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Welcome to CCNA 1

Cisco CCNA 1 Introduction

The Cisco CCNA certification is the most well-known computer networking certification in the
industry. I recommend a Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching course of study. The Cisco
Academy Curriculum in particular for anyone who wants to learn about computer networking. It
is the best foundation for learning about network communication protocols, network addressing
including IPv4 and IPv6, subnetting, routing, switching, VLANs and more!

CCNA 1 – Course Materials

As a Cisco Networking Academy student, all of the course materials are available through the
Academy website learning management system. Including the complete text, the Packet Tracer
network simulator, interactive activities, multiple choice exams, and plenty of labs with complete
step-by-step instructions.
Overview

It is important to know how to troubleshoot network connectivity issues. How to configure PCs
to add them to the network? What tools can you use from the command prompt to test
connectivity and check your network address settings? In order to test your skills, I created a
Packet Tracer 6.1 activity in which you are the network administrator and you need to
troubleshooting the network and answer some fundamental questions about the network. I have
included the Packet Tracer activity file for you to download as well as the instructions below.

Instructions – Troubleshooting Activity

Troubleshooting Tasks
1. Fix PC1 and PC2 so they can reach the company website www.initech.com, and remote
website www.danscourses.com.
2. Fix Laptop0 so it can associate with Wireless Router0, and connect to the wireless network

Initech Admin
vty password: swingline
enable secret: cubicle

Answer the Following Questions


1. What is the network address of the green network?
2. What is the network address of the orange network?
3. What is the IP address of the Initech webserver?
4. What is the IP address of the Initech Nameserver?
5. What is the IP address of the Initech Mail Server?
Hint: what is the subdomain name of the mail server?
6. What is the IP address of the danscourses.com Webserver?
7. What is the SSID of Wireless Router0?
8. What is the wireless security key?
9. What is the IP address of the WAN interface on the Edge Router?
Basic Network Configuration PT Activity

Overview

This is a beginning network configuration activity in Packet Tracer 6.1. This activity is designed
to challenge you with some basic Cisco IOS configurations using a Cisco 1941 router, two Cisco
Catalyst 2960 switches, a TFTP server and two PCs. In this Packet Tracer activity you are asked
to configure the following items:

Step 1. Assign IPv4 addresses, subnet masks and default gateways to PC-A, PC-B, and Server1

Step 2. Configure the router with the following settings:


– hostname: R1
– console password: cisco
– vty 0-to-4 password: cisco
– enable secret: class
– banner message of the day: Unauthorized access is not allowed!
– encrypt all passwords
– configure Gigabit Ethernet interfaces with:
— IPv4 addresses,
— subnet masks,
— descriptions (LAN-Management, LAN-Student)
— bring-up the interfaces
– save the running configuration

Step 3. Configure each switch with the following settings:


– hostname: S1, S2
– console password: cisco
– vty 0-to-15 password: cisco
– enable secret: class
– banner message of the day: Unauthorized access is not allowed!
– encrypt all passwords
– configure interface VLAN 1 with:
— IPv4 address,
— subnet mask,
— bring-up the interface
– default gateway IPv4 address
– save running configuration

Step 4. Copy the IOS and startup-config file on R1, to the Server1 TFTP server.
Overview

This is a beginning Packet Tracer 6.1 activity designed to get you familiar with working with
Packet Tracer. Your goal in this Packet Tracer activity is to configure the following:

1. Both PCs with IP addresses, subnet masks, and default gateways.


2. Configure each switch with: a hostname, an IP address and subnet mask on the VLAN 1
interface and bring up the VLAN 1 interface.
3. Configure the router with: a hostname, and IP address and subnet mask on each gigabit
ethernet interface and bring up the interfaces.
Command Examples

a) switch> enable

switch# configure terminal

switch(config)# hostname S1

S1(config)# interface vlan 1

S1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0

S1(config-if)# no shutdown

b) router> enable

router# configure terminal

router(config)# hostname R1

R1(config)# interface g0/1


R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

R1(config-if)# no shutdown

Networking Basics

Overview

At the beginning of a course of study towards the Cisco CCNA, it is a good idea to have an
understanding of basic networking terms and concepts. Here is a list of introductory concepts
that you should be familiar with:

LAN – a local area network or LAN is a network that has the following characteristics. It usually
exists within a home, building or group of buildings. It is usually administered and managed by a
single entity, business, or organization. In addition, a LAN typically consists of some form of an
Ethernet network, whether it is Fast Ethernet (100Mb), Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mb), and whether
it is implemented in twisted pair copper cables, multimode fiber optic cables, or some form of
wireless technology.

WAN – wide area networks are the networks that interconnect all of the local area networks.
WANs are typically managed and controlled by internet service providers (ISPs). Instead of
using Ethernet, WANs typically implement different technologies like DSL, Cable, T1 and T3
serial lines, PPP, Frame Relay, ATM, etc..

WANs/LANs – To simplify the differences between these two types of networks we can use the
example of a wireless router. On the wireless router the LAN ports and the wireless antennas
connect to the computers on your local network or LAN, and the WAN port connects to the
modem which communicates with your internet service provider on the WAN.
Internet, Intranet, Extranet – What is the difference between the internet, an intranet, and an
extranet?

Internet – inter means between, and net is short for networks, so internet literally means
between networks. So what is the internet? The network of networks. The network formed by
connecting all of the networks together.

Intranet – intra means within and net means network, so intranet means within the network. For
instance, when I taught high school I wanted to have my own web server. The school district
agreed to let me have my own web server for my students, but it had to be on the intranet only.
This meant that the students could reach the webpages but from within the school only. The
webserver was not on the internet.

Extranet – extra means in addition to, and net means network, so extranet literally means in
addition to the network. An extranet is an area of the network that users who are outside of the
network can remotely connect into. This can be done with VPN services, allowing users with
permission to VPN into an area of the network.
CCNA1 Practice Final – Packet Tracer 6

Lab Overview – CCNA1 Practice Final

This virtual CCNA1 Practice Final lab activity is designed to test if you have skill and
knowledge required to pass the Cisco Academy CCNA 6.0 – Introduction to Networking Final
Skills Assessment. You will need to have at least Packet Tracer version 6.0.1 to open the activity
file. The activity tracks your overall progress and provides feedback on correctly executed tasks.
Here is a list of the knowledge and skill areas that it covers:

• Configuring IPv4 addressing and subnetting,


• Configuring IPv6 addressing,
• Basic network device configuration, for both routers and switches,
• Securing network device access, including security and encryption,
• Configuring secure remote access for administration,
• Backing up network device configuration files to a TFTP server
The scoring is based on the total number of items correctly configured (a few gradable items like
the crypto-keys may not grade correctly in Packet Tracer). Remember that the Cisco IOS is case
sensitive when entering configuration settings like hostnames and banner message of the day.
When you are finished, you should be able to communicate across the network (e.g. successfully
ping PC0 from PC2). In this PT activity access to the CLI tab has been disabled, so in order to
configure the router and switches, you will need to console-in, using the console cable and the
PC desktop terminal emulation program.
Packet Tracer 6 Activity – Basic IPv6 Network

Overview

This Packet Tracer 6.0.1 and 6.1 networking activity involves setting up a basic IPv6 network by
interconnecting two Cisco 1941 routers, two Cisco Catalyst 2960 switches, and two PCs. All of
the devices in the network will need to be configured with IPv6 addressing in order to
communicate. The goal is to configure the routers and PCs with the following information:
{load position adposition5}• On the routers configure basic security with hostnames, console and
vty passwords, banner message of the day, and enable password encryption (see the network
diagram in Packet Tracer),
• On the routers configure link-local and global unicast IPv6 addresses with network prefix
lengths (see the network diagram),
• On the routers configure static IPv6 default routes (see the network diagram),
• On the PCs configure static IPv6 addresses with network prefix lengths, and a gateway address
(see the network diagram),
• Follow the instructions in the network diagram for additional required configurations

The scoring is based on the total number of items correctly configured. Remember that when
entering configurations, the system is case sensitive. When you are finished, you should be able
to communicate across the network (e.g. successfully ping PCB from PCA)

Notes: This version fixes the incorrect grading of the IPv6 link-local address of the R2 G0/1
interface You will need Packet Tracer version 6.1 to open this activity

Notes: There is incorrect grading of the IPv6 link-local address on the R2 G0/1 interface.
Change it to FE80::1 to receive 100%. You will need Packet Tracer version 6.0.1 to open this
activity.
IOS Command List

1. router>enable

router#configure terminal

router(config)#hostname R1

R1(config)#banner motd “No unauthorized access allowed!”

R1(config)#enable secret class

R1(config)#service password-encryption

R1(config)#line console 0

R1(config-line)#password cisco

R1(config-line)#login

R1(config-line)#line vty 0 4

R1(config-line)#password cisco

R1(config-line)#login

R1(config-line)#exit

R1(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing

R1(config)#interface g0/0

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64

R1(config-if)#description toR2

R1(config-if)#no shut

R1(config)#interface g0/1

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::1 link-local

R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64

R1(config-if)#description toLAN
R1(config-if)#no shut

R1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#ipv6 route ::/0 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::2

R1#copy running-config startup-config

R1#show running-config

R1#show ipv6 route

R1#show ipv6 int brief

2. router(config)#hostname R2

R2(config)#banner motd “No unauthorized access allowed!”

R2(config)#enable secret class

R2(config)#service password-encryption

R2(config)#line console 0

R2(config-line)#password cisco

R2(config-line)#login

R2(config-line)#line vty 0 4

R2(config-line)#password cisco

R2(config-line)#login

R2(config-line)#exit

R2(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing

R2(config)#interface g0/0

R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local

R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::2/64

R2(config-if)#description toR2
R2(config-if)#no shut

R2(config)#interface g0/1

R2(config-if)#ipv6 address FE80::2 link-local

R2(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64

R2(config-if)#description toLAN

R2(config-if)#no shut

R2(config-if)#exit

R2(config)#ipv6 route ::/0 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1

R2#copy running-config startup-config

R2#show running-config

R2#show ipv6 route

R2#show ipv6 int brief

Cisco IOS and CLI

Overview

For the Cisco CCNA you are required to know how to configure Cisco routers and Cisco
switches using the command line interface or CLI. A command line interface is a command
driven user shell that allows the user to interface with the operating system. The command line
interface or CLI is operated with just a keyboard. In contrast a graphical user interface or GUI is
an icon and menu driven user shell characterized by the use of a mouse in addition to a keyboard.
The Cisco operating system, used with Catalyst switches and integrated services routers is
known as the Cisco IOS, or Internetwork Operating System.

 RAM (temporary memory) – The IOS and the config file are loaded and run in RAM
when the router boots up, but they are typically saved or stored in FLASH (IOS) and
NVRAM (startup-config). The routing table is run from RAM. Routers and switches
execute everything in RAM which is why they are so fast. Configuration changes are
immediately executed in RAM (running-config) but can be saved to NVRAM (startup-
config) to be made permanent.
 FLASH (permanent memory) – This is where the IOS is saved
 NVRAM (permanent memory) – This is where the startup-config file is saved
 ROM (permanent and unchangeable) – This is where the BIOS, POST, and ROMMON
are stored.

The IOS and CLI

The Cisco IOS is the Cisco operating system. The IOS is specific to the Cisco device it was
designed for, having different capabilities and tools included in it. In this way, the Cisco IOS
comes in many different sizes, capabilities, specifications and revisions.

As part of the Cisco IOS, the CLI or command line interface is included on every Cisco device
including, Cisco routers, switches, and wireless access points and bridges. Most Cisco devices
also have a GUI or graphical user interface. The focus of the Cisco CCNA is learning the CLI,
command line interface. The command line interface is an administrative interface used to
configure the Cisco device. There are three ways to access the CLI:

Console – the console port is a direct serial connection using a console/rollover cable attached
from the Cisco device’s console port to a computer serial port. Usually the initial method of
configuring a router or switch, because it does not rely on networking being enabled. A console
connection is also how you would recover a router with a deleted configuration file, IOS file, or
forgotten password.

Telnet or SSH – the ability to telnet or SSH into a Cisco device is a remote administrative
connection that can also be done from the local network. In order to telnet or SSH into a Cisco
router or switch you will first need to bring up a network interface by configuring it with an IP
address, subnet mask, and issuing the “no shutdown” command .

Aux – The auxiliary port is designed to connect to a modem. It is used for a dial in connection to
the router or switch. This remote administrative connection can also be done locally.
The CLI has different command modes, with specific commands available in each mode. The
different command modes are:

 User exec mode – Only a few commands are available in this mode. Commands like
“ping”, a few of the “show” commands
 Privileged exec mode – All of the User exec commands plus all of the “show” and
“debug” commands
 Global config mode – Access to all of configuration commands and addition
configuration modes
 Global sub configuration modes – interface configuration mode, router configuration
mode, etc.
Commands

 Router>enable
 Router#configure terminal
 Router#show running-config
 Router#show startup-config
 Router#show version
 Router#show flash
 Router#copy running-config startup config

Network Communication – Page 1

Network Communication – Overview

One of the challenges in learning the Cisco CCNA is learning how to navigate the massive
amounts of jargon or lingo. Like the word services which can also be worded as applications, or
programs, and can also be called processes. Many processes and services run behind the scenes
in an operating system, if it is a Linux OS we call them daemons. Now the test writers when they
make up their multiple choice tests have to make it hard somehow, so you get the picture.

A great place to start learning networking is a discussion of network communication basics.


Many texts compare computer communication to regular verbal communication where two
people have a conversation and they take turns, one speaking and the other listening. This is
analogous to computers sending and receiving information. When computers exchange
information there is a sender (the source) and a receiver (the destination) over the medium or
media. The media is name give to the copper wire, the fiber optic cable, or the radio waves if it is
wireless. The sender and the receiver and the media make a channel for communication. The
message or data is what travels over that channel. The message is divided into smaller pieces or
segments. Commonly we refer to these as packets. Later in the curriculum the word ‘packet’ will
receive a more specific meaning as a single part of the overall data segment. Phew!

Multiplexing is when different types of data can travel over the wire at the same time by
interleaving the individual packets. This is multiple conversations going over the channel.

We can also distinguish between end devices on a network like a computer, an ip-phone, or a
network printer and intermediary devices that connect the end devices. Like a switch, hub,
router, firewall or wireless access point. On a network end device are also called hosts or clients.
Another type of host is a server. A server is a host that is running server software or server
programs. This means that a server is listening for requests on specific ports and is able to
respond or serve data when a request comes in. A computer can be a client a server or both at the
same time.

Intermediary devices have a number of functions like regenerating and resending the data
signals. For instance, data signals can only travel so far on a copper wire without having to be
regenerated and resent. If the signals travel too far beyond specifications, without being
regenerated, then the signal, in this case voltage will weaken and the end device will not be able
to correctly decode the binary 1s and 0s. Intermediary devices also maintain information about
paths through the network. For example, routers know paths to different networks and switches
know which end devices are connected to which ports on the switch. Intermediary devices can
also report errors close or route data to other paths when there is failure on a link, prioritize
messages according to QoS, and filter data according to access lists which can permit or deny the
flow of data.

In class the question was asked, “What is the difference between a router and a switch?” A router
interconnects and routes users to different networks and a switch connects users to a single
network or LAN (unless it is configured with vlans).

A LAN or local area network is a network that spans a specific area like a business, or a school.
A lan is usually controlled and maintained by a single organization. The college where we have
class is an example of a lan. At the college there are a lot of separate networks or subnets, many
switches and routers but the entire college is in one location and under one administration so it is
an example of a lan. Simply speaking if you have a bunch of computers and you network them
together by connecting them to a switch and give them a common addressing or network
protocol scheme then you have a lan. This could also be called an intranet or interior network in
that it is interior to that organization only.

A WAN or wide are network is a network that connects lans across wide geographical distances.
It is also the network that is formed between you and your lan and your ISP or internet service
provider. If you have a Linksys wireless router at home or another brand you may notice that the
physical ports on the back of the router are sometimes labelled LAN ports and WAN port. The
lan ports connect to your home devices like computers and a network printer and the wan port
connects to your modem or your ISP. In layman’s terms the wan port is what connects you to the
internet.

Communicating on a Network – Page 2

Network communication does not happen without rules or protocols. In this class we will learn
about the many protocols or rules that are necessary to send a message across the local area
network as well as the internet. In order to have successful communication between people you
have to follow social and cultural conventions, these are also called protocols. For instance, if I
go into a restaurant and walk past the hostess and right up to the waitress, while she is helping
another table and demand some food; all the while not wearing a shirt, will I be successful?
Probably not, because I am not following the convention of waiting to be seated, greeting the
hostess, following her to a seat, getting my menu and so on and so forth. The rules for proper
behavior for the restaurant system. Computer communication follows similar rules called
protocols.

Protocols that allow computers to send and receive messages over networks are called network
protocols. The protocols necessary for network communication are grouped together in stacks
called protocol suites. These groups of protocols work together hierarchically which is
commonly referred to as working in a layered architecture. Protocol suites are responsible for the
format of the message which is a specific syntax, the process by which network devices will send
information, reporting errors, and the beginning and termination of communication. Although
protocols can be proprietary to one or more products or vendors they are often times written to
comply with industry standards maintained by international committees like the IEEE. In this
way protocols can be interoperable with many other devices, protocols and standards. Network
protocols give the rules that govern communication, “the what” of what needs to happen in order
to communicate, not “the how” of how that communication will be carried out. In this way,
many different makers of computer hardware and technology can create their own products in
their own way, as long as they adhere to the standardized rules of communication. This is one of
the examples of the benefits of a layered architecture, in that vendors do not have to write their
own rules of communication, just adhere to the standards. Some of the benefits of using a layered
architecture are: a common language to describe functions on specific layers, technology
advancements on one layer does not affect the other layers (layer independence), specific layer
requirements aid in the product design of how protocols interact with each other, interoperability
allows for competition in the market.

The two most well know networking models are the TCP/IP and the OSI models. The OSI or
open systems interconnect model is the most widely recognized reference model for developing
network protocols and applications. The OSI model was created as an open international
standard but it was not adopted at as fast as the TCP/IP internet model and as a result the OSI
model is purely an influential reference model which helps in the creation of other protocols and
services. The TCP/IP model is the model of the internet and is based on the TCP/IP protocol
suite. The TCP/IP model was widely adopted. Both models ultimately reflect analogous network
layers that follow the similar functions.

Layer OSI Model TCP/IP Model

7 Application

6 Presentation Application

5 Session

4 Transport Transport

3 Network Internet

2 Data link
Network
Access
1 Physical

The TCP/IP model has four layers but the Network Access Layer comprises the functions of both
the Physical and Data Link layers in the OSI model. Similarly, the Application layer of the
TCP/IP model comprises the top three layers of the OSI model (Application, Presentation, and
Session).

As data travels from a user’s computer (host) across the internet to another host the data is
broken apart and built into “packets.” This process of building packets is called encapsulation.
Encapsulation happens from the top down starting with a user’s network application like a web
browser, the data is broken into segments and the packet is built in descending layers down to the
Physical layer. The packets then travel across the internet and at the receiving end the data built
back together, called decapsulation, starting at layer one and moving up the layers until the data
is completely rebuilt at the application layer and presented to the user.

Communicating on a Network – Page 3

OSI Model Overview

As the individual packets are encapsulated from the segmented data each layer adds information
to the packet in what’s called a header. This header is called a PDU or Protocol Data Unit. The
header or PDU has important information that is needed to get the packet from point A to point
B. One important piece of information that is contained in the PDU headers is the source and
destination addresses.

OSI Layer TCP/IP PDU


Layer

7 Application Data
Application

6. Data
Presentation

5. Session Data

4. Transport Transport Segment

3. Network Internet Packet

2. Data Link Network Frame


Access
1. Physical Bits
The addressing that is put into the header of the packets is very important because as the packets
travel across the network and encounter networking devices, the devices will strip off the
different header addresses which helps send the data to the proper destination.

Layer 7 – Application – Application Data


Layer 6 – Presentation – Formatting Data
Layer 5 – Session – Control Data
Layer 4 – Transport – Source and Destination Service – Port Numbers
Layer 3 – Network – Source and Destination Logical Addresses – IP addresses
Layer 2 – Data Link – Source and Destination Physical Addresses – MAC addresses
Layer 1 – Physical – Encoding, Timing and Bit Sequence

Source and destination MAC addresses handle the delivery of packets to hosts on a local area
network. Every NIC or network interface card has a unique MAC address and using Ethernet,
packets are delivered at the Network Access layer of the TCP/IP model. At this layer the PDU is
called a frame and the source and destination addresses identify a single host. The Frame is
stripped off and the packet is moves to the Network or Internet Layer. The MAC address is often
called the physical address because it is burned into the NIC and not normally configured
through software.

Source and destination IP addresses handle the delivery of packets to the correct network host.
For TCP/IP networking every host must have an IP address which correctly identifies the
network they are on and the host number they occupy in that network. Routers are able to read
the source and destination addresses in the layer 3 packet header and forward the packet to the
correct network. Later a switch will facilitate the delivery of the packet to the correct host NIC
by means of the Layer 2 MAC address.

Source and destination ports identify the correct application or service that has made the request.
For instance, a port 80 request would mean that a web page is requested as opposed to an email
which would be port 25.

The layered protocols, addresses, and source and destination addresses are very abstract because
when we request a web page with a web browser we do not see all the protocols and network
layers at work. We do not see individual packets just a finished web page in our browser. To help
make these protocols and layers more concrete you can capture the packets as they arrive at your
computer and look inside the different layer headers. To do this you need to use a program called
Wireshark. Wireshark is very handy ‘packet sniffer,’ and is a free program to download. See my
short video tutorial for a quick intro on how to use it.

Communicating on a Network – Page 4

TCP/IP Overview

The TCP/IP Model is the implemented network protocol suite of the internet, the OSI Model is
now considered a theoretical model because it was never caught on like TCP/IP but it has been a
very influential model. Cisco uses both the OSI and the TCP/IP models to talk about how data is
separated into pieces which are turned into smaller packages. This process is called
encapsulation which happens from Layer 7 down to Layer 1. The encapsulated packets or
packages travel across the network or the internet and are rebuilt – decapsulation) at the
receiving host end. Decapsulation happens from the bottom up, Layer 1 to Layer 7

As data is built into packets or packages it is done in layers. By separating the networking process
into layers developers and engineers are able to isolate the necessary functions for their
products and not concern themselves with the entire networking architecture. In this way, a
layered approach and the rules and protocols recommended by each layer, promote hardware
compatibility, easier software development, and competition. By clearly separating the role of
each layer networkers are able to easily troubleshoot network failures. It is common for network
technicians to identify a layer 1 issue as an unplugged network cable. Similarly a computer which
can ping an ip address but is unable to ping a domain name is operating fine at layer 3 but is
having an issue at layer 7

Physical Layer Overview

The purpose of the Physical layer is to put digital bits on the media as encoded signals and to
also receive encoded signals and turn them back into binary digits. Media at the Physical layer
refers to either copper cables, fiber optic cables or wireless radio waves. Along with all the
different types of cables the Physical layer also refers to the different connectors like RJ-45
connectors and ST/SC fiber optic connectors.

The Physical layer takes place in hardware as opposed to software, so instead of protocols and
addressing the Physical layer is comprised of engineering standards defined by organizations like
the IEEE, the ITU and the ISO.

Signaling

Signaling is changing bits in to a form that can be transmitted over distances and read by
connectors on each end. In general terms, 1’s and 0’s are represented on the medium as
variations in voltage, the presence or absence of light and changes in radio waves. In this way,
1’s and 0’s are signaled by changes in amplitude, frequency, and phase.

Two early signaling standards were Manchester Encoding (Ethernet) and Non-Return Zero
(NRZ). NRZ uses the voltage on the wire as a 1 or 0. Since this is a very simple method of
signaling it can only be used in low speed links. Manchester Encoding uses segments register a
change in signal that goes up or down. If the change is down then it will be a 0 if the change is
up it will be a 1.

Encoding

Encoding is used to improve efficiency and speed of data transmission. Code groups are used to
encode bits into larger symbols prior to placing them on the media. For example, in the 4B/5B
code group, four-bit long codes are translated into five-bit long symbols. One reason for this is
that devices know that when they see a five-byte symbol that doesn’t correspond to a four-byte
code or control code, the bits are an error or noise on the media. Another reason for this is that
a long series of 1s could wear out or overheat media or network devices. Also, using code
groups prevents data bits from accidentally matching a control signal, such as the bit pattern
signaling the end of a frame.

Copper Media

The most commonly used network media uses copper wires to carry data between network
devices. Copper media can refer to early ethernet implementations using coaxial cables like
10Base2 (Thin net) and the predominant Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet using Cat5E UTP
(unshielded twisted pair) cables. Unshielded twisted pair cables (UTP) use four twisted pairs of
wires that are used for signaling and transmission, and coaxial cable uses a single copper
conductor that is insulated by a shield. Cables used for networking all have requirements that are
spelled out in Physical layer standards.

One problem with copper media is that it is susceptible to electromagnetic and radio interference
from things such as motors, fluorescent lights, and radio transmitters. Interference problems can
be solved by using different media, avoiding sources of interference when designing
infrastructure, and properly handling and terminating cables. Unshielded twisted pair cables use
the effect of “cancellation.” created by the twists in the cable pairs to resist electromagnetic
interference.

Fiber Media

Fiber cabling uses glass or plastic fibers to let light signals travel from the source to the
destination. Encoding schemes use light pulses for the signaling method. The speed with which
light travels allows fiber optic cabling to deliver large data bandwidth rates and longer cabling
runs. Downsides to fiber optic cabling is that it is more expensive than copper cabling and
requires careful installation techniques to avoid sharp bends in the cable which will break the
glass core. Because of its cost fiber cabling has been used mainly for backbones and vertical
runs in networks. There are generally two types of fiber optic cabling, multimode cable and
single mode cable. Single mode is more expensive, can be run farther distances, uses a laser as
a light source, and has an 8 to 10-micron glass core. Multimode fiber uses a LED as its light
signal, has a glass core of 50 to 60 microns, bounces the light inside of the cable, suffers from
more light dispersion, and is cheaper than single-mode.

Wireless Media

Carries electromagnetic signals at radio and microwave frequencies and works well in open
environments. Wireless media requires no physical access like copper cables and jacks, however,
the easy open access that wireless provides also presents security risks.
 IEEE 802.11 (WIFI) is considered a wireless LAN
 IEEE 802.15 (WI PAN) is considered a wireless Personal Area Network, commonly known
as “Bluetooth”
 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) is considered a point-to-multipoint topology for wireless
broadband access

 802.11a – 5 Ghz frequency, 54 Megabit per second,


 802.11b – 2.4 Ghz frequency, 11 Megabit per second,
 802.11g – 2.4 Ghz frequency, 54 Megabit per second,
 802.11n – 2.4 Ghz frequency, 100 Megabit per second

Media Connectors

EIA-TIA 568A and 568B are the unshielded twisted pair RJ-45 connector standards for wire
colors used for pinouts for Ethernet straight-through and crossover cables. See the following
diagrams:

A 568B “Straight Through” cable will have the following pin-outs on both ends of the cable

white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown

A 568A “Straight Through” cable will have the following pin-outs on both ends of the cable

white/green Green white/orange blue white/blue orange white/brown brown

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

white/green green white/orange blue white/blue orange white/brown brown

A “Crossover” cable will have the 568B and the 568A standards on either ends of the cable
Notice: that pins 1&3 and 2&6 are crossed in a Fast Ethernet Crossover cable
white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

white/green green white/orange blue white/blue orange white/brown brown

Common Optical Fiber Connectors

Straight-Tip (ST) Trademarked by AT&T


-bayonet style connector used with multi-mode fiber
Subscriber Connector (SC)
– push-pull mechanism ensures positive insertion
– used with single-mode fiber
Lucent Connector (LC)
– small connector
– used with single-mode fiber
– supports multi-mode fiber

Common Fiber Termination and Splicing Errors


Misalignment
– media not precisely aligned together
End Gap
– Media does not completely touch
End Finish
– Dirt is present or the ends are not polished well enough

Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)


– recommended test equipment
– injects a test pulse of light into the cable
– measures back scatter and reflection as a function of time
– calculates the approximate distance of detected faults

Field Test
– can be performed with a flashlight
– if light is visible at the other end cable is capable of passing light
– does not ensure performance
– used as a quick way to find broken fiber

characteristics.

Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer Overview


The data link layer provides the upper layers access to the network media. It is responsible for
controlling access to the media, encapsulating packets into appropriately sized frames for the
media used, physical addressing, the exchange of frames between nodes on the local network,
and error detection.

Media Access Control

Layer 2, Local Area Network Technologies


and their Media Access Control Characteristics

Ethernet Token Ring


Wireless Ethernet FDDI

Contention Based Deterministic


(first come first serve) Control Based

Collisions No Collisions

Send anytime Wait for your turn


(non-deterministic) (deterministic)

Physical Star Topology Token Ring = Physical Star, Logical Ring Topology
FDDI = Physical Dual Ring, Logical Ring
Logical Multi-Access
or Bus Topology
efficient use of bandwidth Inefficient use of bandwidth
(send anytime) (you have to wait your turn)

CSMA/CD (ethernet) Token Passing


CSMA/CA (wireless ethernet)

Control Based Access – Controlled access means that devices or nodes take turns in sequence. It
is deterministic in that there is scheduled access of the medium. If one device is putting data on
the network then no other device can. Well-ordered and predictable throughput, can be an
inefficient use of bandwidth, as a device has to wait it’s turn.

{load position adposition5} Contention Based Access – Contention based access is also called
non-deterministic. This means that the devices on the network don’t need to take turns using
shared media. However, to avoid total chaos, a Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) process
is used to make sure the media is not in use before a device begins to transmit. Though devices
attempt to make sure the media is not busy, data collisions still occur with contention-based
access. Also, as more nodes are added to the network, the probability of collisions increases.
CSMA-CD (Carrier Sense Multi-Access with Collision Detection) is a media access method in
which an ethernet host detects if a signal is being transmitted. If no signal is detected on the wire,
then the host will transmit. There does exist the possibility that two or more hosts may sense the
absence of a signal and transmit at the same time. If this happens, there is a collision of signals.

CSMA-CA (Carrier Sense Multi-Access with Collision Avoidance) stands for Collision Sense
Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. This is used for wireless media access control. It uses
a send and reply like the TCP three-way hand shake, in this way it reserves the right to send
before sending. After each message is sent the hosts associated to the wireless access point run a
randomization algorithm which sets a random priority on who gets to send next. That along with
many control fields help to mitigate some of the interferences and other radio related wireless
problems.

Network Topologies

Physical Topology versus Logical Topology – The physical topology is the arrangement of
devices (nodes) and how they are physically connected to the network. The logical topology is
the way data is transferred from one device (node) to another regardless of how the devices are
physically connected. It is also related to how each host sees other hosts on the network and how
each host accesses the media. A network’s logical topology is not necessarily the same as its
physical topology. For instance, in an Ethernet network, computers are often connected to a
switch or hub forming a physical star topology, but logically the way the data travels is a bus or
multi-access topology. In a Token Ring network, computers are connected to a MAU
multistation access unit, forming a physical star, but logically information travels clockwise from
host to host in a ring topology. In FDDI, the physical topology is a dual ring (expensive) and
logically it is also a ring. For additional information see:

Topologies
Star
Bus or Multi-Access
Ring or Dual Ring
Point-to-Point
Mesh
Full Mesh

Point to Point Topology – directly connects two nodes. All frames are placed on the media by
one node and taken off by the other. It can be both a physical and logical topology. Physically it
is two nodes directly connected. Logically it is two nodes virtually connected directly but
passing through a network. It does not include the other devices in separate locations, that the
data travels through. In this way it forms a virtual circuit between the two nodes. A virtual
Circuit is a logical connection between two nodes and end users do not notice the intermediate
devices.

Multi Access Topology – means that the nodes are communicating on the same shared media.
Only one node can use the media at a time, and every node sees every frame on the medium. Of
course, only the node to which the frame is addressed actually processes the frame. When
sharing media, CSMA/CD and token passing are used to reduce collisions.

Ring Topology – In a physical ring topology each device is connected to two neighboring
devices creating a physical ring almost like a physical bus. In a logical ring topology each node
receives a frame in turn, and if the frame is not addressed to that node, it passes it on. In a Token
Ring network, a node cannot send data on the network unless it has the token, the token is then
passed to the next node and so on in a logical ring. For more information see:

Data Link Layer Sub Layers

LLC – Logical Link Control sub layer – Helps interface with the upper layers meaning the
Network layer. Logical Link Control (LLC) places information in the frame that identifies which
Network layer protocol is being used. This information allows multiple Layer 3 protocols, such
as IP, IPX, Apple Talk, and DEC Net, to utilize the different types of local media and interfaces,
like Ethernet, Token Ring, different WAN serial protocols and interfaces such as PPP, HDLC,
etc.

MAC – Media Access Control sub layer – Media Access Control provides data link layer
addressing with source and destination MAC addresses. These addresses are 48-bit physical

addresses, usually written in hexadecimal format and burned into the NIC. Media Access Control
is also responsible for marking the beginning and the ending of a frame with a start-of-frame and
an end-of-frame delimiter. For more information see:

Layer 2 Frames

Layer 2 frame characteristics are similar to other layers. There is a header, the data payload, and
the trailer. The specifics of the frame differ in regards to the type of frame in question. There are
LAN layer 2 technology frames (Ethernet, Token Ring) and WAN layer 2 technology frames
(PPP, HDLC). One of the main differences is that ethernet frames have source and destination
MAC addresses in their frame headers and serial technologies like PPP and HDLC do not.

Ethernet

Ethernet Overview

Ethernet is an important topic in the Cisco CCNA because network administrators typically
oversee LANs (local area networks), and pretty much all LANs today use some form of Ethernet,
whether it be copper Fast Ethernet, or fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet, or wireless Ethernet. Ethernet
became what it is today, because it was cheap and easy to install. It continued to improve its
standards and hardware (e.g. hubs to switches), also it has remained backwards compatible with
the ability to change physical implementations from wireless, to fiber, to copper, as well as
change speeds and standards all within the same functional network.

Ethernet and Collision Domains


Early versions of Ethernet used coaxial cable (10Base5 Thick net and 10Base2 Thin net). The
physical topology could be described as a single cable that all users connected to or tapped into,
this was known as a physical bus or multi-access network. Logically Ethernet was also a bus, or
multi-access network, all hosts on the network could see each other, and all packets as well. All
users were essentially on the same cable or same collision domain. What characterizes an
Ethernet collision domain is in a collision domain, when two users send packets at the same time,
the result is a collision or spike of voltage on the wire and all sending of packets must cease for a
short period of time.

If you have ten hosts connected to a hub using regular Ethernet cables (10BaseT, twisted pair)
then all hosts comprise a single collision domain. If you connect to many hosts to a hub or
extend the network by connecting hubs to more hubs and more hosts then network performance
will decrease and collisions will increase. In this way, if you have ten hosts connected to a hub
and that hub is connected to another hub with another 10 hosts, then that network also comprises
just a single collision domain.

Collisions were exacerbated because of the fact that Ethernet was designed as a multi-access
network, where all hosts see all other hosts and all packets as well. The number of hosts in the
network, and the presence a broadcast packets coming from multiple hosts, would increase the
chances for collisions to occur.

The advent of switches was a significant improvement for Ethernet and local area networks.
Switches provide many important improvements to a network, including collision free
networking and better bandwidth utilization. Whereas a hub receives a frame on one port and
automatically forward it out of all other ports, in contrast a switch maintains a table or map of
MAC addresses to switchports and is able to switch a frame to the destination port where the
destination MAC address resides. Only when a switch does not have the MAC address in its
table, or if it is a layer 2 broadcast, will a switch forward a frame out of all ports except the one it
came in on. Thus, less frames are traveling on the network unnecessarily. Since traffic is sent to
only one port, each port or link on a switch is considered its own collision domain. Thus,
switches break apart or create collision domains as opposed to hubs which extend or grow
collision domains. With the advent of full duplex communications, hosts connected to switches
could both send and receive frames at the same time without collisions.

How to make a straight through Ethernet cable


Overview

The ability to make a straight through Ethernet cable can come in handy, whether you need to
create a specific Ethernet cable or you need to fix an existing one. You can save money by
making your own Ethernet cables in the exact lengths necessitated by your network. With some
practice and following the standards laid out by the EIA-TIA, your cables will work nicely and
be of a professional quality. In the lab below, I outline the materials and steps necessary in
creating a straight through Ethernet cable.

What you will need:


1. Cat5e Ethernet cable – I recommend purchasing a box of Cat5e cable. You will save
money by purchasing your cable in bulk.
2. RJ-45 connectors
3. Crimper Tool – capable of crimping 8 wire (RJ-45) and 6 wire (RJ-11). Most tools have
built in cutters too.
4. Stripper Tool
5. Scissors – I prefer using a scissors
6. Cable Tester – For testing that your cable connections are good and there are not any
open or crossed wires

Steps to make a straight through Ethernet cable:

1. Cut a piece of cable to the length you will need. Give a little extra to make room for
mistakes.
2. Strip a half inch to an inch of the outer jacket away from the cable. If you use strippers
make sure not to nick the wire pairs and expose the copper, this could introduce
crosstalk onto your wires. I prefer to use a scissor and my fingers to tear away the
jacket. Then I cut with the scissors to clean up the edge.

3. Now you need to untwist the wire pairs (not too much, only undo one or two twists) so
you can align them according to the EIA-TIA568B wire color sequence. I use my fingers
to straighten the wires by bending them back and forth, straightening them as they
warm up.

EIA-TIA 568B Standard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

white/orange orange white/green blue white/blue green white/brown brown

4. I usually have to trim the ends of the wires so they line up and create a straight edge.

5. Now holding an RJ-45 connector with the tab side facing down, push the 8 wires into the
connector, sliding each wire into a groove. While holding the connector tab side down
the white/orange wire should be on the far left and the brown wire should be on the far
right. It is very important that the wires push all the way up and into the connector so
that when the pins are pushed down during crimping they will make contact with the
wires. The sleave or jacket of the cable (light blue below) should also be pushed in as far
as it can go so it will be held in place once crimped. You may want to pull the wires out
and put them back in to make sure they are sliding in correctly, this will also further
straighten the wires.

notice the tab make sure it is facing down push the wires and sleave into the connector
6. Before crimping, examine the cable and connector from the side. Did the wires slide all
the way up in to the proper grooves? Are the colors in the proper order when observed
from tab side down? Did the jacket slide all the way into the connector? If not, you may
need pull the cable out of the connector, trim the wires or the jacket accordingly, and
reinsert.

7. If everything looks good, using your crimper tool insert the connector and cable into the
8 wire slot and press down tightly. This will cause a piece of plastic in the connector to
press down on the jacket and hold the cable in the connector preventing it from
accidentally pulling out. Crimping also forces copper pins in the connector to push down
and make contact with the separate wires.
8. You are now finished terminating one end of the cable. Repeat the process on the other
end of the cable and when you are done, insert the cable into a cable tester and run a
wire test to make sure that none of the wires are accidentally crossed, by not being in
the right order, or open by not touching the connector pins. Depending on the cable
tester you may need to read the manual to understand the device output.

9. Lastly, test your cable by using it on your network. Attach the cable to your computer’s
NIC and the other end to your switch. Do you see green lights? Open the Network
Connections dialogue box in Windows, does it show a properly enabled and active
connection on the NIC. You can also look for the status in your system tray network
connections icon. If you have an internet connection, can you browse the web? If not
can you ping your gateway from a command prompt?

Network Layer

Network Layer Overview

The Network Layer is all about networks and routing packets to the correct network, it is the
“Layer of The Internet” the layer of the IP protocol. The IP protocol is a connectionless protocol,
it doesn’t care about setting up a connection prior to sending like TCP’s three way handshake, it
just sends. IP is also a best effort protocol in that it isn’t reliable, it leaves reliability up to
TCP with its sequence numbers and syns and acks. IP is only concerned with getting the packets
to the right network, i.e the Best Path. The Network Layer header specifies the network
addressing i.e. source and destination IP addresses. Along the packet’s travels across the internet
the source and destination ip addresses never change. IP or the Internet Protocol is a special
protocol that we call a routed protocol. In other words IP is a protocol that is routable, it gets this
from the fact that it uses hierarchical addressing that can be tiered into levels of greater and
smaller networks as well as the ability to differentiate between the network portion and the host
portion of the address. This last part is crucial, think of another hierarchical addressing scheme
for instance, a post office mailing address. When you mail a letter, it is sent to a host or recipient
like “John Doe,” but what if you only wrote the person’s name on the letter, like “To: John
Doe,” would it get there? No, it wouldn’t, because it wouldn’t contain any routable information
like State, City, and street address only the recipient John Doe. We can liken a complete mailing
address to an IP address like 192.168.1.108 /24. The routable portion like city, state, and street
address is the network portion the 192.168.1 part and the recipient is the host portion or the .108
part. We can easily differentiate the network portion from the host portion by means of the
network mask or subnet mask. The network mask has 4 octets just like the IP address. The
portions with the 255’s (255.255.255.0) identify the network portion and the portion with the 0’s
tells us where the host portion is.

IP Addressing – Example

192.168.1.111 – If this is the ip address


255.255.255.0 – and this is the netmask or subnet mask
192.168.1.111 – then the network is red, and the host is green … why?
255.255.255.0 – the network portion is defined by the red 255s and the host portion is defined
by the green 0 portion.
192.168.1.0 – the first address is the network address and cannot be assigned to a host
192.168.1.255 – the last address is the broadcast address and cannot be assigned to a
host{loadposition adposition6}
192.168.1.1 thru 254 – are available for host addresses

If we convert the 255.255.255.0 netmask from decimal to binary the 1s represent the network
portion and the zeros represent the host portion:
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 – Binary
255.255.255.0 – Decimal

The above ip address and netmask together can be represented as:


192.168.1.111 /24 – The /24 represents the number of binary 1s in the netmask counted from left
to right
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 – 24 x1s or /24

Broadcast Domains

The Protocols of the Network Layer


IPv4 – The most widely used network layer protocol, and part of the TCP/IP suite used on the
internet. A connectionless, best effort protocol.

IPv6 – The successor to IPv4, with 128 bit addresses instead of 32 bit addresses to solve address
space and other issues.

ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol, part of the TCP/IP suite responsible for error
messages when services or destinations are unreachable. ICMP is used directly by the ping and
trace route utilities.

IPsec – Internet Protocol Security is a TCP/IP suite protocol that provides authentication and
encryption similar to SSH, but at the network level for packets, making any type of TCP/IP
communication secure. It has been back-engineered into IPv4, and is required under IPv6 for
interoperability.

IPX – Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange, a protocol used by Novell NetWare systems that
has become depreciated since the acceptance of TCP/IP

Appletalk – A proprietary Apple protocol, depreciated and no longer supported in the latest
releases of Apple’s operating system.

CLNS/DECNet – Connectionless Network Service. A connectionless protocol that is not found


on the internet, but still used in many telecommunications networks.
Basic Network Configuration PT Activity

Overview

This is a beginning network configuration activity in Packet Tracer 6.1. This activity is designed
to challenge you with some basic Cisco IOS configurations using a Cisco 1941 router, two Cisco
Catalyst 2960 switches, a TFTP server and two PCs. In this Packet Tracer activity you are asked
to configure the following items:

Step 1. Assign IPv4 addresses, subnet masks and default gateways to PC-A, PC-B, and Server1

Step 2. Configure the router with the following settings:


– hostname: R1
– console password: cisco
– vty 0-to-4 password: cisco
– enable secret: class
– banner message of the day: Unauthorized access is not allowed!
– encrypt all passwords
– configure Gigabit Ethernet interfaces with:
— IPv4 addresses,
— subnet masks,
— descriptions (LAN-Management, LAN-Student)
— bring-up the interfaces
– save the running configuration

Step 3. Configure each switch with the following settings:


– hostname: S1, S2
– console password: cisco
– vty 0-to-15 password: cisco
– enable secret: class
– banner message of the day: Unauthorized access is not allowed!
– encrypt all passwords
– configure interface VLAN 1 with:
— IPv4 address,
— subnet mask,
— bring-up the interface
– default gateway IPv4 address
– save running configuration

Step 4. Copy the IOS and startup-config file on R1, to the Server1 TFTP server.
Transport Layer

Transport Layer Overview

The transport layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models is very important. At this layer the data
being prepared to be sent over the internet is broken into pieces called segments. The PDU or
protocol data unit at this layer is called a segment. Their are two main protocols that function at
this layer TCP and UDP. TCP or transmission control protocol is a very reliable and connection
oriented protocol. TCP is characterized as being reliable because of the fact that it will only send
data once a three way handshake has first been established, it uses sequence numbers to track all
segments and it also uses system of syns and acks (acknowledgments), and it will not send new
data until an acknowledgement has been received for data already sent. If the acknowledgement
is not received it will resend data. UDP or user datagram protocol on the other hand is not
reliable, it is a best effort delivery system, a connectionless protocol, that does not require an
established connection with another computer before sending data. UDP’s advantage is the fact
that its header fields or control information is a lot smaller than TCP’s so there is a lot less to
process and as a result it is a faster but less reliable protocol.

TCP UDP
segments– sequence numbers, datagrams– no sequence
acknowledgements, many header numbering, few header
fields, lots of overhead fields, little overhead =
fast

reliability -due to sequence unreliable – sends all


numbering, and resending of data data regardless of
if no acknowledgement is whether or not it was
received received

connection oriented – Three-way connectionless – no


handshake receiving computer handshake to establish
prior to sending data connection

source and destination port source and destination


numbers in the header port numbers in the
header

flow control – dynamically no flow control


change the windows size to not
overwhelm the receiver with data

Here is a short list of some of the most useful port numbers. You should memorize these ports.

Port Number Protocol


80 HTTP
23 Telnet
20,21 FTP
22 SSH
25 SMTP
53 DNS
110 POP
Well Known Ports 0 – 1023
Registered Ports 1024 – 49151
Dynamic Ports 49152 – 65535
Network Troubleshooting PT Activity

Overview

It is important to know how to troubleshoot network connectivity issues. How to configure PCs
to add them to the network? What tools can you use from the command prompt to test
connectivity and check your network address settings? In order to test your skills, I created a
Packet Tracer 6.1 activity in which you are the network administrator and you need to
troubleshooting the network and answer some fundamental questions about the network. I have
included the Packet Tracer activity file for you to download as well as the instructions below.

Instructions – Troubleshooting Activity

Troubleshooting Tasks
1. Fix PC1 and PC2 so they can reach the company website www.initech.com, and remote
website www.danscourses.com.
2. Fix Laptop0 so it can associate with Wireless Router0, and connect to the wireless network

Intech Admin
vty password: swingline
enable secret: cubicle

Answer the Following Questions


1. What is the network address of the green network?
2. What is the network address of the orange network?
3. What is the IP address of the Initech webserver?
4. What is the IP address of the Initech Nameserver?
5. What is the IP address of the Initech Mail Server?
Hint: what is the subdomain name of the mail server?
6. What is the IP address of the danscourses.com Webserver?
7. What is the SSID of Wireless Router0?
8. What is the wireless security key?
9. What is the IP address of the WAN interface on the Edge Router?

IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks

The Format of an IPv4 Address

An IPv4 address can be written in two ways:

dotted decimal notation – 192.168.1.1


32-bit binary notation – 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001

The address has 4 octets separated by periods and counted from let to right. There are three types
of IPv4 addresses: a network address, a host address, and a broadcast address. In other words you
could say a computer is on the 192.168.10.0 /24 network (network address), and is using a host
address of 192.168.10.1. The address 192.168.10.1 represents the ip address in dotted decimal
notation. That same address in binary notation is 11000000.10101000.00001010.00000001. The
1(00000001) is in the 4th octet.
Converting Binary to Decimal and Vice Versa

The most popular, and (in my opinion) easiest way to convert a binary number to decimal is
using a table like so:

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

0 + 0 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 57

Aside from knowing the table well enough to use it without writing it all out, there are various
tricks for binary/decimal conversion. Personally, I’ve never found them very practical, but this
doubling trick for converting binary to decimal, and this halving trick for converting decimal to
binary are pretty cool.

Network Portion and the Host Portion of an IP Address and Subnet Mask

The network portion and the host portion of an ip address is defined its subnet mask. This
process is easy if the subnet mask is classful meaning either:

Class C – 255.255.255.0 or /24,


Class B – 255.255.0.0 or /16,
Class A – 255.0.0.0 or /8

So if the ip address is 192.168.1.100 and the subnet mask is classful meaning 255.255.255.0 then
the 255s in the subnet mask tell you the network portion and the 0s tell you the host portion. For
example, below the network portion is in red and the host portion is in black:

192.168.1.100
255.255.255.0
(So the network is 192.168.1.0, and the host is number 100)

Using the example above the first address in the network is the network address (192.168.1.0).
The last address in the network is the broadcast address (192.168.1.255), and the host addresses
in the network are the addresses between the network and the broadcast (192.168.1.1 –
192.168.1.254).

The process is a little more difficult when a non-classful subnet mask is used. In this scenario
binary conversion must be used to delineate the network and host portions of an address.
Consider the following example:
192.168.1.100 /27 or

192.168.1.100
255.255.255.224
Where are the network and host portions now?

To easily solve the question convert to binary:


11000000.10101000.00000001.01100100 = 192.168.1.100
11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000 = 255.255.255.224
(The 1s in the subnet mask identify the network portion, the 0s the host portion)

The network and host portions are still defined by the subnet mask, just more accurately by
seeing the address and mask in binary and identifying the 1s and 0s. The question that you now
have to ask yourself is, what is the networkaddress, broadcast address and host addresses if the
subnet mask is 255.255.255.224? To answer this question you need to, in binary, logically AND
the ip address and subnet mask and you will get the network address. To understand this process
and more see my video series on subnetting, ANDing and the Magic Number below.

Note: you have to


have all subnet mask fields filled in.

3 Types of IP Addresses: Network Address, Host Address, and Broadcast Address

Network Address – The address by which we refer to the network


Uses the first address in the network,
The network address is reserved and is not usable by a host
All hosts in a network will have the same network address
All hosts in a network will have the same network bits or network portion
Broadcast Address – The address used to send data to all of the hosts on a network
Uses the highest (last) address in the network,
The broadcast address is reserved and is not usable by a host
The bits in host portion are all 1’s
Also called a directed broadcast

Host Address – The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network
Each and every device in the network needs a unique ip address,
The host addresses lie between the network and broadcast address

Public and Private Addressing

Private addresses are blocks of ip addresses that are not routable on the internet. The private
address blocks are:

10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8)


172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12)
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16)

Since private addresses are implemented on LANs behind a firewall different networks may use
the same private address schemes. Private addressing requires Network Address Translation
(NAT) in order to translate private addresses to public addresses for use on the internet. With this
(NAT) technique, many hosts in a private network can channel all communications through a
single public ip address allowing communicate over the internet.

Public Addresses are designed to be used by hosts that are publicly accessible from the internet.
Public ip addresses are assigned by the InterNIC and consist of class-based network IDs called
CIDR blocks.

Video Tutorial Series – IP Addresses, Binary Conversion, and Network Masks

In order to understanding of subnetting you need to be able to convert IP addresses from decimal
to binary. Subnetting, subnetworks, and subnet masks only make sense from the perspective of
binary. The reason you need to convert the addresses to binary is that it is the way routers find
networks. Routers and computers find networks by ANDing IP addresses with the subnet masks.
If you want to understand the logic behind the process you need to be able to see it from the
perspective of the router. In the following video tutorials, I lay out the simple process of
converting IP addresses and subnet masks to binary. I also cover finding the network portion and
host portion of a network or subnetwork mask. I recommend watching all of these videos as my
following series on the “Magic Number.”
In this series of tutorials, I explain how you can easily find the network address, broadcast
address, and first and last host addresses from any ip address and subnet mask combination. The
ability to calculate subnets is the most important skill for success in the Cisco CCNA. The magic
number trick will make that process a snap!

Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Messaging

A message or packet sent to a unique ip host address is called a unicast message. A unicast
message is a message addressed to a single unique host. By contrast a message or packet sent to
a broadcast address is called a broadcast message. It is a message meant for all hosts on a
network. A multicast message is a message sent to a multicast address, typically an address
starting with 224 like 224.0.0.1. An address that starts with 224 is a Class D address which is an
address space reserved for multicasts. A multicast message is like a broadcast message in that
most, or all, hosts on the network will open the packet and examine its contents before deciding
whether or not to drop the message or send it up the layers for decapsulation.

IPv6 Addressing

IPv6 Overview

Currently, the last of the IPv4 address blocks has been distributed and the internet is being
slowly transitioned to IPv6. As a consequence, both professional networkers and networking
students alike need to learn the details of IPv6 and begin configuring IPv6 enabled networks. In
fact, there currently is a second internet, an IPv6 Internet, where IPv6 is being implemented by
governments, ISPs, and large organizations like Google.

What are the benefits of IPv6? First off, the IPv6 address space is a LOT longer than the IPv4
address space which means it will not run out of addresses like it did with IPv4. Here are some of
the other IPv6 benefits:

• A simplified network prefix with no subnet mask required


• No reserved network addresses and broadcast addresses like with IPv4
• No DHCP server is required because hosts can autoconfigure their IPv6 and gateway address
by soliciting network information from the router through router solicitation (RS) and router
advertisement (RA)
• IPv6 has a simplified header improving efficiency and forwarding performance
• IPv6 has support for security platforms like IPsec and mobile IP
• IPv6 improves network performance by eliminating excessive network broadcasts by replacing
broadcast addressing with more efficient multicast addresses

IPv6 Address Structure

The IPv6 address is 128 bits long, written in hexadecimal notation separated by colons every 16
bits (see below). For the sake of abbreviation and simplification, leading zeros can be omitted
and multiple 16bit sections of zeros can be replaced with a double colon (::). The double colon
substitution can only be used once in the address.

Complete 128bit IPv6 address: 2001:0DB8:0001:2F00:0000:0000: 0000:0000 /64


Abbreviated IPv6 address: 2001:DB8:1:2F00: /64

The slash notation at the end of the address, in decimal format, identifies the number of bits,
counting from left to right, that make up network prefix in the address. In the example below, the
IPv6 address has /64 at the end, so the first 64 bits, the network prefix, is highlighted in red (see
below). Remember that each hexadecimal character is base16, which is equivalent to 4 bits.

The network portion of the address and prefix highlighted in red:


2001:0DB8:0001:2F00:0000:0000: 0000:0000 /64

Subnetting

The following ten video tutorials represent my most recent series on Cisco CCNA IPv4
subnetting. My personal feeling is that the only way to learn subnetting is to understand how it is
working in binary. Subnetting makes sense if you try to understand it from the perspective of the
binary number system. You can definitely tell how important I feel this topic is in order to do
well and pass your Cisco CCNA exam. Out of this series of videos, the last three seem to be the
most popular. I hope these videos help your learning on the topic of subnetting.

Subnetting a Subnet with VLSM

VLSM Overview

Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) are used to create subnetworks of varying sizes. This
can be done as long as the IP address spaces of the subnets do not overlap. VLSM gives network
designers the ability to not waste public IPv4 addresses by creating networks in sizes they need.
Early dynamic routing protocols were not designed to work with VLSM because they were
designed around classful IPv4 addressing. Modern routing protocols are designed to work with
VLSM and classless inter-domain routing (CIDR). For the Cisco CCNA exam, you will need to
know how to create subnets of varying sizes that do not have overlapping address spaces.
Subnetting PT Network Challenge

Subnetting with Packet Tracer Overview

Packet Tracer is a great network simulation tool that is made available to Cisco Academy
students. It is ideal for quickly testing networking concepts and learning. In this Packet Tracer
Skills Assessment (.pka) you will need to subnet a network into 7 subnet address ranges,
configure the network devices and hosts with those addresses, set up static and default routes,
and set up HTTP and DNS services on a host server.

If you have Packet Tracer 5.3.3 you can download, extract, and run the zipped .pka file below.
Read the built in instructions. When you have finished configuring the network you should be
able to ping the server from the PC hosts as well as open the www.cisco.com web page from host
PC0 or PC1s simulated web browser.

In the activity you will need to create the following 7 subnets from the 172.16.0.0 /22 network
address range:

1st subnet 400 hosts,


2nd subnet 180 hosts,
3rd subnet 40 hosts,
4th subnet 18 hosts,
5th subnet WAN Point to Point (4 hosts),
6th subnet WAN Point to Point (4 hosts),
7th subnet WAN Point to Point (4 hosts),

Screenshot of configure_the_network.pka activity


Application Layer

Application Layer Overview

The Application Layer is the layer closest to the end user. When you are using a program that is
going to send something or contact someone over the internet you are using a network
application that operates at the Application Layer. Each program/application that sends data over
a network is identified by a particular protocol, at Layer 4 this protocol is associated with a port
number. For example, a web browser like Internet Explorer requests and receives pages from
web servers its protocol is HTTP the hypertext transfer protocol and its correlative port number
is port 80.

The applications that we use at Layer 7, the Application Layer are web browsers (HTTP) like
Internet Explorer, a file transfer programs (FTP) like FileZilla, email clients (SMTP) like
Microsoft Outlook Express and all flavors of Instant Messaging programs and P2P applications.
There are also processes that run in the background that run at Layer 7, like DHCP which
automates the process of requesting and receiving an IP address from a DHCP server. If you
want to see these protocols in action all you need to do is use Wireshark. For instance, if we use
the example of DHCP we learn that initiating DHCP involves a DHCP client talking to a DHCP
server. The process is: 1. Client sends a DHCP DISCOVER 2. Server responds with a DHCP
OFFER 3. Client sends a DHCP REQUEST 4. Server responds with a DHCP Acknowledgement
You can see the process of a client obtaining an IP address with DHCP in Wireshark (see video
tutorial below).

This is a diagram of the OSI and TCP/IP Models and how they correspond to PDUs, Protocols
and Devices

This is a visual diagram of the process data goes through when sent over a network in a layered
architecture
Application Layer PT Server Activity
Application Layer – Server Activity Overview

It is important to know the basic functions of the various networking programs that operate at the
Application Layer. The average person uses these Application Layer programs on a daily basis
without ever wondering about how they fit into the layered networking models of the OSI and
TCP/IP models. These Application Layer services continue to be important as we learn about
how they correspond to source and destination port numbers within the Transport Layer header.

Cisco Packet Tracer Activity

Set up the following services on the servers in Packet Tracer: DHCP, DNS, HTTP (Web), FTP,
and Mail. If you configure everything correctly you should be able to: receive ip addressing to
the DHCP clients from the DHCP server, resolve domain name requests from the DNS server,
successfully receive requested web pages from the web server, upload and download files after
logging into the FTP server, and send and receive email to and from the mail server. Here is a
rough outline of the steps involved:

1. Physically connect all of the devices with appropriate cables,


2. Configure IP addressing on all of the networking devices (follow the device labels),
3. Configure the server services on the devices as listed (dhcp, dns, mail, web, ftp),
4. Verify that all of the configured services work by testing from the client computers,
5. Note: In this Cisco PT activity the services and testing do not extend beyond the LAN i.e.
router.