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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study

Many people all over the world suffer from various food-borne illnesses

due to consumption of foods which are contaminated, thus, this becomes a major

health problem of the contemporary world (Sanlier 2009, 538). Various studies

and investigations were carried to find out the primary cause of food-borne

illnesses and report of analysis have shown that many of the outbreaks resulted

from mishandling and the practice of food safety procedures during food

preparations. The results were attributed to the knowledge of the participants

regarding food safety. Food Safety refers to the proper preparation, handling and

storing of foods in such a way that it will not become vulnerable to harmful

diseases and foodborne illnesses (Santa Crus S. 2016). Many studies have proved

that people’s inadequate knowledge on the proper handling of foods contribute to

a greater risk of foods that resulted fatalities to humans.

The conversion or the application of the participants’ food safety

knowledge into action refers to their practices in handling food. Although there

were only few studies focusing to the peoples’ practices in food handling but it

arrives on same results that improper practices possessed a greater risk to

fatalities. As a matter of fact a reported case in Tondo, Maynila wherein

hundreds of students were food poisoned after they reportedly ate egg

sandwiches and hotdogs at the school canteen. Reports of Investigations have

shown that food contaminants were present in the area and the safety practices of

its personnel mobilized the incident.

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The relationship between food safety knowledge and self-reported

practices were being carefully studies all over the world. The concern whether a

higher knowledge would certify a higher practices among students were being

tackled. Major studies focusing the study like those of Reid MT. (2014),

Loessner, & Golden, (2005) and Yarrow L. (2006) registered a strong

relationship between food safety knowledge and self-reported practices. Thus, as

researchers we would like to bring the setting of the study in UMDC wherein

BTTE students,will be assessed regarding their level of food safety knowledge

and whether it reflects to their practices in food handling.

Statement of the Problem

Specifically, this study answered these questions:

1. What is the level of students’ food safety knowledge

in terms of:
1.1 Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene; and

1.2 Food Safety Preparation and Standards

2. What is the level of self-reported practices of students

in terms of:
2.1 Hygienic Practices; and

2.2 Food Safety Preparation Practices

3. Is there any significant relationship between the food safety

knowledge and Self-reported practices among UMDC-BTTE Students?

Hypothesis

This study tested its hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance.

Hₒ. There is no significant relationship between Food Safety knowledge

and self-reported practices of the students.

they find out that the failure rates of noncertified food handlers is two to three times higher than that of the certified food handlers. This includes differ understanding about food safety knowledge and self-reported practices. self-administered questionnaire and was distributed to the six hundred thirty (630) food handlers who participated the study. Hislop and Shaw (2014) conducted a study regarding food safety knowledge of food handlers in some food industry in Canada. Hislop and Shaw (2014) concluded that trainings regarding food safety knowledge and practices . Hislop and Shaw’s (2014) method of assessing knowledge is through a standardized.053). hand washing. and further elaboration of this study’s indicators as presented below. Food Safety Knowledge Various studies all over the world have been conducted to find out the food safety knowledge of the different sectors primarily the food handlers in terms of food preparation. cross contamination and little aspects of pathogenic microorganisms. Also. they affirmed that the length of time did not correlate to the passing scores of the certified food handlers (p= 0. However. The study included both certified and uncertified food handlers to determine if there is a relationship underlying the two. Therefore. temperature storage. results of the study have shown that there was a vivid difference of failure rates between the two (certified and uncertified food handlers).The highest rates of failure have seen to the uncertified food handlers with 10 years and over years of experience. 3 Review of Related Literature The following are relevant literatures and studies that will deepen the understanding of the various indicators of this study.

perishable and non-perishable. torn or leaking.this is regarding the marketing of goods frozen. The article reported to avoid purchasing of products especially on meat products of which label are broken. Likewise. 9 practices for handling food safely. most of the reason they passed away by eating food contaminated and polluted water. the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics on their article published in 2014 advised food shoppers to first gather perishable items before the frozen items as the latter needs to be refrigerated immediately. In support. (2014). Assessing the effect of foodborne illnesses and the various pathogens have given evidences for policy intermediate and food safety regulation. the United States of America through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) publish on their journal for 2015. Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene.Kirk et al (2014). 4 were necessary at intervals because knowledge preservation will decrease as the time goes by Reid. Each government all over the world are strengthening their efforts to promote safety practices of food handling (Ang and Balonan 2010). In addition in evaluating the changes in the incidence off foodborne illnesses and hospitalization over time give information on the effectiveness of changes to food safety standards and regulation. Foodborne illnesses are an . M. Polluted food can affect the public charge and financial damage implicated business and also in associated food industries. The World Health Organization (WHO.8 million children pass away from diarrhea. These are the following: (1) Shopping. Foodborne illnesses are a primarily problem for public health for they constitute a major role on fatal death of people all over the world M. 2010) evaluated that almost 1.

and also if they’re living with a person who is ill. Good personal hygiene was a critical protective measure against food- borne illness. 2011 ) evaluated that the weight of foodborne illnesses is almost 47. A low income population are more likely to go through greater rates of gastrointestinal illness as minimal number of studies have discovered. As combining data suggestions. the more likely experience greater rates of foodborne illness are those at low income and individuals in minority populations. This was likely to happen especially if they have infected lesions through wounds or cuts. Also. Food Safety Preparation and Standards.000. According to studies handlers contaminated food and caused customers to fall ill by transferring microorganisms to the food they touched. an increasing group of research has discovered that self- dependent ethnic foodservice equipment may perform high risks for foodborne illness. good personal hygiene should be maintained and both .000 and deaths are 3. has a food-borne illness or showed signs of gastrointestinal illness. For example in the United States the Center for disease control and prevention ( CDC.000 hospitalization and 5000 deaths (mead et al. hospitalization with over 128. However according to the CDC the reduction evaluated of foodborne illnesses is the effect to amend the regulation over the past decade and better ways to impose the burden of food borne disease. In addition. Food pollutant is extended not only in developing the countries but also in developing the industrialized countries.8 million cases. 1999). In this may imply a lessen number of cases from the 1999 estimates of 76 million cases with 325. 5 obligated with a high number of diseases globally.

Todd and Farber (2002). et al. government and consumer. . safety and authenticity of what they eat. developed a voluntary food safety strategic plan which was implemented on food safety management based on Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). Private food safety standards as a constituent by one of the principal food safety governance instruments of agribusiness value chains was developed by retailers and business coalitions and enforced through third-party certification. For suppliers who wish to access the most profitable markets a voluntary instrument widely to have become actually mandated. Self-Reported Practices Although there’re programs from the government one from the HACCP. coordinate on the basis of international standard in which can make trade less expensive and more inclusive.general that imaging food without standard is difficult. Food standard and trade go hand on hand in ensuring safe. 6 premises and equipment are clean. Control in the production would ensure that food was not kept in the temperature danger zone for more than 30 minutes. According to Jose Graziano da Silva(2017) FAO Director. contribute to food safety and protect consumers’ health. In ensuring the safety of the foods we consume. Standards have profound public implications that Albeit private and voluntary.The centers for Disease Control (CDC). By understanding the setting on different aspect of food for consumer. (2013). E. to evaluate and control the risks in water and food. Food standard contribute assurance to consumer about the quality. an Abstract Private food safety standards deal a vital role on it. sufficient and nutritious food for growing world population.Fagotto.

(2017) reported that the participants got 73% as their mean percentage where female participants scored high than males. John University. Xiong. and Olson. et al. However. A. as consumers can protect ourselves too from the diseases that the contaminated foods can affect our health conditions Reid. food storage. cleaning (93%) and cooking (86%) as the most significant requirement in food handling practices at home. In connection. 7 that aims to protect the major public from the fatality that foodborne illnesses may bring. The author’s purpose for conducting the study is to assess students’ food safety knowledge and practices of the participants and they wanted to find out the hygienic conditions of kitchen surfaces of their department. (2017) conducted a study on Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of College students in St. we. j. Evans. Xiong. (2013) on their investigation regarding food safety knowledge and self-reported practices of UK University Students had found out that there were lack of safety knowledge and the malpractices of safety practices reported by students were also observed. but in contrast they failed or they were unaware that hand washing before handling foods is essential . majority of the students in the university identified two items. A. A total of 278 respondents with age not below 18 year old had been received a self-administered questionnaire. and Olson. The temperature of both the refrigerator and freezer were also measured with the use of AVANTEK infrared thermometer while five kitchen surfaces were taken quick swabs to assess sanitary practices. as food handlers we must equipped ourselves with the appropriate knowledge on food safety and apply these into action primarily on food preparation. (2014). food thawing and other hygienic practices. j. M.

2003. cleanliness of the premise. production. Additionally. Good hygiene is the foundation for preventing food-borne illnesses. service and storage. 8 (23%). Besides. In addition. is safe to consumer. We as a human being we are said to be the major source of food contamination. McSwane (2000). It also includes sanitary work surfaces. Food hygienic practices was defined as a sanitary science which aimed at producing food that had good keeping quality. food that is cooked well inclined towards setting standards for the establishment and ensuring a repeat of business. proper waste disposal methods and maintaining an environment that is free from pest infestation. and free from micro-organisms. Food safety encompassed all conditions and measures necessary for the safety of food and the prevention of potential causes of food poisoning. (72%) of the respondents did not know the right temperature needed for food to remain safe and healthy and less than (50%) of the students believe cross-contamination and chilling (55%) were serious factors Hygienic Practices. and proper separation of raw from cooked foods. Becker. washing of dishes. vehicles. Hobbs and Robert. This is to be achieved by exercising good hygiene practices during preparation. In addition. the study of Clayton & Graffith published last 2004. Furthermore. It is also the best way for us to have a good health and to prevent food-borne illnesses. 1993. Entailed the provision of food for consumption with minimal risk of contracting food poisoning is also Food hygiene. A part from . food hygiene preparation played an important role in food contamination. The cardinal aim of cooking food is to make it easy to eat digestible to kill microorganisms and to make it palatable. food hygiene was also concerned with vehicles used for transporting food.

It was therefore advised that food had to be kept clean at all times from the farm where the fertilizers used expected to be free from pollution. appropriate food hygiene training and enactment of safe handling practices learned during training and critical elements in the control of food borne illness. In general. In fact. Having the knowledge is recognized as the key to be safe in terms of handling foods in a more safety ways. Food Safety Preparation Practices. On the other hand. Food hygiene is considered as public health professional basic course. handlers who are well-informed about the food vehicle were most likely wash their hands and prevent cross-contamination. Abbot and colleaguesdetermined that however hand-washing awareness was high at . Daniels et al. Because of unsafe food-handling practices Primary food handlers might place children at high risk for foodborne illnesses while preparing meals for young children at home. (17) discovered that absence of education and awareness or the knowledge about food safety reported for 80% of unsafe food handling practices. Water used for irrigation is to be obtained from reliable sources. more than one-fourth of food handlers did not put understanding about the whole concept of cross-contamination. (17) stated that 74% of food handlers at home execute unsafe food handling practice in a minimal time. 9 personal and environmental hygiene played an important role in the reduction of contamination and subsequently mitigating infection. Despite the fact that 68% of food handlers can distinguish actually undercooked meat as a main causes of foodborne illness Cody and hogue (16). In different studies. Daniels et al. Handlers who did not who know the food vehicle for Salmonella were probably prone to unsafe food handling.

Cook and Chill. In addition. It was reported that Sixty-three percent (63%) of food handlers did not exercised safety food behaviours at a time. the practices in the food preparation are crucial indicators to know if the food handler is mindful on the proper and standardized practices that he needs to apply in the food area. . Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The Self-Reported practice is coined on the Personal Practice Model (PPM) of Mullen in 1978. Separate. Linda Yarrow further elaborated that correct hygiene before.The indicators that will measure the self-reported practices are (1) Hygienic Practices and (2) Food Safety Preparation Practices Reid. during and after preparation are very important factors that will indicate a person’s transfer of knowledge on food safety into practice or actions. 10 seventy-two percent (72%) through young adults. The Partnership for Food Safety Education (PFSE) developed Fightbac to provide information through consumers regarding the safely food-handling habits and practices. Fightbac accord of four (4) concepts: Clean. yet only sixteen percent (16%) were noticed to use the absolute hand washing technique throughout the entire time of food preparation. MT (2014). Consumers was reported that they are more knowledgeable about the methods. Healthy People (hP) 2010 were produced by government coalition agencies to give and furnish national goals and strategy to improve the health of individuals in the United States. regardless the fact that ninety-six percent (96%) have already acquired food hygiene practices.

11 Independent variable Dependent Variable Food Safety Knowledge Self-Reported Practices  Foodborne  Hygienic Practices Illnesses and Personal Hygiene  Food Safety  Food Safety Practices and Preparation Standards Practices Figure 1. Schematic Diagram Showing the Variables of the Study .

Presented in Figure 1 was the conceptual paradigm. J. Specifically it shows the relationship between the variables of the study. thus a food handler must need to be knowledgeable and mindful to make sure that his actions on handling foods are free from those harmful organism that brings foodborne illnesses Jannu et. Thus. The independent variable is the food safety knowledge that includes two indicators (1) Foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene and (2) Food Safety Preparation and Standards. Bacteria and any other harmful microorganisms when ingested into body provide a harmful effect to a person’s life. (2001) namely Knowledge and Organizational Networks (KON) in Warwick Business School. Jacky Swan further pointed out why many knowledge acquisitions fail to be transmitted into actual practice. MT (2014). However. there were few studies conducted regarding knowledge acquisition and its transformation or application into practice. The indicators that will measure the food safety knowledge include (1) Foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene and (2) Food Safety Preparation and Standards Reid. Significance of the Study The study provides a data of the knowledge and self-reported practices that the UMDC-BTTE Students encompasses on food safety. 12 The Food Safety Knowledge is anchored on the innovation framework of Swan.al (2012). The idea of the framework suggested the acquisition of knowledge and how it puts into practice. the listed . These affect the dependent variable of this study namely the self-reported practices that has two indicators (1) Food Borne Illnesses and (2) Food Safety Practices and Standards and Practices of the students was measured through (1) Hygienic Practices and (2) Food Safety Preparation Practices.

Since the scope of the study covers the entire UMDC-BTTE community. This includes food safety knowledge and self-reported practices. Self-Reported Practices. 2014). it is the mindfulness of the UMDC-BTTE students concerning the food safety measures this could be assessed through a written examination containing questions regarding food safety. BTTE instructors of UMDC will now have a reliable data regarding the absorption of knowledge on food safety as well as the their self-reported practices though most of the BTTE instructors may have data on what they saw on the students performance during laboratory activities and performance evaluations. which can be their bases on the proper and etiquette while they are in the food preparation area. This study is also beneficial to the future researchers who will engage on similar study that will certify their concurrent findings. BTTE Instructors. This refers to the level of food safety awareness concerning food security matters (Reid. In this study. Future Researchers. This study will be beneficial to the UMDC-BTTE Students. 13 personnel below will benefit from the result of this study. Definition of Terms The following terminologies were primarily used by the researchers on this study as these words are the main context of this study. Food Safety Knowledge. It refers to actions or activities elicited or carried out by a food handler to protect food from the contamination of harmful . BTTE Students.

2014). In this study. 14 bacteria or any other pathogenic microorganisms (Reid. . food hygiene practice denotes the UMDC-BTTE student’s actions on handling food to ensure safety for the consumers.

. Gomes-Neves et al... 2008. The researchers used a descriptive-correlational method design for this particular study. using descriptive design we can also examine the relationship between the two variables in a particular sample size population. Research Participants The respondents of this research study are the UM Digos College BTTE students. 2008). 24. A total of 121 BTTE students a totality from 7 students from the first year. 2007.. the instrument used. Research Design It has been known that survey is considered as the most commonly used method in determining food safety knowledge and self –reported practices of students (DeBess et al. A total of 170 (first year.53 and 37 for the second year. Jevsnik et al. In addition. 15 Chapter 2 METHOD This chapter presents the research design. the population. A descriptive-correlational method design according to Burns and Grove (2003) is a design used to provide a picture this design enables us to determine the level of food safety knowledge of the UMDC- BTTE Students as well as their self-reported practices regarding food safety. Santos et al.. 2009. the procedure as well as the tools used for analysing the data and to accomplish this research’s objectives. third year and fourth year respectively.fourth year) BTTE students are enrolled in the first semester of the school year 2017-2018 and distribution of population per year level is being tabulated in Table 1.

80 Very Low The measure express in the item is observed not at all. .61-3.81-2.40 Moderate The measure describe in the item is observed occasionally.21-5.00-1.20 High The measure describe in the item is observed frequently. The level of food safety knowledge of BTTE students is less extensive.00 Very High The measure describe in the item is observed at all times. 3 2.41-4. 2 1. The level of food safety knowledge of BTTE students is very extensive. 16 Research Instrument Modified questionnaires from the studies of Linda K. 1 1. 4 3.60 Low The measure describe in the item is observed rarely. The level of food safety knowledge of BTTE students is not extensive at all. The questionnaire for the determination of food safety knowledge (Independent Variable) is composed of 40 questions summing up the 21 questions for foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene and 19 questions for food safety preparation and standards. To further illustrate it is being specified below Numerical Range of Verbal Description Value Mean Description 5 4. The level of food safety knowledge of BTTE students is extensive. The level of food safety knowledge of BTTE students is moderately extensive. Yarrow (2006) in Kansas State University and Marcia Annemarie Thawell-Reid of Walden University were made and validated by three proficient professors of UM Digos College.

the data are ready for statistical treatment and interpretation purposes. . another letter was addressed to the respondents for their information and preparation. Collection and Processing Of Data When the data gathered. Likewise. At this time . Mean Score: This refers to the addition of all the points as answers of the respondents. A letter of Permission to conduct this study was addressed to the Director of UMDC and upon approval we directly proceeded to the conduct of the study. The researchers distributed and waited the respondents to have answered completely the questionnaire while retrieval of their responses followed. 17 Data Gathering Procedure The following procedures have carried out by the researchers in conducting this study. Administration and Retrieval of Instruments. Letter of Permission. Interpretation and Analysis of Data. Statistical Treatment of Data The following statistical tools were used in the analysis of data. Pearson Product Moment of Correlation (PPMCC): This statistical treatment is used to measure the strength of the two variables. the food safety knowledge and the self-reported practices of UMDC-BTTE students that was moored in this study. the researchers summarized and tallied all the responses for submission to the statistician.

This means that there knowledge is not that high.29%.22 which indicate that there knowledge regarding foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene is average. we therefore conclude that the food safety knowledge of UMDC-BTTE students is average. Food Borne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene.35 Moderate Overall 3. Table 2. Shown in this table the over-all mean percentage value of food safety knowledge is 3. the results of this study were presented and analysed to answers the statement of the problem. 18 Chapter 3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS In this chapter. the mean percentage value and the standard deviation of the food safety knowledge of the respondents in both (a) Food Borne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene (b) Food Safety Preparations and Standards.22 Moderate Hygiene Food Safety Preparation and Standards 3. Food Safety Knowledge Presented in Table 2. Level of UMDC-BTTE Students’ food safety knowledge Indicators ̅ (%) Remarks Food Borne Illnesses and Personal 3. As further indicated in the table. it shows that the foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene mean score is 3.29 Moderate The result of the food safety knowledge of this research when compared . The UMDC-BTTE students got an average score on this area .

Also. the study conducted by I. Halim. about 78. et al.(2004) entitled Knowledge.. In same study in Italy. L.Giritliongo. Iran found out that food personnel had little knowledge on diseases that can cause illnesses.35% which indicates an average level of food safety knowledge under food safety preparation practices. Self-Reported Practices and Microbial Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers which aimed to compare the relationship of the mention indicators arrived on the average level of food safety knowledge. Also. The introduction of the knowledge was given during the second year period and so on.. et al. H. For the instance the study conducted by Askarian. The knowledge regarding food safety is a very much important factor in ..et al. Attitude. The introduction of standards are given all the time since every course of the curriculum specifying with cooking are intended to have the introduction of these knowledge at the beginning of instruction. The study conducted by Martins et.8% or 228 were aware of food borne diseases.al (2012) have shown a correlational result to the study wherein their result had come up with an average level of food safety knowledge preparation and standards. (2001) reported that out of 290 food-services staff. The over-all mean score of the food safety preparation and standards is 3. 19 to the results of other studies have shown affirmation and different. Food Safety Preparation and Standards. (2011) showed that majority of the college students in cookery class in Turkey were mindful of food safety knowledge. the study conducted by Lee. Angellilo. Attitudes and Practices of Food Service Staff Regarding Food Hygiene in Shiraz. (2017) entitled Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge. H. K. Thong. Chai.

The UMDC-BTTE students got high score on this area . The idea that although the participants of the study have acquired not enough information or knowledge but still they were able to perform or practice an acceptable actions or practice that is very important in the field Xiong. MT.25 which indicate that there practices as they reported is high. In addition. Hygiene Practices. Shown in this table the over-all mean percentage value of food safety knowledge is 4. Self-Reported Practices Presented in Table 3. j.(2014). al (2012) that shows a high level of reported practices specifically in the hygienic practices indicator. and . we therefore conclude that the self-reported practices of UMDC-BTTE students is high. Similar results were observed from the study of Martins et. 20 securing healthy food preparation Reid. Thus. As further indicated in the table.16%. the UMDC-BTTE curriculum which includes courses that needs the so called safety practices and standards are mindful that educating the students on this matter are very necessary. it shows that the hygiene practices mean score is 4. Redmond & Griffith (2003) once built the idea that students without the knowledge regarding practices in handling food and the standards are critical factors that can increase the risk to for foodborne illnesses and can cause fatality. the mean percentage value and the standard deviation of the food safety knowledge of the respondents in both (a) Hygienic Practices (b) Food Safety Preparations Practices.This means that even though they scored an average on their knowledge acquisition but still they were able to perform the good hygienic practices of food production best.

25 Very High Food Safety Preparation Practices 4.al (2016) provide a contrast or different result as they reported that the average knowledge of the students were not applied into actions because students got a low level of self-reported practices. F. But there were many studies publish in the internet arguing the results. (2017). Indicators ̅ (%) Remarks Hygiene Practices 4. 21 Olson. The participants further reported that their practices overpass their acquired knowledge and standards maybe on the reason that their belief or previous learned morns are made them knowledgeable enough.al(2016). Level of Self-Reported Practices of UMDC-BTTE Students. The study conducted by Aygen.06 High Overall 4.06% which indicates a high level of self- reported practices under food safety preparation practices. this means that that acquired knowledge of students were not being applied into practice by the students. Food Safety Preparation Practices. The belief of the students about the importance of healthy food production regardless of whether they very significant point as a food handler Kunadu et.16 High . (2012) implies that though Students has an average level of knowledge regarding food safety they are still able to meet or practice or overlap the proper handling or preparation and hygienic practices in food production. the study of Kunadu et. However. The over-all mean score of the food safety preparation practices is 4. Table 3. A.

Results have shown that Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene vs. 22 Intercorrelations of Indicators and Overall for Food Safety Knowledge and Indicators and Overall of Self-reported Practices Shown in Table 4 an intercorrelation of all the indicators of this study. 437 level of significance. Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene vs. Food Safety Preparation and Standards vs. Food Safety Preparations and Standards correlates but with a minimal level of correlation accounting to .428 level of significance. hygiene practices vs. The study’s results have shown that UMDC-BTTE Students have an average level of Food Safety Knowledge a and a High Level of Self-reported Practices and that relationship between the two variables is minimal. Hygiene Practices has a very low level of significance . The results of this study are more likely similar to the findings of other related studies targeting a college population. The belief of the students about the importance of healthy food production regardless of whether they were already taught on the matter or .170 while the Food Safety Preparation and Standards compared with Food Safety Preparation practices still a little level of significance have shown.316 level of significance. Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene vs. Lastly. Hygiene Practices with . This implies that though UMDC-BTTE Students has an average level of knowledge regarding food safety they are still able to meet or practice the proper handling or preparation and hygienic practices in food production. food safety preparation practices is 99% correlated with . Food Safety Preparation Practices garnered a very low level of significance.

However. increasing knowledge and trainings on food safety will further result to more overwhelming actual practices Reid. MT. . This means that when Instructors of the UMDC-BTTE students will further deepen or enhance their discussion or will provide more avenues for trainings regarding food safety the current level of food safety knowledge of the respondents will seemingly become overwhelming. (2014). 23 trained well on the proper handling of food brings a very significant point as a food handler.

868** .270** .437** ___ Practices Overall Food Safety .173 ___ Knowledge Overall Self- .836** .135 . Intercorrelations of Indicators and Overall for Food Safety Knowledge and Indicators and Overall of Self-reported Practices Food borne Food Illnesses Safety Food Overall Overall and Preparation Safety Food Self- Personal and Hygiene Preparation Safety reported Hygiene Standards Practicess Practices Knowledge Practices Food borne Illnesses and Personal ___ Hygiene Food Safety Preparation .316** .270** ___ reported Practices .193* . 24 Table 4.859** .282** .821** .170 ___ Food Safety Preparation .157 .428** ___ and Standards Hygiene Practices .

What is the level of self-reported practices of UMDC-BTTE Students in terms of: 2. this study sought to find out the significant relationship between the said two variables. 25 Chapter 4 SUMMARY. Summary The purposes of this study were to find out the level of food safety knowledge and the self-reported practices of students. the conclusion and the recommendations of the proponents of this study.2 Food Safety Preparation and Standards 2. and 1. What is the level of UMDC-BTTE Students’ food safety knowledge in terms of: 1. Is there any significant relationship between the Food Safety Knowledge and Self-reported practices among UMDC-BTTE Students? The study used a descriptive correlational method that will determine the relationship between food safety knowledge and self-reported practices. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of findings.1 Hygienic Practices. The findings of the study are the following : .1 Foodborne Illnesses and Personal Hygiene. More specifically the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. and 2. Additionally.2 Food Safety Preparation Practices 3. A total of 154 UMDC-BTTE students were the participants of the study and a modified questionnaire was used.

Conclusions The following conclusions are drawn based on the findings of this study 1. 5.25. there is a very weak correlation between the food safety knowledge and self-reported practices. 4. The level of food safety knowledge of the participants in terms of food safety preparation and standards obtain a mean score of 3. The level of self-reported practices of the participants in terms of hygiene practices is high. The level of self-reported practices of the participants in terms of hygiene practices obtain a mean score of 4. The level of food safety knowledge of the UMDC-BTTE students in terms of foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene is moderate. 4.270. The level of food safety knowledge of the participants in terms of foodborne illnesses and personal hygiene obtain a mean score of 3. 22. The level of self-reported practices of the participants in terms of food safety preparation practices obtain a mean score of 4. Recommendations The researchers’ formulations of the following recommendations .35. 3. 3. There is a very weak relationship between food safety knowledge and self-reported practices of UMDC-BTTE students. Since the p-value is 0. The level of self-reported practices of the participants in terms of food safety preparation practices obtain a mean is high. 26 1. 2. The level of food safety knowledge of the participants in terms of food safety preparation and standards is moderate.06 5. 2.

The BTTE Instructors must carry over helpful activities in the classroom to strengthen the production of knowledge regarding food safety and practices. These programs should seek to generate holistic development of the btte students on matters of food safety. 2. . The future researcher’s must conduct a further study regarding food safety knowledge and practices with the scope covering the entire UMDC studentry. These should include different activities either classroom based or outdoor related activities that will further strengthen their knowledge. The UMDC Administration must look further on how to strengthen the inculcation of food safety practices to the BTTE students through generating substantial activities or programs in the school. 1. The proponents of this study further hoped for the beneficial contribution of this research paper to those individual who wish to study the same mode of what we have conducted. 27 are based on the conclusions. 3.

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