyousuggest. This. Rob insisted that we shauld think of others before ourselves. to talk about moral obligation. please contact us. tt's a pity t:hatthis should happen.. to give advice or instructions. . . to sug gest that something fol lows on logical ly from what has just been said. Should The contracted form is: 'il. '. Shesuggestedwe shouldvisitAunty lrene more often. Should can be used with the main verb aftercertain set expressions such as.verbs Gg shall . it is odd that. : . so they should be home now. compare ought to on p. . plelse clllthe monlger. . . You should undothetop screws first.l am sorry/surprised that.

Whowoutd thotbe? ah. This form is usually. I saw a girt atthewindow. l Jesswls a kind girl. ln formal English. people. . You should have told me Vou were ill. to show that someone persisted in an activity in the past: would is The contracted negative form is: shouldn't. The modal verbwould is commonly used as follows: He should have stopped atthe red light. I remember Jeff. Would youlike sometea or coffee? instead of the more common would. shewould always go out of her way to help Wewould hateto missthe play. should can be used with I or we in conditional clauses. . please? Anna said that I should try to relax more. with the meaning of ln this sense. . Should + the perfectform ofthe main verb can be used to express regret Would about something that was done or not done. I should love to visit Peru if I had the money . togetherwith likeasa politeform of want. thatwould be his elder sister! . should Would you mind moving your bag? does not change. Wewould like to see Mr Brown now. to refer to habitual activity in the past. Would you give me a hand with this ladder. Johnwould keep nagging ather. please.70 modal verbs modal verbs 7t . would is more common in modern spoken English. Shewould go on and on until I lost my temper. I would be very cross if they didn't give me a cerilficote. . used to. Weshould hateto missthe play. When changing sentences from direct to reported speech.though I asked him notto. to offersomething politely. . to express and ask about probability. I should bevery crossif thev didn't give me a certifrcate. found togetherwith an if clause. but not always.hewould wotchTv all day if you lethim. I would love to visit Peru. Compare with oughtto. My friendswould like to see your garden. to make a polite request. . sometimes stressed here. should .

. Brian would have phoned the police if it he'd seen the accident.'Raymond will helpyou. to express an obligation or an expectation that someone shou ld do something. He'd be very angry if he knew about it.'The co r won't sta rt!' subject comes between oughtand to. . Ought to I would hove taken it if it had been available. in conditionalclauses.' Anno said that Raymond would help us. Oughttois rarely used in questions and negatives. notto have slid those things to her. generations? l'd have done ittoo. Like should. but it is much less frequent. Annabel oughtto be here by now. notcomes between oughtand to. Even if he'd known obout it.72 modal verbs modalverbs 73 . The journey oughtto take about z hours. You oughtto listen carefully. ln negatives. given the chance. the verb oughtto does not have a past form. Jomes said that the car wouldn't start. LucV oughtto go by herself. he woutdn'thave been angry. We oughttoleave now. to expressthe likelihood of something happening. Oughttois used as follows: We' d liketo look ot the gorden. it is confined mainly to formal styles. When changing sentences from direct speech to reported speech. will is usually changed to would. People oughtto be a bit nicer to us. oughtto+ have+ past participle of main verbis used to express regret that something was not done orto reproach someone for doing or not doing something. The contracted negative form is: wouldn't. . usuallytogetherwith an if clause. lf you offered me some more I wouldn't refuse. lt is only used with reference to the present and the future. Anna said. I ought would Oughtwe to make such a sacrificeforthe benefit of future The contracted form is: 'd. When it is. . In questions. The use of oughttois similar to should. the J am es sai d.

. They can also use the auxi liary do and have the whole range of tenses appropriate to a main verb. Dareto be different! I don't ddre to mention itto him. : : form that goes with he.Need you askl You needn't come if you're busy. and it. In questions and negatives. Questions that are formed are often set expressions such as Need l/you ask?.l They oughtto havetotd uswhatto expect. Does Paul needto go now? Paul needsto go. Should t reportitto someonein authority? ought weto moke a start? Need I say more? Should we moke a start? Dare I askhowthe projec:tls going? oughtto The past form needed is not used as a modal. The modal uses ofthese verbs are all negatives orquestions. Dare I suggest. They are then followed by the base form of a o ught I to report it t o soneone i n authority ? main verb. verbs and mai n verbs.That isi they have no 3rd person singular inflection.he'll go crazy. as a modal.oughtn't she? Wherewill you all betoday? .v4 modalverbs modal verbs 7s t oughtto have spoken up eorlier. deor. Dare and need Yououghtto have offered to helP. oh weoughtn'tto hove letthat happen.? and Need l/wq say more? Dare and need sometimes behave like main verbs with -s inflection. Because of this. they are cal led semi-modals. Well then she oughtto do som*hing oboutit. . :. Dare t suggestthatwe have a roto system? t daren'ttell himthetruth. dared is occasionally used The contracted negative form is: oughtn't (to) . Th e two verbs dore a n d need hav e characteristics of lroth moda |. Louisa doesn't need to know. sllould is frequently used instead of They sometimes behave like modal verbs and do not add -s to the oughtto because it sounds more natural..l'm sorry. she. In this case they are followed by the to infinitive. .

You don't need to come if you don'twantto. need has forms as follows: I need nat go.76 modalverbs modal verbs t7 When dare or need are used as modal verbs in a positive statement. He dared not go. Doeshe needtogo? . I needto doit. He need only ask and I will tell him. He does not dare to do it. Doeshe daretodoit? He doesn't dareto doit. He did not dareto doit. Anna didn't dare to jump offthe high fence. Idared not go. never. He daresto doit. darehas forms as follows: I dareto doit. He does notneedto go. . such as only. I do not dareto doit. He needsit. He dare not go. Needl go7 Heneednotgo. Needhe gol He needn'tgo. He needsto doit. You needn't come if you don't wantto. I do not needto doit. As a modal verb. No sensible driver dare riskthat chance. hardly. This word can be outside the verll phrase and may be a word with a negative sense. Either of the two forms of dare and need can be used for sentences there must be a word of negative meaning in the same clause. need has forms as follows: I needit. darehas forms as follows: I dorenotgo. Needn'the go? As a main verb. Darel doit? Darehe doit' Daren't he do it? As a main verb. I do not needto go. that have much the same meaninq. Doesn'the dareto do tt? As a modal verb. Anna dared not jump offthe high fence.

g.7s modal verbs modalverbs 7s Used to There are two forms for a negative: U nl i ke the other modal The verb used to is a'marg inal' modal verb. Theform usedto. contracted negative form is usedn't to. Peter didn't use to say things like thzt when I knew him. There are two forms for a question: . verbs. did not/didn'tuseto. . ffiev. We used nottoworry much about money. You didn't use to be so stressed! Didthey usetovisityou often? -Well. Alan didn't useto like children.Therefore... did+subject+ useto+ baseform: e. The rarer I used to live in New Zealand. usednotto. You used to You used to the form with did is almost always preferred. . to refer to an activity or state that was true in the past but is no longer true.he. ? . He used to deliver newspapers plpers but he owns the shop now. it is onlyfound in the pasttense.. ln negatives. used heto.O-*. to describe an activity or a state that happened many times in the all subjects e. Gerry alwaysusedto gofor a run beforebreakfast. did he useto. I used notto be able to watch mvself onTv ot used + subject + to + base form: e^9. the form with did is used the most. t.r rr. Used heto play the guitar? I used to Weusedto . Mary usedto.7 I used to like rock climbing when I wzs younger.. the form of the auxiliary verb is We didn't use to have central heating when I wos o child. Things usedn'tto be so bad. Usedto takes the followino forms: . In questions. always did. She used to They usedto The common contracted negative form is didn't use to.she. when it is used with do to make negatives and questions. . butit's different now he has hisown.we. Used to is used as follows: . Nancy and Bill used to live in California.

e. theyare intransitive. they are transitive. i. Marywent awaY. Helen satdown. i. Verb plus adverb SomeTypeA phrasalverbs have no object.8o modalverbs phrasalverbs 8r Phrasal verbs A phrasal verb is a type of verb that is created when a main verb is combined with either: . The students came back. We could make out a figure in the distance. put up with (insulfs) get out of (doing something) Type A. The sentence makes sense without any further addition to the verb. get at (someone) pick on (w eaker chi dren) I or an adverb + preposition. please? . Others do require an object. Could you put you r clothes away. Hetriedto blow upthe Houses of Parliament.e. an adverb. tokeoff gtve tn blow up breakin a preposition.

to moke up (an answer) = invent depending on how it is used. lf the object is a pronoun. Type C phrasal verbs are a combination of the two previous kinds of Sometimes you can guess the meaning of these verbs from the verb. Heaskedforhisbill.8r. He asked the waiter for the bill. to go awav = lo + awal You mustlookout for the warning signsTthem. or use a dictionary. toworkout Problem) (a = solve to put up (a visitor) = accommodate The following are examples of the three types of phrasal verb that are explained on p. oraftertheobject. object of the preposition. . Forfurther information about toturn down (an invitation) = decline prepositions see p. because often the same word can be both a preposition and an adverb.8z phrasalverbs phrasal verbs 8g lf the object is a noun. to sit down = sit + down Don't put up with bad lrehavioult. I picked up )im on my way home. She listened to her. always have an object. .This is because prepositions . Verb plus preposition to come either: Type B phrasalverbs always have an object. I pickedtim up on myway home. Verb plus adverb and preposition shetidiedthem awaY. We arelookingforwardto our holidaylt. . Heblewitout. They referredtoit. They referredto our conversation. He blewthe candle out. it must come before the adverb. Sometimes you have to learn the new meanings. I pickedhimup. beforetheobject. meanings of the parts. lt is sometimes hard to tell adverbs and prepositions apart. He askedforit.the object of the verb and the She tidied her things away. manyType A phrasal verbs will allow the adverb Type B. 219. She listened to the doctor. . Sometimes there are two objects . Shetidied away her things. All the parts of a Type C phrasal verb come before the object. Heblat outthe candle. . Type C.

Phrasal verbs made from a verb plus an adverb may be intransitive (do not tal(e an object) or transitive (take an object). to go away to close something down to go off to give something up to fed up with something be to keep awayfrom something to go on to leave something out to carry on with something to look bacl< on something to grow up to make something up to catch up with something to lookforward to something to hold on to pick someone up to checl< up on something to lool( out for something to come up with something to look up to someone to cut down on something to make upforsomething Type B to do awaywith something to put in for something to face up to something to run away with something Phrasal verbs made from a verb plus a preposition are all transitive.8+ phrasalverbs phrasal verbs 8s TypeA SomeType B verbs are doubly transitive. since both the verb and the preposition can have an object. to add insult to injury to ask a grown-up for help some phrasal verbsthat some phrasal verbsthat to check your answers with the teacher do nottake an object dotake an object to pay the assistant for you r shopping to refer a customer to the manager to break down to blow something up to carry on to break something off to fall down to bring a child up Type C to get about to bring a subject up to get up to catch somebody up Phrasal verbs with an adverb plus a preposition all tal(e a prepositional to give up to clear something up object. to fall bacl( on something to run out of something to get on with someone to run up against something to add to something to hopeforsomething to get out of something to stand up for something to agree with someone to insist on sornething to go back on something to wall( out on someone to apply for a job to laugh at something to go in for something to watch out for something to approve of something to listen to something to break in on someone to lead up to something to arrive at a place to look after someone to askforsomething to lool<forsomething to believe in something to lool< into something to belong to someone to payforsomething to call on someone to refer to something to care for someone to rely on someone to come across something to run into someone to dealwith something to run oversomething .

verb with -ed (or -d if the verb al ready ends i n -e) added. whether an action or a state took place in the past or takes place in the present. 3zi4for more on irregularverbs. Sometimes the past tense is a completely different word. you like you live he likes he lives Present tfind lgo and a past simple tense. he/shefitlikes he/shertt lives Jessico works in the post office. lrregularverbs make the past tense in a numberof different heliked helived ways. you find you go he/sheltf.Tense shows subject. Past I found I went you found you went he/she/itfound he/shefitwent . The spel I i ng is the same for all persons. Laurence worked in the post office overthe Christmos The past tense of a regular verb is made from the base form of the holidays. or if as a Verbforms help us make time referencethrough theirtense. This is called the 3rd person singular form. except that an -s is added to the verb when it has a noun or he. See pp. There are two simple tenses and six compound tenses.8o phrasal verbs phrasal verbs 8t Tense The simple tenses of regularverbs Time reference The present tense is the same as the base form ofthe verb. she.nds he/she/it goes I liked I lived you liked you lived . The simple tenses of irregular verbs There is a present simple tense Most irregularverbs make the present tense from the base form of I like I live the verbjust as regular verbs do. t liked I lived you liked you lived Simple tenses he liked he lived The simple tenses consist of a single word.

We were driving home when we saw the occident. The perfect aspect is formed by using the appropriate form of the auxiliary have togetherwith the -ed form (past participle) of the main verb. I was having dinner when he called. Aspect t ve ftnishedthe book. Con I callyou back? It is possible to have a compound tense that shows both I know whatyou are doing! aspects. describes the way we think of verbal actions. Iwas waiting for her when she came out of the classroom. They're coming to us for Christmas this year. we often need to be able to refer to more than . so I can't check now. Oh dear. so she had to wait outside. butshe didn't mind. I had forgotten my promiseto AuntJane. Jo has borrowed the book. Look! Someone'swalking around in our garden! Peter hasbeen talking about you a lotrecently. . continuous and perfect. The continuous aspect is formed by using the appropriate form of the auxiliary be togetherwith the -ing form (present participle) .88 simple tenses simple tenses 8g Aspect We use perfect aspect to show that an action: When we use a ver[:. of the main verb. We've enjoyed having you all to sta1. We're goingtoTurkeyfor a holiday nextyear. was complete at the time you are referring to. the time at which an event took place. . . was going on throughout the time that you are referring to. l'm afraid. will be going on at the time that you are referring to. is completeatthetimeof speaking. We use continuous aspect to show that an action: Sharon had losther key. We sometimes need to be able to referto actions and states as completed or not completed. is going on atthe time of speaking. Sue had seenthefllmthreetimes already. . I'm having dinner atthe moment. ttwas brilliant.

MariawaswatchingW when )o colled. or Past tense. Someone had tied up the dog to stop it wandering off. using two auxiliary verbs and a main verb. present perfect = pfes€flt of hove + -ed participle. present perfect continuous = present of have + past participle of be + -ing participle. 88-89. Weve had o lovely stoy. She had really believed their story! Mum had gone out and left us some snacks. the aspect is continuous. Kerry is waiting until Jessica gets here. aspects. Zoe has been visiting us once a week. We've bought some better equipment. . Rory had had enough oftheir silly questions. Sandro had invited all her friends. This produces the following combinations: . My brother i s h avi n g a pa rty to morrlw. Ben h as see n th e ca m era th ot he w a compound tenses compound tenses er Compound tenses Jillhoswalked morethon 5oo milesfor charity. The choice of the auxiliary and the participle shows what aspect the A compound verb can also combine both the continuous and perfect verb has. Shewos listening to the rodio in the kitchen. past perfect = past of hove + -ed participle. present continuous = present of be + -ing participle. I'll collyou back. I'm having dinner atthe moment. past continuous = past of be + -ing participle. Wewere dancing oround the living room and singing along. . Sam has seen a few things that he'd like. Thetense oftheauxiliaryverbshowswhetherthecompound verb is present tense. The compound tenses are a combination of present or pasttense (shown through an auxiliary verb) with continuous or perfectaspect. The kidswere running wildwhenwe gothome. These are the main compound tenses: See also pp. so I con't come out. . For the pasttwo months. if it is the auxiliarybe and the-ing participle (the present participle). We've been trying to finish that job since Easter. if it is the auxiliaryhave and the-ed participle (the past participle) the aspect is perfect. thankyou. l'm doing my homework atthe moment.

t do. 58-8o for the meanings and uses of modal auxiliary verbs. the subject. The modalauxiliaries can be used in compound tenses. he . . Has Claire been round yet? -Yes. verb as the response form. then it comes before the subject and and the rest of the verb. Was Nayeema asking for help? -Yes. so I was exhausted. I expect Nayeemo will have bought something for tea. use that as the resoonse form. he might have. Will you be going shopping afterwork? Do you think he might have teftthe parcel somewhere? - might orYes. Yes. Do you like avocados? -Yes. he could orYes. she has. the negative not. the modal and the auxiliary form together as the response form. . lf one of the forms of be or have is the first verb in the verb phrase. and the restof theverb in negative questions. She might be babysitting for us on Friday. he could be.s2 compound tenses compound tenses e3 past peffect continuous Responses = past of hdve + past participle of be + -ing participle. Will you not be pushing for that to be changed? lf the contracted negative form of the modal is used. you use one of the auxiliary verbs. I had been travelling all day. some speakers preferto use . -Yes. then We would be sitting here for hours if I told you evervthing. You usually use just the first part of the verb phrase in a compound Vicky had been hopingfor better news. the subjectand the restof thevelb in questions. Marcus may not have been entirely truthful. They come in first position in the verb phrase. so they are followed by: lf a modalverb isfirst in theverb phrase. I may hove eaten something thot disogreed with me. That is. the negative not and the rest of the verb in negative statements. So Lourence could be coming with us then. she was. Won'the be calling on usthis evening? See pp. lf it is a simple tense you use the supporting auxiliary do.

orwhen giving a commentaryon a sports eventor publicfunction. See pp. We use the present simple tense to talk about: We can also use the present simple for planned future actions with . He runs uptothe net and smashestheboll. Do you just have coffee for breakfast? -Yes. you wantto: Birds fly south in the winter. or never.m. I don'ttoke sugar in my coffee. I do not know her. and things that happen regularly. .) Iknow her.. The present simple tense of do is used as the supporting auxiliary when The sun rises in the east. statements that indicate the speaker's opinions or beliefs. . or give a short response. . or adverbial phrases such as on Typicalforms of this tense are as in: Sundays or inthe summer. and arrives at3. She does notknowyou. . always. statements of fact that are scientific truths orthat are about a Heknowsher. I don't aoreewith that at oll. I like coffeefor breakfast but everyone else in my family preferstea. H e w al ks sl owly to th e ch ecko ut a n d puts his b a g on th e counter. usually.4o a. likes and dislikes. we often add adverbs such as oflten. for example to tall( about travel plans and timetables. permanent state. 273 for more on conditional I don'tusuallywatchW. . I do. Asthe cashier opensthetill he draws a gun . for dramatic narrative to tell a story or describe an action vividly. a time adverb. Do I knowyou? Does she know you? I think he's a very good teacher.l won'tbe obleto revisetonight. ask a question. . but Nadal seesit. sometimes.s4 the present simple tense the present simple tense es The present simple tense (When we talk about habits.3o p. possibilities that affect the future. habits. See p. What does Jamie usually have for breokfast? We use the present simple in conditional sentences about real They often go to the cinema on Saturdays.m. rro-r17 for more about future reference. lf I lendyou my notes. make a negative statement using not. Thetrain leaves atrc. .... . sentences. We liveinScotland. .

Did l meethim? Didsheme*him? Did I gothere? wentto America for o month. habitual actions in the past. I boughtthe microwave o year ogo. Shemethim. I went out and broughtthe cat back in again. points where the main action is broken. single actions in the past. We werc leoving the house when the phone rang. He lockedthe door and leftthe house. Because the past simple consists of one word only. which isdid. . when the action is seen as finished. Shewentthere. He did not gothere. No. I met her. or make a response. the past simple tense of do. . I was clearing outthe garogewhen a car camedown the drive. I saw Roger a little while back.eo the past simple tense the past simple tense s7 The past simple tense We use the past simple tense to talk about: Typical forms of this tense are as in: . I did notme*her. I didn't. Some time ago now. ask a question. never.uses the past continuous tense to describe the past activity or He did not meet her. she did. I did notgothere. I wentthere. or often. I often visited Cl asgow on bu si ness wh en I wa s i n publi shi n g. . lt is often used with a time expression such as ago or last month. past actions where a definite time is mentioned. I Did it gothere? Once upon atimetherewas a king in afaraway land. . want to: . make a negative statement using not. action. often with always. . .t. Did Penny phone you ? -Yes. Did you see Jenny yesterday? . is used asthe supporting auxiliarywhen you I cycled in every day and thIt soon made me f. ln thosedays t always wentto Juliano's for tunch. The rest of the sentence .

I am notwinning. it is normalto echo the auxiliary but not the main verb. British English. Fiona is working in the stables over the holidoys. These are generally verbs about states ratherthan actions. She's alw ays Hdsforever laughing and making silly comments. he isn't. Heiswinning. co nti n u ally. . I havetowear glasseswhen t'm driving. things thatare happening now.e8 the present continuous tense the present continuous tense ee The present continuous tense When you give a short answerto a question. the circumstances under which something is generally done. but not I am liking it. though they may be used this way in othervarieties of The daylightis slowly fading. Some main verbs are not normally used in the continuous in standard My headacheis getting better. Iamwinning. I amwinning. always. ls Hamish working in the library? . but lsabel isn't doing anything. a temporary situation in contrast to a permanent situation. a changing state orsituation. I om notwinning. they're messing about. Typical forms of this tense are as in: Are you waiting for someone? -Yes. we use the present continuous tense to tall( about: . . consta ntly. . atthetimewhen weare talking. I'mthinking of getting a new car. I am. . He is notwinning. We also use it to express annoyance at a repeated action. Come on . .No. but not I am not liking it. a temporary activity.forever. I am flying to NewYorknextweek. English. ls shewinning? l'm studying German at college. The children aren't asleep. In this case. you' re not trying. rro for more on the future. Mum's mowingthe lawn. See p. Am I notwinning? Is she notwinning? . ond l'm doing my homework. Aren'tlwinning? lsn't shewinning? l'm living in Scotland otthe moment. even if it is not happening at the time when Amlwinning? we are tall(ing. arrangements forfuture events along with a time adverb or phrase. whini n g ab o ut so methi n g. one of the following adverbs is used with the verb'.

Some main verbs are not normally used in the continuous in standard British English. Was shewinning? WereVouwinning? lwasnotwinning but not I wos not likingit. Note thatforthe eventthat interruptstheaction. Theywerewinning. They weren'twinning.The snow was still falling.1 We were all sitting in our places when the bell rong. . These are generally verbs about states rather than feelings We use the past continuous tense in these ways: . such as at 6p. Typical forms of this tense are as shown in: While I was waiting for the bus I dropped my purse..roo the past continuous tense the past continuous tense :ro:l The past continuous tense to talk about a short action that happened whilst a longer one was alreadytaking place. to describe a scene in the past. with atime expression. Itwosa dreadful morning.We'usethepastsimp|eten5e. lwaswinning. . to talk aboutan interrupted action. Wewere notwinning.m. and the cars were skidding on the icy roods. The exact length of time the action took is not important. .to talk about an action that began before that time and finished after it. Whatwereyou doing at eight o'clocklast night? - I was standing atthe bus stop. especially in a story. Shewaswinning. yesterday. though they may be used this way in other varieties of English.thewind Waslwinning? was blowing. but not I was liking it.

without mentioning a specific time. Edinburghfor fifteen years. or thi s w eek I with the present perfect tense. shehasn't. lf the event did not take place you can use never. I have finished.No. Jim'swon! They've bought a brand new cor. Wehaven't spoken to each other since the night ofthe argument. They haven't seen her. l've w aited a week fo r y o u r o nswer. we can Has Mary arrived yet? . Typicalforms of this tense are as shown in: They have just bought their tickets. to the present but that happened in the past. . Hehosfound them. meaning'atthe time of speaking'. In q uestions and negative sentences. . Wehave seen the EiffelTower andtheArc deTriomphe. Ihave notfrnished. you can use ever. tod ay. the present perfect can be The contracted forms are: used with yef. use exp ressio ns su c h as recentlv. their tickets and booked their seats.No. has ='s have ='ve has not = hasn't have not = haven't Haven't. We'vehad this carsince zoo8. Ther/vefinished. Hehas j ust fi ni shed hi s h o m ew ork. lt is used to talk about an action that started in the past.ro2 the present perfect tense the present perfect tense ro3 The present perfect tense . In positive sentences. I haven't been to the cinema recently " Ranee hasn't found her bracelet yet. this m o rni ng. Have you ever been to Greece? You've got a nerve! l've never done onything likethis before. use al readv. lf we want to indicate a moment in time or a period of time.lf you want to find Thefvefound her. How long haveyou lived in EdinburghT the second and subsequent instances of have can be left out. or since Her daughterhas had an accident. . Hehas notfinished. Listen!l've heard some great news. out whether it tool( place or not.. to talk about duration from a point in time. Have theyfinished? . you fi nished yetl Have you bought the ticketsyet? The present perfect tense is used to talk about events that are relevant I've already seen thatfllm. We can usejust if we want to show that the action has very recently been completed.?togetherwith forto talk about a period of time.they haven't.. I have lived in lf the present perfect occurs more than once in a compound sentence. They have bought. The present perfect tense is often used to answer the question How long. otely.

. Ithadnotworked I hadn't realized how seriousthe problem was. him. We hod alwayswanted to visit Canada. . He had misheard. she hadn't. No. . It is often used in the main clause of a complex sentence. We h a d alw ay s w a nted to vi sit Ca n a d a fo r a' I o n g ti me. toset the She'd gone. I hadn't. scene for a past event. Had you ever seen her before then I .. an action that took place in the past before something else took place. so last year we decided I had natfinished. lt is often used with a time expression such as always or for several doys. The contracted forms are: had ='d had not = hadnlt The past perfect tense goes one step further back into the past than the present perfect.Hadit gone? uadMpry arrived before Peter told you? . lhadfinished. They hadn'tseen her. : She hadfoundthem. so last' Hadl misheard? yearwe decidedto go. They'd found her. The past perfect tense is used to talk about: .No. l I had misheard Ashraf had already known my brother for two years when I met She had misheard. to go.: . . She had just made some coffee when I arrived.ro4 the past perfect tense the past perfect tense rcs The past perfect tense an action or state that begah before another action in the past and continued up to the time of the second action and perhaps even Typicalforms of this tense are as shown in: beyond that time. I had not misheard. .

. I have lived in London since I wos born. We usually choose the continuous form for more temporary actions orstates. I have been waiting. Have you been waiting longT . know. I have worked here fo r th ree yea rs. finished. Thank goodness you're here! l've been waiting for hours. See also pp. . Have l been snoring? Has he been waiting? I have been tiving in London since I left schoot.When oreyou goingto continuous uses ofthe verb. comedown? I have been studying English for three years. I hove lived in London since I was born. which are not used in continuous forms. I've beenwaiting. She has been waiting. .roo the present perfect continuous tense the present perfect continuous tense ro7 The present perfect continuous tense There is sometimes little difference between the meaning of the present perfect and the meaning of the present perfect continuous Typicalforms of this tense are as shown in: when they are used for long-term actions. Sh e has n ot been w aiti n g. I have been living in London since I left school. repeated actions. l've been getting this magazine every weekfor a year. Shds been waiting. I have notbeenwaiting. at the time of speaking. we use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about: . actionsand statesthat began inthe pastand are still continuing .and like. 98-ror for more about I have been holding this ladderfor ages. . actions and states that began in the past and have onlyjust I have studied English for three years.. and the present perfect form for more permanent ones. We can use forand since with the continuous form in the same way as with the present perfectform. We cannot usethis tensewith verbs such as be.. I hove been working here for three years..

. She had not been waiting. l'd been waiting. She had been waiting. so we stopped and had a drink. I had been driving for about an hour when I heard a noise in the engine. _orWascomp|etedbeforethe'secondactionhappened. Shdd been waiting. The past perfect continuous is often used in the main clause of a complex sentence. We had been cleaning the cor for hours. to set the scene for an event. Typicalforms of this tense are as shown in: She had been trying to telephone her mother all day. continued up to the time of the second action. The past perfect continuous tense is used to talk about an action which began before another action in the past and either: . Had I beentalking nonsense?Whothad I soid? Had he beenwaiting long? Had you been expecting to meet Mary at the stltion? I had notbeenwaiting.ro8 the past perfect continuous tense the past perfect continuous tense ros The past perfect continuous tense The past perfect continuous is often used to. They had n't been looki ng very ca refully. I hadn't been waiting long when a lorry drew up beside me. . I hadbeenstudying and decidedtotakea strollto clear my about a repeated action. .lr I hadbeenwaiting. . .

4 The present simple tense is used with a time adverb to tall( about or future plans which are part of a timetable or previous arrangement. severalforms. . See p. this year heis going to work harder. English has no future tense as such. See p. 66. Be to + the base form is used to talk about formal plans. The other modal verbs that express possibility make a more indirect reference to future time. See p. 3 The present continuous tense is used to talk about plans and arrangements in the future with a time adverb. Yo u' d b etter toke th e w a shi n g i n . 16. although some speakers preferto useshall in therst person singularand plural. I amflying to Glasgow on Friday. We leave at 4 p. 98. These forms are summarized as follows: Be aboutto +the base form is used to talk aboutthevery nearfuture. 't Will/shall the base form makes the most directform of future + See p. lwill future reference future reference ur Future reference Thefuture perfect tense (will have + the past participle) is used with a time adverb to talk about an action that will be finished at Verb forms the time in the future that you are referring to.can be used to makefuture reference. However. rr7. 66 for further details. See p. verb are used to express future reference. it i s goi n g to rai n . See p. I'll be shopping as usual z Be going to + the base form is used to express intention and make predictions. Weshall come.4Sp. The Presidentisto attend an EU-Russia summittomorrow. Wewill come. Whatwill you be doing on Saturday morning? Oh.m. reference. Itwill take severol years to flnish. Hefailed his uam lastyear. I shall simplytell herto mind her own business. have gone home. The mainftlm starts atz. Youwill come. n5. She/herttwill come. l'm aboutto leave forwork. See p. Theywill come. but by thetime I arrive hewill themodalverbswill andshall. especially in journalism. Will can be used with all persons of the verb. I shall come. Youwill come. especially I was hopingto meet James. tt3. will/sholl The modal verbswill or shall followed bVthe base form of a main Sarah and Harrietare meeting atten o'clock onTuesday.m. See p. See p. rr7. used to talk about future action in progress. Weshall see. 94. tomorrow. l'm sorry I con'tstop ond chlt. Thefuture continuous tense (willbe + the present participle) is Jeanwill look after the dogswhilewe're away.

. Christmasis past. I won't go see him or speakto him for six months. Heis not goingtowait. future. to express a real possilrility in conditional sentences.l'll havethe pizza Morgherita and a side satad. . l'll probably be late. Right.l shall askhim. know. I hope you'll be very happy in your new home. to announce a decision that the speaker hasjust made. I can assure Vou. possibly in the distant future. Peoplewill be amazed whenthey hear about this in Vearsto come. l'll be home in time for tea. I expect he'll be home soon. l'll be on the plane this time tomorrow. Iam goingtowait. lf there are two verbs in the sentence. I am notgoingtowait. using won't. lf you phone after sixl'lltell you all aboutit. to tall( about future facts. it is normal not to repeat the to refer to inevitable actions or events that will take place in the modalform before the second one. We use will(or shall) forfuture reference in the following ways: to express an opinion about a future event afterverbs such as believe. 273. hope. A time clause may be used. The contracted negative forms are won't and shan't. I won't put up with any more of this silly behaviour. andthink. I won't go there again. Wewon'tcome. to make promises or reassurances. expect. butitwitl come again nextyear. l've tried to persuade her but shewon't come. We shan'tcome. Future reference can be made with be + going to + the base form of a main verb. and seeif his story matchesyours. be goingto . Er. ls hegoingtowait? Arethey goingto wait? . pleose. . to talk about an event in the future. See p. so there is no difference in to express refusal. This won't hoppen again.The service was dreadful .n2 future reference future reference rr3 The contracted form is 'llfor both verbs. but I expectthey'll be ontime. I shan't see Mary nextweek. informalspeech. Heis goingtowait. to express negative intention.

often thevery nearfuture. lt is often used with verbs relating to finishing or completing. expressed. The future perfect (will have + the past participle of a main verb) This form is used to tall( about an action that will be comolete at a time in the future that you are tall<ing about.3o p. Weare meeting atn.m. .m. and arrives in London at3. he is. Mary isn't going to study art. future. ls Jim Where's Mory? She said she was going to come early.2o p.m.. to talk aboutthingsthat have already been decided. Present simple Shewos obviously goingto getblisterswith those new shoes. The school is having a sole next week. m.3o p. What areyou doing on Saturday? . to make a prediction aboutthefuture. she is going to fail her exdms. . she's going to be a nurse. it is normal not to repeat the watch the milk! ltis going to boil over! auxiliary before the second and subsequent ones. When are you leaving? . me.. . l'm running the bool<stall . a past intention or prediction can be starting work att]5. and the meeting starts at 7. to express intention aboutthefuture.having a quicklunch.m. butshewasill ond couldn'tcome.l'm going to a football matchwith Peter. going to leave his job? -Yes. Sally never does any work. or specific arrangements that people have made forfuture events.m.45p.. Thetroin leaves Edinburgh atrc:o a. Judywas goingto meet. lf there are two verbs in the sentence. and lf the past tense of be is used. It is often used in questions about future arrangements. The present simple tense is also used to talk about events that form part of a timetable or programme.At the end of term. based on something in the present. the Mavor arrives at 7. These orethe arrangementsfor Friday: doorsopen ot7 p.rr4 future reference future reference rrs Be going to is used in the following ways: Present continuous The present continuous tense is used to talk about plans forthe .

The short answer to a They'll bewanting usto clean our own classrooms next! question is willwithout the past participle. questions. onthe point ofcarrying out an action when it is interrupted. and short answers my exoms by then. The future continuous is used in a rather informal way to suggest The contracted negative is won't hove. This is made Con you come round nextSaturday? -Yes.l won't. be + aboutto + the base form Will you beworking here nextweek? The appropriate form of be + aboutto + the base form of a main verl: No. is used to talk about events in the verv nearfuture. but t won't have completed it by then. the subject comes afterwill. In questions. Dad will've made dinner by thetime we get back. in the usualway.j u m p i n ! Th e tr ai n i s Q u st) ab out to I e av e. arrangements. where he is to attend the case it is usuallyfollowed bywhen. and is often found in journalistic texts. The essay is due onTuesday.I'll be starting my nut job. The future continuous tense with will + be + the present participle of a main verb. We'll be g*ting intouch with you. w e wil I b e flyi n g to SV d n ey. meeting.116 future reference future reference n7 The contracted positive form is'll hove orwill've. contractions. more immediacy. Turn offthe gos-the soupis aboutto boil over. Will you have finished dinner by then? -Yes. l'il havefinished Will beforms negatives. Qu i ck. Wewon'tbe seeing Uncle John whilewe are in Australia. In this The President has left for Ceneva. Foreign ministers of the NATO countries areto meetin Brussels Be aboutto can also be used in the past to suggest that someone is nextweek. that something is about to happen orwill happen at some time that is not clear or precise.. we will . and instructions. Com e o n! The fi I m's about to start! beto +the base form The appropriate form of be +to + the base form of a main verb is It is sometimes used withjust following the be word to give even used mainly in fairlyformal English to talk about plans. It is also used to talk about an activity that will already be in progress at a particular time in the future. They were Qust) aboutto go to bed when the phone rang. lt indicates thatwhatwill happen is partof an expected process. l'll be seeing you. Ju st thi n k! Thi s ti m e n ext w eek. .

Rogerhasbeen given his promotion. The injured mon utos helped by a passer-by. who or what carried out the action of the verb. The potientwas operated on by oteam offive surgeons. The passive is made with the appropriate form of be + the past I was showeredwith presents on my eighteenth birthday. The safewas blown openwith dynamite. For instance. . The passive allows us to select the parts of a sentence to which we want to draw attention. so all mention of the postman is left out. I'm sending the bookby express delivery. My brother was given extra tuition by his teacher . theinstrument. We use the active when the subject of the verb is the doer of the action. lt isthe person orthing that is acted on bythe verb. The patientwas operated on.e.rr8 active and passive active and passive rre Active and passive . in the first example of this Active sentences section we do not need to l<now who delivers the letters. The subject in a passive sentence is not the person or thing that does The patientwls operoted onbV ateam oftop surgeons. lle hid the money under the bed. . lt can be used when we want to focus on: Passive sentences the agent. participle of the main verb. the verb is active. The car knocked over a pedestrian. lt is sometimes much more important to know what The subject of an active sentence is also the person or thing that has happened than who or what did it. The window was broken by some boys . because we usually want to inform our listener or our reader The bookis being sent by express delivery. We use the passive to direct our listener's attention to the important partof ourmessage. The Dassive can be used when we do not know who carries out the The postman delivers hundreds of letters every day. Thousands of |etters are delivered every day. theaction oftheverb. whatwas used to maketheaction happen. The oldmln wos run over by o careless driver . The active is used in most Eng lish speech and The money wos hidden under the bed. writing. We show the instrument with bv or with. theverb is in thepassive. action expressed by the verb. orwhen it is not important that we should know. The sorting is doneby machine. The man was being questioned by the police. i. In thefollowing example. We show the agent with by. An elderly manwos run over while crossingthe road. The otd man wos knocked over by a bus .e. i. In the following example. who brought the action about. carries out the action.

H e w o s ta ken to th e p ol i ce stati o n fo r qu esti o ni n g. The money isthoughtto be missing. The passive with get Form of the passive In informal English. we show the They sell cheap computer games here. the sentence The rumour is believed to be true. e. The medal is awarded to students who have shown academic excellence. meanswith byorwith. Spelling errors ore morked with a cross in the morgin. andtell. be born and He was token to hospitll by ambulance. Hewas uhaustedwiththe strain of caringforhis elderly parents. offer. promise. the means. The subject of a passive verb My brother and I were born inWales. Some verbs are only or mostly used in the passive. The suitcase was found to be empty. In the passive. The window was shattered by the explosion.e. . When a verb has two objects. The verb in a passive sentence has the word that would normally be its object in the position of the subject. sell.r2o active and passive active and passive r2r . It is said that his income is over E2oo a minute.lend. The impersonalpassive either the indirect object or the direct object of the active verb may become the subject of the passive verb. They took him to the police stotion for questioning. main verb. mention the source of a reoort or rumour. I've been offered o place at university. tt is reported that over a hundred people died in the explosion. i. lf the indirect object is mentioned afterthe passive verb. The ftIm was deemed unsuitable for younger audiences. a type of passive is sometimes made with get instead Passive verbs are made from a form of be + the past Participle of a of be. . . the form of the auxiliary verb be indicates the tense. The form it + passive + that can be used when you do not want to The building has been sold to property developers. be deemed. Thisform of the passive sentence isusefulwhen you wantto report what is or was generally understood or accepted by a group of people. must use to. Wewere given a second chance.g. Some verbs that are often used this way are: give. what caused the action to happen. H ow di d that tea pot get broken ? Our cot got run over lastweek. Cheap computer games are sold here.

I ost. teor offthe tab. To open . The present and person who is the subject of the clause. Wewont Charlieto act as club secretary. Looking around. There is another kind of verbal group that is like the passive. Worn out by the heat. get. lt expresses the idea that the past participles and the to infinitive are the most common of these. there is normally at least one verb that has both a Harrietgot lost on the Underground. Everyverb can be used in a clause in either afinite or non-finite wav. When a verb has a subject and a tense. with no agreement between the subject (if there is one) and the verb.122 active and passive finite and non-finite verbs rz3 Cet is also used to form a small set of passive verbs in contexts which Finite and non-finite verbs a re not i nfo rma | (or'neutra l'). . and a tense. he noticed 0 letter onthefloor. In a sentence. The base form is often used in a non-finite way. su bject caused or ordered someone to take the action mentioned. That plan failing . it can be When are you tw o getti n g m a rried ? referred to as afinite verb. lt has the for m:have+direct object + past participle. Coming home lost night. They appreciote a little praise now andthen. he gave up. We are having the garage door replaced . get dressed.g. The causative passive with have I like taking photographs ofinsects. we felt 0 little depressed. get m a rri ed. Our guests departed . lrecause the person who carries out the action of the main verb is not the Some forms of a verb are referred to as non-finite. . lt is non-finite if it is used: without the verb having a tense. . Wesow a deer. they stopped for a drink. lwalked home. A verb is finite if it is found in a clause in combination with a subiect TheV did not have the carpet cleaned ofter all . subject and atense. e. Shehad her hair cut short. I saw a deer run acrossthe road.

tz8 and p. Mayalaughed The shelter collapsed. tz9 for more on this. We want Charlie to act as club secretary. olivia is coming round at 6 o'clockthis evening. she wanted him to wash his hands in the bathroom. Often a noun or pronoun can come between the finite verb and the non-finite one. I tiketo get up early attheweekend. sentences. I sing. A non-finite verb is sometimes used immediately after a finite verb. . Whenthesecondveib isan-ingformcoming aftera noun or the first auxiliary verb. although the first examp|emightseemambiEuoustosomepeop|e. Harriet really dislikes cleanin gthe cooker. r3o. while the remaining non-finite parts are the pronoun. tcertai nly wout dn't wa nt to see him a gai n.|nthesecond In the following examples the finite part of the verb phrase is in blue sentence. She didn't tike his cleaning his boots over the sink. there can be a difference in grammar between two similar base form or the participles. I had been living in a dream for months. See also p.r?4 finite and non-finite verbs finite and non-finite verbs r2s A compound verb is actually rnade up of one finite part. See p. The present simple and past simple forms of a verb are always finite. Both sentences below are acceptable. Helen was running around screaming. We persuaded them to join us. I don't like you cleani n g your boots over the si n k. which is always .. italic: She didn't like him cleaning his boots over the sink. the -ing form is used as a verbal noun. . I moy have been joking when I saidthat. Wetell stories at night.

126 finite and non-finite verbs finite and non-finite verbs E7

The non-finite parts of the verb afterfeel, hear, see,watch + an object.

Non-finite parts of a verb are those that do not indicate number, I heard him run downstairs.
person or tense. The common non-finite forms are: Later we saw them leave the house.

- thebaseform aftera to infinitivetowhich it isjoined by and.
- the present participle or -ing f orm
- the past participle Iwant you to sit and listen.
- the to infinitive Justwait and see.

There are also other non-finite forms, such as: - after would rather and had better.

- the continuous to infinitive: to beteaching I would rother go out, but I thinkwe had better stay home and
- the perfect to infinitive:to havetaught finishthe painting.
- the passive to infinitive:to be taught
Verbs of perception may be followed either by the base form or by the
-ing form.There is often a change of sentence meaning.
The base form
These ve rbs i ncl ud e : see, hea r, feel, smell, li sten to, w atch.
As well as serving as the verb form on which most of the other parts
of the verb are based, the base form is frequently used as a non-finite Wewotched her parkthe car = wewatched thewhole event.
part of the verb. Because of this it is sometimes called the'bare wewatched her parking the cor = we may only have seen part
infi nitive' or the'infinitive without to'. ofthe event.
Iheard a cuckoo call = I heard just one call.
The base form is used as a non-finite part of the verb in these ways: We heard the birds singing = We heard ptrt of the song of
the birds.
- after modalverbs.

You muststop atthe kerb beforeyou cross.
He shouldthink before he speaks.

- after let's (suggestion) and let (permission) and make (compulsion).

Let's invite Annette round for dinner.
Letthe catgo!
Make him stop!
Let himftnish whathewas soying!

r28 finite and non-finite verbs finite and non-finite verbs Es

The to infinitive after a noun phrase such as o good idea, a good thing, a mistake
(sometimes + flor+ another noun phrase).
The to infinitive is used as follows:
It wds amistake forJim to buy that motorbike.
- after a n adjective of ity such as small, tall, agreeoble, pleasant,
q ual Itwas a good idea to stop here.
funnythatis used in combination with too.
afteran adjective such as easy, difftcult,hard,impossible+ for+ noun
The childwastoo small to reach the switch. phrase.
The knifewastoo bluntto cutthe string.
tt has never been easy f orDavid to sit exams.
or (not) + adjective of quality + enough.
afteraverbfollowed byfor, e.g. ask,wait+ for+ noun phrase.
The child was nottoll enough to reach the switch.
The knifewas not sharp enough to cfi the string. They arewaiting for us to decide.
I was stupid enough to go walking in flip flops.
The to infinitive can be used to express purpose or necessity after
- after adjectives of emotion such as: angry, hoppy, glad, sad, sorry, a verb followed by a pronoun or a noun.
surprised, to express the reason for the emotion.
purpose: I brought itto read on the train = so that I could read it.
I'm gladto seeyou. necessity:There is work to do! = work that must be done.
I'm sorrv to hear your news.

- after a'behaviou r' adjective such as: good, kind, nice, silly, wrong,
(sometimes + ef + another noun phrase).

It w a s good of y ou to come, an d ki nd of Ja ne to h ave sent
It was silly to go off like that.
Itwaskind of you to ring me.

- after a WH- word such as : how, wh at, wh ere, wh ether, whi ch, who, whom.

We have no ideowhatto getforTim's birthday.
I don'tknowwhereto go.
I can'tthinkhow to do it.
They w ere wo n deri ng who to see fust.

r3o finite and non-finite verbs finite and non-finite verbs r3r

The to infinitive and the -ing form . Some verbs may be followed either by the to infinitive or by the
-ing f ormwith little or no change in meaning. These verbs include:
Theto infinitive and the-ing form (the present participle) can each be begin, start, cease, continue, intend, like, love, hate, prefer.
used after certain verbs.
He beganto run around shouting.
Verbs followed bV theto infinitive include: agree, arrlnge,lttempt, He began running around shouting.
choose, decide,fail, hope,learn, manage, offer, plan, seem. She likes to swim in the sea.
She likes swimming in the sea.
I ogreed to help Shona with her homework. I can't bearto see violence.
The driver ottempted to remove the flattyre. I ca n' t bea r seei n g viol en ce.
t hopeto see you again at the next meeting.
. Some verbs may be followed either by the to infinitive or by the
Verbs fol lowed by an object the to infinitive
+ incl ude: advise, allow, -ingf orm but the meaning of the sentence changes depending
command, forbid, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, teach, tell. on the form that is used. These verbs include: try, forget, remember.

Peter advised Ronto call the police. I remembered to switch the lights off before we went out.
Esther reminded her teacherto set some revision . I remember switching the lights off before we went out.
Shetried to talkto him, but his secretary wouldn't putthe call
Verbs that can be followed either directly by the to infinitive or by an through.
object + theto infinitive include: ask, expect, help, intend,like,love, hate, Shetried talking to him, but he wouldn't listen.
mean, prefer, want, wish.
Particularly after verbs such as go an d come, the to infinitive is
I certainlv intendedto go tothe party. understood to express purpose.
We really expectedsally to poss the exam.
She hos gone to do the shopping.
Note this difference: They came hereto learn English.
I wantto have o cat = lt will be my cat.
I wdnt her to have a cat = lt will be her cat. Use of the verb followed by the -ing form concentrates on what happens.
Dad likesto wash the car = Dad washesthe car. The second verb is really the olrject of the first one. These verbs include:
Dad likeslohntowash 111s ssv = Johnwashesthe car. remember,forget,try.

Verbs followed by the-ing form include'. avoid, be used to, delay, dislike, I deflnitelyrememberswitching the lights off beforewe
escope,finish,forgive, give up, go on, imagine. went out.
Sh e tried talki n g to h i m, b ut h e woul d n't Ii sten.
I usually avoid going into town late at night.
Miri am hotes peeli n g potatoes.

Have youftnished reading that. bookYet?

Lydia wos the successful applicant.r32 finite and non-finite verbs the noun phrase r33 Some set expressions (idioms) are followed by -ing. r6o. She left late. That word will be either a noun ora pronoun. r8-r9 and pp.The otherwords describe or modify the headword. the girl thatboy a spider some rice . tt is expensive. The manager interviewed all the applicants onTuesday. orthe complement in a sentence It's no use phoning him. 230-231 for more information about these functions. a noun ora pronoun. a determiner. Cheese is expensive. he's gone away. A noun can be premodified by: . See p. and its nofun. A noun phrase may consist of more than one word. is the headword. One of these words. A noun phrase may consist of only one word. the object. subject. These include: The noun phrase it'snotworth. See pp. ' Mary leftlate. thetall girl theverytallgirl a strikingly beoutiful girl thetall girl with green eyes Words that go before the headword are called premodifiers. It's worth tryi n g on e m ore ti m e. A noun phrase is a word or group of words that can function as the It's nofun going out olone. A noun phrase must always contain a noun or a pronoun.

a prepositional phrase (a noun phrase with a preposition in front of it). See p. t6o-t9o. Personal pronouns are only rarely premodified or postmodified. ' the princess royal the presidentelect . t6o. a number.r3r+ the noun phrase the noun phrase r3s one or more adjectives. talt darkhandsome men Poor oldyou. See p. tatl girls tall dork glrls Sitly me. another noun. the personinthe corner the vi ew across the vo lley the house oppositethe church creatures under the sea a subordinate clause (usually one beginning with who. which orthat). A noun can be postmodified by: . certain adjectives. All the women who hod gathered there frnally went away. See pp. less commonly. three dovs the railway station buffet an annoying habit an ovenuorked man Words that go afterthe headword are called postmodifiers. zo3. Milkthathasbeen kepttoo long can go sour. See p. 264. . orthe present participle or past participle ofa verb.

These refer to intangible items.136 types of noun types of noun 87 Types of noun . buildings. CoventGarden Balcombe Road The an ger that J oh n felt was overwhelmi n g. cinerna. . . Nouns can be classified according to what they refer to. Proper nouns usually referto a particular named person orthing. shop. according to their meaning: Thursday June Christmas Easter Abstract nouns. Professor:James PresidentSarkozy .' titles (the polite or professional labels that we give to people). . . days of the week. They include: DoctorJohnson SirCeorge Hordie.ouns. tmes Vogue table butcher The NewScientist TimeOut brother sugar . theatre names. TheOdeon Nexf TheRoyalMews Abbey National o Nouns that are really names are called proper nouns. . Common nouns can be divided into the following groups. . the names of specific people. Spain MountEverest l China England I putthe tennis ballsin that basketthere^ TheThames Paris My brother and sistervisited my mother. honesty anger ideo time Hoover Persil ugliness behaviour Jaguar Samsung Concrete nouns. ptg granite I ne . Anna Dickinson ' froper nouns and titles are always wriitten with an initial LucyWhite capital letter. All the other nouns that refer to things or species are called 'common n. months. geographical items.These referto tanqible items. and annual Church festivals. A person's title is usually placed before his or her name. patented goodsand trade names. newspaperand magazine titles.

whether or not the noun gives us information aboutsingular and plural number.r38 types of noun types of noun r3e A concrete noun may referto a living thing (animate nouns) or a . progress. homework. that is: When it is necessary to think of an item as countable it has to be used with a partitive noun. See p. Some examples of the commonest uncountable nouns are: advice. uncountable nouns. happiness. news. leisure. They are followed by a singular verb. physical object (inanimate nouns). evidence.) are used. will you? We've boughtsix new chairs. seventeen cats. Verbal nouns (p. . Countable nouns referto things thatwe can count: one cat. (You cannot talk alrout'an advice' or'o money'. which . rS8). . Why don' t you try w alki ng to wo rk? Dogs ran wild in the streets. They are not normally used with the Nouns may also be classified according to the words with which they indefinite article. Fetch a choir for Maddy. despair. Trevo r gave evi denceat th e tri al. money. These refer to collections of people or animals. John osked mefor someadvice. Letmegiveyouapieceof advice. Anno gave us some more information about her work.They must be used with a determiner if they ofverbs. The ringing in his ears continued. Uncountable nouns refer to: . The dog is loose again. are singular. Homework occupied much of Sonio's evening. jumble. . research. information. aherd of cows osworm of bees Uncountable nouns do not usually have a pluralform.owledge of outer space is increasing daily. knowledge.They have singularand pluralforms. . qualities or abstract ideas. things that are not normally thought of as countable. He bought seven sheets of cardboard. l4t. can also be used as uncountable nouns. safety. Anger is a normal human emotion. behaviour. Brian was told to stop smoking. two cats. Collective nouns. This gives us a useful distinction between countable nouns and anger. which are formed from the present participle are shown by the spelling. the otherwords that can be used in the same noun phrase. conduct. furniture. ' Our kni. beauty.and so on.

Five pints oflager. Mass nouns only take a plural in special cases.n types of noun 141 Mass nouns Partitive nouns These are nouns that referto a substance that can be divided or Partitive nouns are commonly followed by of. .woter.ghting. individual items with uncountable nouns. He has a smoll herd of dairy cows. *' measurements and quantities with mass nouns. a serving ofthe substance. and tea or coffee. especially when it is necessary to talk about: Maatis usuolly more expensivethon cheese. There are only two pieces of furniture in the room.g. The road was blocked by a flockof sheep. We needed several lengthsof string. e. They are used when we measured but not counted. They can be counted three pieces oftoast a slice of cheese when they referto: a bitof fluff two spoonfulsofsugar a particular type or types of the substance. Twoteas. please.They do not usually have need to talk about a part of a mass noun or when we need to count the an indefinite article in front. . The principal sugars are glucose. Sugar is quite cheop. please.. A couple of catsweref. There wasa buffetof bread and rolls. Mass nouns are often used togetherwith a partitive noun. sucrose. sugar. cold meats Two piecesof furniture needed mojor repairs. andfructose. Hewentuptothe bar and orderedtwo lagers. a collection:of countable nouns. There ore three portions of meot in this special pack. There was a crowd offootball supporters ofthe bus. Ros brought out 0 tempung selection of French cheeses. quantityof something that is referred to byan uncountable noun ora rnass noun.7qo types of nou.cheese.

142 types of noun gender of nouns 143 Nouns that have both countable and uncountable uses Gender of nouns Most nou ns are either countable nouns or uncountable nou ns. certain rules. The rocketwos lounched into space. The beetle $owled into its hole. a gender. however. ltwds lunning ocrossthe rcon.. d girl. . Nounsdenotingfemalepersonsandanimalsarefeminineinthatthey are used with the pronouns and possessive det€rminers she her. He received all th? necessary information. 160) have to be decided on. Ttis means that a noun causes explained on p. trousers. I just sd$t a mouse. He lound hisbook. e.9. i Shedid itfourtines. or it she a bull. Some nouns. and grcaery have more than one meaning.laugh.. The spider was spinning its web. : Cender distinctions are relevant where personal pronouns (p. We can use a partitive noun with babies and small animals.g. his. o cow. crammatical gender has little to do with biological They usually have different meanings depending on how they are used. She found het book. She hod been looking for it. 2o3) There are plenty of enfry spaces on the shelves. I don't need yofi help. Nouns denoting male persons and animals are mascullne in that they are used with the pronouns and possessive determiners he. odviae. Eng lish does not have glam matical gender for nou ns. I've got a n6t boat: she's a real beouty. a nd possessive determ iners (p. infomotion. . fiim. Ineed a pair of pliels.. or femin ine gender with a veh icle. The babv thrzw down its tottle. the biolog ical gender of the thing or person referred to does affect a few areas of Eng lish 9 ramma r Iine possedslowly. behave like countable other words such as adjectives to change their spelling according to nouns in some sentences and uncountable nou ns in other sentences.. Some noun5thatarecountable nouns in other languages are used onfy as uncountabfe nouns in English. Thesettousers need cleoning. e. even when we are talking There are also special cases. 138. nouns have gender. as In some lang uages. he ot it Light trdwlsfastet thon sound... such as the association of neuter gender about one item. Some nou ns are used on ly in the plural form. clothe'jedns. These distinctions areonly noticeabl€ in singular nouns. Liz gathered up a bundle ol clothes. he The lights inthis rcon oretoo bight. On the other hand. she a boy. Putthe tatssort backwhen vou havefinishedwith then. hers. For exa m ple tim?. light.. with ofwhen refening to a single item. spoae. history. He had been looking for it.

regarding the distinction as As a way around this problem.. their unnecessarV. parent mother father .. Someone has Iefttheir coot in mv room.. Michelle Stewart has been promoted to Branch Manager. made up exclusively of male orfemale members.evenwhenwel(nowthatthegroupis | . the choice of pronoun or possessive determiner becomes Collyour bankmanager today. zoz. Authors from all over the UK attended the ceremony. But if we do not have this knowledge. a driver.K. f : €ngineer doctor programmer The government has changed its policy..he/she Mary Forrell. its.144 gender of nouns gender of nouns r4s Barry saw Linda. she called outto himthlt she had found his book. . in informal and spoken English. but it is widely used to avoid repetitions of his or h er or him or her.have i commonorneutergender. Each student must opply to his or her tutor for an extension. i mechonic lawyer driver The rcam has won its f. Nouns denoting inanimate objects and abstract notions are also neuter. issometimes used aftera singular noun oran indefinite pronoun. cow bult steer or neuter nouns are: it. Sueismanageressof ahairdressingsalon. female and neutered Marcia saw Paul.. Rowling is a highly successful author. Nouns used fora group. e. sheep ewe rom Thetruthwill emerge. animals show a number of gender differences. governmentorteam. Everyone must apply to their tutor for an extension. Many people consider this grammatically unacceptable. He called outto herthot he had found her book.he/she Hereinthe studiototolkobouther new bookis authoress the cook. horse more stallion gelding The pronouns and possessive determiners used to referto common . The specialized terms used to name male. Some nouns denoting people have the same form for masculin e child daughter son and feminine. J. Some occupations and professions have a special feminine form for With some nouns of common gender it might be possible to specify the noun. the gender if we had sufficient information. See p. ftolwaysdoes. Manynounsdenotinganoccupationhavenoexplicitgender.he/she Many people prefer to avoid these forms.. Cenderdifferences are also shown in the nouns that indicate relationshios. rst medal at a major championship. Judi Dench is one of our flnest actors. a problem.g. :. Madeleine saw Kim. She said'Hello'to her. doctor.

people and animals) and in time phrases. oran irregular.through nouns differentword in orderto avoid a gender. the side ofthe ship theend ofthe queue The of possessive is notjust a differentway of saying the same thing as the -3 possessive. byadding -3to a singular noun. : I .i : . Mole staffshould use lockerroom B. lf necessary.marked noun: Possession can be shown in two ways: the chairman the chairperson the chair The man was mending hiscar.o. adding a descriptive term such aswoman or male/female. by adding -''to a plural noun. onedog oneboy several children .il+G g. . . the boy's pencil lrut not the pencil of the boy The -'s possessive is generally usedonlywith nouns referring to animate items (e. the gender of a common noun can be made clear by The carwasbeing mended by a mon. l morethln one dog morethan one boy the dogs' bones theboys'books There is also the of possessive (a phrase with offollowed by a noun).9.uns il4r Some speakers prefer to use a different form of the word or an entirely Showing possession. the driver'sfoot the dog's nose today's newspaper oweek'sholiday .ender of nou ns showing possession through n. : .plural noun that Would you prefer to see a woman doctor? does not end in -s. . thedog'sbones theboy'sbooks the children'stoys .

indicate that a place is where someone works or lives .r48 showing possession through nouns showing possession through nouns lqs The ofpossessive is generally used with nouns referring to inanimate Rules forthe formation of the possessive -'s (apostrophe -s) and -s' things (i. add an apostrophe + s. add a descriptive element which premodifies a noun. objects) and abstract ideas. . a simple apostrophe is sufficient. These usually add -'s in the singular unless the final sound of the basic word is [-iz]. with a person eitheras the originator. show that something is a part of a whole.e. the boys'football five young girls'faces the boy's books the dog'sblanket There are exceptions for the following: . in the leg ofthetabte the dog's nose which case. for example those that that have a plural ending in -en. lt is a type of Keats's poetry the Bates's cat determiner. plural nouns not ending in -s. orthe . proper nouns and common nouns that end in -s. I like Dickens's novels Peter Bridges' cor writer's cramo Awinter'sTole . the wheel ofthe car the foot ofthe bed theworld of ideas the power ofthought a girl's ring a cat'sface The function of the possessive form in English is to: . plural the choice of -'s or a simple apostrophe is optional. most singular nouns add an apostrophe + -s. a grocer's the butcher's a solicitor's my ount's children's men's . . thewheel ofthe car the girl's shoulder Mrs Evans's car MrJones'sfence . most plural nouns add an apostrophe afterthe pluralform -s. (-s apostrophe) are as follows: the leg ofthetable the arm ofthe sofa . See also D. In this case. t60. common nouns that end in -s in the singular. show a relationship. When these are made userof thething named. show possession. her parents' consent the student's letter a cactus the cactus'spines awomen'sclub the children's park the cactus's habitat .

verb+noun. phrasal verb used as noun. . . A compound noun is a noun that is formed from two or more words. Compound nouns are very thefire-fighters the fr re-fighters' effo rts common. Noun phrases that are descriptive of someone's role or profession put teapot headache the-'s on the headword of the phrase. my mother-in-low my mother-in-law's car The meaning of the whole compound is often different from the the runner-up the runner-up's troPhY meaning of the two words on their own. the Presi dent of Au stria's offi ci al ca r . particle + noun. t5r) put the -'s orthe simple apostrophe at Compound nouns the end of the comPlete comPound. noun + noun. washingmachine driving licence self+ontrol CDburner a stock market anolyst's annual income the senior hospital consultant's weekly visit Compound nouns are commonlyformed from thefollowing word combinations: lf they use an ofconstruction the-'s orsimple apostrophe usually goes on the last noun. the director of marketing's personal 4ssistdnt .rso showing possession through nouns COmpOUnd nOUnS rsr Compound nouns (see p. noun + noun: boyfriend skinhead verb + noun: breakfost grindstone adjective + noun: software hardware phrasal verb: a break-in atake-over particle + noun: onlooker aftershave . The main noun is normally the last one. . adjective + noun.

post office flre engine eye shadow cough sweets The regular plural ending of an English noun is -s. -zz -es There are often alternative forms to be found. bookcase wallpaper birdcage snowflake Countable nouns have both singular and plural forms. piano pianos potato pototoes o concrete slob old oakbeams a car mechonic a store manoger consonant. 136 for more on the types of noun. key keys roy r0vs . -x. -s. -ch. Nouns can hero heroes also be used as modifierswithoutforming a compound noun. cat cats .+y -rcs baby babies A noun that is used as a modifier has the same function as an hobby hobbies adjective. with a hyphen. Plural number is used when the noun refers to more than one item. astwowords. Uncountable nouns and mass nouns do not normally have a plural form. church churches box DOXeS buzz buzzes Nouns as modifiers -o -s or -es The com pou nd noun girlfriend names a special sort of friend. but we do not think of it as part of a combination that forms a new vowel + y -s word. a5 one worcl. . drop down focus focuses menu. r86for more on modifiers. See p. These are the exceptions to the normal pattern: window-cleoner air-conditioning lamp-post tee-shirt singular noun ending plural noun ending Consult a dictionary to discover how the word is normally written. See p. and dropdown menu are all currently acceptable princess princesses forms of the same comDound noun. -ss. drop-down menu. . The first noun usually makes the second one more specific. for example.rs2 compound nouns number in nouns rs3 Compound nouns can be written: Number in nouns Singular numberis used when the noun refers to one item.

rs4 number in nouns num ber in nou ns rss

singular noun ending plural noun ending Since it is not possible to give morethan a selection of the irregularforms,
you should check in a dictionary if you are in doubt. lf the dictionary
-f -s or -ves does not show the pluralform, then you can assume that it is regular.
hoof hoofs orhooves
dworf dwarfs or dwarves Compound nouns normally form the plural by adding -s to the last
thief thieves word of the comDound.
roof roofs
a glmes console three games consoles
-fe -ves a bookcase two bookcases
knife knives an lndiantake-away two lndiantake-awoys
tife lives
There are a few exceptions:

A compound noun formed from a noun and an adverb makes the first
lrregular plurals word plural.

Some nouns have two plural forms. a posser-by several passers-by

fish fish or fishes Compound nouns with woman as the first word make both words
Some of them have the same form in the singular and plural.
a woman doctor severalwomen doctors
a sheep kn sneep owoman driver mostwomen drivers
a deer seven deer
A compound word which ends in -ful normally adds -s after-ful, but
Afew change a vowel to form the plural. there is an alternative form with the-s followino the base noun.

man men a cupful three cupfuls/cupsful
womon w0men a spoonful tw o sp oo nf ul s / sp o o n sf ul
foot feet
mouse mice
Plural nouns with singular reference
Some nounsform the pluralwith-en.
Some nouns referring to clothes and tools where two equal parts are
child children joined together, e.g.trousers, binoculars, andtongs, are treated as being
ox oxen plural and are followed by a verb in the plural.

rs6 number in nouns numlrer in nouns 1s7

My shorts are dirty. have two plurals: one from the foreign language and the other
The scissors are on the table. formed according to the rules for pluralformation in English.
Theforeign plural is usually keptforscientific orspecialized use.
To talk about one of these items we can use the expressio n a pair 0f...
an index some indexeslndices
John bought a pair ofieans. aformula so m e fo r m ul a s /fo rm u I a e

To talk about more than one we talk about however many pairs of...

MartinT boughtfrve pairs oftights.

. When they are used as ordinary numbers, words such as dozen and
million have no pluralform.

nine million stars two dozen glasses

When they are used to mean a large number, they do have a plural
form, which can be used as a partitive.

There are millions of pebbles on the beach.
I saw dozens of children in the playground.

Foreign plurals

Nouns that have come into English from foreign languages can:

- keep the pluralform of the language they come from.

an axis two axes
a crisis two crises

- have pluralsformed according tothe rulesforplural in English.

a thesaurus several thesauruses
(instead ofthesauri)

rs8 Verbal nouns verbal nouns rse

Verbal nouns - after prepositions to make a prepositional phrase.

The verbal noun is the -ing form, i.e. the present participle of the verb, Can you watch them without laughing?
used as a noun. lt can be used in all the places that a noun can be used
but still keeps some characteristics of the verb. lt is sometimes called Verbal nouns are also used:
the gerund.
* after some phrasal verbs such as: be for/ogainst, give up, keep on, look
The screaming of the brokesterrified me. forward to, put ,ff.
Smoking is prohibited.
She was all for leaving immediately.
The verbal noun normally functions as an uncountable noun, as above. Linda gave up swimming but she kept on dieting.
However, there are some uses ofthe verbal noun that can be preceded They were looking forward to writing home.
by an indefinite article or used in the plural.
- aftercertain setexpressionssuch as: can'tstand,can'thelp,it'snouse/good.
He gave a reading from his latestvolume of poetry.
The takings were down this week in the shop. I can't stand waiting around.
t can't help getting cross.
The verbal noun can be preceded by the definite article, by adjectives, It's no use crying over spilt milk.
and by possessives.
The possessive determiner can be used with the verbal noun, especially
Her marvellous singing won Helen the scholarship. in formal English.

Just Iike any noun, the verbal noun can function: An na eft the house
I without my knowi n g.

- asasubject. . The verbal noun also has:

Driving was i mpossible. - a perfectform: having ...ed.

- as the complement of the verb be. Martin was accused of having cheated.

Seeing is believing. - a passivefo rm'. being ...ed.
His greotest pleasure isworking.
Being asked did not bother me.
- as an object after certain verbs. See also p. r3o.
- a perfect passive form: having been ...ed.
Louisa likes swimming but Helen prefers diving.
The cor showed no sign of having been touched.

She lost in the third round ofthetournament. enough.these. . few. See p. 16o. both. . See p. These apples are redder than those ones. They make such a fuss over smallthings! I gave my shareto her sister. fewest.).. I've about ownership. any.his. See pp. Haveyou got much money on you? There were no witnesses to the accident. Their second child is due in October. the quantifiers some.three. The dog chasedthe rabbit. the definite article rhe. See p. . .two. An honest person would return the cor to the owner. the numbers. more. A man come intothe shop. your. cardinal (one.roo determiners determiners 16r Determiners . zo9. . every. all. no. much. 176.both. See p. . a few. the exclamatives whdt. specific. What nonsense! Whata shame! . See p.and the numbers. a little. 16z.and ordinal (first. Shona found his book in her car.. See D. Thetwo boys grew uptogether in Manhattan. phrase. all. r6o. Determiners can be divided into several l<inds according to: Both girls saw the attack.Afewdeterminers. the possessivesmy. Every girl wos given a number to wear. See p. neither.that. the demonstrativesthis. The sofetv net gives little help to those who need it most. a noun phrase has only one determiner in it. ff I change itto'my car'l am saying something quite specific got some coffee but I haven't got any sugar. lf lsay'this cor'itis clearthat I mean a particularcarwhich is near me.). the indefinite article a oran.her. Fant people know the answer to that.. Either book should help you with the problem. Three men were found hiding in the building. less.those. the distributives each. 'tV--177. Each child received a book. See p. most.. fauer. their meaning. . see p.g. i68. 164. r78. tittte (meaning not Determiners are words that make the reference of nouns more - much). many.its. can be used togetherwith anotherdeterminer. second. r8o. There are eight classes of determiner: There'sonething I needto askyou. half . double. several.their. This book is betterthanthat one. what they may go with and where they may come in the noun . or none at all. either.least. Cenerally. third. . e. such.our.

the sound at the beginning resembles a y. (old-fashionedEngtish) An o cto pu s i s a se a c re at u re w ith ei g ht tento cl es. starts with a vowel sound. You go past a petrol stotion on the left. (old-fashioned English) when you refer to a person's profession. especially A man called to see you this afternoon . There was o telephone call for you a minute ago. unless you wish to emphasize the number. to referto a person ora thing thatVou are mentioning forthefirst It is the sound.162 the indefinite and definite article the indefinite and definite article 163 The indefinite article . when one must be used. . that decides where an is used. The indefinite article is used with singular countable nouns: We've gotthree poirs of rollerblades and one skoteboard. Theyjoinedanhistoricolsociety. For time in a conversation ora piece of writing. The equivalent for plural nouns is some or The indefinite article isa or an. They joined a historical society. Her father is a dentist and her mother is a teacher. in definitions. A mon was seen driving away in a black car. See p. 16o. Very formal or old-fashioned speakers also use the an form with some words beginning with an h. TheVwerestaying at an hotel. They were staying at a hotel. to express a quantity. I stopped off at a shop to buy a newspaper. although unique begins with a vowel. a person or a thing which you cannot be more specific to refer to about because there is not enough information. and then you'll see our house onthe right. historical and hotel. . I want a needle and athimble.that is not silent. . anidiot an awful mistoke * to refer to a person or a thing which you do not want to be specific aunicorn auniqueexperience about.sound. not the spelling. Cuy hos bought a skateboard. I waited an hour. example. a girl a cat Would you like a glass of wine? an eight-year-old girl an engineer Thereis only one glass of wine leftinthe bottle. The form an is used before a word that no determiner at all.

when it is followed by an adjective used as a noun indicating nationality orwhen generalizing about a whole class of people. WAV.. no. and mountain ranges.164 the indefinite and definite article the indefinite and definite article r6s The definite article . before the names of rivers. a distinction is being made between people who have identical The Dutch in the fi rst exam ple means'Dutch people in general'. to generalizeaboutawhole class orspecies. such as Sue and Ron. to refertoa person orthing that is already specific because of what The Listener The New Scientist those talking already know. Ah. already been referred to. . The definite article is rarely used with titles. most newspapers.Notthe paul Kay? The homeless were sheltered in the church. I sow Paul Kay intownthis morning. A singular noun is used for this purpose. The Queen Elizabeth ll is on a long cruise. oceans. such as Queen Elizabeth. The Dutch are very skilful engineers. 'the children' would be members of our family and'the swimming pool'isthe before parts of the body when these are referred to in an impersonal swimming poolwe normally go to. and proper nouns used in animals.' and Captain Parry. The snowdrop is the flrstflowerto arrive in the new year. they stand for the name of a thing such as a boat. In the first example below. The definite article is the. before the names of certain public institutions. . . only take a definite article if: The elephantis still hunted for its tusks. seas. TheThames The Hebrides The definite article is used with singular and plural nouns. A stone struck him on the hand. Let's take the chil dren to the swi mmi n g pool. This use can give emphasis to the noun. Therewere drinks in thefridge butthe beer was soon finished. to make definite or specific reference to a person or a thing that has and some magazines. .': names. The British Museum The Hilton Hotel There's the man I was telling you about! The LyceumTheatre The Houses of Parliament The lndependent The Guardian . usuallyof plants or refer to persons. proper nouns that . means 'The elephont species is hunted. The poor were crowding the streets of the capital.The first example conjunction with titles. DoctorThomas. Did you switch the heating on? Martin hit him on the head.The David Parry I know lives in Manchester. lt is used The North Sea The Paciltc both with countable nouns and uncountable nouns: . groups of islands.

166 nou ns used without a determiner nouns used without a determiner roz

Nouns used without a determiner - time with the prepositions dt, before, or by, dawn, sunrise, sunset,
noon, midnight, night, supper, dinner, day, night.
Certain noun phrases do not havea determineratall.
Catherine rose at dawn and went to bed at sunset.
We usually leave out the determinerwhen we use a noun or a noun We swam in the pool by day and partied bv night.
phrase in the plural to make a generalization.
- meafs: to have breakfast,tea,lunch.
He sells carsfor a living.
Tigers are nearing extinction. J ane ha d breakfast at ho me.
Onions ore good for you. She met Diana for lunch.
Crassy hills rise on all sides of thetown.
- institutions, with the prepositions to or at: church, hospital, prison,
Singular nouns that are uncountable are used without a determiner school,work.
when you are making a general reference.
John was taken to hospitalwith o broken ankle.
New information is now avoilable. Lucy has been kept late et schooltoday.
Do you like iellY? Ruthwas athomeall day.
This shop sells furniture.
- seasons of theyear, when you are generalizing, e.g: in spring,
. This is particularly true when the uncountable noun is used for the in summer, in autumn, in winter.
first time in a general way in the course of a conversation or piece
of writing.theycan be used with a determlnerwhen the reference tn autumn,the grapes are horvested by hand.
becomes specific. For example, you can ask someone if they like cake The place is packed in summer
as a rule, and then ask the person if she would like some of your cake.
However, all of these words are used with the definite article when
Theinformotion she gave me was inoccurate. you are talking about a specific time, place, season, etc.
Would you like some of the ielly I made for the party?
We don't letthe dog climb onto thefurniture. Philip travelled by the same train as Mehandra. ..

Just look at the wonderful sunset.
There are a number of idiomatic expressions that usually omit a Pam works at the hospitat.
determiner. Examples are expressions that referto: I can'tworkwell inthe summer.

- travel, when you proceed by: bicycle, car, bus, train, ship, boot, plane.

Anno w ent by bi cycl e but Lucy went by ca r.

Hewas chased bv police on foot.

rG8 demonstratives pOSSCSSIVeS 169

Demonstratives Possessives
Demonstratives are used to specify the distance of something in space Possessives are used to specifythe ownership of an item, or, if the
ortime in relation to the speaker. noun refers to something animate, to specify a relationship.

The demonstratives are : this, that, these, those. Thatismy car.
Mr Smith was my teacher in the sixth form.
This and these refer to objects near the speaker.
The form ofthe possessive changes according to the number and
This apple looks riPe. genderofthe person orthing that possesses the item.
These apples comefrom Australia.
His brothers all came to the wedding.
The reference may lre nearness in time, especially future time. Their auntlives in London, buttheir cousins livein Berlin.
Your shoes are underyour bed.
I'll call roundthis afternoon.
stiv al e n d s thi s T h u r sd ay.
Th e fe
This summer isthewarmest I can remember. person singular plural

That referto objects that are further awayfrom the speaker, rsr my our
znd your your
I thinkthat boy over there is lost. 3rd (masculine) his their
Con you seethose people up on the hill? jrd (feminine) her their
3rd (neuter) its their
This and thdt are used before singular countable nouns and
uncountable nouns.

I can touch this picture, but I can't reach that one.
This book is mi ne, b ut that ma gazine i sn't.

These andthose are used before plural countable nouns.

I'm peelingthese potatoes for a shepherd's pie.
Those men are mending the roof. Another sort of possessive is the possessive phrase.

17o possesslves quantifiers and numbers vl

This acts just like a possessive word but is a noun or noun phrase Quantifiers
ending in -'s or -s'. A possessive phrase acts as a possessive determiner,
but may itself include one of the other determiners. Quantifiers are used to indicate the amount or quantity of something
referred to by a noun. They are different from numbers because they
Robert'smother Sally'snew job indicate an approximate amount ratherthan an exact amount. They
the visitors'washroom the residents'dining room can be grouped according to their use.
a good day'swork mywife'scousin
the Prime Minister's press secretary
all, some, ony, mltch, enough, no

- You can use all, some, any, or enough, before a plural countable noun
oran uncountdble noun.

. Con I have somechips, please?
Anna gave me all her money.
Peter never has anytimeto visir us.

You can use no before a singularora plural countable noun oran
uncountable noun.

Therewere no pictures ofthe party.
There is no hospitalin thistown.
No information has been released yet.

- Some, any, much, and enough are used to refer to a part of the item.

Would you like some ice cream?
We didn't hove much success.
I haven'tseen enough evidenceto convince me.
I couldn't find any fresh milk at the shop.

All and no refer to the whole of the item.

All the milkhas been used.
There is no milkin the fridge.

172 quantifiers and numbers quantifiers and numbers v3

Some is used in positive sentences. - Both is used to define two things represented bya plural countable
l've bought some chocolate.
I sow some lovely shoes in town this morning. Both men were given another chance.
Both dogs had to be put down.
Any is used in negative sentences.
See p. r6r for more information about quantifiers when they are used
I didn't buy any chocolatethisweek. with other determiners.
I hoven't seen any birds in the garden todov.
The following quantifiers are used to express graded amounts of an
fn questions,anyis used when there is no particularexpectation item (e.g..whetherthere is more or less of something).
about the answer; sorne is used when the answer is expected to be
positive. Have you seen many tourists in town?
Yes, l've seen moretourists than usual.
Have you got any fresh bread? I think most touristsjust stoy for a couple of days.
Has Paul heard any news aboutthe accidentT
Would you like some cake, Aisho? I didn't put much petrol in the car.
I thinkwe need more petrol.
The use of no with thereis/areisvery common. The news caused much excitement.
Most i nform ati o n ab o ut o u r se rvi ce s i s av oil a bl e o n th e I ntern et.
Therewas no posttodav.
There areno jobs available for electricians atthe moment. - Many, more, mostare used with graded quantities of plural
countable nouns.

half, double,both H ave you seen m o ny touri sts i n tow n?

Yes, I've seen more tourists than usual.
- Half can be used with countable nouns and with uncountable I thinkmosttouristsjust stoy for a couple of days.
- Much, more, most are used with graded quantities of uncountable
H alf the ti me I di d n't un dersta n d wh at w a s goi n g on. nouns.
H alf the students ca me from ov erseas.
didn't put much petrol in the car.

- Double is used with uncountable nouns. thinkwe need more petrol.
The news caused much excitement.
We're going to need doublethe present supply of water. Mostinformation about our services is availoble on the lnternet.
They want doublethe money they originally asked for.

Thistechnique causes less harm tothe environment.e means'not much'. . need to getfrom one placeto onother with the ieast inconvenience A fau. Ieastare used with graded quantities of r. and a littt e arc d iffe re nt f ro m fal and little o n th ei r own because they have a positive sense. . Lift. Afau delays are inevitable.nd niurn. but a few means'several'. Fanter loans are being granted than usual.fewast are used with graded quantities of plural ' : countable nouns. please. Ja pa nese workers take the fewest holidays. Fau people know the answer to this problem.fewer.' .114 quantifiers and numbers quantifiers a. \.ess. I need a litttehelpfrom myfriends. . Edward got littl e encouragement from his parents.b€rs vs Fau.and then. but a little means'some'. Littfe. Few means'not manyi. . Few buildings survived the earthquake.ofraintoday.r'rrrcountable nouns. little encouragement now. Afau kind people helpedthe injured man. Thereisliftlechance. Everyone needs a Doyoutakesugar? -Just a tittle. . l The students werg given very littte hetp with their projects.

like pronouns. Four of them cametowards us.last. one chair two chairs a hundred people tenthousand pounds . and another can also one chair two chairs [:e regarded as ordinal numbers.dsf are sometimes called The fi rst horse i n w as di squ alifi ed. Cardinal numbers can be used atthe beginning of a noun phrase. possessive . The nextthree days are goingto bevery exciting. Ordinals are mostly formed by adding -th to a cardinal number. notanotherbirthday! or after a possessive. the word. Grammatically speaking. Ordinal numbers are used to talk about where something is placed in The next horse in wos declared the winner. the words next. such astwenty-first. There are two common kinds of number: And then there werethree. second. sixrh eighty-sixth thousandth nine hundred and ninety ninth The frrst three correct entries wilt win a prize. we have to get offthe bus at the next stop. postdeterminers. as well as next. since theV come after the word the or a He's celebrating hisfifty-first birthday in August. . . some is often used before it. The lastthreeyears have been difficuttfor everyone. a total. Ordinal numbers and the words next and . Cardinal numbers are used in all forms of counting that involve The othertwowentto get help. and third. . Some exam ples of exceptions are the words f. The company has just celebrated its one hundred and ftftieth anniversay. fourth twentieth hundredth . can be used together frfth forty-ninth millionth with a cardinal number in the same noun phrase. a hundred people tenthousand pounds It rained on last day of our holiday. like determiners.ldsr. and another. and combinations which contain them.176 quantifiers and numbers quantifiers and numbers v7 Numbers or on their own. rst. He scored another three gools before the end ofthe match. an ordered seq uence. To show that a cardinal number is only approximate. They are often used rig ht after the defi nite article ' Oh no. Some two hundred people gathered in the pouring rain. An ordinal..

Four girls came and each one sang a slng. . and 50 0n. being referred to. th e fo u rth ho u se. . I remember every detail of our conversation. Everyis used to referto all the persons orthings in a group ofthree or more. . I Eoch child was given a balloon.t7s distributives distributives vs Distributives Eitheris used to talk about one of two people orthings.They are used with Neitheris used to exclude both of two people or things that are a singular noun. Either child could win the Prize. I have to work every third weekend. Every teacher hos a key to the building.'Every second house' m ea n s the secon d h o u se. either. Each is used to referto separate persons orthings in a group of two or more. Each ticket should have a number on the back. Each and every are not used with proper nouns. Neither restourlnt is chelp enough. is shared out or divided. The distributives are eoch. Everyfourth house has o garage. Neither PIan was successful. th e si xth ho u se. Either restourantwould suit me. They appointed neither man as captain. Distributives are determiners that are used to talk about how something They did not appoint either man os captain. and neither. Katrina danced with every boy 0tthe party' Every can be used in front of ordinal numbers. every.

Words in groupA can be used in combination with determiners in groupsCand D(below). hi s. some. Both girls were readin g. a (n). they follow a definite order.. yo u r. can lre used with and the orderthattheyfollow. each. enough. . such. All the visitors leftthe ship.r8o exclamatives noun phrases with several determiners r8r Exclamatives Noun phrases with several determiners Exclamatives are used to introduce an exclamation of surprise. afew. th at. o tittte. if there are more. . and the possessiv es my. these. erc. ony. h er. Exclamations introduced bv one of these words consist either of: There are two large groups: . Determiners can be divided into four groups. some of those oranges neither of my sisters . either. A th e. He is such a nice mon! You alwayswear such lovely things! each ripe oronge another sister what a pleasantsurprisethis isl some ripe oranges enough money The words in groupsA and B are known as the central determiners. the exclamative and its noun phrase in a complete clause. but admiration.). th ose. Whatalough! What awfulweather! a npe orange my young sister this ripe orange our young sister . B another. or a similar emotion. with the exception that words in group B may be followed by a groupAword if ofis placed between them.. depending on what other determiners they The exclamatives are: what. A noun phrase will normally contain only one central determiner. Both my young sisters are really naughty. Most noun phrases contain only one determiner or none at all. no. AII visitors must now leovethe ship. The groupAand group B words cannot be used together. thi s. neither. the exclamative in a noun phrase alone (usually with What.

The firstthing she did was call her mother. See also p. rr. Please. Most adjectives can go before a noun. this is known as their . half. The roses ore yellow. the ordinal numbers first. Adjectives C The smal lest rou p consists of the words : all. . The girls are getting tulL Lastorders. or the object of the sentence. Anyword thatcan go into both of these positions isa normaladjective. The words in group C are sometimes called predeterminers. Most adjectives can also go after a link verb such as be or seem. Every movewos carefully recorded. All of thevisitors leftthe shiP. several. attributive use. this is known as their predicative use.r82 noun phrases with several determiners adjectives and comparison r83 There are two smaller groups.less. ev erv. both. Adjectives have two main features: Half of theorangeswill haveto bethrown awoy. The many kind things she did went unnoticed. or half and a central attributes (colour and size). She hasfewfriends. second. Some speakers of As soon as you say'a large. The roses are yeltow. and lost. or aftertheA group of determiners.These can be used on thelr own before a noun or lf you use the noun 'bear'itcan mean any animal of that species. When used predicatively (after a link verb). These can be used on their own before a noun. before the groupA determiners above. The exclamatives such andwhat belong to this 9roup. most. a tall girl green grass D The wo rds i n the fou rth g ro u p a re. andtwice. adjectives. t woul d rlth er fo rget these a st few day s. four badly behaved littteboys much. The children drove him mad. . g Adjectives are used with nouns to make the meaning more specific. both. She did many kind things. These books seem really interesting. H er few possessio n s ho d been stol en. describe the subject of a sentence. an adjective can either Your ev ery move is bei n g w atched. The girls are getting tall. m any.third etc-. more. A noun is said to be modified by its determiner. brown beal you have given two of its Eng lish prefer to insert of between oll. few' littl e. See p' l80 for more details about these. double. . Anna paintedthe room green. I These books are really interesting.

alive. adjectives of nationality or origin. alovely big smile dn extremely i ntelligent student . Many of the members of this group begin with a-: . 186. or measurement' o green andwhite striped shirt a red and blueflag somehot scones a rectangular pie dish . . but in practice more than z four is uncommon. a largewooden door a n el eg o nt silver tea pot Shewas glad. both the smoll grey lrish horses Charles is abroad again. Shewas glad to help. age.e. adjectives of colour. alone. Adjectives before a noun are not usually separated by and. When an adjective is used predicatively it may have to be followed by a particular preposition if the phrase continues. those niceVoung girls See also o. . temperature. ashamed. Iq s r84 adjectives and comparison adjectives and comparison r8s ndjective order It is possible to pile up adjectives in English. adjectives of size. The girls were asleep and were not awore of the noise.e or material that something is made from. on elegantFrench woman The child is afraid. a very tall man afairly untidyflot the green hills of home smartbrown shoes Some adjectives can only be used predicatively (i. beautiful old English half-timbered houses pleasa nt chi I dh ood m em ori es . It is devoid ofinterest. *t rarn. alike. I wasfreefrom guilt. afraid.t't. those frien dly SPaniSh gi rt s Our balloon was aloft at last. asleep. aftera link verl: her beautiful blue eYes such as be). Adjectives can themselves be premodified by adverbs of degree. adjectives that describe feelings or qualities. . unless beautiful brown hands they are adjectives of colour. adjectives denoting . awake. He was afraid for his life. Hewas intent on revenae. Hewas afraid. I wasfree. afloat. c The order is normally: a happyyoung blondeGerman girl .

the girl I was standing near particularly when they are used with plural nouns . The deolers concerned were sentto iail. To make it simpler to talk about any modifying word which comes in front of a noun. and other nouns can all be used to describe a noun more specifically. the people involved involved.When these adjectives are used in this position they may have a different meaning from the one that they have when they come before the noun. they can be used as modifiers. there are some that can go immediately afterthe noun. that is. the young man with the guitar Although attributive adjectives usually come before the noun that the person who met me they modify. concerned. present. i ntent (on) that a lways Those modifiers that come afterthe noun are called postmodifiers. There are some set phrases which always have an adjective immediatelv after the nou n. The present governmenttook over four years ago. There were letters from concerned parents. we can use the term premodifier. The people absentfrom workwere oll ill. e. Everyone presentwos given teo.rs6 adjectives and comparison adjectives and comparison 187 Th ereare som e adjectives s u ch as dev oi d (of). absent. ayoung man these onions mv aunt's house the elephant house . Let us toast absentfriends.g. . determiners. the Princess Royal a lion rampant the president elect the Attorney General Premod ifiers and postmodifiers Adjectives. Nouns can also be modified by prepositional groups (groups of words that begin with a preposition) and relative clauses added afterthe noun. have to have a following phrase. See p. z7o for more about relative clauses.

I'll hovewhichever is (the) ripest. things. There are two ways in which the comparative and superlative forms comparative superlative of adjectives are formed: provoking more provoking the most provoking o You add -er(comparative) or-est (superlative) to the in the negative. comparative superlative Superlative adjectives have the in front of them. fortunate morefortunote the mostfortunate relevant more relevant the most relevant That isthe smallest camera I have ever seen.cs in the affirmative and not weary wearier theweariest ds. but it can be omitted i n pred icative posit'ions.r88 adjectives and comparison adjectives and comparison r8e Comparison comparative superlative The comparative form of an adjective is commonly used to compare bright brighter the brightest two people. and the -y changes to -i. or states. in -y.. Emma is much slimmer than when I last sow her. it usually takes -er or -est. Comparison in which you are considering whether two people or pretty prettier the prettiest things are equal is shown by using as. Adjectives with three syllables or more use more or most in front of the adjective.. You add the word more or most in front of the adjective. Adjectives formed from participles use more or most as well. when one thing has qualities that exceed all the others. To i n d i cate the o pposite of both the -erfest and the mo re /most fo rm s of comparison. enthralled more enthralled the most enthralled Adjectives with one syllable usually take these endings. Online learning is less expensive than conventionol college comporative superlative c0urses. The superlative form is used for more than two people. wtse wiser thewisest . things.. lf a word ends Anno istallerthan Mary but Mary is older.. when you want to say that one thing has long longer the longest a larger or smaller amount of a quality than another. lf the word already ends in -e. He gavethe least expensive gift to his sister.lessorleost is always used. sharp sharper the sharpest . lf the second part of the comparison is mentioned itfollows than. .. the -e must be left off. or states.ds or not so. but not as strong. Helen is as tall as Linda..

polite ' politer the politest Thotis quitesilly. You mustadmitthat he can be ratherboring. . They are sometimes called adjuncts. or even clauses. or morepolite the mostpolite Fears likethat are very real to the sufferer. The f. Adverbials generally modify the meaning of a verb.rework exploded with a loud bang. Honestlv. you can use an adverbial. but involved lessinvolved the leastinvolved adverbials are not necessarily just single words. He ran acrossthe lawntowards the house. bad worse the worst far further the furthest Frankly. They changed hurriedlyinto their pyjamas. we must give him a chance. where. Many interesting lessinteresting the leastinteresting adverbials are members of the group of words called adverbs. Asmall group of irregularadjectives have quite differentformsfor the comparative and superlative forms. comparative superlative an adjective. Nevertheless. Monica hummed softly as she washed the car. The children ore behaving remarkablywell. when. They can also be word groups. another adverb. comporative superlative Ali objected very strongly to the plan. or to what fortunate lessfortunate the leastfortunate extentsomething has happened. good better the best a whole sentence. shollow shallower the shallowest or moreshallow the mostshallow Harry is obsolutelyterrifted of flying. I think he is lying.reo adjectives and comparison adverbs and adverbials rer comporative superlative Adverbs and adverbials sharp lesssharp the leastsharp When you want to add information about how. I th o u ght about it quitese ri o u sly. I didn't mean to be rude to you. Ig reatly ad mi re you r cou ra ge. prepositional phrases.

group. He coughed nervously. ofr. See p. See also p. . Although adverbials change the meaning of clauses or phrases. New meanings can be made by combining an adverbialwith a verl: . which expresswhen: e. . Lydiawentaway. Two m en w ere wo rki n g thei r w ay u p the hill si de. twice daily . . We are reallyin a no-win situation. . adverbials of frequency. 8r for more about phrasal verbs. much. See p. Sylvi a a cted u nl awfully. extremely. Some verlrs require both an object and an adverbial to complete Two men were lost on the hillsVesterday. adverbials of manner. 8r.g. now. t thinkyou are mistaken. usually one beginnining with if orunless. 267for more about They stand outside the word.g. Conditional sentences must also have an adverbial clause. The exceptions are that: . it may modify the Adverbials can be divided into: whole clause. which express how'. Thingsare looking up. I think she acted honestly. here. adverbials oftime. but there Really. Search porties went out every hour .with care. . James stood the golf clubs in the corner. Honestly. are a few verbs that need an adverb to complete their meaning.todly. llst night. he slammed the door shut. slowly. e. largely. they are usually optional parts of the group or clause.g. Itwaslargely their own fault. Justin sped down the corridor. Iatelv. or clause that they are associated adverbial clauses.g. by o whisker. . to mal(e a phrasal verb. For example. while in another sentence. rarely. sometimes.there. which expresstowhotextent: e. the same adverb can in one sentence be part of the description of a verb. well.re2 adverbs and adverbials adverbs and adverbials re3 or a prepositional phrase. adverbials of place. their meaning^ See also p. Ali ce behaved wonderfully. * adverbials of degree. which express where: e. who does she think she is? Two men wereworking their way slowly up the hillside. which express how often: e.g. Most adverbials are optional parts of a clause or phrase. The car pulled out. Some verbs must be followed by an adverbial to complete their intown. ln a fit of temper. up. Clare placed the cover over the cot.en. with. meaning. Ra njit put the fol d e r ba ck.28.

between the auxiliary and the main verb. . o Most adverbs are able to come: group orclause. They are used mainly with adjectives of quality. quite. This is called a viewpoint adverb.l gave him my address. Tearfully. Another use of adverbials is to let your listener or reader know your HewIstelling the whole story tearfully to his brother. A subordinate clause that begins with one of these words adopts the It must have been done extremely recently. He had hardly eaten anything.we cannotturn him down.ts4 adverl:s and adverbials adverbs and adverbials res Adverbials are classified according to the way they modify a word. really. all ofthem adverbs of degree. Nevertheless. little. scarcely. Clearly . uped with adjectives or other adverbs. However. barely. clockwise. She began to cry. same word order as a q uestion. A further group of adverbials. Examples arevery. point of view about a situation. . Sometimes I thinkyou'retoo easily impressed. e:9. Suddenly the frightened animal ran back. because they give a negative meaning to a clause. before theverb phrase orthe subject to what comes before it. These are cal led broad negatives. o Afewadverbs can come beforethe main verb. She ran happily over the sand dunes. An adverb can also be Scarcely had she spoken when it came crashing down. he told his brother the whole story. afterthe verb phrase orthe object Onthe other hand. rarely.These are sometimes called submodifiers because they can weaken or strengthen the descriptive value of the adjective.l don'tmind. it's good advice. Th ey h a m m ered the wedge i n si deway s. back. up. quite loudly.hardly. too. one important use of a special group of adverbials is to show how a sentence relates . down. can only be . somewhat. She seems rather nice. In addition to the uses given on p. Shewas happily running about overthe sond dunes. seldam. Kim gave methis really expensive bag.g. An adverb used in this wav is called a sentence adverb. There are certain adverbs (and adverbials) which can only be used with verbs and so cannot modify adjectives. submodified by another adverb. Angus is a very good tennis player. Seldom have I seen such ridiculous behaviour. Actually.191. The car was almosttototly submerged in the flood water. Happily she ran overthe sand dunes. Foolishly. e. . sideways.we must give him an onswer. He was tearfully telling the whole story to his brother. Some adverbs can only come afterthe verb. he deserves our help. . rother.

words which end.m of . I : . ' Jason is quite a skilled craftsman. -.scarcely noticed her presence. ' Most adverbsare formed by adding -. the exampre above : Almosteveryone brought a bonletothe paral hoppy happily greedy greedily sly slyly .adverbs They never noticed her presence.'.in -ble drop off the -e before -lyis added. . slow slowly clever cleverly annual annually Exceptionally. unless. There is a small group of adverbs that can modify nouns and indefinite pronouns. adjective. sensible sensibly suitable suitably true truly due duly Adverbs with nouns and' pronouns While adverbs can modify most parts of speech. i. Much more con:tmon is the use of an adverb of degree to modify a whole noun or dry. ' Dorninicthoughtthot Geoffrey was rather a good teacher.. .yto the end of the related They.Adjectives that end in -ychange to -i before adding -ly.they have only one syllable. So dothe wordstrue and sly the man downstai. they normally do not modify nouns or pronouns.re6 adverbs and adverblals form of adverl:s $7 Compare: For.'.

Just like certain adjectives.lf itcomes beforea noun itis probablyan Tariq acted very kindlytowards him. Don't stay long. She hurried over. Karen lesswell and Janice are related. He rushed in an attemptto catchhis bus. because prepositions must have an object. When the word is found without an object. She hurried over her meal becouse she was late. some adverbs have comparative and superlative forms and can be used with submodifiers.re8 form of adverbs form of adverbs ree Some adverbs keep the same spelling as the adjective to which they Kim treated Shoron well. . Prepositions are normally used in front of noun phrases.The general rule is to look at the otherwords Malcolmwalked the mostslowlyof all of them. which itoccurswith. adjective. This graph shows that girls performed the bestat maths a shortway a latemeeting thisyeor. He came in early. lt is often difficult to tell at first whether the word is an theleastwelL adjective or an adverb. The lesson was cut short. They can be told apart if you look at the words they are fou nd with. lf it relates to a verb or an adjective it is probably an adverb. You must behave far more sensiblyin future. We met late at night. a long pause an early lecture Superlative forms of adverbs are quite rare. especially at the end of a clause. Some adverbs have the same spelling as a preposition. it will usuallV be an adverb. He rushed in.

ltwould notwork.2oo pronouns prOnOUnS 2or Pronouns The personal pronouns can be used as subject orobject in a clause. when the name of someone or something is not known. There are seven different types of pronoun. I'm sorryl'm late. The mechanictestedthe starter motor. The demonstrative pronouns indicate items that are near to orfar . We sawthem both on FridaV. . The young prince and his wife came out on to the balcony. Never mind. from us. in placeofa noun ora noun phrasethathasalreadybeen a verb is performed on the subject by the subject. for example. We'd better ring and say we're not coming. to refer to myself by name.When. . They waved to the crowd. meaninc and use. I'll do it myself . it's mine. pn rase. Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis.Where did you find them? The relative pronouns are used to link a modifying clause to a noun Types of pronoun phrase orto a clause. Hetried it ogain. Can you give him a lift? I've just cut myself on a piece of glass. Who's she? These are nice. He's the mon who cilme to the house yesterday! This is Bettys andthotisPeter's. The puppy entangled itselfin the lead. They are obligatory mentioned. Cive it back. when the repetition of the noun or noun phrasewould with certain verbs. when we know perfectlywell who orwhat is referred to. classified according to their I don't know whatyou mean. l can seeyou! Pronouns are commonlv used: The reflexive pronouns are used in object position when the action of . I use the pronoun I it is because it would be unusual The possessive pronouns indicate ownership. Sam has to go to the oirport. A pronoun is a word that is used in the place of a noun or a whole noun He gave her a box of chocolates. Th at's the gi rl who always comes top. Perhops it really istheirs after all. be very strange. The professor himself did not know the answer.

to take the role of the speaker. me we us Everyonehad a composs and owhistle. All of you should be ashamed. When more than one personal pronoun is used with a verb. You must all stop writing now. so that it is sometimes necessary to use a form of words that will make clearwho is beinq addressed. orcomplement in Whatwould youlikefor lunchT a clause. the order is normally: 3rd or znd person before rst person. jrdfeminine she her they them jrd neutral it it they them We use the rst person pronoun . lSt . You and he should buy the bolt between you. znd you you you you Neitherwantedto give in and apologize. 3rd masculine he him theV them Much needsto be done. Whowas responsible? person singular plural The indefinite pronouns are used for a broad range of reference when subject object subject object it is not necessary or not possible to use a personal pronoun.2o2 pronouns personal pronouns 2o3 The interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question about the noun Personal pronouns phrase they stand in for. znd person before 3rd person. . She and I do not get on very well. object. They are commonlyfound taking the place of a noun phrase Whichisthefresh milk? when it is mentioned for a second time. ln the case of you. Personal pronounsare used asthesulrject. The znd person pronoun you is used to take the role of the listener. You should be ashamed. there is only one pronoun to cover the singular and the plural.

the subjectform of the pronouns must be used. Formal/old-fashioned Sylvia is cleverer than me.:. afterthan in comparison with be. i Avoid the common mistake of saying.!-:hehouseoursetves Melanie and I are going shopping.. The object form is also used to supply short answers to questions. I don't like this place. Otherwise.:J:ii::. Formal/old-fashioned '. for example.. the subjectform is used: . She's probobly done more than me. the object form of the pronoun must be used: . for exam ple. Aren't I clever! f 5 The olrjectform of a pronoun is used after a preposition. than + object pronoun is necessary. between you and l . Between you and me. In formal and old- fashioned English..2o4 personal pronouns personal pronouns 2os When two pronouns or a personal noun and a personal .Me. Formal/old-fashioned .i:".T:. afterthe verb be. It's me. Avoid the common John is smaller than him. Wasn'tthotkind of me? The object form is usual in everyday spoken usage. Jerry and me are. lnformal Sylvia is cleverer than t (om). John is smaller than he (is).'.:. Who found Cran's watch? . Informal I sow at oncethatitwas she. pronoun are thejoint subject ofa verb. Informal m istal(e of sayi ng. Informal IrisL Formal/old-fashioned I sow at once that it was her.i. They decided to help Jane and me. When either two pronouns or a noun plus a personal pronoun are the joint object of a verb.

has caused to happen and of which he or she is also the object.2tl6 reflexive pronouns reflexive pronouns zo7 Reflexive pronouns Some verbs take a reflexive pronoun only in particular uses of the verb. ' The reflexive can also be used with orwithout by meaning'alone' The first golden rule is not to take oneselftoo seriously. The reflexive f orm oneselfcan be used to refer to people in general. then went out. John taught himself to play the guitar. Hetold me himself that he was leaving. One asks oneself whether it is worth the bother. lf that pronoun refers to the subject of the main verb. The reflexive can be used to make something you say stronger. howevel it must I cut myself withthe carving knife. the pronoun is normally General oneself in the object form. object pronoun and a reflexive pronoun as well. . John looked at himself. like this. The catwashed itself. when the speaker or writer is referring to an action that he or she They all looked athimin silence. lf it is used Ithinkyou should try and do ityourself.or herself. One owes itto oneself to do something worthwhile. znd yourself yourselves jrd mosculine himself themselves Jeremy washed and dressed. She looked at herself in the mirror. when the direct object or prepositional object of a sentence has the same reference as the subject. the subject pronoun should be one. To make a strong point. Reflexive pronouns are used: Jeremy introduced himself. t'll do it myself. we sometimes use a normal sulrject or John looked at her. . person singular plural The reflexive pronoun can be left out if it is obvious that the subject t5L myself ourselves was performing the action of the verb on him. 3rdfeminine herself themselves 3rd neuter itself themselves When a preposition is followed by a pronoun. Sometimes I just don't like myself very much. be a reflexive pronoun. It can also be used as a substitute for the rst person singular. or'without help'. . . In normal direct speech Did she do thot all by herself? this usage is often felt to be rather pretentious.

Perh o ps th ese a re hers.Theyare sometimes called reciprocals. H el e n's These ore our seots and the ones in front are yours. All those books are hers. Wewill always love each other. They should stop bloming one another. I' m I ooki n g for trai ners. but better quality. -Yes. This TV is really cheap. possessive determiner possesstve pronoun my mine your (singular) yours his his her hers its (noform) our ours your (plural) yours their theirs . Are Vou selling those books? I'd never sell any of mine.2o8 reflexive pronouns pOSSeSSIVe pronOunS 2oe The compound pronouns each other and one another are not true Possessive pronouns reflexives. There are separate forms for the singularand the plural except in the znd person. Those suitcoses are ours. They are used when two or more subjects mutually take part in an action. ours was a bit more expensive. Those awful cousins ofyours are here. Possessive pronouns are used when you want to indicate who owns or is associated with an item. In the3rd person singulartheform changesto match the gender of the possessor.

that normally come before them in the clause are prepositions or Mum. Usually a demonstrative The function of a relative pronoun is to linl< a subordinate clause to pronoun substitutes for a noun phrase that contains the same word a main clause. Relative pronouns refer back to a noun phrase or pronoun that has just been mentioned. person thing singular plural subject whoor that which or that near this 'these object whom ot that which or that far that those possesstve whose whose Note that the demonstrative pronouns have the same spelling as demonstrative determiners. singular or plural. Would you like to share some of this pizza with me? She promised to give away all the money. being used as a determiner. Rob. This is the person thatAnniewostalking about. possible to the start of the clause that they are in. Miss Evans. See also p. It is regarded as impolite to use a demonstrative pronoun to refer directly to a person.2ro demonstrative pronouns relative pronouns 2rr The demonstrative pronou ns Relative pronouns The demonstrative pronounsare used instead of a noun phrase to The relative pronouns are the word swho. . All relative pronouns must come as near as John. whom. A subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun is called a relative clause. conju nctions. which. my colleague. l'd like you to put these things away before we go. and that. The only words Thisis my husband. indicate distance in time or space in relation to the speaker. They also indicate g rammatical number . I'd like you to put these away before we go. He might lose his job. The choice of relative pronoun is influenced as follows: . 16o. Thatas a relative pronoun never has a preposition before it. whichwas Would you like to share thiswith me? a bit rash. this is the person oboutwhomAnniewastalking. whichwould be disastrous. thisis Horry Forbes. thisis myform teacher. That i s a kin d thou g hL fo r which I a m most g rateful. except when making introductions.

butbecausewhom isveryformal. That . I di scovered who he w a s vi siti n g. . a defining relative pronoun referring to the object of the clause may be left out entirely. neutral I di scovered whom he w a s vi siti n o. In informal and spoken English. who is usually used instead. formal In informal writing and speech.thatcan be used instead of which and issometimes used instead of whoorwhom. The I lte Principol af the College. I have found a ring which you will love. Who and whom are restricted to human subjects or objects. That is the car which she has just bought. . any preposition is placed afterthe verb phrase instead of before the relative pronoun. itis notoften used: in everyday English.whohad just returnedfrom China. The object form ofthe relative pronoun is used as the object ofa verb ora preposition. The people who he had been working for that summer had offered him a permanent job. I have found a ring that you will love. whom we all remember with affectio n.isthe car (which/that) she has justbought. The girl who Brian was talking to seemed nervous. She is the girl who was at sam's plrty. she is the girl that was at som's party. He is the person (that/who/whom) Annie wos tolking about. I likedthe actor who was playing Oedipus. 27a). Heintroduced meto his friend. ln defining relative clauses (see p. eft thi s I b u rsa ry i n h er will.212 relative pronouns relative pronouns 2r3 Whichis not used for human subjects orobjects. I hove found a ringwhich you will love.

See p. you can place the preposition at the end of the clause. Whomhaveyouin mind? To whom were you speaking? who isthat man overthere? Who didthis? . Who does this belong tol Informal To whom does this belon g? Formal Whathappened next? What did Vou have for lunch? . however.zt1 interrogative pronou ns interrogative pronou ns zrs I nterrogative pronou ns Whichis used askfor identification of a particular person ora particular thing in a group. In informaland everyday usage. Whatis used to ask questions about things in general when the answer is an open one. Who is dancing with Lucy? Informal Which of these bookswouldyou recommend? Who doyou hovein mind? What do you do when Vou're on holiday? Who were you speaki ng to? Whose are these clothes? Formal Whois used to ask questions about people in general. 237 where they are explained more who could be used instead. Whom is the object form of Whose is the possessiveform of the pronoun. people who whom whose Whose is thot sports car outside? things which which Whose side areyou on? what what . Which is your favourite Simpsons episode? subject object possess. it is usualto generally underthe heading of WH. lt is a very formal word and one Interrogative pronouns allow us to build a question around the thing which most speakers avoid using in casual conversation. The object forms of the interrogative pronoun are used after a Who controls the day-to-doy running of the business? preposition.whom. The interrogative pronouns which and whatare Which do you prefer. The interrogative pronou nswho. use whom. when that the pronoun refers to. When writing. working in theatre or film? used for reference to things.words.and whoseare used onlyfor reference to people. Whdt can be either a subject oran object in a clause. lt is used when a person is the possessor.

Common practice uses the pluralform their and as follows: avoids awkward expressions like his or her. concerning the number and gender of a following determiner or pronoun. Con gratul ation s fro m alt at the cl ub. Several managed to escape. B Choice or alternatives'. Nothing can moke up for this loss. especiallythose in groupsAand B. mostwanted herto stay on. a thing. Both were given life sentences. half. some. or the complement of a verb. neither. havethe Judging bythe comments. Someone will have to tell her that she's failed. same form as determiners. lf.2rG indefinite pronouns indefinite pronouns 217 Indefinite pronouns C Undefined singular or multiple persons and things: The indefinite pronouns are used when you do not know or do not someone somebody something need to say precisely who orwhat you are referring to. Anything is better thon nothing. . A Ceneral amounts and quantities: rnost. H as anybody lt nished their lunch yet? No one intheir right mind goes on holiday there in Jonuary" Many flnd it impossible to cope. it is used in front of a noun. all. none. either. . As a Dronoun: Neitherwas keen on o traditional wedding. See p. in which genderand numberare not everyjne everybody everything made clear. many. . or anYone anybody anvthing a group of people orthings. r6o. The noun n0 one nobody nothing phrase which they substitute for can referto a person. if it is. it is a pronoun. Although we lost a lot of stuffinthefrre. I'vefoundsome! As a determiner: Both men were given life sentences. was permitted. on the other hand. any. Several sheep managedto escape. The pronouns in group C that referto people can cause problems Some people like that sort of thing. Traditionally. Enough has been said on thistopicto flll a book. an object. somewas saved. The way to tell them apart is to see if the word on its own is used as a su bject. both. several. it is a determiner. Everybody hastheir ups and downs. l've found some scrap paper . Could you bring me one of those spanners? Either will do. each. Others don't. only the use of a following singular form The indefinite pronouns can be grouped according to meaning. Manyof these pronouns. Everybody h ad a w o n derful ti m e. enough.

That'sthe man (who) I gavethe money tu. under. a relative pronoun (WH-word). Complex prepositions consist of more than one word. e.g. to express movement to or from a place. to express location and time. . b ut m ost of th em were rath er u pset. of th e chi ld ren w e re hu relate different items to each other. in. A preposition is one of a small but very common group of words that None rt. Prepositions enable us: . . with whom he has one doughter. In everyday speech a preposition may end a relative clause rather than come before it.27o. He picked up some extra cash by workingin a bar at night. Most English prepositions have a Neitherof his porents remarried. together with. out of. with Prepositions ofand a noun phrase ora personal pronoun. Thanks for looking. e. due to. That's the girl we were talking about. The pronouns in CroupsAand B are often used like partitives.2r8 indefinite pronouns prepositions zrs . number of meanings that are particularto each preposition. See also p. on. in spite of. . on top of. inilme over the edge under the table to geth er with my fri e n d s an -ing clause. Prepositions are normally followed by: a noun phrase. Simple prepositions consist of one word.g. He's married to Rachel.

g. Prepositions allow us to express relationships. to. Prepositions combine with some verbs to make new meanings from are discussing. There seems to be something loose inside the control box. in. bar. ike. These are one type of phrasal verb. at. unto. op po site. re. of . used and what theV combine with. with. Th ey ra n tow ards th e stati o n. up. ch eck ov er . 8t. along. depending on howtheyare person or thing: towords. there is often little or no She shutthe doginthe kitchen. below. Shewentthrough a bad patch. outside. si n ce. the direction in which something is moving in relation to another can be eitherprepositions oradverbs. than. among.behind. from. under. something or someone being enclosed: within. H e to ok th e ro a d fro m th e tow n to th e n ea re st vi I I ag e. beside. See p. after. within. between. Hewentin. choice as to which preposition to use.stand outside the room while we make up some towards. ta I k to. onto. atop. from. ch eck o n. th ro u gh. When there is a choice of preposition. Some words . above. reg a rd i n g. These are mostly to do A bird with bri| |iant pl u mage roamed the lawns. in. A prepositional phrase is used as an adverbial. for. depending on how we think about the time or place we . speakto. I believe in his innocence. despite. via. the combination. beyond. Some prepositions can be used with more than one meaning. I The lake cln be seen from most positions within the room. p ast. the meaning changeswith each: or a postmodifier. and the noun phrase that goes with it is called a prepositional phrase. rather like a transitive verb.. th rou gh o ut. The words in italics are the prepositions that can also be used as adverbs. aboard.until. s pe a k to.ff. by. Didyou putthe cheese backin thefridge? . upon. e. amid. on. o utsi d e. Theflowers on the table arefromTim. I You have to. pe1 prio r. ov er. He putthe flowers on the toble.z2o prepositions prepositions zzr A preposition needs an object. to. i nside. questions. with place and time. without. underneath. rely on.before. ti l. He found the papers in time for the meeting . ocross. The house on the corner has at lost been sold. about. off. inside. against. i nto. I tookitthrough.around. beneath. When a verb is followed by a preposition. rou n d. Prepositions can indicate: The list below shows all the common simple prepositions. . near. Prepositions of location I stand for justice. tll k with . sp ea k ob o ut . pend i n g. giveto. ch eck fo r. pro. alongside. A preposition The example below shows adverbial uses. as. down d u ri n g.

a change in the form of words. its syntax. location as a line: along. I wentto that school until I wos sixteen. on. on. The baby arrived atg pm. The catkilledthe dog. They got morried in June. the duration of some event: for. The order of words in an English sentence is very important. which is usually the rest of the sentence. The dog killedthe cat. A change l'll meet you at the library. Neutralword order . Craham jumped onto the back of the lorry. over. until. the su bject.near. Prepositions can also indicate: Most sentences put the information that they carry in this order. being ata certain point: on. extremely common in allforms of written and spoken English. is the most important feature. This is . Word order in sentences Don't stand onthe beds. The rabbit watched the child. Many other languages use inflection. Simple sentences have a normalword orderwhich varies according to whether Helen stayed there for the whole of )uly. They are . Simple sentences are those which have only one clause. My elderly mother (subject) is rather deaf(predicate). Wa rm s tea rs flowed over his cheeks. Prepositions of time Thewall (subject) wastorn down (predicate). neutralword order. Most sentences have a subject.erwork. onto. /ohn (su lrject) boughtthe tickets on Saturday (pred icate). sentence into the subject and the predicate. to show how the parts of a sentence function. so the place that a word occupies in a sentence. a point in time ora date : at.zzz prepositions word order in sentences 223 . English has very few in word order often results in a change of meaning. the meaning of a sentence also changes. and then something that is said about We walked along the bank of the river. The child uratched the rabbit. the sentence is: . He slid the packet across the table. since. I'll bewithyou infive minutes. . When this neutral order is changed. There is a huge park near where I live. . at. on April :'st. movement overoronto a place: over. Word order in simple sentences I usually gothere afr. on. This divides the Please sign on the dotted line. across. in. We lived there before Mother died. a period or poi nt of ti me which marks a chan ge: before. ofter.

The dog hasn't been fed yet. Exceptionally. . An important feature of interrogative sentences is that they normally have a subject that Focusing comes after an auxiliary verb. a sentence can be a statement. Don't buy a ticket now. We do this by usinga specialtone of voice. Our dog eats any old thing. such Hasthe dog already beenfed? as putting the subject last. we used to call him. Hove you won any roces yet? Haven't you won any races yet? Some variations on the theme of neutral word order. Declarative. Our dog won't just eat any old thing. We used to call him'Fuzzy' . before the verb. lf the subject does come first it will be a special question word. Buy a ticket now. we can ask questions using the declarative. . a question. We have already won several races. etc.224 word order in sentences declarative. interrogative. 'Fuzzy' . a command. splitting the clause into two. a question. The dog has already been fed. An important feature of declarative sentences is that they have a sulrject that comes a command. You shouldn't buy o ticketyet. we can use variations on neutral order. or positive. imperative zzs a statement. and imperative statements I saw you at the theatre on Saturday night. a denial or a response. seeyou atthetheatre on Soturday night? Most statements and denials are in the declarative. It wos' Fuzzy' we used to coll hi m. I didn't seeyou atthetheotre on Saturdav night. Each sentence in English provides some type of information. or repeating Hasn'tthe dog been fed yet? some part ofthe sentence. interrogative. Whowontherace? Didn'twe useto call him'Fuzy'? Whichteamwasit? 'Fuzzy'woswhatwe usedto call him. When we want to focus the attention of a reader or a listener on a Doesyour dog eatany otdthing? particular word or phrase. Did I see you atthetheatre on Saturday night? Didn't. Most questions are in the interrogative. Word order also varies according to whetherthe sentence is negative we haven'twon anv racesyet. In English the choice and orderofthe parts ofa sentence help us express these meanings. For example. You should buy a ticket now. a request.

On your marks.. Tim wasn't reading your diary. Mikhoil laughed nervously. This is rarely used in English now subject + verb phrase + adverbial It may be used when you want to talk about an improbable or unlikely situation. Wouldyou mind shuttingthe door. Lyndsey was studying in her room. Commands in the imperative can sometimes sound rude or impatient. imperative the declarative 227 You'retelling me he has a ne. go! Declarative sentences always contain a subject and a following verb . The declarative It's raining again?That makesthree days running.226 declarative. Kate isworking. Helen stared at me in surarise. Tim was reading. Wecan mal<ea request. The declarative is used to mal(e statements.w car? I don't believe it. l'd spend more money on educotion. Statements can be both have no word that acts as a subject. Steph en ordered vegeta ri a n asa gne. get set . interrogative. A statement is usually Many commands are in the imperative. to be you. Eat up quickly. lf I were Prime Minister. Leave me alone. The normal word order for declarative sentences: Would you feed the dog. though the subject is understood positive or negative. l'm not going on holiday thisyear. please.thankyou. Commands in the imperative the expression of a fact or of an opinion. . I There is also a subjunctive form. Pam borrowed three library books. sound more phrase. Do mi ni c w as eati n g very slowly. polite by using the interrogative.. which isatypeof command. subject + verb phrase + direct object Ross is writing a letter. Koteis notworking after all. subject + verb phrase Could I havethat now.We haveto go! Hel en w asn't talki n g about y o u.

See p. put. with the addition of a word that indicatesthe recipient: subject + verb + direct object+to/for+ indirect object. orcan have.g. Otherverbs need. prefer. both a direct and an indirect object. e. of subject and verb as the subject + verb phrase + direct object example on p. see. Diana puther jeansin the drawer.227. offer. place. Elisabeth seemsto have been ratherworried latelv. z3o for more about complements and p. . give. Laura offered me another biscuit. Scott's uncle boughthim a neut bike. Stuart bought a birthday presentfor Marie. but with a complement replacing the direct object. Dominic was eoting his lunch very slowly.zzr the declarative the declarative 2zs subject + verb phrase + direct object + adverbial Another group of verbs must be followed either by an object and an adverlrial expression. or.g. oran adverbial expression on its own e. The word order can be either: subject + verb + indirect object + direct object Kate gave the dog a bone. Stuartbought Marie a birthday present. Hefound a camero. Shesaw her friend. Kate gave a bone to the dog. Richard placed the computer on the table. Michaelstood in the middle of the pitch. buy. This dessert is delicious.find.g. stand.take. Certain verbs must have following objects. e. Lyndsey had been reading o bookin her room. r'l for more about objects. A further type of declarative statement has the same basic order They tooka holiday brochure.

become. Soon aftenuords. butthe show was excellent. Potrick beclme ill. and appoint.Peter's phone call made Maureen happy. the subject. An adjective that is used in this position is called a predicative adjective and it is functioning as a complement. Alon is a nice person. Less frequentlywe find an object complement. Alison seems very well balanced. Rajiv is a psychiatric nurse.taste. She called me af ool. and the order is as follows: subject + verb + subject complement Subject complements may be either noun phrases. . seem. smell. seem. do not have an olrject but a complement.23o complements complements 23r Complements Verbs that can take an object complement with their direct object include make. That's it! Thisisforyou. These little cokes are delicious. etc. The subject complement is linked to the subject by a verb. Thetickets seemed expensive. adjectives. become. The word order is as follows: Some verbs such as be.look. Mostadjectives can be used aftera groupofverbsthatincludes: appear. pronouns. . Rosamund is herself again. be. subject+ verb+ direct object+ object complement The subject complement is a word or phrase that tells us more about . The object complement tells us more about the direct object. Jackie appeared friendly enough when I flrst met her. lt relates directly to the object and is placed after it. or even prepositional phrases. They appointed him Director. call.

the basic word orderfor subject and object is They should not have been playing in the rood. which is n't. have as part ofthe verb phrase. one or other of the modal auxiliary verbs. He runs. A negative sentence may contain a modal verb and one or more She hasn't been to work all week. In negative statements. auxiliaries as well. aprimaryauxiliaryverb. a form of be used as a main verb.auxiliary + not + main verb Thotis not my b. subject + do. The word order is. He does not run. lfthe verb phrase does not already contain one ofthese verbs. They could not have seen her . then it is The difference is that negative stateme-nts must contain not. He ron. auxiliary verb except dm. the same as in positive statements. I warnVou. He isn't going to come after all. . Ailsa could not seethe road clearlv. She had not arrived in time for lunch.they were asleep in bed. The bus service did not run on Sundays. subject + auxiliary + not + main verb. The main verb follows. The word not is added im mediately after the fi rst one of these auxi I iary . This is the most common spoken form.ook. therefore: . and then add notfollowed bVthe baseform of the main verb. He didn'trun. John has not goneto school. 235 for more on the supporting auxiliary. Lynn does notwork overtime now. The contracted form of not. appropriateformof do. . Lyn ndoesn't w ork on Su nd ays. either: The present simple and the past simple tenses of main verbs take the .232 word order in negative statements word order in negative statements 233 Word order in negative statements Imay not have gone by the time you arrive. subject+ modal + not+ primaryauxiliary+ main verb. therefore: He doesn'trun. can be used after every verbs. The word order is. Timwas not readingyour diary. l(ate i s not wo rki n g thi s eveni n g.hemay notwontto come. See p. or He did notrun. and must necessary to add the supporting auxiliary verb do. Billwent swimming butAnn didn'tfancy it. In this case the word order is: John hos goneto school.

Yesr/no questions She doesn't buyVogue. Q'uestions that expect the answer yes or no are called yeslno questions He barely earns enough to live on. Each type of question has its own specialword order. and those that have to be answered with a specific piece of information ora sentence such as I don' not changethe orderof words in a statement. Does he enjoy tennis? Dothey he play a lot? Di d that su r pri se hi s mum ? .234 word order in negative statements the interrogative z3s The full form with not tends to be used more in writing The interrogative The interrogative is normalfor many questions. other words with a negative meaning. polar questions. or sometimes. hardly. lt contains a verb phrase that is followed by a sulrject. She never buysVogue. the question is formed by placing a form of the supporting auxiliary verb do before the subject and following it with the base form of the main verb. . I hardlythinkthatis goingto putthem off. Werethe dogsbarking? Haveyou been dieting? Can Mahmoud cometoo? Mustyou go so soon? Would you like a chocolate? When a sentence does not contain a modal verb or an auxiliary verb. scarcely. rarely. The normal sentence order for the interrogative is: modal/auxiliary verb + subject + base form of the main verb. There are two main types of question: those that can be answered yes or no. The interrogative is used to form yes/no questions. barely. never.

a person as the possessor. The negative in its contracted form n't comes immediately before the subject.words are also called interrogatives.why. oraboutthe pronoun one or ones. adverbs.questions . where. The word s who. you must Which one would vou like? use a WH. which. I have. Whose mother didyou say shewas? When didthey arrive? -Yesterday. Negative yes/no WH. When didyou seeAli? .determiners Wouldn'tyou liketo know a bit more lboutthis? When used as determiners. Where is Peter going? -To work.words. See pp. The determinerwhose asks about possession with reference to surpri sed to say a nythi ng. Doesn't he liketalking about his childhood? can'tPeter have onetoo? Don'tyou speakFrench? WH.what.237-240. whom.questions. which allows for many Which ones did Ruthwant? possible answers. These words . What did he saywhenyoutold himthe news? . Which colour shall we use? Have you seen Ali yet? -Yes. Was she all right in the end? . The WH. are referred to as WH. Did you ring the school? -Yes.when.question (or'non-polar'question). I did. It can also be used togetherwith the preposition oflforthe same Yeslno: purpose.words questions are almost always contracted. Which book sells the most copies? Which of these colours shallwe use? WH-: Of allyour novels. They can be determiners. . . notjust yes or no. The determinerwhich can be used in questions about selecting.2t6 the interrogative WH.which ofthem didyou enjoywritingthe most? Who wasthat man? . and how are used to form this sort of question.He's my geogrophv teacher. words 237 Yesr/no questions also have a negative form.Hewastoo . what.Lastwednesday. it comes immediately after the questions: subject. When you want to get a detailed answer. about nouns Does he not like talking about his childhood? Do you not want to know what it was about? What book are you rea ding? Can Peter nothave onetoo? Which plone is he catching? Whose jacket is thisT WH. The fullform is veryformal.No/l don't know. Whose bag isthis? Why haveyou stopped going running? -The doctortold meto. whose. or pronouns. orwhose can be used to ask lf the full negative form not is used.which. They are used for WH.

ofa verb. How often does he come? .Not very often. Whenwill they arrive? WH. Modern English usage prefers whoinstead of whomin all but the How much money did they take? . W h at h ave yo u got to toke with you to ca m p 7 How did you get here? -We came by train. and whotcan be the subject or object . How far is it to the station? . Th eadverb WH.adverbs . . The form whomis used as the olrject of a verb or of a preposition in Why areyou saving your money? . How mony plcks doyouwant? -Twelve. a lways ma lce the sentence fol low the interrogative word order. which. Who did you talkto? How many do you wont? -Twelve. orwith the to infinitive to express purpose.big.r. Howasks about manner. soon.words. how.Because she's hungry. when. Howcan also be used with adjectives such as old.About frve kilometres. quicklyto ask about degree.far. Questions with whyare usually answered with a clause containing becauseto express W hose i s the m oto rbike parked o utsi de? reason. Whoseisthis? Why is the baby crying? .words WH. ortiming. and why. Whyasks about reasons and purpose.pronouns When shall I seeyou again? The pronounswho. Whowould you rather have as a boss? .2o1-2o2 on interrogative and relative pronouns. whose. very formal or old-fashioned English.238 wH. . How much implies reference to a quantity. How much does it cost? . how manyimplies Whom did you talkto? reference to an amount or a countable number of things but may Whomwould you rather have as a boss? leave out the noun referred to.words 23s WH. .4. Whenasksabouttime. Whereasks about place. please.2o. See also pp. Where are you going? Whocan help me? WherehaveVou been? Whoseisthe na t sports car outside? Where is Vour coat? W hi ch was your best subject at school ? Whathappened next? . rate. please. most formal contexts.All of it.orwith adverbs such asoften. The interrogative pronou n whoseis used when the question is asked How does this thing work? about a person as the possessor of something. where.To buy a bike. .

. doesn't he? WH. tNho didyou speaktu? Who did she gowith? The tag is added to the end of a statement. is itz You've seen f. doesn't he? . used at the end of Towhom didYou sPeak? a declarative sentence. didn't.object pronoun + primary or modal auxiliary +subject + I slipped upthere.Theyare more common in some regional varieties of English. the preposition is placed at the end of the clause.? speaker wants to show shock or disbelief. Note that this contracted W hat do you h ave to take with you to ca m p? form is always used.he programme.24o wH.subject pronouns are found in the same sentence order as it is used as the verb in the sentence tag. What hosi on athan done now? He certai nly likes eating. sound old-fashioned. but not in formalwritten English. TheWH. They are usually used to check that the listener agrees with what the speaker When who is used. withwhom did she go? but many sentences ending with a tag are not real questions.object pronouns make the sentence take the word order of a question: He certainly likes eating.words Sentence tags 241 When whom is used as the object of a preposition. has said. n't is added to the auxiliary. They wentwith Vou. did I not. Tags are short additions that look lil<e questions.subject pronciun +the main verb. It isn't raining again. Sentence tags are very commonly used in spoken English. the tag is made using do. haveyounot. lf the auxiliaryverb beor have or a modalverb is part of the verb phrase in the sentence. didn'tl? base form ofthe verb. In negative tags. The exception to this is in informal spoken English.we can't jump over it. They are sometimes called question tags. it normallyfollows Sentence tags the preposition. when the I slipped upthere. statements: WH. won't you? Which was your best subject at school? Whathappened next? lf the main verb is in the present simple or past simple tense. didn'tthey? You didwhat? . then The WH. canwe? Whose is that motorbike parked outside? You will come. does he not. The formal forms such as. haven'tyou? Who can help mel Well.

do you? You'vejust bought a new clr. has he? Falling tone: statement Paula wosn't in your class ot school. you comefrom New Zealand. Desmond hasn't been to see you. was she? She's gone out. do you? So you've just come backfrom skiing. when the first part of the sentence is positive. or negative main verb+ positive tag Your father doesn't belong to the golf club. does he? Jessica didn't care. The same sentence tag may have different meanings depending on or negative main verb + positive tag the tone of voice that is used with it. do you? Henry has been away already this year. hasn't she? positive main verb + positive tag The sentence can be a statement offact or a question. This doesn't always sound like a question: He reads a lot. This frequently sounds more like a question: as. However. i nte rest. did you? mark is always required. have you? .242 sentence tags Sentence tags 43 The pronoun in the sentence tag must match the subject of the main Sentence tags are used in the following combinations: verb. the tag verb will be negative. often something that the are positive are less common. did shel Kerry hadn't doneenough preparation. a re you 7 with. with certain tones of voice. positive main verb + negative tag I see. d o es n' t he? or positive. and vice versa. i n ev erythi n g. you think l'm a fool. had she? Normally. haven'tyou? So you smoke now. a question You saw him in town. hasn't she? o To show interest in something. doesn't he? positive main verb + negative tag Sentence tags can be negative Mary will pass her driving test this time. di d n't th ev ? Ri ch o r d seem s to h av e I o st. Sentences in which both parts o To point out or remark on something. o To say something thatthe speakerexpects the listenerwill agree You a ren't li steni n g. These sentences must be used carefully listener cannot deny. So. This often repeats part of what the Rising tone: question previous speaker has said: She's gone out. they can sound aggressive or judgemental. won't she? They went with you. depending on whether yourvoice rises orfalls at the end. hasn't he? .

I'm waiting. haveyou? The imperative is used to give commands and orders. The basic form of the imperative remains the same whether it is addressed to one or more people. the sentence is The imperative often begun with So. Don't lose that kev. There is also a specialtype of imperative. they do have an understood sulrject.z+7.'you'.'re late. Come on. Seep. . Although the main feature of sentences in the imperative is that they have no grammatical subject. The form of the verb used forthe imperative is the base form of the main verb. and crossthe road. The negative imperative is made with do + not or don't. Open your mouth and say'Aaaoh' .turn right. which is used without a subject. The word order of a sentence in the imoerative is: verb + object (if needed). This type of tag can also be used in a challenging manner. that is used when you need to include the speaker. Come on. Walkto the corner. soyou've been here allthetime. Do not come backwithout it! . Mary. using let s.44 sentence tags the imperative 4s When a tag is used to show interest in something. Commands and orders Oh.

Don't usethis spray near o naked flame. so the subject that is . . The imperativeof do+a main verbcan be used: Let's pool our resources. it will be good for you. Do stoptalking! l'm trying to work. Wouldyou getit. to show get it. Havea pieceofcake. shall we? Do trv to eat a little of this. shall we? . Don't go on the ice. Let's gofor o walk after supper. . to give instructions. Making suggestions . to give an order. Do let's havea lookatyour new computer. Let's notworry oboutthat now. Let's(let+ us) + main verb is used in the tst person plural only. Chris. . You can also issue a command when vou use a sentence in Keep quiet. In ordinary English the negative is lets not+ main verborsometimes don'tlet's+ main verb. Goaway. Don't let'sworry aboutthot now. Comeround and seeme sometime. . an order. Pleose let'sgoto the cinema tonight. I'm certainly not going to get it . Let's phoneher now. . for polite emphasis. Suggestions which start with let soften end with the sentence tag shallwe? Dotakeyour coat off. . to be persuasive. to give advice orwarnings. the declarative or the i nterrogative.246 the imperative the imperative 47 The uses of the imperative are as follows: . It includes both the speaker and the hearer. Let's visit M al col m thi s weekend. understood is represented by the plural we. to make an offer or an invitation. especially when you are trying to encourage someone to do something Becareful! with you. Note that the imperative is not the only way to form a command or Stopthat. Don't forgetto take your passpart with you. Ap ply th e gl u e thi n ly a n d eav e it fo r ten I mi n ute s.then? I'm busy.

A practical reason for using a vocative is to supply the missing but understood subject. The vocative can be a proper noun. get offthere! comeback! A command can also be phrased as a request.This is where you mention a person's name or some other way of identifying the person Do let's is the emphatic form. N o. and act on it. The answer to a suggestion with let's is normally either. . to whom a command or request is being addressed. Let u s be cl ea r about thi s. Let's i nvite M a I col m ov er th i s weeken d. do n't I et's d o th at. tet's not. Tony. . Avocative is also combined with an interrogative clausetoform a request. would you poss methe hammer? Could I speokto you privately for a minute. Let's phone her now. Sue? When a vocative is used with an imperative clause. . Would you stop talking now. The imperative is often used with avocative.).No. no. do you know where I putthe DVD? let's not or sometimes. shall we? -Yes. the pronoun you. The vocative can come before or after the main clause. Peter.let's or no. The vocative Letus notlose sightofour oims. or a noun phrase.David. J enny ? Let's phone her now. H ave you seen Ch ri s recently. Sam.. The uncontracted form let us + main verb is occasionallV used in Hey. A vocative forms a part of many questions. come here! Comehere.. Let us hope thatthiswill never happen agoin. so that the right person will understand the command or request. yes. pl ease. stoptolking! formal and written Eng lish. the negative is let us not + main verb. and go to sleep. do let's buy it! David. don't let's (. dorling.248 the imperative the vocative 4s In formal English. shall we? . Woul d you get off there.let's. the sentence is usually a command. It's a very good bargain. Sam.

.ceitto say he escaped with onlv a caution. however. a demand. The subjunctive is used. Suff. It is vitol thIt they be stopped ot once. except for urgent warnings. ls it really necessory that she workall hours of the day? I demandthothe do somethingto make upforthis. The subjunctivewas formerly used in English for situations that were improbable orthat expressed a wish. That is. or a resolve. the use ofthe vocative is considered rude orabrupt. There should be a comma The subjunctive between the vocative part of the clause and the remainder. found in certain set phrases and in very formal forms of speech and writing.2so the vocative the subjunctive 2sr Note the punctuation. especially in less formal speech. I only ask that he cease beh aving in this extroordinory monner. The clause containing the subjunctive is linked to the main clause with thdr. I $ . The present su bju nctive The form in the present tense is exactly the same as the base form in all persons of the verb. in very formal English. lt is only rarely used in modern British English. This use of the subjunctive is more common inAmerican English than in British English. lt is. British speal<ers usuallytal<e advantage of $ other ways of expressing the same message. Cod savethe Queen! Cod blessyou! 6od help us! Heaven help us! Heaven forbidthltthat should hoppen to me. there is no -s on the 3rd person singular. a formal recommendation. in subordinate clauses that follow verbs expressing a desire. As part of a command.

to express regret or longing lf Vourfatherwere alive hewould helpyou.2s2 the subjunctive the subjunctive 2s3 I only zskthat he should cease behaving in this extraordinary monner. . It isvital to stop them at once. the past subjunctive form wereis sometimes used with the tst and 3rd person singular. I wish I were taller. The past subjunctive In written English and in very formal speech. in place of the normal Dast form wos. The past subjunctive may be used: . to express doubt or improbability. after as if/asthough and similar expressions. You talkto him os if hewere your slave! Some people behave as though dogswere human. It is vital thatthev are stopped at once. lf only hewere here now! . lf I were rich I would buy a Ferrari. after if or I wish. ls it really necessary for her to work all hours of the day? I demandthathe does somethingto make upforthis.

This surprised or upset. they are more like a noise than a word. Sometimes sort of exclamation is called an echo. In this case they are called interjections. . Richard's passedlThat's brilliant! Sally's here. Help! Nonsensef Blast! Rubbish! Exclamations can also consist of: . She's here! Whot a relief! Ugh! Phew! Wow! Huh! Many exclamations consist of just one word. Richard's passed the exam. Anotherform of exclamation is when the hearer repeats part of the sentence that he or she hasjust heard. Isn'tit a warm day! Aren'.zs4 exclamations exclamations zss Exclamations .tthey kind! . How silly! How kind of him! They may also have the form of a negative guestion. what+ noun phrase Whato pity! What o lovely day! what rubbish! . . They are not always whole sentences. This is used when the hearer Exclamations are short utterances that you make when you are very finds it hard to believe what has been said or is very surprised. or how+ adjective.

then? . HosTamsin called round yet? -Yes. That is. lf the verb is in a simple tense you can use the supporting auxiliary do as the verb in the response. yes. Are you coming to the party tonight? should. You usually just use the first part of the verb phrase in a compound verb to make a response.I certainly will. When are you going to London. Vou can. the first auxiliary verb or the modal verb becomes the resDonse form. I certainlywill. they rnay be Laurence could be running if itwosn'tfor his injury. . Responses are made in answerto a question ora statement byanother person in the course of conversation.OnTuesday. Can we leave early? -Yes. Will you be doing some shopping? . -Yes. but can also be phrases or single words. Do you like courgettes? -Yes. she has. Should I be doingthis differently? -Yes. OnTuesday. I do. Like exclamations. he could be. shewas. because a response uses our knowledge of what has just been said. it can be classed as a sentence. Although a response may not have a sulrject or contain a main verb. WasAndrea crying? -Yes. full sentences. The sulrject or the verb will usually be understood from the context. Responses usually do not make sense on their own.2s6 responses responSeS zs7 Responses Some speakers preferto use the modal and the auxiliaryform together.

Two or more clauses can be joined to make a compound sentence or He picked it up and ran over to her. largely by what is felt to be the main message of a sentence. when. I stopped seeing her because she moved to Liverpool. Usually. lt will usually be introduced by a linking word such as and grabbed her handbag. Each clause is of equalimportanceand gives information of equal value. joined by a word such as and.l'll say no more. orwithin the main clause. when one clause is of principal importance and the A clause is a group of words which contains a verb. Sinceyou seemto have made upyour mind. D rea min g ab o ut J enny. in which the verb is finite. I d rove to Co atbri dge an d went o n to Sti rli n g. or o[ called a coordinating conjunction. whowas sitting atthe end of the bench. Compound sentences Simple sentences A compound sentence is one that consists of two main clauses. or thdt. Complex sentences Compound-complex sentences Complexsentences are those that contain a subordinate clause as well as a main clause.2s8 sentences and clauses sentences and clauses 2se Sentences and clauses Most subordinate clauses can come before. becouse. we have a can befinite comolex sentence with one main clause and one subordinate clause. a complexsentence. . Angie came over andwe decidedto use my car becausehers was playing up. The position that a subordinate clause is placed in is determined He missedtheturnoff. which the clauses follow each other. For example. The order of the clauses can be very important for the meaning. To cookpasta. Simple sentences consist of one clause. the main clause. but. The linking words are called subordinating conjunctions. always use a large pan. Ann went to the bank. These have more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause. He stayed at home because he felt ill. if. or non-finite. after. When he arriveE I'll phoneyou. The verb in a clause other clause gives information about the principal one. A subordinate clause is one that contains special information about He ron over to Julie. the timing of an action can be described by the order in She withdrewsoo. he mi ssed the tu r noff. Usethis pan for the pasta . He ran over to her and picked it uP.

to join more than two clauses. neither. This is often also true of any The conjunction but is used to join clauses where there is a contrast. it does not have to be Do you undertlke detailed or intricate work? repeated in front ofthe second verb. . or. The conjunctions and. but the last two must be joinedby and. Coordination He's a quietly spoken man. lf the subject of both clauses is the same. Sally goes to work but Ann doesn't hove a job. When there is a positive choice between the subjects of two clauses. ot yet. but. . Martin said hewould either meetthem for lunch ortakethem t0 tea. . shewantedto buy a neut dressbutshe couldn'tfind one sheliked. . to join clauses where there is a contrast that is of a surprising nature. This is a complicated butintriguingfilm. auxiliary verbs that may be present. and and but are used to coordinate pairs of adjectives The conjunctionand is used: in a predicative position. (either) or. . This bookis useful for planning and carrying out research. f n particular.zoo joining clauses joining clauses z6t Joining clauses The conjunction yet is used. Each clause becomes a main clause Shewas suffering from a knee injury yet she still won the match. The clauses are linked by words called coordinating conjunctions. She came over and *e gave me a hug. in the new sentence. drove to the bank. neither. yet he still manages to command The process called coordination joins two short clauses of equal attention. The former President and his wife were there. mainly in written English. nor. I usethis chair when I om reading and working. Conj u nctions come at the ortwo words of the same class. the earlier clauses can be joined by a comma. but. beginning of a clause. the bank and two phrases of the same kind. you use the pair of words either and or to joi n the clauses. withdrew soo. Ann (either) stays at home or visits her family. the subject is used in the first of the joined clauses only.and norare also used tojoin Ann wentto withdrew goo. such as and. lack and lill fell down the hill. to join clauses where there is no contrast or choice.Which do you prefer? Ann got into the car. EitherVou cometo my place or I'll meetyou atwork. and went shopping. lf the subject of the joined clauses is the same. importance with a conjunction.

incidentlater. beforethe subject in thefirst clause of the group.or to join more than two clauses if you repeat the The words either and neither can also be used as a pronoun or as a use of or. writers treat all but the final or as optional. You can have either. (or) take them ta tea. When there is a negative choice between the subjects of two clauses. The use of either.zsz joining clauses joining clauses 203 When it is used in this way either must come in one of these places: There was barely enough meat for the children. The word either can be left out if the sentence meaning is clear. nor did he remember much aboutthe . You can chooseto study eitherShakespeare or Keats. You can use either.. NeitherVimala nor Katie knew the answer. . )InewLs nota fool. Either bookwill do. Compare and/or. determiner. question order must be used. neither did they have ony breod. Colin said he would (either) meetthem for lunch. Neither bookis at all suitoble. Eric hardly saw the frght. in front of the main verb and after any auxiliary verb. lf there is a sulrject in the second clause. Either. or. lan can (either) comewith us ortake a taxi later. a barely or scorcely.or emphasizes that the two clauses are alternatives and cannot both betrue.l'm sorrv. It is neither possible nor desirable thatthey should be invited. Each can then be used on its own: it does not then have ajoining function. neither/norwas she preporedto be blamed forthe error. and/or have them overfor a coffee. Colin said he would meetthem for lunch. . you can use the pair of words neither and norto join the clauses.. and norcan be used as conjunctions inside a noun phrase ora verb phrase. He didn'tknowwhetherto stay or go. neither.. or have them over for a coffee. Theword neithercan be used on its own to connecttwo clauses if the first clause contains word with broad negative meaning such as nof.. Some She is either desperate orjust sil ly. lt doesn't matter.

the other clauses are subordinate clauses.z77. Reported clauses usually follow directly on from the main reporting clause. . Shall I dothe shoppingwhen l ftnish work? We stayed in lnverness. as long as They went outside as soon as the rain stopped. Asthey were going downstairs. Seep. most adverbial clauses usually follow the main clause. and reported clauses. a phrase ending in as.g. e. I could do the shopping for you. words like since.the phone rang. where. Maureen plons to live in Austr1lia if she can get a job there. theWH-words but.word. For example. What I like about him isthat he always tries his best. relative clauses. the word thdf. when.g. When I finish work. if. The different types of subordinate clause . . or lry a WH. or yet. conditional clauses. either on its own or used with another word What matters most is thatyou treat everyone fairly. who. or. I don't know where you live. although they can also come before the main clause. Each of the subordinate clauses is associated with an introductory They are introduced bVthat word that signals what type of clause it is thatfollows. when. because include noun clauses. e. why she acts likethis is beyond me. They aren't coming because they've had an orgument. she returned it to the drawer. so thItor supposingthat adverbial clauses. one of the clauses is the main clause. This isthe problem thatwe'refacing otthe moment. Noun clauses She told me that Philip was in France.264 subordination subordination 26s Su bordination These words are called subordinating conjunctions. e.which isinthescottish Highlands. After she had reod the diary. as soon as. . . These are clauses that can be used as eitherthe subject orthe olrject of a sentence or in other places where a noun phrase is usually found. They include: When two or more clauses are joined by a conjunction other than and. . Each of the subordinating clauses has a preferred position.g. Howthethief gotin is o mystery.

before. while. He made an impact everywherethathewent. when . Cameron wandered in. how. just as.266 subordination adverbial clauses 2G7 Word order after a WH. till. or everywhere.word is the same as in a statement. Mandy looked as if she had seen a ghost. Manner: sets out how the main clause was carried out. . introduce d by after. The moment he said it. Place: sets where the action of the main clause takes place. l'll call for you whenever you like. the way that he does.wherever. since. as soon as. The room was decoratedjust as he had imagined.Thefollowing are the main types of adverbialclause: Time: sets the timing for the main clause. the moment (that). Wherever you looked.l haven'tbeen ableto sleep. until. You have to fosten it asthough itwas a shoelace. as. Adverbial clauses Adverbial clauses generallyfollow the main clause unless otherwise stated. whenever. as though. once. introduced by where. . I put it where nobody would ftnd it. We should go as soon asyou are ready. as if. he wls to be found. Since shewent away. introd uced by as. I started to feel better. . . may come before or after the main clause. . or the wav that.

Leave a bit for Becky in case she's hungry when she gets in . try to sove a little each month. introduced by as. introduced by so + adjective/adverb + that or by such d+ noun phrase +that. Ben was so angry that he kicked the wall hard. even if we . eve n if. Since no onewas ready. I sat down andturned on theTv. in clse. . I Put itjustthere so that it holdsthe door open. or lest. Purpose can also tre indicated by so as to. Contrast: suggests that something else may need to be taken into account regarding the main clause. or since. I don'twantto gobecause l'm notkeen on old movies. maycome before orafterthe main clause. introduced by so that. He putthe choir againstthe doorin orderto hold it open. . We musttryto do somethingforthe environment. because. N ina is such a g en e ro u s p erso n th at she's often sh o rt of m oney. ca n't solve all the worl d's probl ems. . . m u ch a s. ' H owev er mu ch you m ay want to spen d y ou r money. i ntrod uce d lry olthou gh. in ordertof ollowed by the base form of a verb. the ground was still very dry. out the action of the main clause. Although it had rained. . . howev e r.268 adverbial clauses adverbial clauses z6s Reason: sets out the thinking behind the action of the main clause. in orderthat. I'm living with my mum and dad so asto save monev. or whi e. maycome before orafterthe main clause. Purpose: sets out what it was hoped would be achieved by carrying . even though. Result: sets out what happened when the main clause was carried out.

information about a particular noun. These words are called relative pronouns. lf it is the object. Note that some of them Defining and non-defining relative clauses also function as interrogative pronouns. which is o good place for a picnic. begin with who. whom. . Subject and olrject relative pronouns come at the beginning of the relative clause. A defining relative clause is never separated from the noun of the verb in the relative clause. restrictive relative clauses. They function rather like adjectives. and arefound as postmodifiers in a noun phrase. which was a relief to us all.The noun It was definitely Diana that she was referring to. There are two sorts of relative clause. See also p. The other type of relative clause adds extra information to the whole Idon't likethe music they are playing. zrr. whose. ot that. or object I don't like th e m usi c th at they' re playi ng.27o relative clauses relative clauses 271 Relative clauses In informal English a relative clause can end in a preposition. A relative pronoun can be the subject Some relative clauses act rather like an adjective by providing more The people who live upstairs are hoving a party. The girl who was on the bus with us is called Sonia. Thomas went home early. . These are non-defining relative clauses or non- A mon I met on holiday phoned lat night. who worksfrom home. It's a great game atwhich anyone can excel. it can be left out in by a comma. I don'tlikethe musicthatthey are playing. Relative clauses normally It's great gomewhich anyone can excel at. The dog that bit me hod to be put down. A relative pronoun can also be the object of a preposition. We stopped in Dntrburgh. that is modified is called the antecedent. The peoplewho live upstairs are having a party. Itwas definitely Diana to whom she was referring. ordinary informal speech and writing. of the main clause. especially if the relative pronoun is omitted Relative clauses tell us more about nouns. kept an eye on the housefor us. This type of clause is separated from the main clause by commas. A man whom I met on holiday phoned last might. These are called defining relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses. The man next door.

They will notfinish their homework unlessthey stort now. The use of the modal verb may or miqhf in the main clause suggests that there is some doubtwhetherthe main verb action will be achieved. if you osk her. clause (sometimes called an if-clause). Non-defining.l cantry and get sometime off work. Type r The main clause uses will. The ifl-clause uses the present simple tense. The Canadian one is a lawyer. We'll be lateif we don'tleave now. Conditional sentences consist of a main clause and a conditional My brother who lives in Canada is a lawyer.we'llbe late. lf you need more helpers.272 relative clauses conditional clauses 273 Compare: Conditional clauses Defining. live in Canada. or might+ the base form of a main v'erb.we'll belate. Unlesswe leave now. The conditional clause usually (There are several brothers. is a lawyer.) begins with ifor unless. There are three main types of conditional sentence. My brother. you moy get o seat. Vou'll getthere on time. They suggest that the action in the main clause is quite likely to happen. (There is only one brother. He happens to We'll be late unlesswe leave now. Type r sentences refer to the future. who lives in Canada. moy. lf you book earlv. He is a lawyer. The conditional clause can come before or after the main clause.) lf we don'tleave now. Mory might deliver your parcel. can. . lf you take the first bus. She'll be cold if she doesn't wear a coat. you will get 0 seat. lf you book eorly.

l'll be ableto send youthe books. switch offthe machine.but I don't think l'll win the lottery. . lf I were you. monev on the house. or might + the base form of a main happened but did not. the present simple tense. (. lf you would sign here. Type 2 sentences refer to an imaginary situation. This is used to refer to universal truths. The if-clause uses the present continuous or present simple tense The past subjunctive is often used when giving advice to someone. if we hadn't spent so much lf you'll wait a minute. suggestions and give advice. The i[-cf ause useswill/would and the main clause uses a modalverb. lf I were you.274 conditional clauses conditional clauses 27s Type z I n Type 3 sentences the speaker is looking back from the present to a past time and event.. This is used to give advice or orders for particular lf I won the lotterv. Plants die if they don't get enough water. or might + have +the Past participle of a main verb. orto lf burglars broke into my house. lf a red light shows here. The speaker is talking about what might have The main cf ause uses would. lf you heatwater to rco"C.. and the main clause uses a modal verb. lf I had known aboutthe exam. give an opinion about a situation in the following ways: Would you be very angry if I failed mV exam? . The if-clause uses the past perfect tense. We could have had o longer holiday. The if-clause uses the present simple tense and the main clause uses or the past subjunctive. could. The if-clause uses the present simple tense and the main clause is in the imperative. the doctor can see you. please. The main clause uses would. afford a holiday. could. showing regret. They imply that the action in the if-clause will probalrly not happen. we could go to the party.) . blaming. I'd tell them the truth.This type of sentence is used when making excuses. You shouldturn down his rodio if you don'twantthe neighbours to complain. I would have paid more ottention in closs..they wouldn'tfind any money.butyou do spend all your money on lotterytickets. I'd phone her straight lwov. This is used to make especially about what the person should do. I would buy a house in France. you could lf the llarm goes off. either because the wrong thing was done or verb. Jim We would save q. makeyour way outside to the car park. situations or sets of circumstances. orgiving an explanation. .So a day if we didn't eat any lunch . If you'rethinking of buying o couldtry minefirst.) lf you didn't spend all your money on lottery tickets. lf lent us his cor. (. The if-clause uses the past simple tense because nothing was done. Type I . it boils. Conditional clauses can also be used to talk about consequences. This is used to make a request or to give a polite order.

' 'There is nathing we can do about it. or afte'r them. ri.i: :::.'Monica said.' . :- and informalwriting are: i . : ..' Monica replied ..'There is a nothing we can do about it.1t The wo rds reported are.ab o ut it..Jt is common in novels and otherwriting where the actualwords of a speakerarequoted-.' Monica said.g we could do aboutit. do"aboufi. :|:l Direct speech .. marl. . Direct speech gives the actual words that the speaker used..normal ly accompa.. . :. 1...r.forms of the modals:used in. I'i.226 conditional clauses reporting speech fiy Reportingspeoch . t1 i.'we'll justhaveto askfor help. 'lt's no good.n..verb.r. : . oT at a natu ral pausd inside the repoirted sentence. . '::'\) .come beforethe words.' The re's n othi n g we con d o..:i11. orwe can build the words into our own sentences (reported speech).was saidon any occasion.i. I Monica said.. .ilr. ' : Another name for reported speech is indirect spl".. ..n ied by a reportin g verb. r M o ni ca sai d.'There's nothing we can do about it. We can repeat the actual words used (direct speech). . Monica said... In the rnain clause the eontracted.\ . .. . l'd have or lwouldve lcould've lmight've Alonica said/declered thottherewas nsthing we could .said tltattherewas nathin...that were actually spoken. ' 'There isnpthingwa cdn da aboitt . .' The reporting.. . : There aretwo ways of writing down or reporting what..spgg66 Moniea.

The comma comes inside the quotation marks. inquire. . . (See also p.wonder. The linking word thdtcan be left out after most reporting verbs. The words that are spoken are put in a reported clause. 296.g. The reporting verb in the main clause tells us how the sentence was 'Why did you do it/ she asked. but does not use the actual words that the speaker uttered. and the reported clause will be ifor whether. The main clause with the reporting verb usually comes before the reported clause. . statement. query.) Lucy said Alan had been accepted at drama school. lf the reported clause asks a question. a reporting verb. and wonder. Single quotation marks are often used to draw attention to a word Jamietold Dad (that) he had passed his drivingtest. There is also a main clausethat contains 'There is nothing we can do about it. unless the reporting verb comes within a sentence. mind your own business!' he snapped. Thereis'. The subject and the reporting verb are sometimes reversed. the main clause is linked to the reported clause by that. utere some really cool shopsthere. Jamie told Dad (that) he had passed his driving test. but she had heardthatthere te.l.' Lynn askedwhether Pippa had beentothe new shopping mall. that is being mentioned for a particular purpose. e. . say. Reported speech or indirect speech reports something that was saio. mark or an exclamation. ask. but the links iflor whethercannot be left out.278 reporting speech reported speech 27s . say. . Pippa repliedthat she hadn't. He called me a'stubborn old goat' . The actualwords spoken always begin with a capital letter. uttered. comment. 'Haveyou been tothe new shopping mall yet?' enquired Shona.' said Monica. unless the reporting Reported speech verb is positioned inside a reported sentence that itself does not require a comma.g. answer. tell. Typical reporting verbs are: agree. reporting verb by a comma. Jo h n repli ed th at h e p referred Sca rl ett J oh a nsson. the main verb will be a question verlr e. inquire. remark. ask. explain. Reported speech always has two clauses. unless they are followed by a question Peter askedwhether Mandy was feeling better. Lucy said Alan had been accepted at droma school. Thereis no suchword os'fubber'.lf the reported clause is a 'Oh. Monica said.The link between the main clause "l've already seenit. They are separated from the Katietold methatAlisonis goingto resign.'nothingwe can do oboutit." John replied. double quotation marks). The words spoken are enclosed in inverted commas (single or M a ry sai d that her favo u rite a cto r w a s Ben W hi sh aw.

' verb by a comma. Changes in the reported words The most common change is a change of tense. must becomes had to in reported speech. and does She said that she was leavina him.g. She said thot she believed us.g. I may become she. when you report on a letter or on a recent conversation. she could 'l believeyou.' She said thot she had ftnished.3o on Friday. e. the words put into the reported clause 'Hello Jake? lt's me. Friday may become in three days'time.There's one coming now.' 'l'll leave here at 8. the link is left out. goingtotake a bustoyour place.' She saidthat she had been there before. is not enclosed in inverted commas. not begin with a capital letter unless it is a proper noun. I've arrived here on time. so I'd better run. She rang to saythat she'd arrived there on time ond was going 'm looki n g forw ard to seei n g y ou. e. Harry Potter was on thlt night. The tense in reported clauses The verb may also change. telephone conversation.3o on Friday.g.g. e. so she hadto run.' Evelyn wonderedwhether the concertwould be sold out. Speech in a reported clause is not separated from the reporting 'l'm leovingyou.' I' to take a busto our place. 'l'vefinished. Mary said .' She said that she would see him in three days' time. In this case. Pronouns and possessive determiners have to change in reported A reporting verb in the present tense can be used in the main clause speech because ofthe change of speaker. Penny. coming atthatvery moment.a youmay become usorhim. An alternative position for main clauses that would normally have a linking that. Reported questions are notfollowed by question marks. .28o reported speech reported speech z8r Miriom asked if borrow Leonie's mp3 player. and I'm do not exactly match the words actually spoken.' She saysthat she will leave home ot 8. e.Then she said that one wos She says she's looking forward to seeing us. When you use reported speech. 'l'll seeyou on Monday. is afterthe reported clause. . 'l've been here before. Expressions of place and time may also have to change. here may become there or home.

2sz reported speech reported speech 283 'Hello.' H e asked (us) if/wheth er we were rea dy. where. see p. andthatshe's coming here by bus. and I'm goingtotake a Direct yeslno questions are linked to the reporting clause by ifor bustoyour place. pleose?' Hewantedto knowwhere)im had gone. 'WherehasJim gone?' direct speech reported speech Hewanted to know where Jim had gone. She says thlt she has arrived on time direct and indirect questions. . statements. Questions 'Stop calling me nomes!' Verb tenses in reported questions undergo the same changes as in She told him to stop calling her nomes. 'Don't park here. Question order is not used in reported speech. e"g.e. please. Requests for objects are reported with ask for+ object. The word order in a reported question is the same as that of a direct present continuous past continuous statement. it is more common to use a past tense when reporting speech. no part present perfect past perfect of the verb comes before the subiect. She asked us notto leave our things on the floor. Requests for action are reported with ask+ object + to infinitive.' whether. present simple pastsimple . )ake? I've arrived here ontime. 'whottimeisit?' The changes of tense may be summarized as follows: He asked what time it was.279. q uestion words. . However. WH.l + object + to infinitive. it's reserved for the doctors.when. The reporting verb can be used in the passive. 'whattimeisit?' He asked whot time it was. 'Where hasJim gone?' 'Can I hovethe salt. who. i. 'Areyou ready?' He asked (us) if/whether we were ready. He asked for the salt. are used in both Penny has just phoned. p r ese nt p e rfe ct co nti n u o u s st p erfe ct co nti n u o u s p a past simple past perfect or past simple future conditionol Orders and requests orders are reported with te. 'Areyou readyl 'Please don't lelveyourthings on the floor.' I wastold notto parkthere.



Dickens'novels . or theirs. the apostrophe is not used and the word order is changed. the frant of the house (notthe house's front) . t whole phrases My next-door neighbou(s dogwas barl<ing away like mad. Mindyour p':. We're getting used to each othe(s habits. or a historical Note that: building. each other An apostrophe can be used in plurals of letters and numbers to make them more readable. the boy's books [= the books betonging to the bov] I popped round to Mum's this afternoon. It's nobodrls fault but mine. added to the end of people or their names to indicate that you . He worked as a schoolteacher during the'6ts and early '9)cts. An apostrophe is nof used to form the plurals of words such as pototoes or tomotoes. -'s isadded tothe end of certain professions oroccupationsto When the possessor is an inanimate object (rather than a living thing). We keptfogetting eoch others names. . the boys' books [= the books belonging to the boys] ' Note that if the word is a classical creek name. an apostrophe only is sometimes preferred. I'm going over toHorrtls for tea tonight. An apostrophe is not used to form possessive St Ciles' Cathedrat pronouns such as its. She's on her wav to the docto( s. and q's. the middle of the street (notthe street's middle) J ames is at the hai rdresseft . indicate workplaces. His z's look o bit like/s. but she wasn't in.288 the apns[rophe lhe apostropfie 2Be . yours. -'s can also be added to: . John and Cath's house was onW last night. She got straightA'sin her exams. the owner is. Isthis anybodt/s pencit case? French students rioted in'58 [short for'968']. \4lith letters and nurn[:ers indefinite pronouns such as somebody or anywhere An apostrophe is used in front of two figures referring to a yearordecade.s is To test whether an apostrophe is in the right place. think about who are tall(ing about their home.

it's = it is. lf 'd is followed by a past participle.. In ordertoworl( outwhatthe contracted forms's and d represent. it represents the auxiliary had. He/sheflt/one's (is) I /w e /y o u /h e/ sh ey't / o n e /th eV'd (h a d) lf 's is followedby got. or the negative not..::. lf s is followed try a past participle. lf 's is followed by an -ingform. l/we/thev haven't He/she/ithne hosn't If U is followed by a base form. butnever in a marathon. She's reading a book aboutthe ancient Egyptions. forms of auxiliary verbs perfec'[ be have "' I'm l/we/they've (have) T:: . lf 7 isfollowed by ratherorbeffer. She's nervaus obout meeting mV parents. you l'dgiveup now. it represents the modal auxilia ry would. it represents the auxiliary hos. e.The dogwas scratching its ear. need to lool< at what follows it: Whenwewere kidswdd spend hoursout on our bikes. Contractions are usually shortened It's often said that rock stars are frustrlted octors. lt s a holiduy represents the auxiliary is.:. would t /w e /y ou /h e /shelt/on e /th ey'd (wout d) She's gottwo brothers and one sister. t'd rsther nottalk aboutthat. e. more letters have been missed out. He's Eoing to tbiza for his holidays. it representsthe modalauxilia rywoutd. It's got everything you could want. He/she/it/one isn't She coutdn't believe what she'd done. its = belonging to it. it can represent is as it is used in CCIntracted forrns the passive. not We/you/they aren't t'd raced againsthim before.g. He's brittiant at maths.g.2eo the apostrophe the apostrophe 2s1 REMEMBER lf 's is followed by an adjective or a noun phrase.'"sen'[ We/you/they're (are) He/she/it/one's (has) tt's been ages sincewe last sow you. it represents the main verb is. We'd better go home soon. . . An apostrophe is used in shortened forms of words to show that one or He's portrayed by the media as a kindty old grandfather. if I wereVou.

Sometimes a comma is used even when the main clause comes first. different subjects. We did canoeing. The computer (that) I borrowed kept on crashing. z7).e. used attributively) or after a linking verb (i. She moved to Los Angeles. and jam (but bread and butter). Commas are normally used if the subordinate clause comes before the Note that the comma is often not given before the final and or or. where she was immediatety signed as a singer songwriter. A comma is not usually used before an adjective that is followed by This is the type of clause that adds to information about a noun or and. noun phrase. Commas are used between adjectives. butwe decidedto go outfor o wolk Separating items in a list anyway. Itwas a hot. . whether they come before We should be ableto finish theworkby the end of theweek. just call me. is keeping an eye on the house while we're away. used if nothing unexpected turns up between now and then. Separating relative clauses fnom main clauses It'swet. dry and dusty road. Commas are used to separate three or more items in a list or series.zsz the cornma the cornma 2s3 Thecomffia(. main clause. who works from home. Main clauses that are joined together with and or but do not normally have a comma before the conjunction unless the two clauses have Let's moke surethe money goestothe peoplewho need it rnost. lf you have any problems. butter. cold and windy outside.e. Commas are used to mark off non-defining relative clauses (see p. They breed dogs. Separating surbordinate clauses frorn main clauses She got out bread. Separating adjectives if the clauses are particularly long. The comma marl<s a short pause between elements in a sentence. since these simply postmodifythe noun. You go out of the door and turn immediately left. climbing and archery" Just call me ifyou have any problems. cats. z7o). Separating main ctauses Commas are not required in defining relative clauses (see p.) My next-door neighbour. predicatively). rabbits and homsters. Itwas cold outside. the nou n (i.

Iadies and gentlemen . pleose? A comma must be used between the day of the month and the year.No. canyou come and help me. Peter said:'Dream on. With question tags and short responses In rep0rfed spec(h Commas are used before question tags and after yes or no in short Commas are used to follow direct speech (if there is no question or responses. Morch jt. 'You're crazyl Claire exclaimed. or to show that it comes next.. exclamation marl< after the q uotation). it is separated from the rest of the sentence by a from the rest ofthe sentence. Commas are used to separate the name of a person or group being addressed from the rest ofthe sentence. please raise your glasses in a taostto the happy couple.l quite enjoyed it. isn't he? Peter soid.zon . Now then . isn't it? 'l don't understand this question . This is a particularly common practice in American English. He's up to dote with att his injections. [n dates Come on. aren't you? . be reasonable. when the two numbers are next to each other. I octually passed! However.' said Peter. I' m not.let's see what's onW tonight.' Areyou the mother of these children? -Yes.2s4 the comma the carnma 2es With adverbials Witl"r e{ iseour rse rna rkers When an adverbial such as however.. 'Whot doVouthinkyou're doing/ Dad bellowed. believe it or not. police would not confirm this rumour. With vocatives '. comma. Dad.therefore or unfortunatety modifies Commas are used to separate discourse markers lil<e Well and Now then a whole sentence. I try to avoid using the car as much as possible.'t don't understand this question. Well . lt is also possible to punctuate reported speech of the type Peter said. Actually.'using a colon instead of a comma. You' re Amy Osborne.l 0m. Therefore. Olivia.' And now . It's quite cotd todoy.

* to indicate an unusual use of a word She pointed ofithftwebsites used far internetvoting coutd be'spoofed'. lt is common Note that the full stop comes after the quotation marks in such in novels and other writing where the actual words of a speaker are cases.' Other uses Single quotation marl<s are sometimes used: .yet?' enquired Shona. Thereis'.2s6 quotation marl(s quotation marl(s zsl Quotation marks (' ') or (" ") to suggest that the writerwant to be distanced from a word. . 'Have yau been ta the new shapping precinct. The comma comes inside the quotation marlcs. to draw attention to a word Theward'boak' can be used as o noun or a verb. 278). unless the reporting verb is positioned inside a reported sentence that itself does not require a comma. The words spoken are enclosed in single or double quotation marks. quoted (see p. . Direct speech I d o n' t a g ree with this' m er cy ki t t i n g' b u si n ess. "l've already seen it. Monico soid." John replied. Direct speech gives the actual words that a speaker used.'nothingwe can do aboutit.

newspapers. days of the week magazines. films. etc. Mount Everest The Mediterranean Sea When t wls20. a capital letteris usually used forallthe main contentwords in Wednesday Saturday the title (i. months oftheyear Ine ttmes Hello! August January Twelfth Night The Secret Carden Newsnight Mamma Mial .e.l dropped out of university ond became a model.2s8 capital letters capital letters 2ss Capital letters . . religions . Where there are several words.unless they are the first word in the title). company names Capital letters are also used for the first letter in proper nouns. not the prepositions or the determiners . nationalities Spanish Iraqi . Dyson Harper Collins These include: . people's names tslam Buddhism Jenny Forbes Wlliam Davidson Capital letters are also used for the first letter in titles of books. lanouaoes Swahili Flemish . . . Wshows. oeooraohical locations A capital (or'upper case') letter is used to mark the beginning of a t\ustralia loch Ness sentence. pulrlic holidays Christmas Yom Kippur .

C. Hardie indirect question ora polite request. When an abbreviation consists of a shortened word such as Re.5. Will you open your books on page 4.1o.++ orr. headings and titles. after abbreviations. in initials for people's names. department R. a bit. Do yau like this sort of music? Not really. and nota question mark. n. P"S. Do pop in nexttimeyou're passing. She asked him where he was going. although this practice is becoming less He asked if the bus had left. is used afteran M.T. although this practice is becoming less Teachin g gramm a r os 0 liberati ng force frequent Wuthering Heights J. government reacted strongtv to the accusation. John Johonsson wilt be speaking on the subject of ' Di sco u r se i n th e Et ectroni c Age'. Dougtas Rd Universal Pictures (UK) Ltd Let's hove some lunch. Re.P. ) When an abbreviation contains the last letter of the shortened word. frequent. to mark the end of a sentence fragment Millions of people now callfhe Nl-'{5 Direct helpline eoch year. Full stops are used: Dr McDonald St Mary'sSchool . the full stop is called a period.3oo the full stop the full stop 3ol The full step ( . oratthe end of headlines. or Prof. I wonder what's hoppened. . The u.. could we orrange o quick meeting to discuss the various options? Prof. Banks Rememberthatafullstop. Areyou cold? -Yes. .K" Rowting lain M.Hammer Ronald 6.y. a full stop is needed. I have to catch a bus in ten minutes. a full stop is not needed. og. Fear grips global stock markets . Ftight BAS+S: dep. to marktheend of a sentence 4t. She'smovedtothe l. Did you see that programme on B1JC 4 last night? . ' Note that full stops are not used in many common sets of initials. In American English.5. your suggestion thatwe shorten the lunch hour. to Helen Douglas on on346l6zqo.

nol Lookatthis mess! He's certain to be elected. . to know whatyou've been doing att thistime. isn't he? Question marks are used in direct questions.'Where areyau going?' Itwas such a beautiful day. is used after an indirect question. The lady said. A reported question should end with a better to use a fu ll stop after a sentence expressing mild full stop. rather than a question mark. t'd iike I wonder what's happened " A full stop also replaces a question marl< at the end of a sentence which lool<s lil<e a question if. i. in fact. Witl you please return the compteted forms to me. it is really a polite request. You know he doesn't live here any longer? Afull stop. lt is words of a speal<er are used. orsome words are omitted. would you please call my brother and ask him to collect my car. like a statement rather than a question. Care is needed here as such a sentence can lool<. excitement or humour. The exclarnation marl< is used after exclamations and emphatic expressions. When wittwe be arrivingT Why did you do that? I can't believe it! Does ony of this matter? Oh. at first sight. when the actual The exclamation mark loses its effect if it is overused. The tady asked where shewas going. Notethatyou puta question markatthe end of aquestion.3o2 the question rnarl< the exclamation marl( 3o3 The question mark ( ? ) The exclamation mark ( ! ) The question marl< marks the end of a question. I felt like a perfect banana.e. even if the words in the sentence are not in the normal question order.

after introd uctory headings Cooki n g ti me:a bout frv e mi n utes. in front of a list the quotation is particularly long.' Make sure you wear clothes made from natural fibres: The Health Minister said: 'The NHS LT. . He said:'You owe methree dollars andtwenty-ftve cents. in front of an explanation or a reason Nevertheless.' . Starttime:rc o'clock. would happen to someone who was really unable to tolerate being locked into such a tiny space? Be patient: the next book in the series has notyet been published. silk ond wool . especially in American English. between two main clauses that are connected It mode me feel claustrophobic: what.3o4 the colon the colon 3os Theeolon(:) infrontof thesecond partof a booktitle The colon indicates a break between two main clauses which is stronger Farming and wildlife: a study in compromise than a comma but weal<er than a full stop. programmewill mean cotton. that patientswitl get occessto more comprehensive information to hetp them moke choices. orwhen . blue and pink. A colon is used: to introduce direct speech. I wonder. tused three colours: green. in more formal writing. Beyond single words: the mostfrequent cotlocotions in spoken Enalish. the main problem remoined: what should be donewiththetwo men? I d ecid e d a ga i n st g o in g aw ay th i s w eeken d : th ewe ather forecastwos dreadful.

but I have a meeting with him on Friday. This is a process which Hayek (a writer who come to The ptane taxied down the runway ready for takeoff. He knew everything about me.fried chicken. Compare: Thewooded area (see map below)is opproximatety 4. theflightwasfour hours late. The holidav was a disaster. in satami.which was described as'luxury'. the punctuation is given outside the hectares. Punctuation given before the closing bracl<ets only when it applies to is A semicolon is also used to separate items in a list. lf the answer is'yes'. t prefer classicol music. rlther different conclusions) also observed.was dirty. then you can use a semicolon. especially if the the bracl(eted section rather than to the sentence as a whole. with: Brackets are also used to show alternatives or options.306 the semicolon bracl<ets 3o7 Thesernicolon(.) --__ (\ ). coleslaw.l had never even heard of him.very hondsame (positivety gorgeous in fact!) and still single. Any student(s)interested in taking plrt should e-mail me" the plane toxied down the runway ready for takeoff.7 to 3.the propellers began to turn. which may already contain commas. continuity between the clauses in your narrative. . my boss). For lunch we had sandwiches (postrami on rye and so on). A goot should give from three to six pints (t. A useful test to work out when to use a semicolon is to ask yourself whetherthe two clauses could be written instead as separate Note that when the structure of the sentence as a whole demands sentences. t'm notthat interested jazz. punctuation aftera bracketed section. listed items are phrases or clauses. Brackets The semicolon is used to mark a breal< between two main clauses Brackets (also called parentheses) are used to enclose a word orwords when there is a balance or a contrast between the clauses. which can be left out and still leave a meaningful sentence. the hotet. He's. Note that it is quite acceptable to use a full stop in these cases. and it rained for the whole fortnight . The engine roared into life. but a semicolon is preferable if you wish to convey the sense of a linl< or I haven't yet spoken to John (t mean )ohn Mapte. The engine roared into life. and potato salad.4 litres) of milk a day.The propellers began to turn.

Byzanti ne cathedral A hyphen is used to join two or more words that togetherform an adjective. education of Emily [the daughter of an absentee landlordl. when The hyphen joins words or parts of words. it would be better to write'unnatural'on the line beloW rather than writing 'un-' on one line and 'natural' on the next.3os square bracl<ets the hyphen 3oe Square brackets [] Thehyphen (-) Square brackets are used. wheel-borrow inter*national listen-ing compli-mentary infor-mation It is best not to add a hyphen if the word is a short one. Hyphens are used at the ends of lines where a word has been split. usually in lrool<s and articles. although they were not originally said or written. For example. where this adjective is used beforethe noun it describes. on up-to^date occount a last-minute rush a six-year-old boy The hyphen is omitted when the adjective so formed comes after the noun or pronoun it describes. supplying words that mal<e a quotation clearer or that comment on it. Prefixes that are used in front of a word beginning with a capital letter always have a hyphen after them. . a wave of anti-British feeting a neo. lf the word Mr Runcie conctuded:'The novet is 0tits strongestwhen you need to split is clearly made up of two or more smallerwords or describing the dignitv of Cambridge fa stave] and the elements. or if it would mean writing just one or two letters at the end or beginning of a line. you put the hyphen at the end of a syllable.' Otherwise. to warn the reader that the word continues on the next line. you should put the hyphen after the first ofthese parts.

sizes and colours . to separate off extra information. re-etect Boots and shoes * alt shapes. stop that immediatelyl . pages 26-42 between two adjectives or noun modifiers that indicate that two countries or groups are involved in something or that an individual has two roles or aspects. A spaced dash (i. a prefix to anotherword.cove ri. r e . He's sixyears old.e.n g f u r nitu r e re-creoUon An unspaced dash (i.3ro the hyphen the dash 3rr The accounts are up to dote. tumbled out.e. Thedash (-) It was oll rather last minute. the Anguitla-st Kitts flight the New York-Montreol trai n . . mother-inlow greot-grandmother Now cnnlaren . at th: beginning and end of a comment that interrupts the flow of a sentence.phi lo so ph er to indicate that someth ing such as a plane or a train goes between two places. Sw e di sh*N o rwegi a n rel ati o ns i m p r ov ed. the United States-Canada freetrade pact a m athem otici a n. . Kenneth. with no space before or after it) is used: to indicatea your Hyphens can be used to split words that have been formed by adding books on page 20. especially to avoid an awl<ward combination of letters or confusion with another word. witfr a single space before and after it) is used: Some common compound nouns are usually written with hyphens.

359 2. words or numbers.-. and occasionary cotons are used in times. ratios and ranges..15 3:3o a.3r2 the slash punctLration in numbers 3r3 Theslash(/) Functuation in numbers The slash separates letters.678 b .543. he/shefit zookm/hr the zoot/oz accounting year http / /www. : ab cd efg. co m 12. 4.09 2. lt is used to indicate Dates alternatives. and in website addresses. Scientific usage Full stops are not used in scientific abbreviations..3.m 21. rzkg 50Cm Ililr::r. Full stops or slashes are often used in dates.28"11 .:30 Long nurnbers used in numlrers to mark off units of thousands and ::ilil::"" 1.r5p.m 2c.

246 coordination z6o-253 be abouttont coordinating conjunctions z6o be goingto'no could 58.to4.icate decimar points abstract nouns r3T clauses tr. auxi iary verb s 13.48 com plement V.276 but 260 doreTS can 58. 254 'd 7z. r69 compouno nouns 150. r83-r9o comma 292*295 adjuncts 17. zz1. z6o attributive adjectives r 83 continuous aspect 23. r75 defining relative clause z7r . r9. r9r com mands 63. r 52.5 25. zl+ be to"n1 count nouns r38. rz4 oren't38 concrete nouns r37 asz6a conditional clauses 273-276 aspect 23.t6z com pou nd-complex sentences andz59 259 animate noun r38. 126-127. 29. 88-89. r55 antecedent 27o compound sentences 258 onv 17"t. 116. 251. 54.273 dash 3il capital letters 298-299 declarative z2S. 17. zzo common genderr44 adverbial clauses 17.174 broad negatives 232. zo4.1v. 258-276 action verbs zr collective nouns r38 1. 269 be't6.-t53.162 causative passive rzz about to 116 central determiners rSr :il:':.o8 active rr8 colon 3o4-3o5 adjectives r4. 88-89 conjunctions r5. 15r. z4g adverbials 17. 55. 274 contrast 26]. 8r. zo. 83. +o-+1. 85. 90 I tz6 base form ofverbs 3o-34. r9r-r99. zz7 cardinal numbers 16r. 22. 4r. 23o ofewV4 complex sentences 258 ant6o. z4S. r41. 2o3. r9r*r96. zz6. 258. comparison of adverbs r98 ?37. 24o. 229.26. 267 common nounsr49 adverbial phrases r7 comparison of adjectives r88 adverbs t4. 3s-74. brackets 3oz-3o8 172.3r4 punctuation in numbers index 3rs a160.172 compound tenses 9o-9r apostrophe 287-z9t compound verbs zo.142. contracted verb forms 37-79 lr o-r'f f .

rz6. r54 1et81.28.248 genderr43-r 46.189 tzG eachyS. 40 .30. 63 ro8 eitherv8. zr7 possessive determiners r 44. 216 muchtT3 past perfect continuous 26. 2ro grammatical subject zr8 marginalmodalZ8 ordinal numbers r6r. roo emphatic forms 63. duration 25.2t7 location. adverbs ofr9z. 267 focusing zz4 it qz non-restrictive relative clause z7r pluralrz. zz7 headword r33 may6. 233. littleV4 numlrerrz.z36 past subjunctive 252 every182 inflection zz3 negatives. z3l. adverbs of r9z it s zo9 noun phrase 133-159. 124 exclamation mark3o3 -ing f orm 24. 26.316 index index 317 definite article r6o. r66.t38. r95.133-159. 248 infinitive 30.z56 passive 4r. zt.273 partitive nouns r3g. 54. 141. 35. +8. r30. 91.tSt indefinite article r6o. r96 pol iteness 61.26a indirect speech 279-z8q need75 past continuous 9r. zoo polar questions 235 fullstop3oo-3or let's 247 nouns 13. gz. 55. rrz numbers i76 i54.93. r8o interrogative 225. negative statements 40.142 distributives r6r. r8. 48 nor 38. q8. r02. 40. 228 must 53. 88. 92. i48. r6z mosf rB. Sl-8o.263 havez4. r94 goington3 +q. gt. r49. 258 phrasal verbs 8r-85. 2o3 few$t. 50.222 inanimate nouns r38. ro6. r'r7 lexicalverbs zr nou ns showing possession position of words S6. r66. forms of main verbs 3o-34 its zo9 noun clauses 265 r54. 32-34. 232 perfect aspect 23. tzG direct object t8. B. z6z place.90 indirect object 16.z73 particles r5r direct speech z7 hyphen 3o9-3ro might 61.90. ro8 masculine genderr43 ougnttu73 did g6 haveto 63 mass nouns r4o. 176 determiners r4. 30. 142. 18.z6o object complement z3o possessive pronouns 20r. 283 demonstrative pronouns 2or. Zg. graded quantities r74 manner. r78 if7z. 32. 3r. rr 5 linking words 258 147-150 possessive r47 futu re reference *.153. 2o9 .124 main verbs 13 . exclamations 254 r3z. r44 moreV3. z6z past tenses go. 153 participles 26 . 91. r53-t58. 42. t69 gerund r58 main clauses z58. 8r. 16."r74 intransitive verbs r9.273-276.44-47.z6z r02-ro9 exclamatives r6r.3o. tz3. adverlrials of t9z.'13r. r89 past perfect 26. 'llo-117 '1168. r93 finite verbs rz3 irregular plurals of nouns r54 non-polar questions 236 pn rases 12 first person 13. trroad r95. 45. 2r4 non-defining relative clause z7 personat pronouns 2ot. q8-52. tz8-t32. 91. r96 negative z3z. z8z modal verbs 23.36. -edf orm 24. q6.to4 each other2oB indefinite pronouns 2o2. 84 non-finite ve rbsn6<27.8t one another 2o8 demonstrative determiners r6o. zo3 feminine genderr43 interrogative pronouns 2o2.3o. 96. r4o.146. 160-rgo. zqS-z+8 m z3z. r58 neither38. 244.147. r86 past participle 24. 246 future continuous nr. r69 freq uency. adverbials of t9z. oft47 degree.92. 6g. 265 futu re perfect rrr. 94. 40.t78. 24.2o3 irreg u lar verbs 30. rr8-rzz do ZS.z67 or z6t 'r68 grammaticalgenderr43 mony173 orders 246. zo4 possessive phrases Vl. parts of speech rt-r5 ditransitive verbs rg i perative zz6. r38. prepositions of zzt object rr. 235 impersonal passive rzr modifiers r5z.235 neuter gender r44 person r3. n.z4t. 66.

rz8. r69 q uestions zz4.273. 248 verbal nounsr58 219-222 seem 29 superlative form of adjectives r88 verb forms 30. ro.zS present perfect 26. verbs tt. r'rl thot 168. 28r viewpoint adverbs r94 ro6 senten ces 11. 141. zo-r3z 'r23. 25. 55 wi||66.275 promises 284 simple past 23. 30. 225. 30. r8r. 85 thist6o. 225. zrr.. adverbials of 268 somevt.z3z. z7 g subordinate clauses zrr. 279 regularverbs zr. z-n. r38. 86. i53. 22o -s'r47-l5o. go showing possession through thev're 40 whether 283 primary auxiliaries zz.268 reason. g6-tt7 yes/no questions 234 ounctuation 286 simple tenses 4. prepositions of zr9 wouldTt. 58.110-117.3r8 index index 3re postdeterminercvT reported speech z7g-284 submodifiers r9+. 2o1. second person r3. 233 nouns r47 third person r3. sentence tags241*244 tense 23-27. semicolon 3o6 supporting auxiliary verb 35. 258 time reference 23.256 subordinating conjunctions 258.86 titles r3T. zor won't67 pronou ns 13.223.'t26 semi-modal verbs 56. 9r. 16. r54.153. zt 4. 2o3 suggestions 247. r86. 32. 12. r02 sentence adverbs r94 r-ags241-244 verbs of stat e zt . zz+. 25.z66 z8o 1-1o. r'ro shall 66. 72. r96 predeterminers r8z requests 53. z96-z97 so 49. zz3. 8r. 9r. r8r WH. ztg.11o. adverbials of 268 sincez6T q ua ntifiers t6t.42. 2oo-218. 27o subjunctive z5t . 86.2o-132 9c. r7o -'s and such r8o usedtoTS prepositions r5.2ol 265 present su bj u nctive z5t should 69. r86 result. 8r. 84 predicate zz3 responses 94. postmodifiers r34. simple present 23. 90-117. 32. 258-276 present continuous 26. zz3. 242. uncountable nouns r38. 22o. 264. DreSent short answers 39.123. zr o. verb phrase r6.Zt.tSt reciprocals zo8 split infinitive 196 reflexive pronouns zor.2o2 relative clauses z7o subject complement z3o relative pronouns 2o1.27o repo rti n g v erlts 277.40. z7g vocative 249 present simple. t7t-t75 singularr3. 258. z3o restrictive relative clause z7 265 142. 98. 9r. 87 subject tt. 265. time adverbialsryz. t3o present participle 25. adverbials of 268 subordination 264 unless 273 prepositional phrases t86. 233.words rz8. r68.171 premodifiers r33. see simple shon'tnz the160.267 word orderzz3. zo5 statements 63.78. 36. 191. g+. r59.25. predicative adjectives r83.r43.276 proper nouns r36 simple sentences v. 3o.t7z whattSo present tense 87. 94 their169. 118.282 time. r65 yet261 punctuation in numbers 313-314 simple verbs zo pu rpose. t69. 55.t3 there 4z. 211. 86-87. z8 present perfect continuous 26. 3r. rz6.75 235 verbs of actionzt. 235-24o.249 264-266 transitive verbs r9. 123.27a. r98.139. 195. r98 to infinitive 30. 235 slash 3rz quotation marks 278.

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