# Number Theory for Mathematical Contests

David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

January 2, 2010 REVISION

Copyright c (2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document

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Que a quien robe este libro, o lo tome prestado y no lo devuelva, se le convierta en una serpiente en las

manos y lo venza. Que sea golpeado por la parálisis y todos sus miembros arruinados. Que languidezca

de dolor gritando por piedad, y que no haya coto a su agonía hasta la última disolución. Que las polillas

roan sus entrañas y, cuando llegue al ﬁnal de su castigo, que arda en las llamas del Inﬁerno para siempre.

-Maldición anónima contra los ladrones de libros en el monasterio de San Pedro, Barcelona.

vi

Contents

Preface

These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer

Program at the Johns Hopkins University. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age.

The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. Thus the majority of the prob-

lems are taken from well-known competitions:

AHSME American High School Mathematics Examination

AIME American Invitational Mathematics Examination

USAMO United States Mathematical Olympiad

IMO International Mathematical Olympiad

ITT International Tournament of Towns

MMPC Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition

(UM)

2

University of Michigan Mathematics Competition

STANFORD Stanford Mathematics Competition

MANDELBROT Mandelbrot Competition

Firstly, I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong, Nikhil Garg, Matthew Harris, Ryan Hoegg, Masha

Sapper, Andrew Trister, Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen

Acquista, Howard Bernstein, Geoffrey Cook, Hobart Lee, Nathan Lutchansky, David Ripley, Eduardo Rozo, and Victor Yang.

I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing, and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes.

Due to time constraints, these notes are rather sketchy. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom, in the notes

I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. No

theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here, but some of the solutions given use it here and there. The reader not knowing

Calculus can skip these problems. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones, though) I assume very

little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. Here and there some of the problems might use certain

properties of the complex numbers.

A note on the topic selection. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. I also wrote notes (which I

have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots, quadratic reciprocity, diophantine equations, and the geometry of numbers.

I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul.

I would be very glad to hear any comments, and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein.

David A. SANTOS

dsantos@ccp.edu

vii

Chapter 1

Preliminaries

1.1 Introduction

We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics. For ages numbers have

fascinated Man, who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring,

counting sheep, etc.) or as a fountain of solace.

Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. It abounds in problems that yet simple to

state, are very hard to solve. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are:

1. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes?

2. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p +2 is also a prime?

3. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer?

4. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers?

In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory.

1.2 Well-Ordering

The set N = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .¦ of natural numbers is endowed with two operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfy the

following properties for natural numbers a, b, and c:

1. Closure: a +b and ab are also natural numbers.

2. Associative laws: (a +b) +c = a + (b +c) and a(bc) = (ab)c.

3. Distributive law: a(b +c) = ab +ac.

4. Additive Identity: 0 +a = a +0 = a

5. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a.

One further property of the natural numbers is the following.

1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element.

As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom, let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1.

2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0; 1[.

1

2 Chapter 1

Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0; 1[ is non-empty. Being a set of positive integers, it must

contain a least element, say m. Now, 0 < m

2

< m < 1, and so m

2

∈ S. But this is saying that S has a positive integer m

2

which is smaller than its least positive integer m. This is a contradiction and so S =∅.

We denote the set of all integers by Z, i.e.,

Z =¦. . . −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .¦.

A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio

a

b

of two integers a, b, where b = 0. We denote the set of

rational numbers by Q. An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Let us give

an example of an irrational number.

3 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: The proof is by contradiction. Suppose that

√

2 were rational, i.e., that

√

2 =

a

b

for some integers a, b. This implies

that the set

A =¦n

√

2 : both n and n

√

2 positive integers¦

is nonempty since it contains a. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element, say j = k

√

2. As

√

2−1 > 0,

j(

√

2−1) = j

√

2−k

√

2 = ( j −k)

√

2

is a positive integer. Since 2 < 2

√

2 implies 2 −

√

2 <

√

2 and also j

√

2 = 2k, we see that

( j −k)

√

2 = k(2 −

√

2) < k(

√

2) = j.

Thus ( j −k)

√

2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A

and hence, ﬁnishes the proof.

4 Example Let a, b, c be integers such that a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

. Show that a = b = c = 0.

Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a, b, c satisfying

this equation and with

max(a, b, c) > 0

as small as possible. If a

6

+2b

6

= 4c

6

then a must be even, a = 2a

1

. This leads to 32a

6

1

+b

6

= 2c

6

. Hence b = 2b

1

and so

16a

6

1

+32b

6

1

= c

6

. This gives c = 2c

1

, and so a

6

1

+2b

6

1

= 4c

6

1

. But clearly max(a

1

, b

1

, c

1

) < max(a, b, c). This means that all of

these must be zero.

5 Example (IMO 1988) If a, b are positive integers such that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is an integer, then

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

is a perfect square.

Solution: Suppose that

a

2

+b

2

1 +ab

= k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square, with max(a, b) as small as

possible. We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then

0 < k =

2a

2

a

2

+1

< 2,

which forces k = 1, a perfect square.

Now, a

2

+b

2

−k(ab +1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a

2

−k. Let b

1

, b be its

roots, so b

1

+b = ka and b

1

b = a

2

−k.

As a, k are positive integers, supposing b

1

< 0 is incompatible with a

2

+b

2

1

= k(ab

1

+1). As k is not a perfect square,

supposing b

1

= 0 is incompatible with a

2

+0

2

= k(0 a +1). Also

b

1

=

a

2

−k

b

<

b

2

−k

b

< b.

Practice 3

Thus we have found another positive integer b

1

for which

a

2

+b

2

1

1 +ab

1

= k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a, b). This

is a contradiction. It must be the case, then, that k is a perfect square.

Practice

Problem 1.2.1 Find all integer solutions of a

3

+2b

3

= 4c

3

. Problem 1.2.2 Prove that the equality x

2

+y

2

+z

2

=2xyz can

hold for whole numbers x, y, z only when x = y = z = 0.

1.3 Mathematical Induction

The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. Suppose that we are to perform

a task that involves a certain number of steps. Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. Finally,

suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n −1-th task. Thus if we are ever able

to start the job (that is, if we have a base case), then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to

the next case, and then to the case following that, etc.).

Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction, we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is

true for some base case k

0

(usually k

0

= 1, but one of the examples below shows that we may take, say k

0

= 33.) Then we try

to settle whether information on P(n −1) leads to favourable information on P(n).

We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom.

6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0, and also con-

tains the integer n +1 whenever it contains the integer n, then S = N.

Proof: Assume this is not the case and so, by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k

not in S. Observe that k > 0, since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. As k −1 < k, we see that

k −1 ∈ S. But by assumption k −1 +1 is also in S, since the successor of each element in the set is also in the

set. Hence k = k −1 +1 is also in the set, a contradiction. Thus S =N. u

The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious.

7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n+1 whenever it contains n, where n > m,

then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m.

8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also

contains n +1 whenever it contains m+1, m+2, . . . , n, where n > m, then A contains all the positive integers greater than or

equal to m.

We shall now give some examples of the use of induction.

9 Example Prove that the expression

3

3n+3

−26n −27

is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 3

6

−53 = 676 = 169 4 is divisible by 169, which is evident. Assume the assertion is

true for n −1, n > 1, i.e., assume that

3

3n

−26n −1 = 169N

for some integer N. Then

3

3n+3

−26n −27 = 27 3

3n

−26n −27 = 27(3

3n

−26n −1) +676n

4 Chapter 1

which reduces to

27 169N+169 4n,

which is divisible by 169. The assertion is thus established by induction.

10 Example Prove that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

is an even integer and that

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2

for some positive integer b, for all integers n ≥1.

Solution: We proceed by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1+

√

2)

2n

+ (1−

√

2)

2n

is even and (1+

√

2)

2n

− (1−

√

2)

2n

= b

√

2 for some b ∈ N.” If n = 1, then we see that

(1 +

√

2)

2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

= 6,

an even integer, and

(1 +

√

2)

2

− (1 −

√

2)

2

= 4

√

2.

Therefore P(1) is true. Assume that P(n −1) is true for n > 1, i.e., assume that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

+ (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= 2N

for some integer N and that

(1 +

√

2)

2(n−1)

− (1 −

√

2)

2(n−1)

= a

√

2

for some positive integer a.

Consider now the quantity

(1 +

√

2)

2n

+ (1 −

√

2)

2n

= (1 +

√

2)

2

(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (1 −

√

2)

2

(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

This simpliﬁes to

(3 +2

√

2)(1 +

√

2)

2n−2

+ (3 −2

√

2)(1 −

√

2)

2n−2

.

Using P(n −1), the above simpliﬁes to

12N+2

√

2a

√

2 = 2(6N+2a),

an even integer and similarly

(1 +

√

2)

2n

− (1 −

√

2)

2n

= 3a

√

2+2

√

2(2N) = (3a +4N)

√

2,

and so P(n) is true. The assertion is thus established by induction.

11 Example Prove that if k is odd, then 2

n+2

divides

k

2

n

−1

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1, as k

2

−1 = (k −1)(k +1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because

both (k −1) and (k +1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. Assume that 2

n+2

[k

2

n

−1, and let us prove that

2

n+3

[k

2

n+1

−1. As k

2

n+1

−1 = (k

2

n

−1)(k

2

n

+1), we see that 2

n+2

divides (k

2n

−1), so the problem reduces to proving that

2[(k

2n

+1). This is obviously true since k

2n

odd makes k

2n

+1 even.

Mathematical Induction 5

12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write

n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

,

where a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

k

are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

= 1.

Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good, prove that every integer ≥33 is good.

Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good, then 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. For assume that n = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

k

, and

1 =

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+ +

1

a

k

.

Then 2n +8 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+4 +4 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

4

+

1

4

=

1

2

+

1

4

+

1

4

= 1.

Also, 2n +9 = 2a

1

+2a

2

+ +2a

k

+3 +6 and

1

2a

1

+

1

2a

2

+ +

1

2a

k

+

1

3

+

1

6

=

1

2

+

1

3

+

1

6

= 1.

Therefore,

if n is good both 2n +8 and 2n +9 are good. (1.1)

We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers

n, n +1, n +2, . . . , 2n +7” are good. By the statement of the problem, we see that P(33) is true. But (??) implies the truth of

P(n +1) whenever P(n) is true. The assertion is thus proved by induction.

We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-Mean-

Geometric Mean Inequality. It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of

2.

13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be nonnegative real numbers. Then

n

√

a

1

a

2

a

n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative, we have

(

√

x

1

−

√

x

2

)

2

≥0.

Upon expanding,

x

1

+x

2

2

≥

√

x

1

x

2

, (1.2)

which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n =2. Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality holds true for n = 2

k−1

, k > 2, that is, assume that nonnegative real numbers w

1

, w

2

, . . . , w

2

k−1

satisfy

w

1

+w

2

+ +w

2

k−1

2

k−1

≥(w

1

w

2

w

2

k−1 )

1/2

k−1

. (1.3)

Using (??) with

x

1

=

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

and

x

2

=

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

,

6 Chapter 1

we obtain that

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

+

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

2

≥

Å

(

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k−1

2

k−1

)(

y

2

k−1

+1

+ +y

2

k

2

k−1

)

ã

1/2

.

Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above , we obtain

y

1

+y

2

+ +y

2

k

2

k

≥(y

1

y

2

y

2

k )

1/2

k

. (1.4)

This means that the 2

k−1

-th step implies the 2

k

-th step, and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-

Mean Inequality for powers of 2.

Now, assume that 2

k−1

< n < 2

k

. Let

y

1

= a

1

, y

2

= a

2

, . . . , y

n

= a

n

,

and

y

n+1

= y

n+2

= = y

2

k =

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

.

Let

A =

a

1

+ +a

n

n

and G = (a

1

a

n

)

1/n

.

Using (??) we obtain

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

+ (2

k

−n)

a

1

+ +a

n

n

2

k

≥

a

1

a

2

a

n

(

a

1

+ +a

n

n

)

(2

k

−n)

1/2

k

,

which is to say that

nA+ (2

k

−n)A

2

k

≥(G

n

A

2

k

−n

)

1/2

k

.

This translates into A ≥G or

(a

1

a

2

a

n

)

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

which is what we wanted.u

14 Example Let s be a positive integer. Prove that every interval [s; 2s] contains a power of 2.

Solution: If s is a power of 2, then there is nothing to prove. If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive

powers of 2, i.e., there is an integer r for which 2

r

< s < 2

r+1

. This yields 2

r+1

< 2s. Hence s < 2

r+1

< 2s, which gives the

required result.

15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [

√

x] both belong to M whenever x does. Prove

that M is the set of all natural numbers.

Solution: We will prove this by induction. First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set, secondly we will prove that every power

of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set.

Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers, it has a least element, say a. By assumption

√

a also belongs to M, but

√

a < a unless a = 1. This means that 1 belongs to M.

Since 1 belongs to M so does 4, since 4 belongs to M so does 4 4 = 4

2

, etc.. In this way we obtain that all numbers of

the form 4

n

= 2

2n

, n = 1, 2, . . . belong to M. Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M. Since the square

roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M. In conclusion, all powers

of 2 belong to M.

Practice 7

Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M. Observe that n cannot be a power of 2. Since n ∈ M we deduce that

no integer in A

1

= [n

2

, (n +1)

2

) belongs to M, because every member of y ∈ A

1

satisﬁes [

√

y] = n. Similarly no member

z ∈ A

2

= [n

4

, (n +1)

4

) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A

1

, a contradiction. By induction we can

show that no member in the interval A

r

= [n

2

r

, (n +1)

2

r

) belongs to M.

We will nowshowthat eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2, thereby obtaining a contradiction

to the hypothesis that no element of the A

r

belonged to M. The function

f :

R

∗

+

→ R

x → log

2

x

is increasing and hence log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n > 0. Since the function

f :

R → R

∗

+

x → 2

−x

is decreasing, for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have

2

−k

< log

2

(n +1) −log

2

n.

This implies that

(n +1)

2

k

> 2n

2

k

.

Thus the interval [n

2

k

, 2n

2

k

] is totally contained in [n

2

k

, (n +1)

2

k

). But every interval of the form [s, 2s] where s is a positive

integer contains a power of 2. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction.

Practice

Problem 1.3.1 Prove that 11

n+2

+12

2n+1

is divisible by 133

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 1.3.2 Prove that

1 −

x

1!

+

x(x −1)

2!

−

x(x −1)(x −2)

3!

+ + (−1)

n

x(x −1)(x −2) (x −n +1)

n!

equals

(−1)

n

(x −1)(x −2) (x −n)

n!

for all non-negative integers n.

Problem 1.3.3 Let n ∈ N. Prove the inequality

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

3n +1

> 1.

Problem 1.3.4 Prove that

2 +

»

2 + +

√

2

. .. .

n radical signs

= 2cos

π

2

n+1

for n ∈ N.

Problem 1.3.5 Let a

1

= 3, b

1

= 4, and a

n

= 3

a

n−1

, b

n

= 4

b

n−1

when n > 1. Prove that a

1000

> b

999

.

Problem 1.3.6 Let n ∈ N, n > 1. Prove that

1 3 5 (2n −1)

2 4 6 (2n)

<

1

√

3n +1

.

Problem 1.3.7 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1 2 +2 5 + +n (3n −1) = n

2

(n +1).

Problem 1.3.8 Prove that if n is a natural number, then

1

2

+3

2

+5

2

+ + (2n −1)

2

=

n(4n

2

−1)

3

.

Problem 1.3.9 Prove that

4

n

n +1

<

(2n)!

(n!)

2

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Problem 1.3.10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three con-

secutive positive integers is divisible by 9.

8 Chapter 1

Problem 1.3.11 If [x[ = 1, n ∈ N prove that

1

1 +x

+

2

1 +x

2

+

4

1 +x

2

+

8

1 +x

8

+ +

2

n

1 +x

2

n

equals

1

x −1

+

2

n+1

1 −x

2

n+1

.

Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the

quantity n

2

+n +41 is a prime? Prove or disprove!

Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not

true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step

holds.

Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true

for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every in-

teger greater than 2000000.

Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n

elements has exactly 2

n

subsets.

Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number,

n

5

/5 +n

4

/2 +n

3

/3 −n/30

is always an integer.

Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows in-

stantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his

own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev-

ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when

a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must

shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is com-

pletely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there

is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always

tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there

are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact

is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s

announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 1. Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

be positive real num-

bers with

a

1

a

2

a

n

= 1.

Use induction to prove that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

≥n,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

= 1.

2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the

Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

3. Prove that if n > 1, then

1 3 5 (2n −1) < n

n

.

4. Prove that if n > 1 then

n

Ä

(n +1)

1/n

−1

ä

< 1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

< n

Å

1 −

1

(n +1)

1/n

+

1

n +1

ã

.

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that

u +v +w= 1, prove that

Å

1

u

−a

ãÅ

1

v

−a

ãÅ

1

w

−a

ã

≥27 −27a +9a

2

−a

3

.

7. Let y

1

, y

2

, . . . , y

n

be positive real numbers. Prove the

Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality:

n

1

y

1

+

1

y

2

+ +

1

y

n

≤

n

√

y

1

y

2

y

n

.

8. Let a

1

, . . . , a

n

be positive real numbers, all different. Set

s = a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

.

(a) Prove that

(n −1)

¸

1≤r≤n

1

s −a

r

<

¸

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

(b) Deduce that

4n

s

< s

¸

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

(s −a

r

)

<

n

n −1

¸

1≤r≤n

1

a

r

.

Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

are nonnegative

real numbers with

x

1

+x

2

+ +x

n

≤1/2.

Prove that

(1 −x

1

)(1 −x

2

) (1 −x

n

) ≥1/2.

Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is

a polynomial T

n

such that cosnx = T

n

(cosx) for all real num-

bers x. T

n

is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial.

Problem 1.3.21 Prove that

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

>

13

24

for all natural numbers n > 1.

Fibonacci Numbers 9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided

by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass

through one and the same diameter?

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N →N be a function

satisfying

f (n +1) > f ( f (n))

for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Problem 1.3.24 Let F

0

(x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 −x), F

n+1

(x) =

F(F

n

(x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that

1

0

F

n

(x)dx =

2

2n−1

2

2n

−1

.

(Hint: Let x = sin

2

θ.)

1.4 Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers f

n

are given by the recurrence

f

0

= 0, f

1

= 1, f

n+1

= f

n−1

+ f

n

, n ≥1. (1.5)

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be

proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

−1.

Solution: We have

f

1

= f

3

− f

2

f

2

= f

4

− f

3

f

3

= f

5

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

n

= f

n+2

− f

n+1

Summing both columns,

f

1

+ f

2

+ + f

n

= f

n+2

− f

2

= f

n+2

−1,

as desired.

17 Example Prove that

f

1

+ f

3

+ f

5

+ + f

2n−1

= f

2n

.

Solution: Observe that

f

1

= f

2

− f

0

f

3

= f

4

− f

2

f

5

= f

6

− f

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

f

2n−1

= f

2n

− f

2n−2

Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.

18 Example Prove that

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

Solution: We have

f

n−1

f

n+1

= ( f

n+1

− f

n

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) = f

n+1

f

n

− f

2

n

+ f

n+1

f

n−1

− f

n

f

n−1

.

Thus

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n

f

n−1

= f

2

n

,

10 Chapter 1

which yields

f

2

1

+ f

2

2

+ + f

2

n

= f

n

f

n+1

.

19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

, n ≥1.

Proof: Observe that

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= ( f

n

− f

n−2

)( f

n

+ f

n−1

) − f

2

n

= −f

n−2

f

n

− f

n−1

( f

n−2

− f

n

)

= −( f

n−2

f

n

− f

2

n−1

)

Thus if v

n

= f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

, we have v

n

= −v

n−1

. This yields v

n

= (−1)

n−1

v

1

which is to say

f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n−1

( f

0

f

2

− f

2

1

) = (−1)

n

.

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m

2

+n

2

,

where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981¦ and

(n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , 1981¦ and (n

2

−mn −m

2

)

2

= 1.

If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n

1

, n

2

) is admissible, with n

2

> 1.

As n

1

(n

1

−n

2

) = n

2

2

±1 > 0, we must have n

1

> n

2

.

Let now n

3

= n

1

−n

2

. Then 1 = (n

2

1

−n

1

n

2

−n

2

2

)

2

= (n

2

2

−n

2

n

3

−n

2

3

)

2

, making (n

2

, n

3

) also admissible. If n

3

> 1, in the

same way we conclude that n

2

> n

3

and we can let n

4

= n

2

−n

3

making (n

3

, n

4

) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of

positive integers n

1

> n

2

> . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when n

k

= 1 for some k. Since (n

k−1

, 1)

is admissible, we must have n

k−1

= 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . . , 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence.

The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 1597

2

+987

2

.

Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ

−1

=

√

5−1

2

. The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation

x

2

= x +1. We now obtain a closed formula for f

n

. We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x

2

= x +1, n ≥2 then we have x

n

= f

n

x + f

n−1

.

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that

x

n−1

= f

n−1

x + f

n−2

. Then

x

n

= x

n−1

x

= ( f

n−1

x + f

n−2

)x

= f

n−1

(x +1) + f

n−2

x

= ( f

n−1

+ f

n−2

)x + f

n−1

= f

n

x + f

n−1

u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

f

n

=

1

√

5

ÇÇ

1 +

√

5

2

å

n

−

Ç

1 −

√

5

2

å

n

å

n = 0, 2, . . . .

Practice 11

Proof: The roots of the equation x

2

= x +1 are τ =

1 +

√

5

2

and 1 −τ =

1 −

√

5

2

. In virtue of the above lemma,

τ

n

= τ f

n

+ f

n−1

and

(1 −τ)

n

= (1 −τ) f

n

+ f

n−1

.

Subtracting

τ

n

− (1 −τ)

n

=

√

5 f

n

,

from where Binet’s Formula follows.u

23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

= f

3n

.

Solution: Using Binet’s Formula,

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

τ

k

− (1 −τ)

k

√

5

=

1

√

5

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

τ

k

−

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

(1 −τ)

k

=

1

√

5

((1 +2τ)

n

− (1 +2(1 −τ))

n

).

As τ

2

= τ +1, 1 +2τ = τ

3

. Similarly 1 +2(1 −τ) = (1 −τ)

3

. Thus

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

2

k

f

k

=

1

√

5

Ä

(τ)

3n

+ (1 −τ)

3n

ä

= f

3n

,

as wanted.

The following theorem will be used later.

24 Theorem If s ≥1, t ≥0 are integers then

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

.

Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s. For s = 1 we are asking whether

f

t+1

= f

0

f

t

+ f

1

f

t+1

,

which is trivially true. Assume that s > 1 and that f

s−k+t

= f

s−k−1

f

t

+ f

s−k

f

t+1

for all k satisfying 1 ≤k ≤ s −1.

We have

f

s+t

= f

s+t−1

+ f

s+t−2

by the Fibonacci recursion,

= f

s−1+t

+ f

s−2+t

trivially,

= f

s−2

f

t

+ f

s−1

f

t+1

+ f

s−3

f

t

+ f

s−2

f

t+1

by the inductive assumption

= f

t

( f

s−2

+ f

s−3

) + f

t+1

( f

s−1

+ f

s−2

) rearranging,

= f

t

f

s−1

+ f

t+1

f

s

by the Fibonacci recursion.

This ﬁnishes the proof.u

Practice

12 Chapter 1

Problem 1.4.1 Prove that

f

n+1

f

n

− f

n−1

f

n−2

= f

2n−1

, n > 2.

Problem 1.4.2 Prove that

f

2

n+1

= 4 f

n

f

n−1

+ f

2

n−2

, n > 1.

Problem 1.4.3 Prove that

f

1

f

2

+ f

2

f

3

+ + f

2n−1

f

2n

= f

2

2n

.

Problem 1.4.4 Let N be a natural number. Prove that the

largest n such that f

n

≤N is given by

n =

log

Å

N +

1

2

ã

√

5

log

Ç

1 +

√

5

2

å .

Problem 1.4.5 Prove that f

2

n

+ f

2

n−1

= f

2n+1

.

Problem 1.4.6 Prove that if n > 1,

f

2

n

− f

n+l

f

n−l

= (−1)

n+l

f

2

l

.

Problem 1.4.7 Prove that

n

¸

k=1

f

2k

=

n

¸

k=0

(n −k) f

2k+1

.

Problem 1.4.8 Prove that

∞

¸

n=2

1

f

n−1

f

n+1

= 1.

Hint: What is

1

f

n−1

f

n

−

1

f

n

f

n+1

?

Problem 1.4.9 Prove that

∞

¸

n=1

f

n

f

n+1

f

n+2

= 1.

Problem 1.4.10 Prove that

∞

¸

n=0

1/ f

2

n = 4 −τ.

Problem 1.4.11 Prove that

∞

¸

n=1

arctan

1

f

2n+1

= π/4.

Problem 1.4.12 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n

τ

n

=

1

√

5

.

Problem 1.4.13 Prove that

lim

n→∞

f

n+r

f

n

= τ

r

.

Problem 1.4.14 Prove that

n

¸

k=0

1

f

2

k

= 2 +

f

2

n

−2

f

2

n

.

Deduce that

∞

¸

k=0

1

f

2

k

=

7 −

√

5

2

.

Problem 1.4.15 (Cesàro) Prove that

n

¸

k=0

Ç

n

k

å

f

k

= f

2n

.

Problem 1.4.16 Prove that

∞

¸

n=1

f

n

10

n

is a rational number.

Problem 1.4.17 Find the exact value of

1994

¸

k=1

(−1)

k

Ç

1995

k

å

f

k

.

Problem 1.4.18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k

and m are integers such that [m

2

−km−k

2

[ = 1, then there is

an integer n such that k =±f

n

, m =±f

n+1

.

Pigeonhole Principle 13

1.5 Pigeonhole Principle

The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n +1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes, there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons.

This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. Let us see some examples.

25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1, 4, . . . , 100. Prove

that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104.

Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups ¦1¦, ¦52¦, ¦4, 100¦ , ¦7, 97¦, ¦10, 94¦,

. . . ¦49, 55¦. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets, by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two

integers that belong to one of the pairs, which add to 104.

26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126, one can ﬁnd two of them, say a and b,

which satisfy

b < a ≤2b.

Solution: Split the numbers ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , 126¦ into the six sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4, 5, 6¦, ¦7, 8, . . ., 13, 14¦, ¦15, 16, . . ., 29, 30¦,

¦31, 32, . . . , 61, 62¦ and ¦63, 64, . . . , 126¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets, and obviously, any such two will satisfy

the stated inequality.

27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive, prove that there are two disjoint nonempty

subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements.

Solution: There are 2

10

−1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set. To each of these subsets

we associate the sum of its elements. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 +91 + +99 = 945 < 1023.

Therefore, there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum.

28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that one must select some two that differ by 10.

Solution: First observe that if we choose n +1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers, there will always be some

two that differ by n. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers

¦a +1, a +2, a +3, . . ., a +2n¦

into the n pairs

¦a +1, a +n +1¦, ¦a+2, a+n+2¦, . . ., ¦a +n, a +2n¦,

and if n +1 integers are chosen from this, there must be two that belong to the same group.

So now group the one hundred integers as follows:

¦1, 2, . . . 20¦, ¦21, 22, . . . , 40¦,

¦41, 42, . . . , 60¦, ¦61, 62, . . . , 80¦

and

¦81, 82, . . . , 100¦.

If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers, we must perforce choose eleven from some group. From that group, by the above observation

(let n = 10), there must be two that differ by 10.

14 Chapter 1

29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”, two discs “2”, three discs “3”, . . . , ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. Put these 1+2+3+ +

50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. What is the minimum

number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label?

Solution: If we draw all the 1 +2 + +9 = 45 labelled “1”, . . . , “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”, . . . , “50”, we

have drawn 45 +9 41 = 414 discs. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label.

30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. In their letters

only three different topics are discussed. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. Prove that there at

least three people who write to each other about the same topic.

Solution: Choose a particular person of the group, say Charlie. He corresponds with sixteen others. By the Pigeonhole Principle,

Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic, say topic I. If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I,

then Charlie and this pair do the trick, and we are done. Otherwise, these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics

II or III. Choose a particular person from this group of six, say Eric. By the Pigeonhole Principle, there must be three of the

ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics, say topic II. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds

with each other on topic II, then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II, and we are done. Otherwise, these three people only

correspond with one another on topic III, and we are done again.

31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x

1

, . . . x

7

, prove that we can always ﬁnd two, say a, b with

0 <

a −b

1 +ab

<

1

√

3

.

Solution: Put x

k

= tana

k

for a

k

satisfying −

π

2

< a

k

<

π

2

. Divide the interval (−

π

2

,

π

2

) into six non-overlapping subintervals of

equal length. By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of seven points will lie on the same interval, say a

i

< a

j

. Then 0 < a

j

−a

i

<

π

6

.

Since the tangent increases in (−π/2, π/2), we obtain

0 < tan(a

j

−a

i

) =

tana

j

−tana

i

1 +tana

j

tana

i

< tan

π

6

=

1

√

3

,

as desired.

32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

7

be nonnegative real numbers with

a

1

+a

2

+. . . +a

7

= 1.

If

M = max

1≤k≤5

a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

,

determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the a

k

vary.

Solution: Since a

1

≤a

1

+a

2

≤a

1

+a

2

+a

3

and a

7

≤a

6

+a

7

≤a

5

+a

6

+a

7

we see that M also equals

max

1≤k≤5

¦a

1

, a

7

, a

1

+a

2

, a

6

+a

7

, a

k

+a

k+1

+a

k+2

¦.

We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a

1

+a

2

+ +a

7

) = 3. These nine quantities then average

3/9 = 1/3. By the Pigeonhole Principle, one of these is ≥ 1/3, i.e. M ≥1/3. If a

1

= a

1

+a

2

= a

1

+a

2

+a

3

= a

2

+a

3

+a

4

=

a

3

+a

4

+a

5

=a

4

+a

5

+a

6

=a

5

+a

6

+a

7

=a

7

=1/3, we obtain the 7-tuple (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

, a

5

, a

6

, a

7

) = (1/3, 0, 0, 1/3, 0, 0, 1/3),

which shows that M = 1/3.

Practice

Practice 15

Problem 1.5.1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly

sixty chairs around it. There are N people seated at this table

in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to

someone. What is the smallest possible value of N?

Answer: 20.

Problem 1.5.2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in, or on,

a square of side 1, then some pair of them will be at most at

distance

√

2/2.

Problem 1.5.3 (Eötvös, 1947) Prove that amongst six people

in a room there are at least three who know one another, or at

least three who do not know one another.

Problem 1.5.4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real

numbers there is always one number which is at least the av-

erage of the numbers and that there is always one member that

it is at most the average of the numbers.

Problem 1.5.5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of

the set add up to a third element of the set. What is the maxi-

mum size of a sum free subset of ¦1, 2, . . . , 2n −1¦.

Hint: Observe that the set ¦n+1, n+2, . . . , 2n−1¦ of n+1 el-

ements is sum free. Show that any subset with n +2 elements

is not sum free.

Problem 1.5.6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the

English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order.

1. Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants.

2. Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu-

tive consonants.

3. Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle.

Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants.

Problem 1.5.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and

forty four silver dollars. He wants to put his dollars into

his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a differ-

ent number of dollars.

1. Can he do so?

2. Generalise the problem, considering p pockets and n

dollars. The problem is most interesting when

n =

(p −1)(p −2)

2

.

Why?

Problem 1.5.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be se-

lected from

¦1, 2, . . . , 100¦,

prove that you must select some two that differ by 9, some two

that differ by 10, some two that differ by 12, and some two that

differ by 13, but that you need not have any two that differ by

11.

Problem 1.5.9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given.

Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least

n +1 members, or a decreasing sequence with at least m+1

members.

Problem 1.5.10 If the points of the plane are coloured with

three colours, show that there will always exist two points of

the same colour which are one unit apart.

Problem 1.5.11 Show that if the points of the plane are

coloured with two colours, there will always exist an equilat-

eral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. There

is, however, a colouring of the points of the plane with two

colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its

vertices of the same colour.

Problem 1.5.12 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

, n >1 be real numbers of ab-

solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0. Show that

there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than

2/n in size. Give an example in which any subsum has abso-

lute value at least

1

n −1

.

Problem 1.5.13 Let r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

n

be real numbers in the in-

terval [0, 1]. Show that there are numbers ε

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, ε

k

=

−1, 0, 1 not all zero, such that

n

¸

k=1

ε

k

r

k

≤

n

2

n

.

Problem 1.5.14 (USAMO, 1979) Nine mathematicians meet

at an international conference and discover that amongst any

three of them, at least two speak a common language. If

each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages,

prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who

can speak the same language.

Problem 1.5.15 (USAMO, 1982) In a party with 1982 per-

sons, amongst any group of four there is at least one person

who knows each of the other three. What is the minimum num-

ber of people in the party who know everyone else?

16 Chapter 1

Problem 1.5.16 (USAMO, 1985) There are n people at a

party. Prove that there are two people such that, of the re-

maining n −2 people, there are at least n/2−1 of them,

each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two.

Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship.

Problem 1.5.17 (USAMO, 1986) During a certain lecture,

each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice. For each

pair of these mathematicians, there was some moment when

both were sleeping simultaneously. Prove that, at some mo-

ment, some three were sleeping simultaneously.

Problem 1.5.18 Let P

n

be a set of en!+1 points on the

plane. Any two distinct points of P

n

are joined by a straight

line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours.

Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed.

(Hint: e =

∞

¸

n=0

1/n!.)

Chapter 2

Divisibility

2.1 Divisibility

33 Deﬁnition If a = 0, b are integers, we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b. We write this as a[b.

If a does not divide b we write a [b. The following properties should be immediate to the reader.

34 Theorem 1. If a, b, c, m, n are integers with c[a, c[b, then c[(am+nb).

2. If x, y, z are integers with x[y, y[z then x[z.

Proof: There are integers s, t with sc = a, tc = b. Thus

am+nb = c(sm+tn),

giving c[(am+bn).

Also, there are integers u, v with xu = y, yv = z. Hence xuv = z, giving x[z.

It should be clear that if a[b and b = 0 then 1 ≤[a[ ≤[b[.u

35 Example Find all positive integers n for which

n +1[n

2

+1.

Solution: n

2

+1 = n

2

−1 +2 = (n −1)(n +1) +2. This forces n +1[2 and so n +1 = 1 or n +1 = 2. The choice n +1 = 1 is

out since n ≥1, so that the only such n is n = 1.

36 Example If 7[3x +2 prove that 7[(15x

2

−11x −14.).

Solution: Observe that 15x

2

−11x −14 = (3x +2)(5x −7). We have 7s = 3x +2 for some integer s and so

15x

2

−11x −14 = 7s(5x −7),

giving the result.

Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one, among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible

by 3, etc.The following theorem goes further.

37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!.

17

18 Chapter 2

Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+1, m+2, . . . , m+n are positive. If this is so, the divisibility

by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers:

Ç

m+n

n

å

=

(m+n)!

n!m!

=

(m+n)(m+n −1) (m+1)

n!

.

If one of the consecutive integers is 0, then the product of them is 0, and so there is nothing to prove. If all the n

consecutive integers are negative, we multiply by (−1)

n

, and see that the corresponding product is positive, and so

we apply the ﬁrst result.u

38 Example Prove that 6[n

3

−n, for all integers n.

Solution: n

3

−n = (n −1)n(n +1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6.

39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< . . . < a

mn+1

be mn +1 integers. Prove that you can ﬁnd either m+1 of them

no one of which divides any other, or n +1 of them, each dividing the following.

Solution: Let, for each 1 ≤k ≤mn+1, n

k

denote the length of the longest chain, starting with a

k

and each dividing the following

one, that can be selected from a

k

, a

k+1

, . . . , a

mn+1

. If no n

k

is greater than n, then the are at least m+1 n

k

’s that are the same.

However, the integers a

k

corresponding to these n

k

’s cannot divide each other, because a

k

[a

l

implies that n

k

≥n

l

+1.

40 Theorem If k[n then f

k

[ f

n

.

Proof: Letting s = kn, t = n in the identity f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

we obtain

f

(k+1)n

= f

kn+n

= f

n−1

f

kn

+ f

n

f

kn+1

.

It is clear that if f

n

[ f

kn

then f

n

[ f

(k+1)n

. Since f

n

[ f

n1

, the assertion follows.u

Practice

Problem 2.1.1 Given that 5[(n +2), which of the following

are divisible by 5

n

2

−4, n

2

+8n +7, n

4

−1, n

2

−2n?

Problem 2.1.2 Prove that n

5

−5n

3

+4n is always divisible by

120.

Problem 2.1.3 Prove that

(2m)!(3n)!

(m!)

2

(n!)

3

is always an integer.

Problem 2.1.4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n,

n

9

−6n

7

+9n

5

−4n

3

is divisible by 8640.

Problem 2.1.5 Prove that if n >4 is composite, then n divides

(n −1)!.

(Hint: Consider, separately, the cases when n is and is not a

perfect square.)

Problem 2.1.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form

p, p +2, p +4, except for 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.1.7 Prove that for n ∈ N, (n!)! is divisible by

n!

(n−1)!

Problem 2.1.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which

(n +10)[(n

3

+100)?

(Hint: x

3

+y

3

= (x +y)(x

2

−xy +y

2

).)

Problem 2.1.9 (Olimpíada matemática española, 1985) If

n is a positive integer, prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) (2n) is

divisible by 2

n

.

Division Algorithm 19

2.2 Division Algorithm

41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a, b are positive integers, then there are unique integers q, r such that a =bq+r, 0 ≤r <b.

Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. Consider the set S = ¦a −bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk¦. Then S is a

collection of nonnegative integers and S = ∅ as a −b 0 ∈ S. By the Well-Ordering Principle, S has a least

element, say r. Now, there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a −bq since r ∈ S. By construction, r ≥ 0. Let us

prove that r < b. For assume that r ≥ b. Then r > r −b = a −bq −b = a − (q +1)b ≥0, since r −b ≥0. But then

a− (q+1)b ∈ S and a− (q+1)b <r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S. Thus we must

have 0 ≤r < b. To show that r and q are unique, assume that bq

1

+r

1

= a = bq

2

+r

2

, 0 ≤r

1

< b, 0 ≤r

2

< b. Then

r

2

−r

1

= b(q

1

−q

2

), that is b[(r

2

−r

1

). But [r

2

−r

1

[ < b, whence r

2

= r

1

. From this it also follows that q

1

= q

2

.

This completes the proof. u

It is quite plain that q =a/b, where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b.

It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0, the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according

to their remainder upon division by n. For example, every integer lies in one of the families 3k, 3k +1 or 3k +2 where k ∈ Z.

Observe that the family 3k +2, k ∈ Z, is the same as the family 3k −1, k ∈ Z. Thus

Z = A∪B∪C

where

A =¦. . . , −9, −6, −3, 0, 3, 6, 9, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k, k ∈ Z,

B =¦. . . −8, −5, −2, 1, 4, 7, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k +1, k ∈ Z and

C = ¦. . . −7, −4, −1, 2, 5, 8, . . .¦

is the family of integers of the form 3k −1, k ∈ Z.

42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059, 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. Find the value of d −r.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, 1059 = q

1

d +r, 1417 = q

2

d +r, 2312 = q

3

d +r, for some integers q

1

, q

2

, q

3

. From this,

358 = 1417 −1059 = d(q

2

−q

1

), 1253 = 2312 −1059 = d(q

3

−q

1

) and 895 = 2312 −1417 = d(q

3

−q

2

). Hence d[358 =

2 179, d[1253 = 7 179 and 7[895 = 5 179. Since d > 1, we conclude that d = 179. Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 179+164,

which means that r = 164. We conclude that d −r = 179 −164 = 15.

43 Example Show that n

2

+23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n.

Solution: n

2

+23 =n

2

−1+24 = (n−1)(n+1)+24. If we take n =24k±1, k =0, 1, 2, . . . , all these values make the expression

divisible by 24.

44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p. If the integer

n > 1 is not prime, then we say that it is composite.

For example, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 are prime, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20 are composite. The number 1 is neither

a prime nor a composite.

45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime, then 24[(p

2

−1).

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k, 6k ±1, 6k ±2 or 6k +3. If p > 3 is a prime, then

p is of the form p = 6k ±1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). But (6k ±1)

2

−1 = 36k

2

±12k = 12k(3k −1).

Since either k or 3k −1 is even, 12k(3k −1) is divisible by 24.

20 Chapter 2

46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1.

Solution: By the Division Algorithm, any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a +1. Squaring,

(2a)

2

= 4a

2

, (2a +1)

2

= 4(a

2

+a) +1

and so the assertion follows.

47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence

11, 111, 1111, 11111, . . .

is the square of an integer.

Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k +1. All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k −1, and so

they cannot be the square of any integer.

48 Example Show that from any three integers, one can always choose two so that a

3

b −ab

3

is divisible by 10.

Solution: It is clear that a

3

b −ab

3

= ab(a −b)(a +b) is always even, no matter which integers are substituted. If one of the

three integers is of the form 5k, then we are done. If not, we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ±1 or

5k ±2. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups, and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible

by 5. The assertion follows.

49 Example Prove that if 3[(a

2

+b

2

), then 3[a and 3[b

Solution: Assume a = 3k ±1 or b = 3m±1. Then a

2

= 3x +1, b

2

= 3y +1. But then a

2

+b

2

= 3t +1 or a

2

+b

2

= 3s +2, i.e.,

3 [(a

2

+b

2

).

Practice

Problem 2.2.1 Prove the following extension of the Division

Algorithm: if a and b = 0 are integers, then there are unique

integers q and r such that a = qb +r, 0 ≤r <[b[.

Problem 2.2.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers,

then there are unique integers q and r, and ε = ±1 such that

a = qb +εr, −

b

2

< r ≤

b

2

.

Problem 2.2.3 Show that the product of two numbers of the

form 4k +3 is of the form 4k +1.

Problem 2.2.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves

remainder 1 upon division by 8.

Problem 2.2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consec-

utive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares

greater than zero.

Problem 2.2.6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Prove that if

one of the numbers 2

n

−1, 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is

composite.

Problem 2.2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

such that 4n

2

+1 is divisible by both 13 and 5.

Problem 2.2.8 Prove that any integer n >11 is the sum of two

positive composite numbers.

Hint: Think of n −6 if n is even and n −9 if n is odd.

Problem 2.2.9 Prove that 3 never divides n

2

+1.

Problem 2.2.10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural

numbers x, y such that x(x +1)[y(y +1) but

x [y and (x +1) [y,

and also

x [(y +1) and (x +1) [(y +1).

Hint: Try x = 36k +14, y = (12k +5)(18k +7).

Some Algebraic Identities 21

2.3 Some Algebraic Identities

In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities.

50 Example Find all the primes of the form n

3

−1, for integer n > 1.

Solution: n

3

−1 = (n −1)(n

2

+n +1). If the expression were prime, since n

2

+n +1 is always greater than 1, we must have

n −1 = 1, i.e. n = 2. Thus the only such prime is 7.

51 Example Prove that n

4

+4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N.

Solution: Observe that

n

4

+4 = n

4

+4n

2

+4 −4n

2

= (n

2

+2)

2

− (2n)

2

= (n

2

+2 −2n)(n

2

+2 +2n)

= ((n −1)

2

+1)((n +1)

2

+1).

Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1, and so n

4

+4 cannot be a prime.

52 Example Find all integers n ≥1 for which n

4

+4

n

is a prime.

Solution: The expression is only prime for n =1. Clearly one must take n odd. For n ≥3 odd all the numbers below are integers:

n

4

+2

2n

= n

4

+2n

2

2

n

+2

2n

−2n

2

2

n

= (n

2

+2

n

)

2

−

Ä

n2

(n+1)/2

ä

2

= (n

2

+2

n

+n2

(n+1)/2

)(n

2

+2

n

−n2

(n+1)/2

).

It is easy to see that if n ≥3, each factor is greater than 1, so this number cannot be a prime.

53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N , n

2

divides the quantity

(n +1)

n

−1.

Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident. Assume n > 1. By the Binomial Theorem,

(n +1)

n

−1 =

n

¸

k=1

Ç

n

k

å

n

k

,

and every term is divisible by n

2

.

54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if

a

b

= 1 +1/2 + +1/(p −1),

then p divides a.

Solution: Arrange the sum as

1 +

1

p −1

+

1

2

+

1

p −2

+ +

1

(p −1)/2

+

1

(p +1)/2

.

After summing consecutive pairs, the numerator of the resulting fractions is p. Each term in the denominator is < p. Since p is

a prime, the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.

22 Chapter 2

55 Example Prove that

x

n

−y

n

= (x −y)(x

n−1

+x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

+ +xy

n−2

+y

n−1

)

Thus x −y always divides x

n

−y

n

.

Solution: We may assume that x = y, xy = 0, the result being otherwise trivial. In that case, the result follows at once from the

identity

n−1

¸

k=0

a

k

=

a

n

−1

a −1

a = 1,

upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y

n

.

Without calculation we see that 8767

2345

−8101

2345

is divisible by 666.

56 Example (E˝ otv˝ os 1899) Show that

2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the preceding problem, 2903

n

−803

n

is divisible by 2903 −803 = 2100 = 7 300 =, and 261

n

−464

n

is divisible

by 261 −464 = −203 = 7 (−29). Thus the expression 2903

n

−803

n

−464

n

+261

n

is divisible by 7. Also, 2903

n

−464

n

is

divisible by 2903 −464 = 9 271 and 261

n

−803

n

is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. Thus the expression is also divisible by

271. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common, we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 271 = 1897.

57 Example ((UM)

2

C

4

1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000, ﬁnd it.

Solution: If a = 10

3

, b = 2 then

1002004008016032 = a

5

+a

4

b +a

3

b

2

+a

2

b

3

+ab

4

+b

5

=

a

6

−b

6

a −b

.

This last expression factorises as

a

6

−b

6

a −b

= (a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)(a

2

−ab +b

2

)

= 1002 1002004 998004

= 4 4 1002 250501 k,

where k < 250000. Therefore p = 250501.

58 Example (Grünert, 1856) If x, y, z, n are natural numbers n ≥z, then the relation

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

does not hold.

Solution: It is clear that if the relation x

n

+y

n

= z

n

holds for natural numbers x, y, z then x < z and y < z. By symmetry, we may

suppose that x < y. So assume that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

and n ≥z. Then

z

n

−y

n

= (z −y)(z

n−1

+yz

n−2

+ +y

n−1

) ≥1 nx

n−1

> x

n

,

contrary to the assertion that x

n

+y

n

= z

n

. This establishes the assertion.

Practice 23

59 Example Prove that for n odd,

x

n

+y

n

= (x +y)(x

n−1

−x

n−2

y +x

n−3

y

2

− + − + −xy

n−2

+y

n−1

).

Thus if n is odd, x +y divides x

n

+y

n

.

Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1.11 and observing that (−y)

n

= −y

n

for n odd.

60 Example Show that 1001 divides

1

1993

+2

1993

+3

1993

+ +1000

1993

.

Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem, since each of 1

1993

+1000

1993

, 2

1993

+999

1993

, . . . , 500

1993

+501

1993

is

divisible by 1001.

61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n, there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence

x +1, x

x

+1, x

x

x

+1, . . .

is divisible by n.

Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n −1.

62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m, n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m−1, n −1)

share their prime factors.

Solution: Take m = 2

k

−1, n = (2

k

−1)

2

, k = 2, 3, . . .. Then m, n obviously share their prime factors and m−1 = 2(2

k−1

−1)

shares its prime factors with n −1 = 2

k+1

(2

k−1

−1).

Practice

Problem 2.3.1 Show that the integer

1. . . 1

. .. .

91 ones

is composite.

Problem 2.3.2 Prove that 1

99

+2

99

+3

99

+4

99

is divisible by

5.

Problem 2.3.3 Show that if [ab[ =1, then a

4

+4b

4

is compos-

ite.

Problem 2.3.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n,

the number

1 1

. .. .

2n 1

′

s

−2 2

. .. .

n 2

′

s

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.5 Let 0 ≤a < b.

1. Prove that b

n

((n +1)a −nb) < a

n+1

.

2. Prove that for n = 1, 2, . . .,

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n

<

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+1

n = 1, 2, . . . .

3. Show that

b

n+1

−a

n+1

b −a

> (n +1)a.

4. Show that

Å

1 +

1

n

ã

n+1

>

Å

1 +

1

n +1

ã

n+2

n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.6 If a, b are positive integers, prove that

(a +1/2)

n

+ (b +1/2)

n

is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n.

Problem 2.3.7 Prove that 100[11

10

−1.

24 Chapter 2

Problem 2.3.8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the

same number of digits, A>B. Suppose that A and B have more

than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common. Prove

that

A

1/n

−B

1/n

<

1

n

for all n = 2, 3, 4, . . ..

Problem 2.3.9 Demonstrate that every number in the se-

quence

49, 4489, 444889, 44448889, . . ., 4 4

. .. .

n 4

′

s

8 8

. .. .

n−1 8

′

s

9,

is the square of an integer.

Problem 2.3.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that if n is an even natural number, then the number 13

n

+6 is

divisible by 7.

Problem 2.3.11 Find, with proof, the unique square which is

the product of four consecutive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.12 Prove that the number 2222

5555

+5555

2222

is

divisible by 7.

(Hint: Consider

2222

5555

+4

5555

+5555

2222

−4

2222

+4

2222

−4

5555

.)

Problem 2.3.13 Prove that if a

n

+1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a is even and n is a power of 2. Primes of the form 2

2

k

+1 are

called Fermat primes.

Problem 2.3.14 Prove that if a

n

−1, 1 < a ∈ N, is prime, then

a = 2 and n is a prime. Primes of the form 2

n

−1 are called

Mersenne primes.

Problem 2.3.15 (Putnam, 1989) How many primes amongst

the positive integers, written as usual in base-ten are such that

their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s, beginning and ending

in 1?

Problem 2.3.16 Find the least value achieved by 36

k

−5

k

, k =

1, 2, . . . .

Problem 2.3.17 Find all the primes of the form n

3

+1.

Problem 2.3.18 Find a closed formula for the product

P = (1 +2)(1 +2

2

)(1 +2

2

2

) (1 +2

2

n

).

Use this to prove that for all positive integers n, 2

2

n

+1 divides

2

2

2

n

+1

−2.

Problem 2.3.19 Let a > 1 be a real number. Simplify the ex-

pression

»

a +2

√

a −1+

»

a −2

√

a −1.

Problem 2.3.20 Let a, b, c, d be real numbers such that

a

2

+b

2

+c

2

+d

2

= ab +bc +cd+da.

Prove that a = b = c = d.

Problem 2.3.21 Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a tri-

angle. Show that

3(ab +bc +ca) ≤(a +b +c)

2

≤4(ab +bc +ca).

Problem 2.3.22 (ITT, 1994) Let a, b, c, d be complex num-

bers satisfying

a +b +c +d = a

3

+b

3

+c

3

+d

3

= 0.

Prove that a pair of the a, b, c, d must add up to 0.

Problem 2.3.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive

natural numbers is never a perfect square.

Hint: What is (n

2

+n −1)

2

?

Problem 2.3.24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer. Show that if n is a

positive integer, then n

k

can be represented as the sum of n

successive odd numbers.

Problem 2.3.25 (Catalan) Prove that

1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ +

1

2n −1

−

1

2n

equals

1

n +1

+

1

n +2

+ +

1

2n

.

Problem 2.3.26 (IMO, 1979) If a, b are natural numbers

such that

a

b

= 1 −

1

2

+

1

3

−

1

4

+ −

1

1318

+

1

1319

,

prove that 1979[a.

Practice 25

Problem 2.3.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A trian-

gular number is one of the form 1 +2 +. . . +n, n ∈ N. Prove

that none of the digits 2, 4, 7, 9 can be the last digit of a trian-

gular number.

Problem 2.3.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many

square triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.29 (Putnam, 1975) Supposing that an integer n

is the sum of two triangular numbers,

n =

a

2

+a

2

+

b

2

+b

2

,

write 4n+1 as the sum of two squares, 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

where

x and y are expressed in terms of a and b.

Conversely, show that if 4n+1 = x

2

+y

2

, then n is the sum

of two triangular numbers.

Problem 2.3.30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove

that amongst ten successive natural numbers, there are always

at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by

any of the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7.

Problem 2.3.31 Show that if k is odd,

1 +2 + +n

divides

1

k

+2

k

+ +n

k

.

Problem 2.3.32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers

such that the sum of the ﬁrst four, each raised to the fourth

power, equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power?

Chapter 3

Congruences. Z

n

3.1 Congruences

The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß, and it means that n[(a −b). It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder

upon division by n. For example, −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. Since n[(a −b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a −b, we

deduce that a ≡b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b +nk.

We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences.

63 Lemma Let a, b, c, d, m∈ Z, k ∈ with a ≡b mod m and c ≡d mod m. Then

1. a +c ≡b +d mod m

2. a −c ≡b −d mod m

3. ac ≡bd mod m

4. a

k

≡b

k

mod m

5. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m.

Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m, we can ﬁnd k

1

, k

2

∈ Z with a = b +k

1

m and c = d +k

2

m. Thus

a±c = b±d +m(k

1

±k

2

) and ac = bd +m(k

2

b+k

1

d). These equalities give (1), (2) and (3). Property (4) follows

by successive application of (3), and (5) follows from (4). u

Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. For example 875961 2753 = 2410520633. For if

this were true then

(8 +7 +5 +9 +6+1)(2 +7+5+3) ≡2 +4 +1 +0 +5+2+0+6+3+3 mod 9.

But this says that 0 8 ≡8 mod 9, which is patently false.

64 Example Find the remainder when 6

1987

is divided by 37.

Solution: 6

2

≡−1 mod 37. Thus 6

1987

≡6 6

1986

≡6(6

2

)

993

≡6(−1)

993

≡−6 ≡31 mod 37.

65 Example Prove that 7 divides 3

2n+1

+2

n+2

for all natural numbers n.

Solution: Observe that 3

2n+1

≡3 9

n

≡3 2

n

mod 7 and 2

n+2

≡4 2

n

mod 7. Hence

3

2n+1

+2

n+2

≡7 2

n

≡0 mod 7,

for all natural numbers n.

26

Congruences 27

66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641[(2

32

+1).

Solution: Observe that 641 = 2

7

5 +1 = 2

4

+5

4

. Hence 2

7

5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641. Now, 2

7

5 ≡ −1

mod 641 yields 5

4

2

28

= (5 2

7

)

4

≡ (−1)

4

≡ 1 mod 641. This last congruence and 5

4

≡ −2

4

mod 641 yield −2

4

2

28

≡ 1

mod 641, which means that 641[(2

32

+1).

67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13.

Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6, because r

2

≡ (13 −r)

2

mod 13. Squaring the

nonnegative integers up to 6, we obtain 0

2

≡0, 1

2

≡1, 2

2

≡ 4, 3

2

≡9, 4

2

≡3, 5

2

≡ 12, 6

2

≡ 10 mod 13. Therefore the perfect

squares mod 13 are 0, 1, 4, 9, 3, 12, and 10.

68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x

2

−5y

2

= 2.

Solution: If x

2

= 2 −5y

2

, then x

2

≡2 mod 5. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5.

69 Example Prove that 7[(2222

5555

+5555

2222

).

Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7, 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 3

5

≡ 5 mod 7. Now 2222

5555

+5555

2222

≡ 3

5555

+4

2222

≡ (3

5

)

1111

+

(4

2

)

1111

≡5

1111

−5

1111

≡0 mod 7.

70 Example Find the units digit of 7

7

7

.

Solution: We must ﬁnd 7

7

7

mod 10. Now, 7

2

≡ −1 mod 10, and so 7

3

≡ 7

2

7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 7

4

≡ (7

2

)

2

≡ 1

mod 10. Also, 7

2

≡ 1 mod 4 and so 7

7

≡ (7

2

)

3

7 ≡ 3 mod 4, which means that there is an integer t such that 7

7

= 3 +4t.

Upon assembling all this,

7

7

7

≡7

4t+3

≡(7

4

)

t

7

3

≡1

t

3 ≡3 mod 10.

Thus the last digit is 3.

71 Example Prove that every year, including any leap year, has at least one Friday 13-th.

Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st. Now, the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the

following days:

Month Day of the year mod 7

January 1 1

February 32 4

March 60 or 61 4 or 5

April 91 or 92 0 or 1

May 121 or122 2 or 3

June 152 or 153 5 or 6

July 182 or183 0 or 1

August 213 or 214 3 or 4

September 244 or 245 6 or 0

October 274 or 275 1 or 2

November 305 or 306 4 or 5

December 335 or 336 6 or 0

(The above table means that, depending on whether the year is a leap year or not, that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the

year, etc.) Now, each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column, thus each year, whether leap or not, has at

least one Sunday the 1st.

28 Chapter 3

72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2

n

+27 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1, 2

4

≡ 2, 2

5

≡ 4, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7 and so 2

3k

≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k.

Hence 2

3k

+27 ≡1 +27 ≡0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought.

73 Example Are there positive integers x, y such that x

3

= 2

y

+15?

Solution: No. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0, 1, and 6. Now, every power of 2 is congruent to 1, 2, or 4 mod 7. Thus

2

y

+15 ≡2, 3, or 5 mod 7. This is an impossibility.

74 Example Prove that 2

k

−5, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7.

Solution: 2

1

≡2, 2

2

≡4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, and this cycle of three repeats. Thus 2

k

−5 can leave only remainders 3, 4, or 6 upon

division by 7.

75 Example (AIME, 1994) The increasing sequence

3, 15, 24, 48, . . . ,

consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of

the sequence is divided by 1000?

Solution: We want 3[n

2

−1 = (n −1)(n +1). Since 3 is prime, this requires n = 3k +1 or n = 3k −1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The

sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k +1)

2

−1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of

3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. The sequence 3k −1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n

2

−1 = (3k −1)

2

−1 which are the terms at odd places

of the sequence 3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k +1, k = 1, 2, . . .. Finally, the term sought is

(3(997) +1)

2

−1 ≡(3(−3) +1)

2

−1 ≡8

2

−1 ≡63 mod 1000. The remainder sought is 63.

76 Example (USAMO, 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions

(n

1

, n

2

, . . . , n

14

)

if any, apart from permutations, of the Diophantine equation

n

4

1

+n

4

2

+ +n

4

14

= 1599.

Solution: There are no such solutions. All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡0 or 1 mod 16. This means that

n

4

1

+ +n

4

14

can be at most 14 mod 16. But 1599 ≡15 mod 16.

77 Example (Putnam, 1986) What is the units digit of

10

20000

10

100

+3

?

Solution: Set a−3 =10

100

. Then [(10

20000

)/10

100

+3] = [(a−3)

200

/a] = [

1

a

200

¸

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

200−k

(−3)

k

] =

199

¸

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

.

Since

200

¸

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= 0, (3)

199

199

¸

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

= −3

199

. As a ≡3 mod 10,

199

¸

k=0

Ç

200

k

å

a

199−k

(−3)

k

≡3

199

199

¸

k=0

(−1)

k

Ç

200

k

å

≡−3

199

≡3 mod 10.

Congruences 29

78 Example Prove that for any a, b, c ∈ Z, n ∈ N, n > 3, there is an integer k such that n [(k +a), n [(k +b), n [(k +c).

Solution: The integers a, b, c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. Since n > 3, we have more than three

distinct residue classes. Thus there must be a residue class, say k for which −k ≡ a, −k ≡ b, −k ≡ c, mod n. This solves the

problem.

79 Example (Putnam, 1973) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2n+1

be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed, the remaining

ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. Prove that a

1

= a

2

= . . . = a

2n+1

.

Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even, no matter which of the a

k

be taken, all the a

k

must have the

same parity. The property stated in the problem is now shared by a

k

/2 or (a

k

−1)/2, depending on whether they are all even, or

all odd. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the a

k

are all congruent

mod 2

k

for every k, and this may only happen if they are all equal.

80 Example Prove that

(kn)! ≡0 mod

n−1

¸

r=0

(n +r)

if n, k ∈ N, n ≥k ≥2.

Solution: (kn)! = M(n −1)!n(n +1) (2n −1) for some integer M ≥1. The assertion follows.

81 Example Let

n!! = n! (1/2! −1/3! + + (−1)

n

/n!).

Prove that for all n ∈ N, n > 3,

n!! ≡n! mod (n −1).

Solution: We have

n! −n!! = n(n −1)(n −2)!(1 −1/2!

+ + (−1)

n−1

/(n −1)! + (−1)

n

/n!)

= (n −1)

Ä

m+ (−1)

n−1

n/(n −1) + (−1)

n

/(n −1)

ä

= (n −1)(m+ (−1)

n

) ,

where M is an integer, since (n −2)! is divisible by k!, k ≤n −2.

82 Example Prove that

6n+2

¸

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

≡0, 2

3n+1

, −2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+2

when n is of the form 2k, 4k +3 or 4k +1 respectively.

Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem,

2S := 2

3n+1

¸

k=0

Ç

6n +2

2k

å

3

k

= (1 +

√

3)

6n+2

+ (1 −

√

3)

6n+2

.

Also, if n is odd, with a = 2 +

√

3, b = 2 −

√

3,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

3n +1

2

¸

r=0

Ç

3n +1

2r

å

2

3n+1−2r

3

r

.

≡ 3

(3n+1)/2

mod 4

≡ (−1)

(n−1)/2

mod 4.

30 Chapter 3

As 2S = 2

3n+1

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

), we have, for odd n,

S ≡(−1)

(n−1)/2

2

3n+1

mod 2

3n+3

.

If n is even,

1

2

(a

3n+1

+b

3n+1

) =

¸

2r≤3n

Ç

3n +1

2r +1

å

2

2r+1

3

3n−2r

≡ 2(6n +1)3

3n

mod 8

≡ 4n +2 mod 8.

So for even n, S ≡2

3n+2

2n +1 mod 2

3n+4

.

Practice

Problem 3.1.1 Find the number of all n, 1 ≤n ≤25 such that

n

2

+15n +122 is divisible by 6.

(Hint: n

2

+15n+122 ≡n

2

+3n+2 = (n+1)(n+2) mod 6.)

Problem 3.1.2 (AIME 1983) Let a

n

=6

n

+8

n

. Determine the

remainder when a

83

is divided by 49.

Problem 3.1.3 (POLISH MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD)

What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in

order to give a number divisible by 13?

Problem 3.1.4 Prove that if 9[(a

3

+b

3

+c

3

), then 3[abc, for

integers a, b, c.

Problem 3.1.5 Describe all integers n such that 10[n

10

+1.

Problem 3.1.6 Prove that if

a −b, a

2

−b

2

, a

3

−b

3

, a

4

−b

4

, . . .

are all integers, then a and b must also be integers.

Problem 3.1.7 Find the last digit of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest

subset S of ¦1, 2, . . . , 50¦ such that no pair of distinct elements

of S has a sum divisible by 7?

Problem 3.1.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the

equation x

2

−7y = 3.

Problem 3.1.10 Prove that if 7[a

2

+b

2

then 7[a and 7[b.

Problem 3.1.11 Prove that there are no integers with

800000007 = x

2

+y

2

+z

2

.

Problem 3.1.12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a

perfect square cannot be equal to 1991.

Problem 3.1.13 Prove that

7[4

2

n

+2

2

n

+1

for all natural numbers n.

Problem 3.1.14 Prove that 5 never divides

n

¸

k=0

2

3k

Ç

2n +1

2k +1

å

.

Problem 3.1.15 Prove that if p is a prime,

Ç

n

p

å

− [

n

p

] is di-

visible by p, for all n ≥ p.

Problem 3.1.16 How many perfect squares are there

mod 2

n

?

Problem 3.1.17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a per-

fect power of 2 mod 3

n

.

Problem 3.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3

100

.

Problem 3.1.19 (USAMO, 1986) What is the smallest inte-

ger n >1, for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive

integers is an integer?

Note. The root mean square of n numbers a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

is deﬁned to be

Å

a

2

1

+a

2

2

+ +a

2

n

n

ã

1/2

.

Divisibility Tests 31

Problem 3.1.20 Find all integers a, b, c, a > 1 and all prime

numbers p, q, r which satisfy the equation

p

a

= q

b

+r

c

(a, b, c, p, q, r need not necessarily be different).

Problem 3.1.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th

power mod p for any prime p.

Problem 3.1.22 (IMO, 1975) Let a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . be an increas-

ing sequence of positive integers. Prove that for every s ≥ 1

there are inﬁnitely many a

m

that can be written in the form

a

m

= xa

s

+ya

t

with positive integers x and y and t > s.

Problem 3.1.23 For each integer n > 1, prove that n

n

−n

2

+

n −1 is divisible by (n −1)

2

.

Problem 3.1.24 Let x and a

i

, i = 0, 1, . . . , k be arbitrary inte-

gers. Prove that

k

¸

i=0

a

i

(x

2

+1)

3i

is divisible by x

2

±x +1 if and only if

k

¸

i=0

(−1)

i

a

i

is divisible

by x

2

±x +1.

Problem 3.1.25 ((UM)

2

C

9

1992) If x, y, z are positive inte-

gers with

x

n

+y

n

= z

n

for an odd integer n ≥3, prove that z cannot be a prime-power.

3.2 Divisibility Tests

Working base-ten, we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. The most famous one is perhaps the following.

83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9.

Proof: Let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

be the base-10 expansion of n. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9, we have

10

j

≡1 mod 9. It follows that n = a

k

10

k

+ +a

1

10 +a

0

≡a

k

+ +a

1

+a

0

, whence the theorem. u

84 Example (AHSME, 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer

192021222324 89909192.

What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number?

Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule, this number is divisible by 9 if and only if

19 +20 +21 + +92 = 37

2

3

is. Therefore, the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9.

85 Example (IMO, 1975) When 4444

4444

is written in decimal notation, the sum of its digits is A. Let B be the sum of the

digits of A. Find the sum of the digits of B. (A and B are written in decimal notation.)

Solution: We have 4444 ≡7 mod 9, and hence 4444

3

≡7

3

≡1 mod 9. Thus 4444

4444

=4444

3(1481)

4444 ≡1 7 ≡7 mod 9.

Let C be the sum of the digits of B.

By the casting-out 9’s rule, 7 ≡4444

4444

≡A ≡B ≡C mod 9. Now, 4444log

10

4444 <4444log

10

10

4

=17776. This means

that 4444

4444

has at most 17776 digits, so the sum of the digits of 4444

4444

is at most 9 17776 = 159984, whence A ≤159984.

Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999, so it follows that B ≤ 45. Of all the natural

numbers ≤45, 39 has the largest digital sum, namely 12. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12. But since C ≡7 mod 9,

it follows that C = 7.

A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. For let n = a

k

10

k

+a

k−1

10

k−1

+ +a

1

10+a

0

. As 10 ≡−1

mod 11, we have 10

j

≡(−1)

j

mod 11. Therefore n ≡(−1)

k

a

k

+(−1)

k−1

a

k−1

+ −a

1

+a

0

mod 11, that is, n is divisible by

11 if and only if the alternating sumof its digits is divisible by 11. For example, 912282219≡9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡7

mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11, whereas 8924310064539≡8−9+2−4+3−1+0−0+6−4+4−3+9 ≡0

mod 11, and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11.

32 Chapter 3

86 Example (Putnam, 1952) Let

f (x) =

n

¸

k=0

a

k

x

n−k

be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. If a

0

, a

n

and f (1) are all odd, prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots.

Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0, where a and b are relatively prime integers. Then 0 = b

n

f (a/b) = a

0

b

n

+a

1

b

n−1

a + +

a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a[a

0

, b[a

n

, whence a and b are both odd. Hence

a

0

b

n

+a

a

b

n−1

a + +a

n−1

ba

n−1

+a

n

a

n

≡a

0

+a

1

+ +a

n

= f (1) ≡1 mod 2,

but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f .

Practice

Problem 3.2.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its

n digits are an arrangement of the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and its ﬁrst

k digits forman integer that is divisible by k for all k, 1 ≤k ≤n.

For example, 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 di-

vides 3, 2 divides 32, and 3 divides 321. How many cute six-

digit integers are there?

Answer: 2.

Problem 3.2.2 How many ways are there to roll two distin-

guishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three?

Answer: 12.

Problem 3.2.3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2

k

, k ∈ N if

and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by

2

k

. Test whether

90908766123456789999872

is divisible by 8.

Problem 3.2.4 An old receipt has faded. It reads 88 chickens

at the total of $x4.2y, where x and y are unreadable digits.

How much did each chicken cost?

Answer: 73 cents.

Problem 3.2.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts

amongst themselves in the morning. During the night, one of

them wakes up and decides to take his share. After throwing

a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even, he

takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep. The other four

sailors do likewise, one after the other, each throwing a co-

conut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile.

In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey

and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles. What

is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the

original pile?

Answer: 15621

Problem 3.2.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3

n

iden-

tical digits is divisible by 3

n

. For example, 111 111 111 is

divisible by 9.

Problem 3.2.7 ((UM)

2

C

8

1991) Suppose that a

0

, a

1

, . . . a

n

are integers with a

n

= 0, and let

p(x) = a

0

+a

1

x + +a

n

x

n

.

Suppose that x

0

is a rational number such that p(x

0

) =0. Show

that if 1 ≤k ≤n, then

a

k

x

0

+a

k+1

x

2

0

+ +a

n

x

n−k+1

is an integer.

Problem 3.2.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order.

Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read

these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the dig-

its is divisible by 27, then if we read these digits in the same

direction beginning with any other digit, the new 1953-digit

number is also divisible by 27.

Problem 3.2.9 (Lagrange) Prove that

f

n+60

≡ f

n

mod 10.

Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of

length 60.

Problem 3.2.10 Prove that

f

2n+1

≡ f

2

n+1

mod f

2

n

.

Complete Residues 33

3.3 Complete Residues

The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers.

87 Deﬁnition If a ≡b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. A set a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

n

is called a complete residue system

modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡a

j

mod n.

It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers, this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the

set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n. For example, the set A = ¦0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5¦ forms

a complete set of residues mod 6, since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A. Notice that the set

B = ¦−40, 6, 7, 15, 22, 35¦ forms a complete residue set mod 6, but the set C = ¦−3, −2, −1, 1, 2, 3¦ does not, as −3 ≡ 3

mod 6.

+

3

0 1 2

0 0 1 2

1 1 2 0

2 2 0 1

Table 3.1: Addition Table for Z

3

+

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 1 2 3 4 5 0

2 2 3 4 5 0 1

3 3 4 5 0 1 2

4 4 5 0 1 2 3

5 5 0 1 2 3 4

Table 3.2: Addition Table for Z

6

Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Z

n

. As an example, let us take n = 3. We now let 0 represent all

those integers that are divisible by 3, 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3, and 2 all those

integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3, and consider the set Z

3

= ¦0, 1, 2¦. We deﬁne addition in Z

3

as follows.

Given a, b ∈ Z

3

we consider a +b mod 3. Now, there is c ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦ such that a +b ≡ c mod 3. We then deﬁne a +

3

b to be

equal to c. Table ?? contains all the possible additions.

We observe that Z

3

together with the operation +

3

as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties:

1. The element 0 ∈ Z

3

is an identity element for Z

3

, i.e. 0 satisﬁes 0 +

3

a = a +

3

0 = a for all a ∈ Z

3

2. Every element a ∈ Z

3

has an additive inverse b, i.e., an element such that a +

3

b = b +

3

a = 0. We denote the additive

inverse of a by −a. In Z

3

we note that −0 = 0, −1 = 2, −2 = 1.

3. The operation addition in Z

3

is associative, that is, for all a, b, c ∈ Z

3

we have a +

3

(b+

3

c) = (a +

3

b) +

3

c.

We then say that <Z

3

, +

3

> forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3.

Similarly we deﬁne < Z

n

, +

n

>, as the group of residues under addition mod n. As a further example we present the

addition table for <Z

6

, +

6

> on Table (1.2). We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

Practice

Problem 3.3.1 Construct the addition tables for Z

8

and Z

9

. Problem 3.3.2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a, b) =

(0, 0) are in Z

12

such that a +

12

b = 0?

Chapter 4

Unique Factorisation

4.1 GCD and LCM

If a, b ∈ Z, not both zero, the largest positive integer that divides both a, b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. This

is denoted by (a, b) or sometimes by gcd(a, b). Thus if d[a and d[b then d[(a, b), because any common divisor of a and b must

divide the largest common divisor of a and b. For example, (68, −6) = 2, gcd(1998, 1999) = 1.

If (a, b) = 1, we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime. Thus if a, b are relatively prime, then they have no factor

greater than 1 in common.

If a, b are integers, not both zero, the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a, b is called the least common multiple

of a and b. This is denoted by [a, b]. We see then that if a[c and if b[c, then [a, b][c, since c is a common multiple of both a and

b, it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b.

The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following.

88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a, b can be written as a linear

combination of a and b, i.e., there are integers x, y with

(a, b) = ax +by.

Proof: Let A = ¦ax +by[ax +by > 0, x, y ∈ Z¦. Clearly one of ±a, ±b is in A, as both a, b are not zero. By the

Well Ordering Principle, A has a smallest element, say d. Therefore, there are x

0

, y

0

such that d = ax

0

+by

0

. We

prove that d = (a, b). To do this we prove that d[a, d[b and that if t[a, t[b, then t[d.

We ﬁrst prove that d[a. By the Division Algorithm, we can ﬁnd integers q, r, 0 ≤r < d such that a = dq +r. Then

r = a −dq = a(1 −qx

0

) −by

0

.

If r > 0, then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A, namely d, a contradiction. Thus r = 0. This entails

dq = a, i.e. d[a. We can similarly prove that d[b.

Assume that t[a, t[b. Then a = tm, b = tn for integers m, n. Hence d = ax

0

+bx

0

= t(mx

0

+ny

0

), that is, t[d. The

theorem is thus proved. u

It is clear that any linear combination of a, b is divisible by (a, b).

89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a[bc and if (a, b) = 1, then a[c.

Proof: As (a, b) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y with ax +by = 1. Since a[bc, there is

an integer s with as = bc. Then c = c 1 = cax +cby = cax +asy. From this it follows that a[c, as wanted.u

34

GCD and LCM 35

90 Theorem If (a, b) = d, then

(

a

d

,

b

d

) = 1.

Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that ax+by =d. But then (a/d)x+(b/d)y =1,

and a/d, b/d are integers. But this is a linear combination of a/d, b/d and so (a/d, b/d) divides this linear

combination, i.e., divides 1. We conclude that (a/d, b/d) = 1.u

91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer. Then

(ca, cb) = c(a, b).

Proof: Let d

1

= (ca, cb) and d

2

= (a, b). We prove that d

1

[cd

2

and cd

2

[d

1

. As d

2

[a and d

2

[b, then cd

2

[ca, cd

2

[cb.

Thus cd

2

is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d

1

[cd

2

. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers

x, y with d

1

= acx +bcy = c(ax +by). But ax +by is a linear combination of a, b and so it is divisible by d

2

. There

is an integer s then such that sd

2

= ax +by. It follows that d

1

= csd

2

, i.e., cd

2

[d

1

. u

It follows similarly that (ca, cb) =[c[(a, b) for any non-zero integer c.

92 Lemma For nonzero integers a, b, c,

(a, bc) = (a, (a, b)c).

Proof: Since (a, (a, b)c) divides (a, b)c it divides bc. Thus gcd(a, (a, b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a, (a, b)c)[ gcd(a, bc).

On the other hand, (a, bc) divides a and bc, hence it divides ac and bc. Therefore (a, bc) divides (ac, bc) = c(a, b).

In conclusion, (a, bc) divides a and c(a, b) and so it divides (a, (a, b)c). This ﬁnishes the proof.u

93 Theorem (a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

.

Proof: Assume that (m, n) = 1. Using the preceding lemma twice,

(m

2

, n

2

) = (m

2

, (m

2

, n)n) = (m

2

, (n, (m, n)m)n).

As (m, n) = 1, this last quantity equals (m

2

, n). Using the preceding problem again,

(m

2

, n) = (n, (m, n)m) = 1.

Thus (m, n) = 1 implies (m

2

, n

2

) = 1.

By Theorem ??,

Å

a

(a, b)

,

b

(a, b)

ã

= 1,

and hence

Ç

a

2

(a, b)

2

,

b

2

(a, b)

2

å

= 1.

By Theorem ??, upon multiplying by (a, b)

2

, we deduce

(a

2

, b

2

) = (a, b)

2

,

which is what we wanted.u

94 Example Let (a, b) = 1. Prove that (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

) = 1 or 3.

36 Chapter 4

Solution: Let d = (a +b, a

2

−ab +b

2

). Now d divides

(a +b)

2

−a

2

+ab −b

2

= 3ab.

Hence d divides 3b(a +b) −3ab = 3b

2

. Similarly, d[3a

2

. But then d[(3a

2

, 3b

2

) = 3(a

2

, b

2

) = 3(a, b)

2

= 3.

95 Example Let a, a = 1, m, n be positive integers. Prove that

(a

m

−1, a

n

−1) = a

(m,n)

−1.

Solution: Set d = (m, n), sd = m, td = n. Then a

m

−1 = (a

d

)

s

−1 is divisible by a

d

−1 and similarly, a

n

−1 is divisible by

a

d

−1. Thus (a

d

−1)[(a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theoremthere are integers x, y with mx+ny =d. Notice that

x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative, since then d would be negative. They cannot both be

positive because then d ≥ m+n, when in fact we have d ≤ m, d ≤ n). So, assume without loss of generality that x > 0, y ≤ 0.

Set t = (a

m

−1, a

n

−1). Then t[(a

mx

−1) and t[(a

−ny

−1). Hence, t[((a

mx

−1) −a

d

(a

−ny

−1)) = a

d

−1. The assertion is

established.

96 Example (IMO, 1959) Prove that the fraction

21n +4

14n +3

is irreducible for every natural number n.

Solution: 2(21n +4) −3(14n +3) = −1. Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1.

97 Example (AIME, 1985) The numbers in the sequence

101, 104, 109, 116, . . .

are of the form a

n

= 100 +n

2

, n = 1, 2, . . .. For each n let d

n

= (a

n

, a

n+1

). Find max

n≥1

d

n

.

Solution: We have the following: d

n

= (100 +n

2

, 100 + (n +1)

2

) = (100 +n

2

, 100 +n

2

+2n +1) = (100 +n

2

, 2n +1). Thus

d

n

[(2(100+n

2

)−n(2n+1)) =200−n. Therefore d

n

[(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) =401. This means that d

n

[401 for all n. Could it be

that large? The answer is yes, for let n = 200, then a

200

= 100+200

2

= 100(401) and a

201

= 100+201

2

= 40501 = 101(401).

Thus max

n≥1

d

n

= 401.

98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd, then (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1) = 1.

Solution: Let d = (2

m

−1, 2

n

+1). It follows that d must be an odd number, and 2

m

−1 = kd, 2

n

+1 = ld, for some natural

numbers k, l. Therefore, 2

mn

= (kd +1)

n

= td +1, where t =

n−1

¸

j=0

Ç

n

j

å

k

n−j

d

n−j−1

. In the same manner, 2

mn

= (ld −1)

m

=

ud −1, where we have used the fact that m is odd. As td +1 = ud −1, we must have d[2, whence d = 1.

99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime.

Solution: The numbers km! +1, k = 1, 2, . . . , m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!. Suppose

that d[(lm! +1), d[(sm! +1), 1 ≤l < s ≤m. Then d[(s(lm! +1) −l(sm! +1)) = (s −l) < m. Thus 1 ≤d < m and so, d[m!. But

then d[(sm! +1 −sm!) = 1. This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime.

100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime.

Solution: Let d = ( f

n

, f

n+1

). As f

n+1

− f

n

= f

n−1

and d divides the sinistral side of this equality, d[ f

n−1

. Thus d[( f

n

− f

n−1

) =

f

n−2

. Iterating on this process we deduce that d[ f

1

= 1 and so d = 1.

Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity f

n−1

f

n+1

− f

2

n

= (−1)

n

. Thus d[(−1)

n

, i.e., d = 1.

GCD and LCM 37

101 Example Prove that

( f

m

, f

n

) = f

(n,m)

.

Solution: Set d = ( f

n

, f

m

), c = f

(m,n)

, a = (m, n). We will prove that c[d and d[c.

Since a[m and a[n, f

a

[ f

m

and f

a

[ f

n

by Theorem ??. Thus

f

a

[( f

m

, f

m

),

i.e., c[d.

Now, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, there are integers x, y such that xm+yn =a. Observe that x, y cannot be both negative,

otherwise a would be negative. As a[n, a[m we have a ≤n, a ≤m. They cannot be both positive since then a =xm+yn ≥m+n,

a contradiction. Thus they are of opposite signs, and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤0, y > 0.

Observe that

f

yn

= f

a−xm

= f

a−1

f

−xm

+ f

a

f

−xm+1

upon using the identity

f

s+t

= f

s−1

f

t

+ f

s

f

t+1

of Theorem ??. As n[yn, m[(−xm), we have that f

n

[ f

yn

, f

m

[ f

−xm

. This implies that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

yn

and ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. Hence

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

f

−xm+1

.

We saw earlier that ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm

. If it were the case that

( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

−xm+1

,

then ( f

n

, f

m

) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when

( f

n

, f

m

) > 1. The case = 1 is a triviality. Therefore ( f

n

, f

m

)[ f

a

, which is what we wanted to prove.

102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17.

Solution: Let d = (17, f

n

), which obviously must be odd. Then (17, f

n

) = (34, f

n

) = ( f

9

, f

n

) = f

(9,n)

= f

1

, f

3

or f

9

. This means

that d = (17, f

n

) = 1, 2 or 34. This forces d = 1.

103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as

C

n

=

1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

.

Prove that C

n

is an integer for all natural numbers n.

Solution: By the binomial absorption identity,

2n +1

n +1

Ç

2n

n

å

=

Ç

2n +1

n +1

å

.

Since 2n+1 and n+1 are relatively prime, and since the dextral side is an integer, it must be the case that n+1 divides

Ç

2n

n

å

.

104 Example Let n be a natural number. Find the greatest common divisor of

Ç

2n

1

å

,

Ç

2n

3

å

, . . . ,

Ç

2n

2n −1

å

.

38 Chapter 4

Solution: Since

n

¸

k=1

Ç

2n

2k −1

å

= 2

2n−1

,

the gcd must be of the form 2

a

. Since the gcd must divide

Ç

2n

1

å

= 2n, we see that it has divide 2

l+1

, where l is the largest

power of 2 that divides n. We claim that 2

l+1

divides all of them. We may write n = 2

l

m, where M is odd. Now,

Ç

2

l+1

m

2k −1

å

=

2

l+1

m

2k −1

Ç

2

l+1

m−1

2k −2

å

.

But 2k −1 [2

l+1

for k > 1. This establishes the claim.

105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there are two that are

relatively prime.

Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets

¦1, 2¦, ¦3, 4¦, ¦5, 6¦. . ., ¦99, 100¦.

Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers, there must be two that will lie in the same set. Those two are relatively prime, as

consecutive integers are relatively prime.

106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1, each of the

summands being relatively prime.

Solution: If n is odd, we may choose a = 2, b = n −2. If n is even, then is either of the form 4k or 4k +2. If n = 4k, then take

a = 2k +1, b = 2k −1. These two are clearly relatively prime (why?). If n = 4k +2, k > 1 take a = 2k +3, b = 2k −1.

107 Example How many positive integers ≤1260 are relatively prime to 1260?

Solution: As 1260 = 2

2

3

2

5 7, the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by

2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2, B the set of multiples of 3, etc. By the

Inclusion-Exclusion Principle,

[A∪B∪C∪D[ = [A[ +[B[ +[C[ +[D[

−[A∩B[ −[A∩C[ −[A∩D[

−[B∩C[ −[B∩D[ −[C∩D[

+[A∩B∩C[ +[A∩B∩D[ +[A∩C∩D[

+[B∩C∩D[ −[A∩B∩C∩D[

= 630 +420 +252+180−210−126−90−84

−60 −36 +42 +30+18+12−6 = 972.

The number of integers sought is then 1260 −972 = 288.

Practice

Problem 4.1.1 Show that

(a, b)[a, b] = ab

for all natural numbers a, b.

Problem 4.1.2 Find lcm (23!41!, 29!37!).

Primes 39

Problem 4.1.3 Find two positive integers a, b such that

a

2

+b

2

= 85113, and lcm (a, b) = 1764.

Problem 4.1.4 Find a, b ∈ N with (a, b) = 12, [a, b] = 432.

Problem 4.1.5 Prove that (a, b)

n

= (a

n

, b

n

) for all natural

numbers n.

Problem 4.1.6 Let a ∈N. Find, with proof, all b ∈Nsuch that

(2

b

−1)[(2

a

+1).

Problem 4.1.7 Show that (n

3

+3n +1, 7n

3

+18n

2

−n −2) =

1.

Problem 4.1.8 Let the integers a

n

, b

n

be deﬁned by the rela-

tion

a

n

+b

n

√

2 = (1 +

√

2)

n

, n ∈ N.

Prove that gcd(a

n

, b

n

) = 1 ∀ n.

Problem 4.1.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi-

tions:

1. If a, b ∈ N, a < b, then in any set of b consecutive inte-

gers there are two whose product is divisible by ab.

2. If a, b, c, ∈ N, a < b < c, then in any set of c consecu-

tive integers there are three whose product is divisible

by abc.

Problem 4.1.10 Let n, k, n ≥k > 0 be integers. Prove that the

greatest common divisor of the numbers

Ç

n

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n +k

k

å

is 1.

(Hint: Prove

k

¸

j=0

(−1)

j

Ç

k

j

åÇ

n + j

k

å

= (−1)

k

.)

Problem 4.1.11 Let F

n

= 2

2

n

+1 be the n-th Fermat number.

Find (F

n

, F

m

).

Problem 4.1.12 Find the greatest common divisor of the se-

quence

16

n

+10n −1, n = 1, 2, . . . .

Problem 4.1.13 Demonstrate that (n! +1, (n +1)! +1) = 1.

Problem 4.1.14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can

be written as n = a+b+c where a, b, c are pairwise relatively

prime natural numbers each exceeding 1.

(Hint: Consider n mod 12. Write two of the summands in the

form 6k +s and the third summand as a constant.)

Problem 4.1.15 Prove that there are no positive integers

a, b, n > 1 with

(a

n

−b

n

)[(a

n

+b

n

).

Problem 4.1.16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the

following hexagonal property:

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k −1

å

,

Ç

n

k +1

å

,

Ç

n +1

k

åå

equals

gcd

ÇÇ

n −1

k

å

,

Ç

n +1

k +1

å

,

Ç

n

k −1

åå

.

Problem 4.1.17 (Putnam, 1974) Call a set of integers con-

spiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime.

What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial

subset of the integers 1 through 16?

4.2 Primes

Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1. Clearly 2 is the only

even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is

called composite. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n, a, b ∈ N.

108 Theorem If n > 1, then n is divisible by at least one prime.

40 Chapter 4

Proof: Since n > 1, it has at least one divisor > 1. By the Well Ordering Principle, n must have a least positive

divisor greater than 1, say q. We claim that q is prime. For if not then we can write q as q = ab, 1 < a ≤b < q. But

then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q, which contradicts the minimality of q.u

109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes.

Proof: Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

k

be a list of primes. Construct the integer

n = p

1

p

2

p

k

+1.

This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem, it must have a prime divisor p. Observe that p must

be different from any of p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

k

since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the p

i

. Thus we have

shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes, i.e., that the set of primes is inﬁnite.u

110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k +1 is again of that form.

Proof: (4a +1)(4b +1) = 4(4ab +a +b) +1.u

111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n +3.

Proof: Any prime either equals 2, or is of the form 4k ±1. We will show that the collection of primes of the form

4k −1 is inexhaustible. Let

¦p

1

, p

2

, . . . p

n

¦

be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k −1. Construct the number

N = 4p

1

p

2

p

n

−1.

Since each p

k

is ≥3, N ≥11. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. Now either N

is a prime, in which case it is a prime of the form 4k −1 not on the list, or it is a product of primes. In the latter

case, all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k +1, for the product of any two primes of this form is

again of this form, in view of the preceding problem. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1

not on the list. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k −1 we can always construct

an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k −1 not on that list. The assertion follows. u

112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number.

Solution: Let k ∈ N, k ≥2. Then each of the numbers

k! +2, . . . , k! +k

is composite.

113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite, then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤

√

n.

Proof: Suppose that n = ab, 1 < a ≤b < n. If both a and b are >

√

n, then n = ab >

√

n

√

n = n, a contradiction.

Thus n has a factor = 1 and ≤

√

n, and hence a prime factor, which is ≤

√

n. u

114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤100.

Solution: Observe that

√

100 = 10. By the preceding theorem, all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have

a prime factor amongst 2, 3, 5, or 7. Let A

m

denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. Then [A

2

[ = 50, [A

3

[ = 33, [A

5

[ =

Practice 41

20, [A

7

[ =14, [A

6

[ =16, [A

10

[ =10, [A

14

[ =7, [A

15

[ =6, [A

21

[ =4, [A

35

[ =2, [A

30

[ =3, [A

42

[ =2, [A

70

[ =1, [A

105

[ =0, [A

210

[ =0.

Thus the number of primes ≤100 is

= 100 − ( number of composites ≤1) −1

= 4 +100 − multiples of 2, 3, 5, or 7 ≤100 −1

= 4 +100 − (50 +33 +20+14) + (16+10 +7+6+4+2)

−(3 +2 +1 +0) −0−1

= 25,

where we have subtracted the 1, because 1 is neither prime nor composite.

115 Lemma If p is a prime,

Ç

p

k

å

is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p.

Proof:

Ç

p

k

å

=

p(p −1) (p −k +1)

k!

yields

k!

Ç

p

k

å

= p(p −1) (p −k +1),

whence p[k!

Ç

p

k

å

. Now, as k < p, p [k!. By Euclid’s Lemma, it must be the case that p[

Ç

p

k

å

.u

116 Example Prove that if p is a prime, then p divides 2

p

−2.

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem:

2

p

−2 = (1 +1)

p

−2 =

Ç

p

1

å

+

Ç

p

2

å

+ +

Ç

p

p −1

å

,

as

Ç

p

0

å

=

Ç

p

p

å

= 1. By the preceding lemma, p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. This establishes

the assertion.

Practice

Problem 4.2.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of

the form 6n +5.

Problem 4.2.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there

are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p −2 is not a prime.

Problem 4.2.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes, prove

that the prime factorisation of p +q has at least three (not

necessarily distinct) primes.

Problem 4.2.4 1. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N. Prove,

by induction on n, that p[(n

p

−n).

2. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z.

3. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p [n, then p[(n

p−1

−

1).

4. Prove that 42[n

7

−n, n ∈ Z.

5. Prove that 30[n

5

−n, n ∈ Z.

Problem 4.2.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a, b) =1. Prove

that

Å

a +b,

a

p

+b

p

a +b

ã

divides p.

Problem 4.2.6 Prove that 3, 5, 7 is the only prime triplet of the

form p, p +2, p +4.

42 Chapter 4

Problem 4.2.7 Let n > 2. Prove that if one of the numbers 2

n

−1 and 2

n

+1 is prime, then the other is composite.

4.3 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Consider the integer 1332. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 666. Now, 666 is clearly divisible by 6, and

so 1332 = 2 2 3 111. Finally, 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 2 3 3 37. We cannot further decompose

1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1, as all 2, 3, 37 are prime. We will show now that such decomposition is

always possible for a positive integer greater than 1.

117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers.

Proof: Let n > 1. If n is a prime, then we have nothing to prove. Assume that n is composite and let q

1

be its least

proper divisor. By Theorem 4.5, q

1

is a prime. Set n = q

1

n

1

, 1 < n

1

< n. If n

1

is a prime, then we arrived at the

result. Otherwise, assume that n

1

is composite, and let q

2

be its least prime divisor, as guaranteed by Theorem 4.5.

We can write then n = q

1

q

2

n

2

, 1 <n

2

< n

1

< n. Continuing the argument, we arrive at a chain n > n

1

>n

2

> 1,

and this process must stop before n steps, as n is a positive integer. Eventually we then have n = q

1

q

2

q

s

. u

We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows,

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

k

k

, a

1

> 0, a

2

> 0, . . . , a

k

> 0,

p

1

< p

2

< < p

k

,

where the p

j

are primes. We call the preceding factorisation of n, the canonical factorisation of n. For example 2

3

3

2

5

2

7

3

is the

canonical factorisation of 617400.

118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only

one way, apart from the order of the factors.

Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation. Assume that

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

s

s

= q

b

1

1

q

b

2

2

q

b

t

t

are two canonical factorisations of n. By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1.2) we conclude that every p must be a q and

every q must be a p. This implies that s =t. Also, from p

1

< p

2

< < p

s

and q

1

<q

2

< <q

t

we conclude that

p

j

= q

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤s.

If a

j

> b

j

for some j then, upon dividing by p

b

j

j

, we obtain

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

j

−b

j

j

p

a

s

s

= p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

j−1

j−1

p

b

j+1

j+1

p

b

s

s

,

which is impossible, as the sinistral side is divisible by p

j

and the dextral side is not. Similarly, the alternative

a

j

< b

j

for some j is ruled out and so a

j

= b

j

for all j. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

It is easily seen, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, that if a has the prime factorisation a = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

n

n

and b

has the prime factorisation b = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

n

n

, (it may be the case that some of the a

k

and some of the b

k

are zero) then

(a, b) = p

min(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

min(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

min(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.1)

and also

[a, b] = p

max(a

1

,b

1

)

1

p

max(a

2

,b

2

)

2

p

max(a

n

,b

n

)

n

. (4.2)

Since x +y = max(x, y) +min(x, y), it clearly follows that

ab = (a, b)[a, b].

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 43

119 Example Prove that

√

2 is irrational.

Solution: Assume that

√

2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a, b. Then 2b

2

= a

2

. The sinistral side of this last

equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions), whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime

factors. This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

120 Example Prove that if the polynomial

p(x) = a

0

x

n

+a

1

x

n−1

+ +a

n−1

x +a

n

with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x, then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value

of x.

Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1). Assume

that p(a

k

) −7 = 0 for distinct a

k

, 1 ≤k ≤4. Then

p(x) −7 = (x −a

1

)(x −a

2

)(x −a

3

)(x −a

4

)q(x)

for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. Then

7 = p(m) −7 = (m−a

1

)(m−a

2

)(m−a

3

)(m−a

4

)q(m).

Since the factors m−a

k

are all distinct, we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. This is impossible,

by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.

121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i.e., a perfect square or a perfect

cube, etc.).

Solution: Let the integer be (n−1)n(n+1) = (n

2

−1)n. Since n

2

−1 and n are relatively prime, by the Fundamental Theoremof

Arithmetic, n

2

−1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥2) and n is also a perfect kth power. But then, n

2

−1 and n

2

would be consecutive

perfect kth powers, sheer nonsense.

122 Example Prove that m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

is never equal to 33.

Solution: Observe that

m

5

+3m

4

n −5m

3

n

2

−15m

2

n

3

+4mn

4

+12n

5

= (m−2n)(m−n)(m+n)(m+2n)(m+3n).

Now, 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1). If n = 0, the factors in the

above product are all different. They cannot be multiply to 33, by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, as 33 is the product

of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n = 0.. If n = 0, the product of the factors

is m

5

, and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power.

123 Example Prove that the sum

S = 1/2 +1/3 +1/4+ +1/n

is never an integer.

Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2

k

≤ n, and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. The

number 2

k−1

PS is a sum, all whose terms, except for 2

k−1

P

1

2

k

, are integers.

124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

is a perfect square.

44 Chapter 4

Solution: If k

2

= 2

8

+2

11

+2

n

= 2304 +2

n

= 48

2

+2

n

, then k

2

−48

2

= (k −48)(k +48) = 2

n

. By unique factorisation,

k −48 = 2

s

, k +48 = 2

t

, s +t = n. But then 2

t

−2

s

=96 = 3 2

5

or 2

s

(2

t−s

−1) =3 2

5

. By unique factorisation, s =5, t −s =2,

giving s +t = n = 12.

125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst ¦5, 7, 11, 13, 23¦, there must be two

whose product is a square.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form

5

a

7

b

11

c

13

d

23

f

.

Thus to each number in the set, we associate a vector (a, b, c, d, f ). These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours, according to

the parity of the components. For example (even, odd, odd, even, odd) is one such class. Since we have 33 integers, two (at

least) will have the same parity in their exponents, and the product of these two will be a square.

126 Example (IMO, 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers, none with a prime factor greater than 26, prove

that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer.

Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form

2

a

3

b

5

c

7

d

11

f

13

g

17

h

19

j

23

k

.

Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers, we will have two different ones whose product is a square.

Start weeding out squares. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

1

, b

1

such that a

1

b

1

= c

2

1

.

Delete this pair. From the 1983 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a

2

, b

2

such that a

2

b

2

= c

2

2

. Delete this pair.

From the 1981 integers remaining, we can ﬁnd a pair a

3

, b

3

such that a

3

b

3

= c

2

3

. We can continue this operation as long as

we have at least 513 integers. Thus we may perform this operation n +1 times, were n is the largest positive integer such that

1985 −2n ≥ 513, i.e., n = 736. Therefore, we are able to gather 737 pairs a

k

, b

k

such that a

k

b

k

= c

2

k

. Now, the 737 numbers

c

k

have all their prime factors smaller than 26, and since 737 > 513, we may ﬁnd two distinct c

m

say c

i

and c

j

, i = j, such that

c

i

c

j

= a

2

, a perfect square. But then c

i

c

j

= a

2

implies that a

i

b

i

a

j

b

j

= a

4

, a fourth power. Thus we have found four distinct

numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power.

127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1, 2, . . . , 100. Show that there must be one that

divides some other.

Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2

a

m, where m is odd. Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers

between 1 and 100, there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd

part, and thus the smaller will divide the larger.

128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that

[a, b, c]

2

[a, b][b, c][c, a]

=

(a, b, c)

2

(a, b)(b, c)(c, a)

.

Solution: Put

a =

¸

p

α

k

k

, b =

¸

p

β

k

k

, c =

¸

p

γ

k

k

,

with primes p

k

. The assertion is equivalent to showing

2max(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −max(α

k

, β

k

) −max(α

k

, γ

k

) −max(β

k

, γ

k

)

= 2min(α

k

, β

k

, γ

k

) −min(α

k

, β

k

) −min(α

k

, γ

k

) −min(β

k

, γ

k

).

By symmetry, we may assume, without loss of generality, that α

k

≥β

k

≥γ

k

. The equation to be established reduces thus to the

identity

2α

k

−α

k

−α

k

−β

k

= 2γ

k

−β

k

−γ

k

−γ

k

.

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 45

129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a, 1 ≤a ≤

√

n.

Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤

√

n. Let p

1

= 2, p

2

= 3, . . . , p

l

be all the primes ≤

√

n, and let k

j

be the

unique integers such that p

k

j

j

≤

√

n < p

k

j

+1

j

. Clearly n

l/2

< p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

. Let lcm(1, 2, 3, . . . ,

√

n−1,

√

n) = K.

Clearly then K = p

k

1

1

p

k

2

2

p

k

l

l

. Hence p

k

1

+1

1

p

k

2

+1

2

p

k

l

+1

l

≤K

2

and thus n

l/2

< K

2

. By hypothesis, n must be divisible by K

and so K ≤ n. Consequently, n

l/2

< n

2

. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. By inspection, we see that the only valid values

for n are n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24.

130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n,

S = l + (l +1) +. . . +m

is never divisible by n. Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2.

Solution: Set n = s2

k

with s odd. If s = 1, 2S = (l +m)(m−l +1), which has one factor even and one factor odd, cannot be

divisible by 2n = 2

k+1

, since, its even factor is less than 2n. But if s > 1, then S is divisible by n, with 0 <l <m <n, if we take

m = (s +2

k+1

−1)/2

and

l =

®

1 +m−2

k+1

, s > 2

k+1

,

1 +m−s, s < 2

k+1

.

131 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

k

≤n, where k >

n +1

2

, be integers. Prove that

a

1

+a

j

= a

r

is soluble.

Solution: The k −1 positive integers a

i

−a

1

, 2 ≤ i ≤ k, are clearly distinct. These, together with the k given distinct a’s, give

2k −1 > n positive integers, each not greater than n. Hence, at least one of the integers is common to both sets, so that at least

once a

r

−a

1

= a

j

.

The sequence n/2+1, n/2+2, . . ., n, shows that for k =(n +1)/2 the result is false.

132 Example Let 0 < a

1

< a

2

< < a

n

≤2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. Prove

that a

1

>

2n

3

.

Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). Hence, writing

a

k

= 2

t

k

A

k

, A

k

odd, we see that all the A

k

are different. Since there are n of them, they coincide in some order with the set of all

positive odd numbers less than 2n.

Now, consider a

1

= 2

t

1

A

1

. If a

1

≤2n/3, then 3a

1

= 2

t

1

3A

1

≤2n, and 3A

1

< 2n. Since 3A

1

would then be an odd number

< 2n, 3A

1

= A

j

for some j, and a

j

= 2

t

j

3A

1

. Thus either [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

1

3A

1

= 3a

1

≤ 2n, or [a

1

, a

j

] = 2

t

j

3A

1

= a

j

≤ 2n. These

contradictions establish the assertion.

133 Example (Putnam, 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a, b, c, d) such that

3

r

7

s

= [a, b, c] = [b, c, d] = [c, d, a] = [d, a, b].

Solution: By unique factorisation, each of a, b, c, d must be of the form 3

m

7

n

, 0 ≤ m ≤ r, 0 ≤ n ≤ s. Moreover, M must equal

r for at least two of the four numbers, and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. There are

Ç

4

2

å

r

2

= 6r

2

ways

46 Chapter 4

of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r,

Ç

4

3

å

r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent

r and

Ç

4

4

å

= 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. Thus there is a total of 1 +4r +6r

2

of choosing at least two of the

four numbers to have exponent r. Similarly, there are 1 +4s +6s

2

ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have

exponent s. The required formula is thus

(1 +4r +6r

2

)(1 +4s +6s

2

).

Practice

Problem 4.3.1 Prove that log

10

7 is irrational.

Problem 4.3.2 Prove that

log3

log2

is irrational.

Problem 4.3.3 Find the smallest positive integer such that

n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube.

Problem 4.3.4 How many integers from 1 to 10

20

inclusive,

are not perfect squares, perfect cubes, or perfect ﬁfth powers?

Problem 4.3.5 Prove that the sum

1/3 +1/5 +1/7+ +1/(2n +1)

is never an integer.

(Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤n).

Problem 4.3.6 Find min

k≥1

36

k

−5

k

.

(Hint: Why is 36

k

−1 −5

k

= 0?)

Problem 4.3.7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered

triples (a, b, c) of positive integers for which [a, b] =

1000, [b, c] = [a, c] = 2000.

Problem 4.3.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332

as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each

greater than 1. Factorisations differing in order are consid-

ered the same.

Answer: 3.

Problem 4.3.9 Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

t

be different primes and

a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

t

be natural numbers. Find the number of ways of

factoring p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

as the product of two positive relatively

prime factors each greater than 1. Factorisations differing in

order are considered the same.

Answer: 2

t−1

−1.

Problem 4.3.10 Let n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

t

t

and m = p

b

1

1

p

b

2

2

p

b

t

t

,

the p’s being different primes. Find the number of the common

factors of m and n.

Answer:

t

¸

k=1

(1 +min(a

k

, b

k

)).

Problem 4.3.11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of

three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not nec-

essarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression.

Problem 4.3.12 Let 2 = p

1

, 3 = p

2

, . . . be the primes in their

natural order and suppose that n ≥10 and that 1 < j < n. Set

N

1

= p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, N

2

= 2p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1, . . .

and

N

p

j

= p

j

p

1

p

2

p

j−1

−1

Prove

1. Each p

i

, j ≤ i ≤ n, divides at most one of the N

p

k

, 1 ≤

k ≤ j

2. There is a j, 1 < j < n, for which p

j

> n − j +1.

3. Let s be the smallest j for which p

j

> n − j +1. There

is a t, 1 ≤t ≤ p

s

, such that all of p

1

, . . . p

n

fail to divide

t p

1

p

2

p

s−1

−1, and hence p

n+1

< p

1

p

2

p

s

.

4. The s above is >4 and so p

s−1

−2 ≥s and p

1

p

2

p

s

<

p

s+1

p

n

.

5. (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥4, p

2

n+1

< p

1

p

n

.

Problem 4.3.13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the

following property: if 1 ≤t ≤n and (t, n) = 1, then t is prime.

Practice 47

Problem 4.3.14 (USAMO 1984) 1. For which positive

integers n is there a ﬁnite set S

n

of n distinct positive

integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of

S

n

is an integer?

2. Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such

that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an

integer.

Problem 4.3.15 1. (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no

triplet of integers (a, b, c), except for (a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0)

for which

a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 = 0.

2. (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a, b, c,

not all zero and each of absolute value less than a mil-

lion, such that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ < 10

−11

.

3. (Putnam 1980) Let a, b, c be integers, not all zero and

each of absolute value less than a million. Prove that

[a +b

√

2+c

√

3[ > 10

−21

.

Problem 4.3.16 (E˝ otv˝ os 1906) Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

be any per-

mutation of the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that if n is odd, the

product

(a

1

−1)(a

2

−2) (a

n

−n)

is an even number.

Problem 4.3.17 Prove that from any sequence formed by ar-

ranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101, it is al-

ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not neces-

sarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an

increasing or a decreasing sequence.

Problem 4.3.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is al-

ways to choose two, whose sum, or else, whose difference, is

divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it

is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps, one

number) whose sum is divisible by 100.

Problem 4.3.20 Given n numbers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

each of which

is equal to ±1, prove that if

x

1

x

2

+x

2

x

3

+ +x

n

x

1

= 0,

then n is a multiple of 4.

Chapter 5

Linear Diophantine Equations

5.1 Euclidean Algorithm

We nowexamine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. It is called the

Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. Let a, b be positive integers. After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly,

we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities

a = bq

1

+r

2

, 0 < r

2

< b,

b = r

2

q

2

+r

3

0 < r

3

< r

2

,

r

2

= r

3

q

3

+r

4

0 < r

4

< r

3

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n−2

= r

n−1

q

n−1

+r

n

0 < r

n

< r

n−1

,

r

n−1

= r

n

q

n

.

(5.1)

The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a r

n+1

which will be zero, since b, r

2

, r

3

, . . . is a monotonically decreasing

sequence of integers, and cannot contain more than b positive terms.

The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact, to be proved below, that (a, b) = (b, r

2

) = (r

2

, r

3

) = = (r

n−1

, r

n

) = r

n

.

134 Theorem Prove that if a, b, n are positive integers, then

(a, b) = (a +nb, b).

Proof: Set d = (a, b), c = (a +nb, b). As d[a, d[b, it follows that d[(a +nb). Thus d is a common divisor of both

(a+nb) and b. This implies that d[c. On the other hand, c[(a+nb), c[b imply that c[((a+nb) −nb) = a. Thus c is

a common divisor of a and b, implying that c[d. This completes the proof. u

135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456, 246).

Solution: (3456, 246) = (13 246 +158, 246) = (158, 246), by the preceding example. Now, (158, 246) = (158, 158 +88) =

(88, 158). Finally, (88, 158) = (70, 88) = (18, 70) = (16, 18) = (2, 16) = 2. Hence (3456, 246) = 2.

136 Theorem If r

n

is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm, then

r

n

= (a, b).

48

Euclidean Algorithm 49

Proof: From equations ??

r

2

= a −bq

1

r

3

= b −r

2

q

2

r

4

= r

2

−r

3

q

3

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

n

= r

n−2

−r

n−1

q

n−1

Let r = (a, b). From the ﬁrst equation, r[r

2

. From the second equation, r[r

3

. Upon iterating the process, we see that

r[r

n

.

But starting at the last equation ?? and working up, we see that r

n

[r

n−1

, r

n

[r

n−2

, . . . r

n

[r

2

, r

n

[b, r

n

[a. Thus r

n

is a

common divisor of a and b and so r

n

[(a, b). This gives the desired result. u

137 Example Find (23, 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm.

Solution: We have

29 = 1 23 +6,

23 = 3 6 +5,

6 = 1 5 +1,

5 = 5 1.

The last non-zero remainder is 1, thus (23, 29) = 1.

An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem, we see that

the linear diophantine equation

ax +by = c

has a solution in integers if and only if (a, b)[c. The Euclidean Algorithmis an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation.

138 Example Find integers x, y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: We work upwards, starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem:

1 = 6 −1 5,

5 = 23 −3 6,

6 = 29 1 −23.

Hence,

1 = 6 −1 5

= 6 −1 (23 −3 6)

= 4 6 −1 23

= 4(29 1 −23) −1 23

= 4 29 −5 23.

This solves the equation, with x = −5, y = 4.

139 Example Find integer solutions to

23x +29y = 7.

Solution: From the preceding example, 23(−5) +29(4) = 1. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7,

23(−35) +29(28) = 7,

which solves the problem.

50 Chapter 5

140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to

23x +29y = 1.

Solution: By Example ??, the pair x

0

= −5, y

0

= 4 is a solution. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting

x = −5 +29t, y = 4 −23t, t ∈ Z.

141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x, y such that 3456x +246y = 73?

Solution: No. (3456, 246) = 2 and 2 [73.

142 Theorem Assume that a, b, c are integers such that (a, b)[c. Then given any solution (x

0

, y

0

) of the linear diophantine

equation

ax +by = c

any other solution of this equation will have the form

x = x

0

+t

b

d

, y = y

0

−t

a

d

,

where d = (a, b) and t ∈ Z.

Proof: It is clear that if (x

0

, y

0

) is a solution of ax +by = c, then x = x

0

+tb/d, y = y

0

−ta/d is also a solution.

Let us prove that any solution will have this form.

Let (x

′

, y

′

) satisfy ax

′

+by

′

= c. As ax

0

+by

0

= c also, we have

a(x

′

−x

0

) = b(y

0

−y

′

).

Dividing by d = (a, b),

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

(y

0

−y

′

).

Since (a/d, b/d) = 1,

a

d

[(y

0

−y

′

), in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. Thus there is an integer t such that t

a

d

= y

0

−y

′

,

that is, y = y

0

−ta/d. From this

a

d

(x

′

−x

0

) =

b

d

t

a

d

,

which is to say x

′

= x

0

+tb/d. This ﬁnishes the proof. u

143 Example Find all solutions in integers to

3456x +246y = 234.

Solution: By inspection, 3456(−1) +246(15) = 234. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are given by x = −1 +123t, y = 15 −

1728t, t ∈ Z.

Practice

Problem 5.1.1 Find the following:

1. (34567, 987)

2. (560, 600)

3. (4554, 36)

4. (8098643070, 8173826342)

Problem 5.1.2 Solve the following linear diophantine equa-

tions, provided solutions exist:

Linear Congruences 51

1. 24x +25y = 18

2. 3456x +246y = 44

3. 1998x +2000y = 33

Problem 5.1.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose ver-

tices are (0, 0), (b, a), (x, y) is

[by −ax[

2

.

Problem 5.1.4 A woman pays $2.78 for some bananas and

eggs. If each banana costs $0.69 and each egg costs $0.35,

how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy?

5.2 Linear Congruences

We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b +nt. Hence, the congruencial equation

in x, ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b is soluble. It is clear then that the

congruence

ax ≡b mod n

has a solution if and only if (a, n)[b.

144 Theorem Let a, b, n be integers. If the congruence ax ≡b mod n has a solution, then it has (a, n) incongruent solutions

mod n.

Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax +ny = b have the

form x = x

0

+nt/d, y = y

0

−at/d, d = (a, n), t ∈ Z, where x

0

, y

0

satisfy ax

0

+ny = b. Letting t take on the values

t = 0, 1, . . . ((a, n) −1), we obtain (a, n) mutually incongruent solutions, since the absolute difference between any

two of them is less than n. If x = x

0

+nt

′

/d is any other solution, we write t

′

as t

′

= qd +r, 0 ≤r < d. Then

x = x

0

+n(qd +r)/d

= x

0

+nq +nr/d

≡ x

0

+nr/d mod n.

Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values

x

0

+nt/d, 0 ≤ t ≤ d −1. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence, then there are d incongruent solutions

mod n.u

145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡3 mod 7

Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??, there should only be one solution mod 7, as (5, 7) = 1. We ﬁrst solve the

linear diophantine equation 5x +7y = 1. By the Euclidean Algorithm

7 = 5 1 +2

5 = 2 2 +1

2 = 2 1.

Hence,

1 = 5 −2 2

2 = 7 −5 1,

which gives

1 = 5 −2 2 = 5 −2(7 −5 1) = 5 3 −7 2.

Whence 3 = 5(9) −7(6). This gives 5 9 ≡3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 2 ≡3 mod 7. Thus x ≡2 mod 7.

146 Example Solve the congruence

3x ≡6 mod 12.

52 Chapter 5

Solution: As (3, 12) = 3 and 3[6, the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions. By inspection we see that x = 2 is

a solution. By Theorem ??, all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 +4t, t ∈ Z. By letting t = 0, 1, 2, the three incongruent

solutions modulo 12 are t = 2, 6, 10.

We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future.

147 Theorem Let x, y be integers and let a, n be non-zero integers. Then

ax ≡ay mod n

if and only if

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Proof: If ax ≡ay mod n then a(x −y) = sn for some integer s. This yields

(x −y)

a

(a, n)

= s

n

(a, n)

.

Since (a/(a, n), n/(a, n)) = 1 by Theorem ??, we must have

n

(a, n)

[(x −y),

by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??). This implies that

x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

.

Conversely if x ≡y mod

n

(a, n)

implies

ax ≡ay mod

an

(a, n)

,

upon multiplying by a. As (a, n) divides a, the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax −ay = tn for some

integer t. This gives the required result.u

Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary.

148 Corollary If ax ≡ay mod n and (a, n) = 1, then x ≡y mod n.

Practice

Problem 5.2.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡12 mod 14. Problem 5.2.2 How many x, 38 ≤x ≤289 satisfy

3x ≡8 mod 11?

5.3 A theorem of Frobenius

If (a, b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax +by skips all non-multiples of d. If (a, b) = 1, there is always an integer solution

to ax +by = n regardless of the integer n. We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd

nonnegative solutions to ax +by = n.

149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a, b be positive integers. If (a, b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be

written in the form ar +bs = m for nonnegative integers r, s equals (a −1)(b −1)/2.

A theorem of Frobenius 53

Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r, s with ar +bs = n. Consider

the inﬁnite array

0 1 2 . . . k . . . a −1

a a +1 a +2 . . . a +k . . . 2a −1

2a 2a +1 2a +2 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a −1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. The numbers directly below a

number n have the form n +ka where k is a natural number. Clearly, if n is attainable, so is n +ka, implying thus

that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it. Clearly all multiples of b are attainable. We

claim that no two distinct multiples of b, vb and wb with 0 ≤ v, w ≤ a −1 can belong to the same column. If this

were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. Hence a(v −w) ≡ 0 mod a. Since (a, b) = 1 we invoke Corollary

5.1 to deduce v −w ≡0 mod a. Since 0 ≤v, w ≤a −1, we must have v = w.

Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1 is non-attainable. For a number

directly above vb is of the form vb−ka for some natural number k. If vb−ka were attainable, then ax+by =vb−ka

for some nonnegative integers x, y. This yields by ≤ ax +by = vb −ka < vb. Hence, 0 ≤ y < v < a. This implies

that y ≡ v mod b. On the other hand, two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a. Therefore we

deduce vb ≡ bv −ka ≡ ax +by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a.

This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤y < v < a.

Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form

vb, 0 ≤v ≤a−1. Now, on the j-th column, there are (vb− j)/a values above vb. Hence the number of unattainable

numbers is given by

a−1

¸

v=0

a−1

¸

j=0

vb − j

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

,

as we wanted to show.u

The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a −1)b, hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a −1)b −a,

which gives the following theorem.

150 Theorem Let a, b be relatively prime positive integers. Then the equation

ax +by = n

is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x, y for n =ab−a−b. If n >ab−a−b, then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers.

151 Example (Putnam, 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows. After each play, according to the outcome, the player

receives either a or b points, (a, b ∈ N, a > b), and his score accumulates from play to play. It has been noticed that there are

thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58. Find a and b.

Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax +by. If (a, b) > 1, there are inﬁnitely many such

integers. Hence (a, b) =1. By Theorem??, the number of non-attainable scores is (a−1)(b−1)/2. Therefore, (a−1)(b−1) =

70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). The conditions a > b, (a, b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71, b = 2 and a = 11, b = 8. As

58 = 0 71 +2 29, the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. The line 11x +8y = 58 passes through (6, −1) and (−2, 10) and thus it

does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. The unique solution is a = 11, b = 8.

152 Example (AIME, 1994) Ninety-four bricks, each measuring 4

′′

10

′′

19

′′

, are to be stacked one on top of another to

form a tower 94 bricks tall. Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4

′′

or 10

′′

or 19

′′

to the total height of the tower. How

many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks?

54 Chapter 5

Solution: Let there be x, y, z bricks of height 4

′′

, 10

′′

, and 19

′′

respectively. We are asking for the number of different sums

4x +10y +19z

with the constraints x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0, x +y +z = 94.

Now, 4x +10y +19z ≤ 19 94 = 1786. Letting x = 94 −y −z, we count the number of different nonnegative integral

solutions to the inequality 376+3(2y +5z) ≤1786, y +z ≤94, that is 2y +5z ≤470, y +z ≤94. By Theorem ??, every integer

≥(2−1)(5−1) =4 can be written in the form 2y+5z, and the number of exceptions is (2−1)(5−1)/2 =2, namely n =1 and

n =3. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤470, we see that 469 can be written in the formn =2y+5z. Using x =96−x−y,

n, 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 −n = 3x +5z. By Theorem ?? there are (3 −1)(5 −1)/2 = 4 exceptions,

each ≤ 8, namely n = 1, 2, 4, 7. This means that 463, 466, 468, and 469 are not representable in the form 4x +10y +19z. Then

every integer n, 0 ≤n ≤ 470 except for 1, 3, 463, 466, 468, and 469 can be thus represented, and the number of different sums

is 471 −6 = 465.

153 Example 1. Let (n, 1991) = 1. Prove that

n

1991

is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an

only if there exist integers m, a, b with

(∗) 1 ≤m ≤10, a ≥1, b ≥1, mn = 11a +181b.

2. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each

with denominators less than 1991.

Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then

n

1991

=

a

181m

+

b

11m

does the trick. Conversely, if

n

1991

=

a

r

+

b

s

for a, b ≥1, (a, r) = (b, s) =1,

and r, s < 1991, we may suppose r = 181r

1

, s = 11s

1

and then nr

1

s

1

= 11as

1

+181br

1

, which leads to r

1

[11as

1

and so r

1

[s

1

.

Similarly, s

1

[r

1

, whence r

1

= s

1

= m, say, and (∗) follows.

(b) Any n > 170, (n, 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. For mn > 181

except if m = 1, n ≤180; but then n would not be of the form n ≡181 mod 11.

But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗); for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11, so b ≡ m mod 11, which yields b ≥ m, but

170m < 181. The answer is thus 170/1991.

Practice

Problem 5.3.1 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

there are at least c

2

/2ab pairs of integers (x, y) satisfying

x ≥0, y ≥0, ax +by ≤c.

Problem 5.3.2 (AIME, 1995) What is largest positive integer

that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a

positive composite integer?

Problem 5.3.3 Let a > 0, b > 0, (a, b) = 1. Then the number

of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax +by = n is equal

to

[

n

ab

] or [

n

ab

] +1.

(Hint: [s] − [t] = [s −t] or [s −t] +1.)

Problem 5.3.4 Let a, b ∈ N, (a, b) = 1. Let S(n) denote the

number of nonnegative solutions to

ax +by = n.

Evaluate

lim

n→∞

S(n)

n

.

Problem 5.3.5 (IMO, 1983) Let a, b, c be pairwise relatively

prime integers. Demonstrate that 2abc −ab −bc −ca is the

largest integer not of the form

bcx +acy +abz, x ≥0, y ≥0, z ≥0.

Chinese Remainder Theorem 55

5.4 Chinese Remainder Theorem

In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x

which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5, is divisible by 7, and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. In the language of

congruences we are seeking x such that

x ≡ 2 mod 5,

x ≡ 0 mod 7,

x ≡ 4 mod 11.

One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements, and that in fact, so does the parametric family x = 147 +385t, t ∈ Z.

We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. The method is credited to the ancient Chinese, and it is thus

called the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

154 Example Find x such that

x ≡3 mod 5 and x ≡7 mod 11.

Solution: Since x = 3 +5a, we have 11x = 33 +55a. As x = 7 +11b, we have 5x = 35 +55b. Thus x = 11x −10x = 33 −70 +

55a −110b. This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 +55t, t ∈ Z verify the given

congruences.

155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2, when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1, and

when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1.

Solution: We want n such that

n ≡ 2 mod 4,

n ≡ 1 mod 5,

n ≡ 1 mod 7.

This implies that

35n ≡ 70 mod 140,

28n ≡ 28 mod 140,

20n ≡ 20 mod 140.

As n = 21n −20n, we have n ≡ 3(35n −28n) −20n ≡ 3(70 −28) −20 ≡ 106 mod 140. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will

do.

156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m

1

, m

2

, . . . m

k

be pairwise relatively prime positive integers, each exceed-

ing 1, and let a

1

, a

2

, . . . a

k

be arbitrary integers. Then the system of congruences

x ≡ a

1

mod m

1

x ≡ a

2

mod m

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ a

k

mod m

k

has a unique solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

.

Proof: Set P

j

= m

1

m

2

m

k

/m

j

, 1 ≤ j ≤ k. Let Q

j

be the inverse of P

j

mod m

j

, i.e., P

j

Q

j

≡ 1 mod m

j

, which

we know exists since all the m

i

are pairwise relatively prime. Form the number

x = a

1

P

1

Q

1

+a

2

P

2

Q

2

+ +a

k

P

k

Q

k

.

This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. The uniqueness of the solution modulo m

1

m

2

m

k

can

be easily established. u

56 Chapter 5

157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free?

Solution: Yes. Let p

1

, p

2

, . . . , p

1000000

be a million different primes. By the Chinese Remainder Theorem, there exists a solution

to the following system of congruences.

x ≡ −1 mod p

2

1

,

x ≡ −2 mod p

2

2

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x ≡ −1000000 mod p

2

1000000

.

The numbers x+1, x+2, . . . , x+1000000 are a million consecutive integers, each of which is divisible by the square of a prime.

Practice

Problem 5.4.1 Solve the following systems:

1. x ≡−1 mod 4; x ≡2 mod 5

2. 4x ≡3 mod 7; x ≡10 mod 11

3. 5x ≡2 mod 8; 3x ≡2 mod 9; x ≡0 mod 11

Problem 5.4.2 (USAMO 1986) 1. Do there exist fourteen

consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible

by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤11?

2. Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of

which is divisible by one or more primes p, 2 ≤ p ≤13?

Chapter 6

Number-Theoretic Functions

6.1 Greatest Integer Function

The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. Thus x satisﬁes

the inequalities x −1 < x ≤ x, which, of course, can also be written as x ≤ x < x+1. The fact that x is the unique

integer satisfying these inequalities, is often of use. We also utilise the notation ¦x¦ = x −x, to denote the fractional part of

x, and [[x[[ = min

n∈Z

[x −n[ to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer. A useful fact is that we can write any real

number x in the form x =x+¦x¦, 0 ≤¦x¦ < 1.

The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties:

158 Theorem Let α, β ∈ R, a ∈ Z, n ∈ N. Then

1. α +a =α+a

2.

α

n

=

α

n

3. α+β ≤α +β ≤α+β+1

Proof:

1. Let m = α +a. Then m ≤ α +a < m+1. Hence m−a ≤ α < m−a +1. This means that m−a = α,

which is what we wanted.

2. Write α/n as α/n =α/n+θ, 0 ≤θ < 1. Since nα/n is an integer, we deduce by (1) that

α =nα/n+nθ = nα/n+nθ.

Now, 0 ≤nθ ≤nθ < n, and so 0 ≤nθ/n < 1. If we let Θ =nθ/n, we obtain

α

n

=

α

n

+Θ, 0 ≤Θ < 1.

This yields the required result.

3. From the inequalities α −1 < α ≤ α, β −1 < β ≤ β we get α +β −2 < α+β ≤ α +β. Since

α+β is an integer less than or equal to α+β, it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α+β,

i.e. α +β. We obtain thus α+β ≤α +β. Also, α +β is less than the integer α+β+2, so

its integer part α +β must be less than α+β+2, but α +β < α+β+2 yields α +β ≤

α+β+1. This proves the inequalities.

u

57

58 Chapter 6

159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x, y) such that

P(2t, 3t) = 0

for all real t.

Solution: We claim that 3[2t] −2[3t] = 0, ±1 or −2. We can then take

P(x, y) = (3x −2y)(3x −2y −1)(3x −2y +1)(3x −2y +2).

In order to prove the claim, we observe that x has unit period, so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0, 1). We divide

[0, 1) as

[0, 1) = [0, 1/3) ∪[1/3, 1/2) ∪[1/2, 2/3) ∪[2/3, 1).

If t ∈ [0, 1/3), then both 2t and 3t are = 0, and so 32t−23t = 0. If t ∈ [1/3, 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0, and so

32t−23t= −2. If t ∈[1/2, 2/3), then [2t] =1, [3t] =1, and so 32t−23t=1. If t ∈[2/3, 1), then 2t =1, 3t =2,

and 32t−23t = −1.

160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 +

√

2n

2n.

Solution: Let 2n = m(1 +

√

2n). If m ≤

√

2n−1 then 2n ≤ (

√

2n−1)(

√

2n+1) =

√

2n

2

−1 ≤ 2n −1 < 2n, a

contradiction. If m≥

√

2n+1, then 2n ≥(

√

2n

2

+1)

2

≥2n+1, another contradiction. It must be the case that m=

√

2n.

Conversely, let n =

l(l +1)

2

. Since l <

√

2n < l +1, l =

√

2n. So all the integers with the required property are the

triangular numbers.

161 Example Prove that the integers

Ä

1 +

√

2

ä

n

**with n a nonnegative integer, are alternately even or odd.
**

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem

(1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

= 2

¸

0≤k≤n/2

(2)

k

Ç

n

2k

å

:= 2N,

an even integer. Since −1 < 1−

√

2 < 0, it must be the case that (1−

√

2)

n

is the fractional part of (1+

√

2)

n

or (1+

√

2)

n

+1

depending on whether n is odd or even, respectively. Thus for odd n, (1 +

√

2)

n

−1 < (1 +

√

2)

n

+ (1 −

√

2)

n

< (1 +

√

2)

n

,

whence (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

=(1+

√

2)

n

, always even, and for n even 2N := (1+

√

2)

n

+ (1−

√

2)

n

= (1+

√

2)

n

+1,

and so (1 +

√

2)

n

= 2N−1, always odd for even n.

162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in

(6 +

√

35)

1980

are all 9’s.

Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem,

(6 +

√

35)

1980

+ (6 −

√

35)

1980

= 2k,

Greatest Integer Function 59

an even integer. But 0 < 6 −

√

35 < 1/10, (for if

1

10

< 6 −

√

35, upon squaring 3500 < 3481, which is clearly nonsense), and

hence 0 < (6 −

√

35)

1980

< 10

−1980

which yields

2k −1 + 0.9. . . 9

. .. .

1979 nines

= 2k −

1

10

1980

< (6 +

√

35)

1980

< 2k,

This proves the assertion of the problem.

163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer, demonstrate that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

4n +2.

Solution: By squaring, it is easy to see that

√

4n +1 <

√

n+

√

n +1 <

√

4n +3.

Neither 4n +2 nor 4n +3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4, so

√

4n +2 =

√

4n +3,

and the result follows.

164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square.

Solution: Let T

n

be the n-th non-square. There is a natural number m such that m

2

< T

n

< (m+1)

2

. As there are m squares less

than T

n

and n non-squares up to T

n

, we see that T

n

= n+m. We have then m

2

< n+m < (m+1)

2

or m

2

−m < n < m

2

+m+1.

Since n, m

2

−m, m

2

+m+1 are all integers, these inequalities imply m

2

−m+

1

4

<n < m

2

+m+

1

4

, that is to say, (m−1/2)

2

<

n < (m+1/2)

2

. But then m =

√

n+

1

2

. Thus the n-th non-square is T

n

= n +

√

n+1/2.

165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n +

√

n. Prove that for every positive integer m, the sequence

m, f (m), f ( f (m)), f ( f ( f (m))), . . .

contains at least one square of an integer.

Solution: Let m = k

2

+ j, 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. Split the m’s into two sets, the set A of all the m with excess j, 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B

with all those m’s with excess j, k < j < 2k +1.

Observe that k

2

≤ m < (k +1)

2

= k

2

+2k +1. If j = 0, we have nothing to prove. Assume that m ∈ B. As

√

m = k,

f (m) =k

2

+ j +k = (k +1)

2

+ j −k −1, with 0 ≤ j −k −1 ≤k −1 <k +1. This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈A.

It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A, in which case

√

m+k = k and

f ( f (m)) = f (m+k) = m+2k = (k +1)

2

+ j −1.

This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j −1 smaller than the excess j of m. At each iteration

the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0, whence we reach a square.

166 Example Solve the equation

x

2

−x −2 =x,

for x ∈ R.

Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a, b ∈ [k, k +1) which happens if and only if [a −b[ < 1. Hence,

the given equation has a solution if and only if [x

2

−2x −2[ < 1. Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is

thus

x ∈ (−1,

1

2

(1 −

√

5)] ∪[

1

2

(1 +

√

17),

1

2

(1 +

√

21)).

60 Chapter 6

167 Theorem If a, b are relatively prime natural numbers then

a−1

¸

k=1

kb

a

=

b−1

¸

k=1

ka

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

.

Proof: Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0, 0), (0, b), (a, 0), (a, b). This rectangle contains (a −1)(b −1)

lattice points, i.e., points with integer coordinates. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y =

xb

a

.

We claim that there are no lattice points on this line, except for the endpoints. For if there were a lattice point

(m, n), 0 <m<a, 0 <n <b, then

n

m

=

b

a

. Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a, a contradiction.

The points L

k

= (k,

kb

a

), 1 ≤k ≤a −1 are each on this line. Now,

kb

a

equals the number of lattice points on the

vertical line that goes from (k, 0) to (k,

kb

a

), i.e.

a−1

¸

k=1

kb

a

is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the

rectangle. Similarly,

b−1

¸

k=1

ka

b

equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle. Since there

are (a−1)(b−1) lattice points in total, and their number is shared equally by the halves, the assertion follows. u

168 Example Find the integral part of

10

6

¸

k=1

1

√

k

.

Solution: The function x →x

−1/2

is decreasing. Thus for positive integer k,

1

√

k +1

<

k+1

k

dx

√

x

<

1

√

k

.

Summing from k = 1 to k = 10

6

−1 we deduce

10

6

¸

k=2

1

√

k

<

10

6

1

dx

√

x

<

10

6

−1

¸

k=1

1

√

k

.

The integral is easily seen to be 1998. Hence

1998 +1/10

3

<

10

6

¸

k=1

1

√

k

< 1999.

The integral part sought is thus 1998.

Practice

Problem 6.1.1 Prove that for all real numbers x, y,

x+x +y+y ≤2x+2y

holds.

Problem 6.1.2 If x, y real numbers, when is it true that

xy ≤xy?

Problem 6.1.3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a

real number, prove that

[α] >

α

n

.

Practice 61

Problem 6.1.4 If a, b, n are positive integers, prove that

ab

n

≥a

b

n

.

Problem 6.1.5 Let α be a real number. Prove that [α] +

[−α] = −1 or 0 and that α−2α/2 = 0 or 1.

Problem 6.1.6 Prove that

(2 +

√

3)

n

**is an odd integer.
**

Problem 6.1.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence

1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .

where there are n occurrences of the integer n is

√

2n+1/2.

Problem 6.1.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number

and n is a natural number then

nx =x+x +

1

n

+x +

2

n

+ +x +

n −1

n

.

Problem 6.1.9 Prove that for all integers m, n, the equality

m+n

2

+

n −m+1

2

= n

holds.

Problem 6.1.10 If a, b, c, d are positive real numbers such

that

na+nb =nc+nd

for all natural numbers n, prove that

a +b = c +d.

Problem 6.1.11 If n is a natural number, prove that

n +2 −n/25

3

=

8n +24

25

.

Problem 6.1.12 Solve the equation

x

1994

=

x

1995

.

Problem 6.1.13 Let [α, β] be an interval which contains no

integers. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that

[nα, nβ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6.

Problem 6.1.14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n,

evaluate the sum

∞

¸

k=0

n +2

k

2

k+1

.

Problem 6.1.15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N,

min

k∈N

(k +n/k) =

√

4n +1.

Problem 6.1.16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola)

Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤n, x >0, y >0.

Prove that

N =

n

¸

k=1

n

k

= 2

¸

1≤k≤

√

n

n

k

−

√

n

2

.

Problem 6.1.17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote

the number of lattice points of the domain x

2

+y

2

≤ r

2

. Prove

that

T = 1 +4r+8

¸

0<x≤r

√

2

r

2

−x

2

+4

r

√

2

2

.

Problem 6.1.18 Let d = (a, b). Prove that

¸

1≤n≤b−1

an

b

=

(a −1)(b −1)

2

+

d −1

2

.

Problem 6.1.19 (Eisenstein) If (a, b) = 1 and a, b are odd,

then

¸

1≤n≤(b−1)/2

an

b

+

¸

1≤n≤(a−1)/2

bn

a

=

(a −1)(b −1)

4

.

Problem 6.1.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive

real number. Prove that

¸

x

m

…

y

x

=y,

where the summation runs through all positive integers x not

divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1.

Problem 6.1.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide

4

n

−(2 +

√

2)

n

?

Problem 6.1.22 A triangular number is a number of the form

1+2+ +n, n ∈N. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular

number.

Problem 6.1.23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thou-

sand positive integers can be expressed in the form

2x+4x+6x+8x?

62 Chapter 6

Problem 6.1.24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive in-

teger n for which there is a unique integer k such that

8

15

<

n

n +k

<

7

13

?

Problem 6.1.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime, then

(2 +

√

5)

p

−2

p+1

is divisible by p.

Problem 6.1.26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form

e

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . is

T

n

= n +ln(n +1 +ln(n +1)).

Problem 6.1.27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different

integers are there in the sequence

1

2

1980

,

2

2

1980

, . . . ,

1980

2

1980

?

Problem 6.1.28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a posi-

tive real number. Prove that

k

√

x =

k

»

x.

Problem 6.1.29 1. Find a real number x = 0 such that

x, 2x, . . . , 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions.

2. Prove that for any real number x = 0 at least one of

x, 2x, . . . 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion.

3. Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79?

Problem 6.1.30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real num-

ber for which

91

¸

k=19

r +

k

100

= 546.

Find the value of 100r.

Problem 6.1.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer

closest to n

1/4

, when n is a natural number. Find the exact

numerical value of

1995

¸

n=1

1

f (n)

.

Problem 6.1.32 Prove that

1

0

(−1)

1994x+1995x

Ç

1993

1994x

åÇ

1994

1995x

å

dx = 0.

Problem 6.1.33 Prove that

√

n+

√

n +1 =

√

n+

√

n +2.

Problem 6.1.34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that

lim

n→∞

¸

1≤k≤n

Å

2n

k

−2

n

k

ã

= ln4 −1.

Problem 6.1.35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that

lim

n→∞

1

n

n

1

n

x

dx = log

3

(4/π).

You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula:

2

1

2

3

4

3

4

5

6

5

6

7

8

7

8

9

=

π

2

.

6.2 De Polignac’s Formula

We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac.

169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by

∞

¸

k=1

n

p

k

.

Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p, the number of factors contributing a second

factor of p is n/p

2

, etc..u

170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!?

De Polignac’s Formula 63

Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300!

than factors of 5, the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!. By De Polignac’s Formula this is

∞

¸

k=1

300/5

k

= 60 +12 +2 = 74.

171 Example Does

7

Ç

1000

500

å

?

Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7+1000/7

2

+1000/7

3

= 142+20+2 = 164. Similarly,

the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 +10 +1 = 82. Since

Ç

1000

500

å

=

1000!

(500!)

2

, the highest power of 7 that divides

Ç

1000

500

å

is 164 −2 82 = 0, and so 7 does not divide

Ç

1000

500

å

.

172 Example Let n = n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

where the n

i

are nonnegative integers. Prove that the quantity

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is an integer.

Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

≤a

1

+a

2

+ +a

l

.

For any prime p, the power of p dividing n! is

¸

j≥1

n/p

j

=

¸

j≥1

(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

.

The power of p dividing n

1

!n

2

! n

k

! is

¸

j≥1

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ n

k

/p

j

.

Since

n

1

/p

j

+n

2

/p

j

+ +n

k

/p

j

≤(n

1

+n

2

+ +n

k

)/p

j

,

we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of

n!

n

1

!n

2

! n

k

!

is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator, which establishes the assertion.

173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3, prove that the least common multiple of the products x

1

x

2

x

k

(k ≥ 1), whose

factors x

i

are the positive integers with

x

1

+x

2

+ x

k

≤n,

is less than n!.

Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is

¸

p

p prime

p

n/p

.

64 Chapter 6

Consider an arbitrary product x

1

x

2

x

k

, and an arbitrary prime p. Suppose that p

α

j

[x

j

, p

α

j

+1

[x

j

. Clearly p

α

1

+ + pα

k

≤n

and since p

α

≥αp, we have

p(α

1

+ α

k

) ≤n or α

1

+ +α

k

≤

n

p

.

Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p. But on choosing x

1

= = x

k

= p, k =n/p, we

see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved. This proves the claim.

The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim.

Practice

Problem 6.2.1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n

such that 10

n

divides 1005!.

Problem 6.2.2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides

(17

n

−2)! for a positive integer n.

Problem 6.2.3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24

that divides 300!.

Problem 6.2.4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!.

Problem 6.2.5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit

prime factor of the integer

Ç

200

100

å

?

Problem 6.2.6 (USAMO 1975) 1. Prove that

5x+5y ≥3x +y+3y +x.

2. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise, prove that

(5m)!(5n)!

m!n!(3m+n)!(3n +m)!

is an integer for all positive integers m, n.

Problem 6.2.7 Prove that if n > 1, (n, 6) = 1, then

(2n −4)!

n!(n −2)!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be

a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that

the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes.

How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial

tails?

Problem 6.2.9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime pos-

itive integers then

(m+n −1)!

m!n!

is an integer.

Problem 6.2.10 If p is a prime divisor of

Ç

2n

n

å

with p ≥

√

2n

prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of

Ç

2n

n

å

equals 1.

Problem 6.2.11 Prove that

lcm

ÇÇ

n

1

å

,

Ç

n

2

å

, . . . ,

Ç

n

n

åå

=

lcm(1, 2, . . . , n +1)

n +1

.

Problem 6.2.12 Prove the following result of Catalan:

Ç

m+n

n

å

divides

Ç

2m

m

åÇ

2n

n

å

.

6.3 Complementary Sequences

We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers

Spec(α) = ¦α, 2α, 3α, . . .¦.

Two sequences Spec(α) and Spec(β) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers, i.e. Spec(α) ∩

Spec(β) = ∅ and Spec(α) ∪Spec(β) =N.

Practice 65

For example, it appears that the two sequences

Spec(

√

2) = ¦1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, . . .¦,

and

Spec(2 +

√

2) =¦3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 44, 47, 51, . . .¦

are complementary. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary.

174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem, 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and

1

α

+

1

β

= 1,

then the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary.

Proof: Since α > 1, β > 1, Spec(α) and Spec(β) are each sequences of distinct terms, and the total number of

terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α+N/β. But N/α −1+N/β −1 <N/α+

[N/β] <N/α+N/β, the last inequality being strict because both α, β are irrational. As 1/α+1/β =1, we gather

that N−2 <N/α+N/β<N. Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer, we deduce [N/α] +[N/β] =N−1.

Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α) and Spec(β) is N−1, as this is true for any N ≥1 each

interval (n, n+1) contains exactly one such term. It follows that Spec(α)∪Spec(β) =N, Spec(α)∩Spec(β) =∅.

u

The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true.

175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem, 1957) If the sequences

Spec(α) and Spec(β)

are complementary, then α, β are positive irrational numbers with

1

α

+

1

β

= 1.

Proof: If both α, β are rational numbers, it is clear that Spec(α), Spec(β) eventually contain the same integers,

and so are not disjoint. Thus α and β must be irrational. If 0 < α ≤ 1, given n there is an M for which

mα −1 < n ≤ mα; hence n = [mα], which implies that Spec(α) = N, whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). If

Spec(α) ∩Spec(β) is ﬁnite, then

lim

n→∞

n/α+n/β

n

= 1,

but since (n/α+n/β)

1

n

→1/α +1/β as n →∞, it follows that 1/α +1/β = 1. u

176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a

1

= 1 and then delete a

1

+1 = 2. The next term

is 3, which we call a

2

, and then we delete a

2

+2 = 5. Thus the next available integer is 4 = a

3

, and we delete a

3

+3 = 7, etc.

Thereby we leave the integers 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, . . .. Find a formula for a

n

.

Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence ¦S

n

¦ which is complementary to the sequence ¦S

n

+n¦. By Beatty’s Theorem,

nτ and nτ+n = n(τ +1) are complementary if 1/τ +1/(τ +1) = 1. But then τ = (1 +

√

5)/2, the Golden ratio. The

n-th term is thus a

n

=nτ.

Practice

66 Chapter 6

Problem 6.3.1 (Skolem) Let τ =

1 +

√

5

2

be the Golden

Ratio. Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1)

¦ττn¦, ¦ττ

2

n¦, ¦τ

2

n¦ are complementary.

6.4 Arithmetic Functions

An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex

numbers. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory:

d(n) the number of positive divisors of the number n.

σ(n) the sum of the positive divisors of n.

φ(n) the number of positive integers not exceeding

n and relative prime to n.

ω(n) the number of distinct prime divisors of n.

Ω(n) the number of primes dividing n, counting multiplicity.

In symbols the above functions are:

d(n) =

¸

d[n

1, σ(n) =

¸

d[n

d, ω(n) =

¸

p[n

1, Ω(n) =

¸

p

α

[[n

α,

and

φ(n) =

¸

1≤k≤n

(k,n)=1

1.

(The symbol [[ in p

α

[[n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that p

α

[n but p

α+1

[n.)

For example, since 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20, we have d(20) =6, σ(20) =42, ω(20) =2, Ω(20) =3. Since

the numbers 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20, we see that φ(20) =8.

If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural

numbers m, n, we say that f is then a multiplicative function. If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m, n we

say then that f is totally multiplicative.

Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

. Then

f (n) = f (p

a

1

1

) f (p

a

2

2

) f (p

a

r

r

).

A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers. If f is multiplicative, then there is a positive integer

a such that f (a) = 0. Hence f (a) = f (1 a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1.

We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. For this we need ﬁrst the following result.

177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) =

¸

d[n

f (d). Then F is also multiplicative.

Proof: Suppose that a, b are natural numbers with (a, b) = 1. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, every

divisor d of ab has the form d = d

1

d

2

where d

1

[a, d

2

[b, (d

1

, d

2

) = 1. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence

between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d

1

, d

2

of positive divisors of a and b. Hence, if n = ab, (a, b) = 1 then

F(n) =

¸

d[n

f (d) =

¸

d

1

[a

¸

d

2

[b

f (d

1

d

2

).

Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals

¸

d

1

[a

¸

d

2

[b

f (d

1

) f (d

2

) =

¸

d

1

[a

f (d

1

)

¸

d

2

[b

f (d

2

) = F(a)F(b).

This completes the proof. u

Arithmetic Functions 67

Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the theorem

above shows that d(n) =

¸

d[n

1 is a multiplicative function. If p is a prime, the divisors of p

a

are 1, p, p

2

, p

3

, . . . , p

a

and so

d(p

a

) = a +1. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

, then

d(n) = (1 +a

1

)(1 +a

2

) (1 +a

r

).

For example, d(2904) = d(2

3

3 11

2

) = d(2

3

)d(3)d(11

2

) = (1 +3)(1 +1)(1 +2) = 24.

We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function.

178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree

measures?

Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is

(n −2)180

n

. It follows that n must divide 180. Since

there are 18 divisors of 180, the answer is 16, because n ≥3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2.

179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤2

√

n.

Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor

n

a

. As n = a

n

a

, one of these divisors must be

≤

√

n. This gives at most 2

√

n divisors.

180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6.

Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 3 and 6 1, the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors, p and q, say. Thus

n = p

α

q

β

and either 1 +α = 2, 1 +β = 3 or 1 +α = 6, 1 +β = 1. Hence, n must be of one of the forms pq

2

or p

5

, where p, q

are distinct primes.

181 Example Prove that

n

¸

k=1

d(k) =

n

¸

j=1

n

j

Solution: We have

n

¸

k=1

d(k) =

n

¸

k=1

¸

j[k

1.

Interchanging the order of summation

¸

j≤n

¸

j≤k≤n

k≡0 mod j

1 =

¸

j≤n

n

j

,

which is what we wanted to prove.

182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1, 2, . . . , n and are originally locked. An

attendant performs a sequence of operations T

1

, T

2

, . . . , T

n

whereby with the operation T

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ n, the condition of being

locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. After all the n

operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are

now open or unlocked. Prove this mathematically.

Solution: Observe that locker m, 1 ≤m ≤n, will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors.

Now, d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. The assertion is proved.

68 Chapter 6

Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed, totally multiplicative), the above theorem entails that σ is multiplica-

tive. If p is a prime, then clearly σ(p

a

) =1+p+p

2

+ +p

a

. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

,

then

σ(n) = (1 + p

1

+ p

2

1

+ + p

a

1

1

)(1 + p

2

+ p

2

2

+ + p

a

2

w

) (1 + p

r

+ p

2

r

+ + p

a

r

r

).

This last product also equals

p

a

1

+1

1

−1

p

1

−1

p

a

2

+1

2

−1

p

2

−1

p

a

r

+1

r

−1

p

r

−1

.

We present now some examples related to the function σ.

183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24[n +1. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also

divisible by 24.

Solution: Since 24[n+1, n ≡1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡1, 3, 5 or 7 mod 8. As d(

n

d

) ≡−1 mod 3 or mod 8, the only possibilities

are

d ≡1, n/d ≡2 mod 3 or vice versa,

d ≡1, n/d ≡7 mod 8 or vice versa,

d ≡3, n/d ≡5 mod 8 or vice versa.

In all cases d +n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8, whence 24 divides d +n/d. As d ≡ n/d, no divisor is used twice in the pairing.

This implies that 24[

¸

d[n

d.

We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. For example, 6 is perfect because 6 =

¸

d[6,d=6

d =

1 +2 +3. It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n =

¸

d[n

d. The following theorem is classical.

184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) where both p and 2

p

−1 are primes.

Proof: Suppose that p, 2

p

−1 are primes. Then σ(2

p

−1) = 1 +2

p

−1. Since (2

p−1

, 2

p

−1) = 1, σ(2

p−1

(2

p

−

1)) = σ(2

p−1

)σ(2

p

−1) = (1 +2 +2

2

+ +2

p−1

)(1 +2

p

−1) = (2

p

−1)2(2

p−1

), and 2

p−1

(2

p

−1) is perfect.

Conversely, let n be an even perfect number. Write n = 2

s

m, m odd. Then σ(n) = σ(2

s

)σ(m) = (2

s+1

−1)σ(m).

Also, since n perfect is, σ(n) = 2n = 2

s+1

m. Hence (2

s+1

−1)σ(m) = 2

s+1

m. One deduces that 2

s+1

[σ(m), and

so σ(m) = 2

s+1

b for some natural number b. But then (2

s+1

−1)b = m, and so b[m, b = m.

We propose to show that b = 1. Observe that b +m = (2

s+1

−1)b +b = 2

s+1

b = σ(m). If b = 1, then there are at

least three divisors of m, namely 1, b and m, which yields σ(m) ≥ 1 +b +m, a contradiction. Thus b = 1, and so

m = (2

s+1

−1)b = 2

s+1

−1 is a prime. This means that 2

s+1

−1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s +1 must be a

prime.u

185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x−y ≥n and σ(x

2

) =σ(y

2

).

Solution: Let s ≥n, (s, 10) = 1. We take x = 5s, y = 4s. Then σ(x

2

) = σ(y

2

) = 31σ(s

2

).

Practice

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 69

Problem 6.4.1 Find the numerical values of d(1024), σ(1024), ω(1024),

Ω(1024) and φ(1024).

Problem 6.4.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that

d(n) = 10.

Problem 6.4.3 Prove that

d(2

n

−1) ≥d(n).

Problem 6.4.4 Prove that d(n) ≤

√

3n with equality if and

only if n = 12.

Problem 6.4.5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion

holds:

∞

¸

n=1

d(n)t

n

=

∞

¸

n=1

t

n

1 −t

n

.

Problem 6.4.6 Let d

1

(n) = d(n), d

k

(n) = d(d

k−1

(n)), k =

2, 3, . . .. Describe d

k

(n) for sufﬁciently large k.

Problem 6.4.7 Let m ∈ N be given. Prove that the set

A =¦n ∈ N : m[d(n)¦

contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression.

Problem 6.4.8 Let n be a perfect number. Show that

¸

d[n

1

d

= 2.

Problem 6.4.9 Prove that

¸

d[n

d = n

d(n)/2

.

Problem 6.4.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a

perfect number.

Problem 6.4.11 (AIME, 1995) Let n = 2

31

3

19

. How many

positive integer divisors of n

2

are less than n but do not di-

vide n?

Problem 6.4.12 Prove that if n is composite, then σ(n) >

n +

√

n.

Problem 6.4.13 Prove that σ(n) =n+k, k >1 a ﬁxed natural

number has only ﬁnitely many solutions.

Problem 6.4.14 Characterise all n for which σ(n) is odd.

Problem 6.4.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ(p) =

1 + p.

Problem 6.4.16 Prove that

σ(n!)

n!

≥1 +

1

2

+ +

1

n

.

Problem 6.4.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have

at least two distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number, only one

of its prime factors occurs to an odd power; all the others oc-

cur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.19 Show that an odd perfect number must con-

tain one prime factor p such that, if the highest power of p

occurring in n is p

a

, both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo

4; all other prime factors must occur to an even power.

Problem 6.4.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having

three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors

3 and 5.

Problem 6.4.21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect num-

bers having exactly three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.4.22 Prove that

n

¸

k=1

σ(k) =

n

¸

j=1

j

n

j

.

Problem 6.4.23 Find the number of sets of positive integers

¦a, b, c¦ such that a b c = 462.

6.5 Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues

Recall that Euler’s φ(n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤n that are relatively prime to n. We will prove now

that φ is multiplicative. This requires more work than that done for d and σ.

First we need the following deﬁnitions.

70 Chapter 6

186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1. The φ(n) integers 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

= n −1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called

the canonical reduced residues modulo n.

187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n, n > 1 is a set of φ(n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively

prime to n.

For example, the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1, 5, 7, 11 and the set ¦−11, 5, 19, 23¦ forms a reduced residue

system modulo 12.

We are now ready to prove the main result of this section.

188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative.

Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab, (a, b) = 1. We arrange the ab integers 1, 2, . . . , ab as follows.

1 2 3 . . . k . . . a

a +1 a +2 a +3 . . . a +k . . . 2a

2a +1 2a +2 2a +3 . . . 2a +k . . . 3a

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b −1)a +1 (b −1)a +2 (b −1)a +3 . . . (b −1)a +k . . . ba

Now, an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. We shall determine ﬁrst the

number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively

prime to b.

There are φ(a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. Now consider the k-th column, 1 ≤k ≤a. Each integer

on this column is of the form ma +k, 0 ≤m ≤ b −1. As k ≡ ma +k mod a, k will have a common factor with a if

and only if ma +k does. This means that there are exactly φ(a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a.

We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b.

We claim that no two integers k, a +k, . . . , (b −1)a +k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b. For if ia +k ≡

ja +k mod b then a(i − j) ≡0 mod b. Since (a, b) = 1, we deduce that i − j ≡0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??.

Now i, j ∈ [0, b −1] which implies that [i − j[ < b. This forces i = j. This means that the b integers in any of these

φ(n) columns are, in some order, congruent to the integers 0, 1, . . . , b −1. But exactly φ(b) of these are relatively

prime to b. This means that exactly φ(a)φ(b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab, which is what we

wanted to show.u

If p is a prime and m a natural number, the integers

p, 2p, 3p, . . . , p

m−1

p

are the only positive integers ≤ p

m

sharing any prime factors with p

m

. Thus φ(p

m

) = p

m

− p

m−1

. Since φ is multiplicative, if

n = p

a

1

1

p

a

k

k

is the factorisation of n into distinct primes, then

φ(n) = (p

a

1

1

− p

a

1

−1

1

) (p

a

k

k

− p

a

k

−1

k

).

For example, φ(48) = φ(2

4

3) = φ(2

4

)φ(3) = (2

4

−2

3

)(3 −1) = 16, and φ(550) = φ(2 5

2

11) = φ(2) φ(5

2

) φ(11) =

(2 −1)(5

2

−5)(11 −1) = 1 20 10 = 200.

189 Example Let n be a natural number. How many of the fractions 1/n, 2/n, . . . , (n −1)/n, n/n are irreducible?

Solution: This number is clearly

n

¸

k=1

φ(k).

Euler’s Function. Reduced Residues 71

190 Example Prove that for n > 1,

¸

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

nφ(n)

2

.

Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤a ≤n and (a, n) = 1, 1 ≤n −a ≤n and (n −a, n) = 1. Thus

S =

¸

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

a =

¸

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n −a,

whence

2S =

¸

1≤a≤n

(a,n)=1

n = nφ(n).

The assertion follows.

191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. Then

¸

d[n

φ(d) = n.

Proof: For each divisor d of n, let T

d

(n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d. As d varies

over the divisors of n, the T

d

partition the set ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦ and so

¸

d[n

T

d

(n) = n.

We claim that T

d

(n) has φ(n/d) elements. Note that the elements of T

d

(n) are found amongst the integers

d, 2d, . . .

n

d

d. If k ∈T

d

(n), then k =ad, 1 ≤a ≤n/d and (k, n) =d. But then (

k

d

,

n

d

) =1. This implies that (a,

n

d

) =1.

Therefore counting the elements of T

d

(n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d, (a,

n

d

) = 1. But

there are exactly φ(n/d) such a. We gather that

n =

¸

d[n

φ(n/d).

But as d runs through the divisors of n, n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order, whence n =

¸

d[n

φ(n/d) =

¸

d[n

φ(d).u

192 Example If p −1 and p +1 are twin primes, and p > 4, prove that 3φ(p) ≤ p.

Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6, so

p = 2

a

3

b

m, ab ≥1, (m, 6) = 1.

We then have φ(p) ≤2

a

3

b−1

φ(m) ≤2

a

3

b−1

m = p/3.

193 Example Let n ∈ N. Prove that the equation

φ(x) = n!

is soluble.

72 Chapter 6

Solution: We want to solve the equation φ(x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. This

restriction implies that φ(x)/x = φ(n)/n. It follows that x = n

2

/φ(n).

Let n =

¸

p

α

[[n

p

α

. Then x =

¸

p

α

[[n

p

α

p −1

. The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that

¸

p[n

(p −1)[n. It is

clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ(x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same

prime factors as n is

¸

p[n

(p −1)[n. If n = k!, this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. An explicit solution to the problem is thus

x = (k!)

2

/φ(k!).

194 Example Let φ

k

(n) =φ(φ

k−1

(n)), k = 1, 2, . . . , where φ

0

(n) =φ(n). Show that ∀k ∈ N, φ

k

(n) >1 for all sufﬁciently large

n.

Solution: Let p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

be the prime factorisation of n. Clearly

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

> 2

r−1

≥

1

2

p

1

p

1

−1

p

r

p

r

−1

.

Hence

φ(n) =

p

1

−1

p

1

p

2

−1

p

2

p

r

−1

p

r

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

≥

1

2

p

a

1

1

p

a

2

2

p

a

r

r

p

a

1

/2

1

p

a

2

/2

2

p

a

r

/2

r

.

This last quantity equals

√

n/2. Therefore φ

1

(n) >

1

2

»

φ(n) >

1

2

…

1

4

√

n =

1

4

n

1/4

. In general we can show that φ

k

(n) >

1

4

n

2

−k−1

. We conclude that n ≥2

2

k+2

implies that φ

k

(n) > 1.

195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10[φ(n).

Solution: Take n = 11

k

, k = 1, 2, . . .. Then φ(11

k

) = 11

k

−11

k−1

= 10 11

k−1

.

Practice

Problem 6.5.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

¸

p[n

Å

1 −

1

p

ã

.

Problem 6.5.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ(n) ≤ n −

√

n. When is equality achieved?

Problem 6.5.3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive ra-

tional numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30

when written in lowest terms.

Answer: 400

Problem 6.5.4 Prove that φ(n) ≥n2

−ω(n)

.

Problem 6.5.5 Prove that φ(n) >

√

n for n > 6.

Problem 6.5.6 If φ(n)[n, then n must be of the form 2

a

3

b

for

nonnegative integers a, b.

Problem 6.5.7 Prove that if φ(n)[n − 1, then n must be

squarefree.

Problem 6.5.8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are

standing in a circle. You tag one person, then skip k people,

then tag another, skip k, and so on, continuing until you tag

someone for the second time. For how many positive values

of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at

least once?

Problem 6.5.9 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least three distinct prime factors.

Problem 6.5.10 Prove that if φ(n)[n −1 and n is composite,

then n has at least four prime factors.

Multiplication in Z

n

73

Problem 6.5.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a

1

< a

2

< < a

φ(n)

=

n −1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively

prime to n. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function

g(n) := max

1≤k≤φ(n)−1

a

k+1

−a

k

to be the maximum gap between the a

k

. Prove that ω(n) ≤

g(n).

(Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem).

Problem 6.5.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condi-

tion for n to be a prime is that

σ(n) +φ(n) = nd(n).

6.6 Multiplication in Z

n

In section 3.5 we saw that Z

n

endowed with the operation of addition +

n

becomes a group. We are now going to investigate the

multiplicative structure of Z

n

.

How to deﬁne multiplication in Z

n

? If we want to multiply a

n

b we simply multiply a b and reduce the result mod n. As

an example, let us consider Table ??. To obtain 4

6

2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2

mod 6. The answer is thus 4

6

2 = 2.

Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3

6

2 = 0. Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero

entities and obtained a zero entity!

Does Z

6

form a group under

6

? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers, we would like

1 to be the multiplicative identity. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that

a

6

b = b

6

a = 1. But then, we encounter some problems. For example, we see that 0, 2, 3, and 4 do not have a multiplicative

inverse. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Z

n

. For that we need the following.

6

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 2 3 4 5

2 0 2 4 0 2 4

3 0 3 0 3 0 3

4 0 4 2 0 4 2

5 0 5 4 3 2 1

Table 6.1: Multiplication Table for Z

6

196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number. An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡1 mod n.

It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n. For if x, y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡1 mod n and ay ≡1 mod n.

Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences, (ya)x ≡y mod n. Hence x ≡y mod n.

197 Theorem Let n > 1, a be integers. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n.

Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n. Then ab ≡1 mod n, which entails the existence of an integer s

such that ab −1 = sn, i.e. ab −sn = 1. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This

implies that (a, n) = 1.

Conversely if (a, n) = 1, by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x, y such that ax +ny = 1. This immedi-

ately yields ax ≡1 mod n, i.e., a has an inverse mod n.u

198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7.

Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡1 mod 7. By inspection we see that this is x ≡3 mod 7.

74 Chapter 6

According to the preceding theorem, a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a, n) = 1. We thus see that only the

reduced residues mod n have an inverse. We let Z

n

= ¦a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

¦. It is easy to see that the operation

n

is associative,

since it inherits associativity from the integers. We conclude that Z

n

is a group under the operation

n

.

We now give some assorted examples.

199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2

n

+1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that 2

1

≡ 2, 2

2

≡ 4, 2

3

≡ 1 mod 7, 2

4

≡ 2 mod 7, 2

5

≡ 4 mod 7, 2

6

≡ 1 mod 7, etc. The pattern 2, 4, 1,

repeats thus cyclically. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡−1 ≡6 mod 7.

200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n, there exists a positive integer k ≤n such that a

k

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Since (a, n) = 1 we must have (a

j

, n) = 1 for all j ≥1. Consider the sequence a, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

n+1

mod n.

As there are n +1 numbers and only n residues mod n, the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have

the same remainder mod n. That is, we can ﬁnd s, t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n +1 such that a

s

≡ a

t

mod n. Now,

1 ≤ t −s ≤ n. Hence a

s

≡ a

t

mod n gives a

t−s

a

s

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n, which is to say a

t

≡ a

t−s

a

t

mod n. Using

Corollary ?? we gather that a

t−s

≡1 mod n, which proves the result.u

If (a, n) = 1, the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with a

k

≡ 1 mod n. By the Well-Ordering

Principle, there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. This prompts the following deﬁnition.

201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that a

m

≡1 mod n, we say that a has order m mod n.

For example, 3

1

≡ 3, 3

2

≡ 2, 3

3

≡ 6, 3

4

≡ 4, 3

5

≡ 5, 3

6

≡1 mod 7, and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. We write this fact as

ord

7

3 = 6.

Given n, not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. This is clear if n[a, because then a

m

≡ 0 mod n for all

positive integers m. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem.

202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a, n) = 1.

Proof: If (a, n) = 1, then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. Hence assume

that a has an order mod n. Clearly a = 0. The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer

m such that a

m

≡ 1 mod n. Hence, there is an integer s with a

m

+sn = 1 or a a

m−1

+sn = 1. This is a linear

combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a, n). This entails that (a, n) = 1. u

The following theorem is of utmost importance.

203 Theorem Let (a, n) = 1 and let t be an integer. Then a

t

≡1 mod n if and only if ord

n

a[t.

Proof: Assume that ord

n

a[t. Then there is an integer s such that sord

n

a =t. This gives

a

t

≡a

sord

n

a

≡(a

ord

n

a

)

s

≡1

s

≡1 mod n.

Conversely, assume that a

t

≡1 mod n and t = x ord

n

a +y, 0 ≤y < ord

n

a. Then

a

y

≡a

t−xord

n

a

≡a

t

(a

ord

n

a

)

−x

≡1 1

−x

≡1 mod n.

If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ord

n

a with the property a

y

≡ 1 mod n. This contradicts

the deﬁnition of ord

n

a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x ord

n

a, i.e.,

ord

n

a[t.u

Practice 75

204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2

n

−1 is divisible by 7.

Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. We want 2

n

≡ 1 mod 7. It must then be the case that 3[n. Thus n =

3, 6, 9, 12, . . ..

The following result will be used repeatedly.

205 Theorem Let n > 1, a ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

is

also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Proof: We just need to showthat the φ(n) numbers ar

1

, ar

2

, . . . , ar

φ(n)

are mutually incongruent mod n. Suppose

that ar

i

≡ ar

j

mod n for some i = j. Since (a, n) = 1, we deduce from Corollary ?? that r

i

≡ r

j

mod n. This

contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent, so the theorem follows.u

For example, as 1, 5, 7, 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12, 5) = 1, the set 5, 25, 35, 55 is also a reduced

residue system modulo 12. Again, the 1, 5, 7, 11 are the 5, 25, 35, 55 in some order and 1 5 7 11 ≡5 25 35 55 mod 12.

The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate.

206 Corollary Let n > 1, a, b ∈ Z, (a, n) = 1. If r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

φ(n)

is a reduced set of residues modulo n, then ar

1

+b, ar

2

+

b, . . . , ar

φ(n)

+b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n.

Practice

Problem 6.6.1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12.

6.7 Möbius Function

207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows:

µ(n) =

1 if n = 1,

(−1)

ω(n)

if ω(n) = Ω(n),

0 if ω(n) < Ω(n).

Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors, −1 for square free integers with an

odd number of prime factors, and 0 for non-square free integers. Thus for example µ(6) = 1, µ(30) = −1 and µ(18) = 0.

208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative.

Proof: Assume (m, n) = 1. If both M and n are square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = (−1)

ω(m)

(−1)

ω(n)

= (−1)

ω(m)+ω(n)

= µ(mn).

If one of m, n is not square-free then

µ(m)µ(n) = 0 = µ(mn).

This proves the theorem. u

209 Theorem

¸

d[n

µ(d) =

ß

1 if n = 1,

0 if n > 1.

76 Chapter 6

Proof: There are

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. For all such d, µ(d) = (−1)

k

.

The sum in question is thus

¸

d[n

µ(d) =

ω(n)

¸

k=0

Ç

ω(n)

k

å

(−1)

k

.

By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 −1)

ω(n)

= 0.u

210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) =

¸

d[n

f (d). Then

f (n) =

¸

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

¸

d[n

µ(n/d)F(d).

Proof: We have

¸

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) =

¸

d[n

¸

d[n

¸

s[

n

d

f (s)

=

¸

ds[n

µ(d) f (s)

=

¸

s[n

f (s)

¸

d[

n

s

µ(d).

In view of theorem ??, the inner sum is different from 0 only when

n

s

= 1. Hence only the term s = n in the outer

sum survives, which means that the above sums simplify to f (n).u

We now show the converse to Theorem ??.

211 Theorem Let f , F be arithmetic functions with f (n) =

¸

d[n

µ(d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n. Then F(n) =

¸

d[n

f (d).

Proof: We have

¸

d[n

f (d) =

¸

d[n

¸

s[d

µ(s)F(d/s)

=

¸

d[n

¸

s[d

µ(d/s)F(s)

=

¸

s[n

¸

r[

n

s

µ(r)F(s).

Using Theorem ??, the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n, in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n).u

Practice

Problem 6.7.1 Prove that

φ(n) = n

¸

d[n

µ(d)

d

.

Problem 6.7.2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) =

Practice 77

n

¸

k=1

f ([n/k]), then

f (n) =

n

¸

j=1

µ( j)F([n/ j]).

Problem 6.7.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that

f (n) =

n

¸

k=1

µ(k)F([n/k]), prove that F(n) =

n

¸

j=1

f ( j).

Problem 6.7.4 Prove that

¸

d[n

[µ(d)[ = 2

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.5 Prove that

¸

d[n

µ(d)d(d) = (−1)

ω(n)

.

Problem 6.7.6 Given any positive integer k, prove that there

exist inﬁnitely many integers n with

µ(n +1) = µ(n +2) = = µ(n +k).

Chapter 7

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p [a. Then

a

p−1

≡1 mod p.

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a 1, a 2, . . . , a (p −1) is also a reduced set of residues mod p in view of

Theorem ??. Hence

(a 1)(a 2) (a (p −1)) ≡1 2 (p −1) mod p,

or

a

p−1

(p −1)! ≡(p −1)! mod p.

As ((p −1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p −1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u

As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

a

p

≡a mod p.

Proof: Either p[a or p [a. If p[a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a

p

mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p [a, Fermat’s Little

Theorem yields p[a

p−1

−1. Hence p[a(a

p−1

−1) = a

p

−a, which again gives the result.u

The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p [a. Then ord

p

a[p −1.

Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

Solution: By Corollary ?? ord

11

8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 8

2

≡ −2 mod 11, 8

4

≡ 4 mod 11 and 8

5

≡ −1 mod 11. The

order is thus ord

11

8 = 10.

216 Example Let a

1

= 4, a

n

= 4

a

n−1

, n > 1. Find the remainder when a

100

is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson 79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 4

6

≡1 mod 7. Now, 4

n

≡4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4

n

= 4+6t for some

integer t. Thus

a

100

≡4

a

99

≡4

4+6t

≡4

4

(4

6

)

t

≡4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m

60

−n

60

) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 3 5 7 11 13 31 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x

60

−y

60

). Observe that (x −y)[Q(x, y), (x

2

−

y

2

)[Q(x, y), (x

3

−y

3

)[Q(x, y), (x

4

−y

4

)[Q(x, y), (x

6

−y

6

)[Q(x, y), (x

10

−y

10

)[Q(x, y), (x

12

−y

12

)[Q(x, y), and (x

30

−y

30

)[Q(x, y).

If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m

p

−m ≡ 0 mod p and n

p

−

n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m

p

−m) −m(n

p

−n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m

p−1

−n

p−1

) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2[mn(m−

n)[Q(m, n), 3[mn(m

2

−n

2

)[Q(m, n), 5[mn(m

4

−n

4

)[Q(m, n), 7[mn(m

6

−n

6

)[Q(m, n), 11[mn(m

10

−n

10

)[Q(m, n), 13[mn(m

12

−n

12

)[Q(m, n), 31[mn

n

30

)[Q(m, n) and 61[mn(m

60

−n

60

)[Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a[mnQ(m, n), which is what we

wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Showthat given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p[n2

n

+1.

Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p −1)

2k+1

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then

n2

n

+1 ≡(p −1)

2k+1

(2

p−1

)

(p−1)

2k

+1 ≡(−1)

2k+1

1

2k

+1 ≡0 mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n[2

n

−1.

Solution: If n[2

n

−1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little

Theorem, 2

p−1

≡1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord

p

2 has a prime factor in common with p −1. Now, p[n[2

n

−1 and so 2

n

≡1

mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord

p

2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord

p

2 > 1). This means that n has a

smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

Ç

p −1

n

å

≡(−1)

n

mod p, 1 ≤n ≤ p −1.

2.

Ç

p +1

n

å

≡0 mod p, 2 ≤n ≤ p −1.

3. If p = 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f

p−1

or f

p+1

is divisible by p.

Solution: (1) (p −1)(p −2) (p −n) ≡(−1)(−2) (−n) ≡(−1)

n

n! mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(2) (p +1)(p)(p −1) (p −n +2) ≡(1)(0)(−1) (−n +2) ≡0 mod p. The assertion follows from this.

(3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula

f

n

=

1

2

n−1

ÇÇ

n

1

å

+5

Ç

n

3

å

+5

2

Ç

n

5

å

+

å

.

From this and (1),

2

p−2

f

p−1

≡ p −1 − (5 +5

2

+ +5

(p−3)/2

) ≡−

5

(p−1)/2

−1

4

mod p.

80 Chapter 7

Using (2),

2

p

f

p+1

≡ p +1 +5

(p−1)/2

≡5

(p−1)/2

+1 mod p.

Thus

2

p

f

p−1

f

p+1

≡5

p−1

−1 mod p.

But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5

p−1

≡1 mod p for p = 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a

2

≡1 mod p, then either a ≡1 mod p or a ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: We have p[a

2

−1 = (a −1)(a +1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This

proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p −1)! ≡−1 mod p.

Proof: If p =2 or p =3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p >3. Consider a, 2 ≤a ≤ p−2.

To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a = a since then we

would have a

2

≡1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a = 1, a = p−1. Thus in multiplying all a in the

range 2 ≤a ≤ p −2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In

symbols,

2 3 (p −2) ≡1 mod p.

In other words,

(p −1)! ≡1

Ñ

¸

2≤a≤p−2

j

é

(p −1) ≡1 1 (p −1) ≡−1 mod p.

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡1 mod 4, prove that

Å

p −1

2

ã

! ≡−1 mod p.

Solution: In the product (p −1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤(p −1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡−j

2

mod p. Hence

−1 ≡(p −1)! ≡

¸

1≤j≤(p−1)/2

−j

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

Å

p −1

2

ã

! mod p.

As (−1)

(p−1)/2

= 1, we obtain the result.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦

can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other

set.

Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having

product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities.

The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set ¦n, n +1, n +2, n +3, n +4, n +5¦ is divisible by 7, in which

case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A B is not divisible by 7

2

, and so A B is not a square. The second possibility

is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have

n(n +1) (n +6) ≡1 2 6 ≡A B ≡−1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A

2

≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a

square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

Practice 81

Practice

Problem 7.1.1 Find all the natural numbers n for which

3[(n2

n

+1).

Problem 7.1.2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n

with n[2

n

+2.

Problem 7.1.3 Find all primes p such that p[2

p

+1.

Answer: p = 3 only.

Problem 7.1.4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that

pq[(a

pq

−a

p

−a

q

−a)

for all integers a.

Problem 7.1.5 If p is a prime prove that p[a

p

+ (p −1)!a for

all integers a.

Problem 7.1.6 If (mn, 42) = 1 prove that 168[m

6

−n

6

.

Problem 7.1.7 Let p and q be distinct primes. Prove that

q

p−1

+ p

q−1

≡1 mod pq.

Problem 7.1.8 If p is an odd prime prove that n

p

≡n mod 2p

for all integers n.

Problem 7.1.9 If p is an odd prime and p[m

p

+n

p

prove that

p

2

[m

p

+n

p

.

Problem 7.1.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if

(n −1)! ≡−1 mod n.

Problem 7.1.11 Prove that if p is an odd prime

1

2

3

2

(p−2)

2

≡2

2

4

2

(p−1)

2

≡(−1)

(p−1)/2

mod p

Problem 7.1.12 Prove that 19[(2

2

6k+2

+3) for all nonnegative

integers k.

7.2 Euler’s Theorem

In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem, due to Euler. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s

Little Theorem.

225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a, n) = 1. Then a

φ(n)

≡1 mod n.

Proof: Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

φ(n)

be the canonical reduced residues mod n. As (a, n) = 1, aa

1

, aa

2

, . . . , aa

φ(n)

also

forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. Thus

aa

1

aa

2

aa

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n,

or

a

φ(n)

a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

≡a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

mod n.

As (a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

, n) = 1, we may cancel the product a

1

a

2

a

φ(n)

from both sides of the congruence to obtain

Euler’s Theorem.u

Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary.

226 Corollary Let (a, n) = 1. Then ord

n

a[φ(n).

227 Example Find the last two digits of 3

1000

.

Solution: As φ(100) = 40, by Euler’s Theorem, 3

40

≡1 mod 100. Thus

3

1000

= (3

40

)

25

≡1

25

= 1 mod 100,

and so the last two digits are 01.

82 Chapter 7

228 Example Find the last two digits of 7

7

1000

.

Solution: First observe that φ(100) = φ(2

2

)φ(5

2

) = (2

2

−2)(5

2

−5) = 40. Hence, by Euler’s Theorem, 7

40

≡ 1 mod 100.

Now, φ(40) =φ(2

3

)φ(5) =4 4 = 16, hence 7

16

≡1 mod 40. Finally, 1000 =16 62+8. This means that 7

1000

≡(7

16

)

62

7

8

≡

1

62

7

8

≡(7

4

)

2

≡1

2

≡1 mod 40. This means that 7

1000

= 1 +40t for some integer t. Upon assembling all this

7

7

1000

≡7

1+40t

≡7 (7

40

)

t

≡7 mod 100.

This means that the last two digits are 07.

229 Example (IMO 1978) m, n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. In their decimal representations, the last three digits of

1978

m

are equal, respectively, to the last three digits of 1978

n

. Find m, n such that m+n has its least value.

Solution: As m+n = n −m+2m, we minimise n −m. We are given that

1978

n

−1978

m

= 1978

m

(1978

n−m

−1)

is divisible by 1000 = 2

3

5

3

. Since the second factor is odd, 2

3

must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3. Now, ord

125

1978 is the

smallest positive integer s with

1978

s

≡1 mod 125.

By Euler’s Theorem

1978

100

≡1 mod 125

and so by Corollary 7.3 s[100. Since 125[(1978

s

−1) we have 5[(1978

s

−1), i.e., 1978

s

≡3

s

≡1 mod 5. Since s[100, this last

congruence implies that s = 4, 20, or 100. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities.

Observe that

1978

4

≡(−22)

4

≡2

4

11

4

≡(4 121)

2

≡(−16)

2

≡6 mod 125.

This means that s = 4. Similarly

1978

20

≡1978

4

(1978

4

)

4

≡6 6

4

≡6 46 ≡26 mod 125.

This means that s =20 and so s =100. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978

s

≡1 mod 125, we take n−m=s =100

and m = 3, i.e., n = 103, m = 3, and ﬁnally, m+n = 106.

230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a, b such that:

(i) ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7.

(ii) (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

is divisible by 7

7

. Justify your answer.

Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

as ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

. Using the Binomial Theorem we have

(a +b)

7

−a

7

−b

7

= 7(a

6

b +ab

6

+3(a

5

b

2

+a

2

b

5

) +5(a

4

b

3

+a

3

b

4

))

= 7ab(a

5

+b

5

+3ab(a

3

+b

3

) +5(a

2

b

2

)(a +b))

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

−a

3

b −ab

3

+a

2

b

2

+3ab(a

2

−ab +b

2

) +5ab)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

4

+b

4

+2(a

3

b +ab

3

) +3a

2

b

2

)

= 7ab(a +b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

)

2

.

The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to

(i)

′

ab(a +b) is not divisible by 7,

(ii)

′

a

2

+ab +b

2

is divisible by 7

3

.

Practice 83

As (a +b)

2

> a

2

+ab +b

2

≥ 7

3

, we obtain a +b ≥ 19. Using trial and error, we ﬁnd that a = 1, b = 18 give an answer, as

1

2

+1 18 +18

2

= 343 = 7

3

.

Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem. As a

3

−b

3

= (a −b)(a

2

+ab +b

2

), (ii)’ is implied by

(ii)

′′

ß

a

3

≡b

3

mod 7

3

a ≡b mod 7.

Now φ(7

3

) = (7 −1)7

2

= 3 98, and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x

98

)

3

≡ 1 mod 7

3

, which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’.

We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility. For example, letting x = 2 we see that 2

98

≡ 4 mod 7. Thus letting

a = 2

98

, b = 1. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 3

98

≡ 324 mod 7

3

. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324, b = 1 is another

solution.

Practice

Problem 7.2.1 Show that for all natural numbers s, there is

an integer n divisible by s, such that the sum of the digits of n

equals s.

Problem 7.2.2 Prove that 504[n

9

−n

3

.

Problem 7.2.3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0, n[(2

n!

−1).

Problem 7.2.4 Let p [10 be a prime. Prove that p divides

inﬁnitely many numbers of the form

11. . . 11.

Problem 7.2.5 Find all natural numbers n that divide

1

n

+2

n

+ + (n −1)

n

.

Problem 7.2.6 Let (m, n) = 1. Prove that

m

φ(n)

+n

φ(n)

≡1 mod mn.

Problem 7.2.7 Find the last two digits of a

1001

if a

1

= 7, a

n

=

7

a

n−1

.

Problem 7.2.8 Find the remainder of

10

10

+10

10

2

+ +10

10

10

upon division by 7.

Problem 7.2.9 Prove that for every natural number n there

exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and

twos.

Problem 7.2.10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a

positive integer k such that k 2

n

+1 is composite for every

positive integer n.

Problem 7.2.11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a

1

=

3, a

n

= 3

a

n−1

mod 100 for large n.

Chapter 8

Scales of Notation

8.1 The Decimal Scale

As we all know, any natural number n can be written in the form

n = a

0

10

k

+a

1

10

k−1

+ +a

k−1

10 +a

k

,

where 1 ≤a

0

≤9, 0 ≤a

j

≤9, j ≥1. For example, 65789 = 6 10

4

+5 10

3

+7 10

2

+8 10 +9.

231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted.

Solution: Let the number sought have n +1 digits. Then this number can be written as 6 10

n

+y, where y is a number with n

digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). The condition of the problem stipulates that

6 10

n

+y = 25 y

whence

y =

6 10

n

24

.

From this we gather that n ≥2 (otherwise, 6 10

n

would not be divisible by 24). For n ≥2, y = 25 10

k−2

, that is, y has the form

250 0(n −2 zeroes). We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0. . . 0

. .. .

n−2 zeroes

.

232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x

2

−

10x −22.

Solution: Let x have the form

x = a

0

+a

1

10 +a

2

10

2

+ +a

n−1

10

n−1

, a

k

≤9, a

n−1

= 0.

Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x, P(x) =x

2

−10x−22. Now, P(x) = a

0

a

1

a

n−1

≤9

n−1

a

n−1

< 10

n−1

a

n−1

≤x (strict

inequality occurs when x has more than one digit). So x

2

−10x −22 < x, and we deduce that x < 13, whence x has either one

digit or x =10, 11, 13. If x had one digit, then a

0

=x

2

−10x−22, but this equation has no integral solutions. If x =10, P(x) =0,

but x

2

−10x −22 = 0. If x = 11, P(x) = 1, but x

2

−10x −22 = 1. If x = 12, P(x) = 2 and x

2

−10x −22 = 2. Therefore, x = 12

is the only solution.

233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. Find all such numbers.

84

The Decimal Scale 85

Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9, and 10x +y = mx, m and x natural numbers. This requires 10 +y/x = m, an integer. We must have

x[y. If y = 0, any natural number x will do, and we obtain the multiples of 10. If y = 1, x = 1, and we obtain 11. If y = 2, x = 1

or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. Continuing in this fashion, the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,

16, 17, 18, 19,22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39, 44, 48, 55, 66, 77, 88, and 99.

234 Example Let A be a positive integer, and A

′

be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some

other order. Prove that if A+A

′

= 10

10

, then A is divisible by 10.

Solution: Clearly A and A

′

must have ten digits. Let A = a

10

a

9

. . . a

1

be the consecutive digits of A and A

′

= a

′

10

a

′

9

. . . a

′

1

. Now,

A+A

′

=10

10

if and only if there is a j, 0 ≤ j ≤9 for which a

1

+a

′

1

=a

2

+a

′

2

= =a

j

+a

′

j

=0, a

j+1

+a

′

j+1

=10, a

j+2

+a

′

j+2

=

a

j+3

+a

′

j+3

= = a

10

+a

′

10

= 9. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a

j+k

+a

′

j+k

, k ≥ 2, and j = 9

implies that there are no sums of the form a

l

+a

′

l

, 1 ≤l ≤ j. On adding all these sums, we gather

a

1

+a

′

1

+a

2

+a

′

2

+ +a

10

+a

′

10

= 10 +9(9 − j).

Since the a

′

s

are a permutation of the a

s

, we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a

1

+a

2

+ +

a

10

). This implies that j must be odd. But this implies that a

1

+a

′

1

= 0, which gives the result.

235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n, let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. (If n has only one

digit, then p(n) is equal to that digit.) Let

S = p(1) + p(2) + + p(999).

What is the largest prime factor of S?

Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. So, for example, the numbers 180, 108, 118, 810, 800, and 811

have the same value p(n).

We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product

(0 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−0,

where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. Thus

(0 +1 +2 +9)

3

−0 = 001 +002 + +999.

In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number, we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation, by

1’s, and so

p(1) + p(2) + + p(n) = 111 +112 + +999 = (1 +1 +2 + +9)

3

−1,

which equals 46

3

−1. (In the last sum, 111 is repeated various times, once for 001, once for 011, once for 100, once for 101,

once for 110, etc.) As 46

3

−1 = 3

3

5 7 103, the number required is 103.

236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r, 0 < r < 1, that have a repeating decimal expansion of the

form

0.abcabcabc. . . = 0.abc,

where the digits a, b, c are not necessarily distinct. To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms, how many different

numerators are required?

Solution: Observe that 0.abcabcabc. . . =

abc

999

, and 999 = 3

3

37. If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37, the fraction is already

in lowest terms. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle, there are

999 − (999/3 +999/37) +999/3 37 = 648

such numbers. Also, fractions of the form s/37, where 3[s, 37 [s are in S. There are 12 fractions of this kind. (Observe that we

do not consider fractions of the form l/3

t

, 37[s, 3 [l, because fractions of this form are greater than 1, and thus not in S.)

The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 +12 = 660.

86 Chapter 8

237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10

digits.

Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits. Let m = 123456789 10

k+1

. Then all of the n consecutive integers

m+1, m+2, . . . m+n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n.

238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits

12345678910111213141516171819202122. . .

is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10

n

digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit

numbers are placed, deﬁne f (n) to be m. For example f (2) = 2, because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the

placement of the two-digit integer 55. Find, with proof, f (1987).

Solution: There are 9 10

j−1

j-digit positive integers. The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) =

r

¸

j=1

j 9 10

r−1

= r10

r

−

10

r

−1

9

. As 0 <

10

r

−1

9

< 10

r

, we get (r −1)10

r

< g(r) < r10

r

. Thus g(1983) < 1983 10

1983

<

10

4

10

1983

= 10

1987

and g(1984) > 1983 10

1984

> 10

3

10

1984

. Therefore f (1987) = 1984.

Practice

Problem 8.1.1 Prove that there is no whole number which de-

creases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted.

Problem 8.1.2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic

mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with

the aid of all possible permutations of its digits. Find all whole

numbers with that property.

Problem 8.1.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive in-

teger and d is a single digit in base-ten. Find n if

n

810

= 0.d25d25d25d25. . ..

Problem 8.1.4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec-

utive integers in

¦1000, 1001, . . ., 2000¦

is no carrying required when the two integers are added?

Problem 8.1.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and

let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in

reversed order. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal

representation of the number M+N is even.

Problem 8.1.6 Given that

e = 2 +

1

2!

+

1

3!

+

1

4!

+ ,

prove that e is irrational.

Problem 8.1.7 Let t be a positive real number. Prove that

there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion

of nt contains a 7.

Problem 8.1.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive inte-

ger whose cube ends in 888.

Problem 8.1.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m, n) of non-

negative integers is called simple if the addition m+n requires

no carrying. Find the number of simple ordered pairs of non-

negative integers that sum 1492.

Problem 8.1.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game, the “ma-

gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit

number abc, where a, b, c represent the digits of the number

in the order indicated. The magician asks his victim to form

the numbers acb, bac, cab and cba, to add the number and to

reveal their sum N. If told the value of N, the magician can

identity abc. Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319.

Problem 8.1.11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15

such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8. Compute n/15.

Problem 8.1.12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k, let

f

1

(k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k. For

n ≥2, let f

n

(k) = f

1

( f

n−1

(k)). Find f

1988

(11).

Problem 8.1.13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit num-

bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the

Non-decimal Scales 87

sum of the squares of the digits of N.

Problem 8.1.14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num-

ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front

of the other digits, the resulting number is four times as large

as the original number.

Problem 8.1.15 1. Show that Champernowne’s number

χ = 0.123456789101112131415161718192021. . .

is irrational.

2. Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given. Prove that there exists

a positive integer n such that

[10

n

χ −r[ < ε.

Problem 8.1.16 A Liouville number is a real number x such

that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2, such

that

[x −a/b[ < b

−k

.

Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers.

Problem 8.1.17 Given that

1/49 =0.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551,

ﬁnd the last thousand digits of

1 +50 +50

2

+ +50

999

.

8.2 Non-decimal Scales

The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal. Given any positive integer r > 1, we

can, however, express any number in base r.

239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven.

Solution: Observe that 5213 < 7

5

. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤a

0

, . . . , a

4

≤6, a

4

= 0, such that

5213 = a

4

7

4

+a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

.

Now, divide by 7

4

to obtain

2 +proper fraction = a

4

+proper fraction.

Since a

4

is an integer, it must be the case that a

4

= 2. Thus 5213 −2 7

4

= 411 = a

3

7

3

+a

2

7

2

+a

1

7 +a

0

. Dividing 411 by 7

3

we obtain

1 +proper fraction = a

3

+proper fraction.

Thus a

3

= 1. Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 21125

7

.

240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six.

Solution: Write

13

16

=

a

1

6

+

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . . .

Multiply by 6 to obtain

4 +proper fraction = a

1

+proper fraction.

Thus a

1

= 4. Hence 13/16 −4/6 = 7/48 =

a

2

6

2

+

a

3

6

3

+. . .. Multiply by 6

2

to obtain

5 +proper fraction = a

2

+proper fraction.

We gather that a

2

= 5. Continuing in this fashion, we deduce that 13/16 = .4513

6

.

241 Example Prove that 4.41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation.

Solution: If 4.41 is in scale r, then

4.41 = 4 +

4

r

+

1

r

2

=

Å

2 +

1

r

ã

2

.

88 Chapter 8

242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Does the equation

x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x= 12345

have a solution?

Solution: We show that there is no such x. Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x −1 < x ≤x. Thus

x −1 +2x −1 +4x −1+ +32x −1 < x+2x+4x+8x

+16x+32x

≤ x +2x +4x + +32x.

From this we see that 63x −6 < 12345 ≤63x. Hence 195 < x < 196.

Write then x in base-two:

x = 195 +

a

1

2

+

a

2

2

2

+

a

3

2

3

+. . . ,

with a

k

= 0 or 1. Then

2x = 2 195 +a

1

,

4x = 4 195 +2a

1

+a

2

,

8x = 8 195 +4a

1

+2a

2

+a

3

,

16x = 16 195 +8a

1

+4a

2

+2a

3

+a

4

,

32x = 32 195 +16a

1

+8a

2

+4a

3

+2a

4

+a

5

.

Adding we ﬁnd that x+2x+4x+8x+16x+32x = 63 195+31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

, i.e. 31a

1

+15a

2

+

7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

= 60. This cannot be because 31a

1

+15a

2

+7a

3

+3a

4

+a

5

≤31 +15 +7 +3+1 = 57 < 60.

243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤x

0

< 1, let

x

n

=

ß

2x

n−1

if 2x

n−1

< 1

2x

n−1

−1 if 2x

n−1

≥1

for all integers n > 0. For how many x

0

is it true that x

0

= x

5

?

Solution: Write x

0

in base-two,

x

0

=

∞

¸

k=1

a

n

2

n

a

n

= 0 or 1.

The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. For x

0

to equal x

5

we need 0.a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

. . . =

0.a

6

a

7

a

8

a

9

a

10

a

11

a

12

. . .. This will happen if and only if x

0

has a repeating expansion with a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

as the repeating block .

There are 2

5

= 32 such blocks. But if a

1

= a

2

= = a

5

= 1, then x

0

= 1, which is outside [0, 1). The total number of values

for which x

0

= x

5

is thus 32 −1 = 31.

244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence

1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, . . .

consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. Find the hundredth term of the

sequence.

Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3, they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit

2. Thus, the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus

1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, . . ..

In the binary scale, these numbers are, of course, 1, 2, 3, . . . . To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in

binary 100 = 1100100

2

and translate this into ternary: 1100100

3

= 3

6

+3

5

+3

2

= 981.

Practice

A theorem of Kummer 89

Problem 8.2.1 (Putnam, 1987) For each positive integer n,

let α(n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three represen-

tation of n. For which positive real numbers x does the series

∞

¸

n=1

x

α(n)

n

3

converge?

Problem 8.2.2 Prove that for x ∈ R, x ≥0, one has

∞

¸

n=1

(−1)

2

n

x

2

n

= 1 −2(x −x).

Problem 8.2.3 (Putnam, 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k

such that 5

k

is an integral divisor of 1

1

2

2

3

3

n

n

. Calculate

lim

n→∞

E(n)

n

2

.

Problem 8.2.4 (AHSME, 1982) The base-eight representa-

tion of a perfect square is ab3c with a = 0. Find the value

of c.

Problem 8.2.5 (Putnam, 1977) An ordered triple of

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) of positive irrational numbers with x

1

+x

2

+x

3

= 1

is called balanced if x

n

< 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. If a triple

is not balanced, say x

j

> 1/2, one performs the following

“balancing act”:

B(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = (x

′

1

, x

′

2

, x

′

3

),

where x

′

i

= 2x

i

if x

i

= x

j

and x

′

j

= 2x

j

−1. If the new triple

is not balanced, one performs the balancing act on it. Does

continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple

after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act?

Problem 8.2.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers

which, when written in base-three, do not require the digit 2.

Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression.

Problem 8.2.7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two

expansion of n. For example, B(6) = B(110

2

) = 2, B(15) =

B(1111

2

) = 4.

1. (PUTNAM 1981) Is

exp

∞

¸

n=1

B(n)

n

2

+n

a rational number?

2. (PUTNAM 1984) Express

2

m

−1

¸

n=0

(−1)

B(n)

n

m

in the form (−1)

m

a

f (m)

(g(m))! where a is an integer

and f , g are polynomials.

Problem 8.2.8 What is the largest integer that I should be

permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in

twenty “yes” or “no” questions?

8.3 A theorem of Kummer

We ﬁrst establish the following theorem.

245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k−1

p +a

k

be the base-p expansion of n. The

exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by

m =

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

.

Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula

m =

∞

¸

k=1

n

p

k

.

90 Chapter 8

Now, n/p = a

0

p

k−1

+a

1

p

k−2

+ a

k−2

p +a

k−1

, n/p

2

= a

0

p

k−2

+a

1

p

k−3

+ +a

k−2

, . . . , n/p

k

= a

0

.

Thus

∞

¸

k=1

n/p

k

= a

0

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−1

) +a

1

(1 + p + p

2

+ + p

k−2

)+

+a

k−1

(1 + p) +a

k

= a

0

p

k

−1

p −1

+a

1

p

k−1

−1

p −1

+ +a

k−1

p

2

−1

p −1

+a

k

p −1

p −1

=

a

0

p

k

+a

1

p

k−1

+ +a

k

− (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

=

n − (a

0

+a

1

+ +a

k

)

p −1

,

as wanted.u

246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient

Ç

a +b

a

å

is equal to the

number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a, b written in base p.

Proof: Let a = a

0

+a

1

p + +a

k

p

k

, b = b

0

+b

1

p + +b

k

p

k

, 0 ≤ a

j

, b

j

≤ p −1, and a

k

+b

k

> 0. Let S

a

=

k

¸

j=0

a

j

, S

b

=

k

¸

j=0

b

j

. Let c

j

, 0 ≤c

j

≤ p −1, and ε

j

= 0 or 1, be deﬁned as follows:

a

0

+b

0

= ε

0

p +c

0

,

ε

0

+a

1

+b

1

= ε

1

p +c

1

,

ε

1

+a

2

+b

2

= ε

2

p +c

2

,

.

.

.

ε

k−1

+a

k

+b

k

= ε

k

p +c

k

.

Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1, p, p

2

, . . . and adding them:

a +b +ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

= ε

0

p +ε

1

p

2

+. . . +ε

k−1

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

+c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

.

We deduce that a +b = c

0

+c

1

p + +c

k

p

k

+ε

k

p

k+1

. By adding all the equalities above, we obtain similarly:

S

a

+S

b

+ (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k−1

) = (ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

)p +S

a+b

−ε

k

.

Upon using Legendre’s result from above,

(p −1)m = (a +b) −S

a+b

−a +S

a

−b +S

b

= (p −1)(ε

0

+ε

1

+ +ε

k

),

which gives the result.u

Chapter 9

Miscellaneous Problems

247 Example Prove that

¸

p

p prime

1

p

diverges.

Solution: Let F

x

denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than

or equal to x. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem

¸

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

¸

n∈F

x

1

n

. (9.1)

Now,

¸

n∈F

x

1

n

>

¸

n≤x

1

n

.

As the harmonic series diverges, the product on the sinistral side of 2.3.3 diverges as x →∞. But

¸

p≤x

p prime

Å

1 +

1

p

+

1

p

2

+

ã

=

¸

p≤x

p prime

1

p

+O(1).

This ﬁnishes the proof.

248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in

more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes.

Solution: Let a

k

denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. Assume that a

k

≤C ∀k

for some positive constant C. Then

Ü

¸

p>2

p prime

x

p

ê

2

=

∞

¸

k=2

a

k

x

2k

≤C

x

4

1 −x

2

.

This yields

¸

p>2

p prime

x

p−1

≤

√

C

x

√

1 −x

2

.

91

92 Chapter 9

Integrating term by term,

¸

p>2

p prime

1

p

≤

√

C

1

0

x

√

1 −x

2

dx =

√

C.

But the leftmost series is divergent, and we obtain a contradiction.

249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine, with proof, the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is

1976.

Solution: Suppose that

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

= 1976;

we want to maximise

n

¸

k=1

a

k

. We shall replace some of the a

k

so that the product is enlarged, but the sum remains the same. By

the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality

n

¸

k=1

a

k

1/n

≤

a

1

+a

2

+ +a

n

n

,

with equality if and only if a

1

= a

2

= = a

n

. Thus we want to make the a

k

as equal as possible.

If we have an a

k

≥4, we replace it by two numbers 2, a

k

−2. Then the sum is not affected, but 2(a

k

−2) ≥a

k

, since we are

assuming a

k

≥ 4. Therefore, in order to maximise the product, we must take a

k

= 2 or a

k

= 3. We must take as many 2’s and

3’s as possible.

Now, 2+2+2 =3+3, but 2

3

<3

2

, thus we should take no more than two 2’s. Since 1976 =3 658+2, the largest possible

product is 2 3

658

.

250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line, where n is a positive integer. Prove that

the number of irreducible fractions a/b, 1 ≤b ≤n, contained in the given interval is at most (n +1)/2.

Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x, x +1/n) into two sets: ¦

s

k

t

k

¦, k = 1, 2, . . . , r, with denominators 1 ≤ t

k

≤ n/2 and

those u

k

/v

k

, k = 1, 2, . . . , s with denominators n/2 < v

k

≤ n, where all these fractions are in reduced form. Now, for every t

k

there are integers c

k

such that n/2 ≤c

k

t

k

≤n. Deﬁne u

s+k

= c

k

s

k

, v

s+k

= c

k

t

k

, y

k+r

= u

k+r

/v

k+r

. No two of the y

l

, 1 ≤l ≤r +s

are equal, for otherwise y

j

= y

k

would yield

[u

k

/v

k

−u

i

/v

i

[ ≥1/v

i

≥1/n,

which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. Hence the number of distinct rationals is r +s ≤n−n/2≤(n+1)/2.

Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n +1)/2+1 = a fractions. Let s

k

, t

k

, 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of

numerators and denominators. The set of denominators is a subset of

¦1, 2, . . . , 2(a −1)¦.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, t

i

[t

k

for some i, k, say t

k

= mt

i

. But then

[s

k

/t

k

−s

i

/t

i

[ =[ms

i

−s

k

[/t

k

≥1/n,

contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n.

251 Example Let

Q

r,s

=

(rs)!

r!s!

.

Show that Q

r,ps

≡Q

r,s

mod p, where p is a prime

Practice 93

Solution: As

Q

r,s

=

r

¸

j=1

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

and

Q

r,ps

=

r

¸

j=1

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

,

it follows from

(1 +x)

j ps−1

≡(1 +x

p

)

js−1

(1 +x)

p−1

mod p

that

Ç

j ps −1

ps −1

å

≡

Ç

js −1

s −1

å

mod p,

whence the result.

Practice

Problem 9.0.1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect

square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other

and its last two digits are equal to each other.

Problem 9.0.2 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

¸

k=1

k! = y

2

.

Problem 9.0.3 Find all integral solutions of the equation

x

¸

k=1

k! = y

z

.

Problem 9.0.4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are

any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations

x

2

1

+x

2

2

+ +x

2

1985

= y

3

,

x

3

1

+x

3

2

+ +x

3

1985

= z

2

with distinct integers x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

1985

.

Problem 9.0.5 Show that the Diophantine equation

1

a

1

+

1

a

2

+. . . +

1

a

n−1

+

1

a

n

+

1

a

1

a

2

a

n

has at least one solution for every n ∈ N.

Problem 9.0.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value

of k for which 3

11

is expressible as the sum of k consecutive

positive integers.

Problem 9.0.7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive

integer whose cube is of the form n +r, where n ∈ N, 0 < r <

1/1000. Find n.

Problem 9.0.8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the

“almost” Fermat Diophantine equations

x

n−1

+y

n−1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n+1

= z

n

,

x

n+1

+y

n−1

= z

n

.

Problem 9.0.9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer

which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite num-

bers?

Problem 9.0.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative

integers n which cannot be written as n = x

2

+y

3

+z

6

for non-

negative integers x, y, z.

Problem 9.0.11 Find the integral solutions of

x

2

+x = y

4

+y

3

+y

2

+y.

Problem 9.0.12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers

x, y such that

3x

2

−7y

2

= −1.

Problem 9.0.13 Prove that

1.

a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−3abc = (a+b+c)(a

2

+b

2

+c

2

−ab−bc−ca).

2. Find integers a, b, c such that 1987 = a

3

+ b

3

+ c

3

−

3abc.

94 Chapter 9

3. Find polynomials P, Q, R in x, y, z such that

P

3

+Q

3

+R

3

−3PQR = (x

3

+y

3

+z

3

−3xyz)

2

4. Can you ﬁnd integers a, b, c with 1987

2

= a

3

+b

3

+c

3

−

3abc?

Problem 9.0.14 Find all integers n such that n

4

+n +7 is a

perfect square.

Problem 9.0.15 Prove that 1991

1991

is not the sum of two per-

fect squares.

Problem 9.0.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x >1, y >1, z >

1 such that

x!y! = z!.

Problem 9.0.17 Find all positive integers with

m

n

−n

m

= 1.

Problem 9.0.18 Find all integers with

x

4

−2y

2

= 1.

Problem 9.0.19 Prove that for every positive integer k there

exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of

which can be represented as the sum of two squares.

Problem 9.0.20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real num-

bers, the sumof any seven successive terms is negative, and the

sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. Determine the

maximum number of terms in the sequence.

Problem 9.0.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such

that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum

of the series at any point is also a perfect square.

Problem 9.0.22 Prove that any positive rational integer can

be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic

series, 1, 1/2, 1/3, . . ..

Problem 9.0.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a

prime. If

a

b

= 1 +

1

2

+

1

3

+ +

1

p −1

,

then p

2

[a.

Problem 9.0.24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coef-

ﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2.

Problem 9.0.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial ex-

pansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2

k

−1.

Problem 9.0.26 Let the numbers c

i

be deﬁned by the power

series identity

(1 +x +x

2

+ +x

p−1

)/(1 −x)

p−1

:= 1 +c

1

x +c

2

x

2

+ .

Show that c

i

≡0 mod p for all i ≥1.

Problem 9.0.27 Let p be a prime. Show that

Ç

p −1

k

å

≡(−1)

k

mod p

for all 0 ≤k ≤ p −1.

Problem 9.0.28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥

b > 0 be integers. Prove that

Ç

pa

pb

å

≡

Ç

a

b

å

mod p.

Problem 9.0.29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N,

Ç

p

k

a

å

≡0 mod p,

for 0 < a < p

k

.

Problem 9.0.30 Let p be a prime and let k, a ∈ N, 0 ≤ a ≤

p

k

−1. Demonstrate that

Ç

p

k

−1

a

å

≡(−1)

a

mod p.

Copyright c 2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright c 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

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vi
Contents
.

I would also like to thank the victims of the summer 1994: Karen Acquista. No theme requires the knowledge of Calculus here. and Carlos Murillo for proofreading the notes. I would like to thank the pioneers in that course: Samuel Chong. A note on the topic selection. Nikhil Garg. Ryan Hoegg. though) I assume very little mathematical knowledge beyond Algebra and Trigonometry. Nathan Lutchansky. The purpose of the course was to familiarise the pupils with contest-type problem solving. Since the material is geared to High School students (talented ones. Most of the motivation was done in the classroom. The pupils were between 13 and 16 years of age. in the notes I presented a rather terse account of the solutions. and please forward me any corrections or remarks on the material herein. I would be very glad to hear any comments. SANTOS dsantos@ccp. Geoffrey Cook. I also wrote notes (which I have not transcribed) dealing with primitive roots. I tried to cover most Number Theory that is useful in contests. diophantine equations. these notes are rather sketchy. Nathaniel Wise and Andrew Wong. Thus the majority of the problems are taken from well-known competitions: AHSME AIME USAMO IMO ITT MMPC (UM)2 S TANFORD M ANDELBROT American High School Mathematics Examination American Invitational Mathematics Examination United States Mathematical Olympiad International Mathematical Olympiad International Tournament of Towns Michigan Mathematics Prize Competition University of Michigan Mathematics Competition Stanford Mathematics Competition Mandelbrot Competition
Firstly. The reader not knowing Calculus can skip these problems. Hobart Lee. David Ripley. but some of the solutions given use it here and there. David A. Here and there some of the problems might use certain properties of the complex numbers. Masha Sapper. I would like to thank Eric Friedman for helping me with the typing. Due to time constraints.Preface
These notes started in the summer of 1993 when I was teaching Number Theory at the Center for Talented Youth Summer Program at the Johns Hopkins University. Howard Bernstein. Andrew Trister.edu
vii
. I hope some day to be able to give more coherence to these notes. Matthew Harris. I shall ﬁnish writing them when laziness leaves my weary soul. and the geometry of numbers. and Victor Yang. quadratic reciprocity. Eduardo Rozo.

etc. and c: 1. who has been drawn to them either for their utility at solving practical problems (like those of measuring. Associative laws: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and a(bc) = (ab)c.
As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom.1 Introduction
We can say that no history of mankind would ever be complete without a history of Mathematics.
1 Axiom (Well-Ordering Axiom) Every non-empty subset S of the natural numbers has a least element. 2. Some number-theoretic problems that are yet unsolved are: 1. 1[. Closure: a + b and ab are also natural numbers. 2. . 3. are very hard to solve. 4. For ages numbers have fascinated Man. One further property of the natural numbers is the following. Are there inﬁnitely many primes that are 1 more than the square of an integer? 4. b.
2 Example Prove that there is no integer in the interval ]0. (Goldbach’s Conjecture) Is every even integer greater than 2 the sum of distinct primes? 2. that satisfy the following properties for natural numbers a. Number Theory is one of the oldest and most beautiful branches of Mathematics. 4. It abounds in problems that yet simple to state.} of natural numbers is endowed with two operations. 3. counting sheep.2
Well-Ordering
The set N = {0.
1. Is there always a prime between two consecutive squares of integers? In this chapter we cover some preliminary tools we need before embarking into the core of Number Theory. 1.
1
.Chapter
1
Preliminaries
1. . let us prove that there is no integer between 0 and 1. . addition and multiplication. Distributive law: a(b + c) = ab + ac. Additive Identity: 0 + a = a + 0 = a 5. (Twin Prime Problem) Are there inﬁnitely many primes p such that p + 2 is also a prime? 3.) or as a fountain of solace. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a1 = a.

Z = {.
4 Example Let a. 3. so b1 + b = ka and b1 b = a2 − k. Hence b = 2b1 and so 1 16a6 + 32b6 = c6 . Let us give an example of an irrational number. b. b1 . . b) as small as 1 + ab possible. . This gives c = 2c1 . with max(a. √ √ √ √ j( 2 − 1) = j 2 − k 2 = ( j − k) 2 √ √ √ √ is a positive integer. 2. a2 + 1
which forces k = 1. Let b1 . that 2 = for some integers a. say j = k 2. b.. Suppose that 2 were rational. −2.. supposing b1 < 0 is incompatible with a2 + b2 = k(ab1 + 1). Now. b. This is a contradiction and so S = ∅. This contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A and hence. Also b1 = a2 − k b2 − k < < b. b are positive integers such that
a2 + b2 a2 + b2 is an integer. we see that √ √ √ ( j − k) 2 = k(2 − 2) < k( 2) = j. 1 + ab 1 + ab
a2 + b2 = k is a counterexample of an integer which is not a perfect square. i. As k is not a perfect square. But clearly max(a1 . a2 + b2 − k(ab + 1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of the roots ka and product of the roots a2 − k. b b
. and so a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . Now. An irrational number is a number which cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. Since 2 < 2 2 implies 2 − 2 < 2 and also j 2 = 2k. c1 ) < max(a. . Choose a triplet of nonnegative integers a. c satisfying this equation and with max(a. a = 2a1 . 1[ is non-empty. c be integers such that a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . a perfect square.
√ √ a Solution: The proof is by contradiction.
3 Example Prove that
√ 2 is irrational. As 2 − 1 > 0. Being a set of positive integers. c). −1. 0. We denote the set of all integers by Z. If a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 then a must be even. 0 < m2 < m < 1. This leads to 32a6 + b6 = 2c6 . But this is saying that S has a positive integer m2 which is smaller than its least positive integer m. − 3.}.
Solution: Clearly we can restrict ourselves to nonnegative numbers. We denote the set of b rational numbers by Q. By Well-Ordering A has a smallest element. 1 supposing b1 = 0 is incompatible with a2 + 02 = k(0 · a + 1).e. We may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then Solution: Suppose that 0<k= 2a2 < 2. and so m2 ∈ S . say m.2
Chapter 1
Solution: Assume to the contrary that the set S of integers in ]0. b be its roots. c) > 0 as small as possible. ﬁnishes the proof. k are positive integers. This implies b that the set √ √ A = {n 2 : both n and n 2 positive integers} √ √ is nonempty since it contains a. . then is a perfect square. As a. a A rational number is a number which can be expressed as the ratio of two integers a.
5 Example (IMO 1988) If a. i. Show that a = b = c = 0. . 1. This means that all of 1 1 1 1 1 these must be zero. it must contain a least element. b.e. b. b. where b = 0. √ Thus ( j − k) 2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j.

. Suppose that we are to perform a task that involves a certain number of steps. if we have a base case).
Proof: Assume this is not the case and so. and also contains the integer n + 1 whenever it contains the integer n. Problem 1. Finally.
9 Example Prove that the expression
33n+3 − 26n − 27 is a multiple of 169 for all natural numbers n.
6 Theorem (Principle of Mathematical Induction) If a setS of non-negative integers contains the integer 0. since the successor of each element in the set is also in the set. Thus in the Principle of Mathematical Induction. but one of the examples below shows that we may take. Suppose that these steps must be followed in strict numerical order. where n > m. say k0 = 33. y. . then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m. suppose that we know how to perform the n-th task provided we have accomplished the n − 1-th task. This 1 + ab1 is a contradiction. that k is a perfect square.e.
We shall now give some examples of the use of induction. As k − 1 < k. then we should be able to ﬁnish it (because starting with the base case we go to the next case. Then 33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 27 · 33n − 26n − 27 = 27(33n − 26n − 1) + 676n
. Thus we have found another positive integer b1 for which
Practice
Problem 1. Solution: For n = 1 we are asserting that 36 − 53 = 676 = 169 · 4 is divisible by 169.1 Find all integer solutions of a3 + 2b3 = 4c3 . which is evident. We will now derive the Principle of Mathematical Induction from the Well-Ordering Axiom. we try to verify that some assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers is true for some base case k0 (usually k0 = 1. m + 2.
then A contains all the positive integers greater than or equal to m.) Then we try to settle whether information on P(n − 1) leads to favourable information on P(n). assume that 33n − 26n − 1 = 169N for some integer N. . since 0 ∈ S and there is no positive integer smaller than 0. z only when x = y = z = 0. . etc. by the Well-Ordering Principle there exists a least positive integer k not in S .Practice
3
a2 + b2 1 = k and which is smaller than the smallest max(a. .
8 Corollary (Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction) If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains m + 1. But by assumption k − 1 + 1 is also in S .2. It must be the case.
7 Corollary If a set A of positive integers contains the integer m and also contains n + 1 whenever it contains n. u The following versions of the Principle of Mathematical Induction should now be obvious.
1. and then to the case following that. Observe that k > 0. a contradiction. then. where n > m. Hence k = k − 1 + 1 is also in the set.3
Mathematical Induction
The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly intuitive observation. b). Thus if we are ever able to start the job (that is. n.2 Prove that the equality x2 + y2 + z2 = 2xyz can hold for whole numbers x. Assume the assertion is true for n − 1. Thus S = N.). we see that k − 1 ∈ S . n > 1.2. then S = N. i.

Using P(n − 1). As k2 − 1 = (k2 − 1)(k2 + 1). then we see that √ √ (1 + 2)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 6. Assume that P(n − 1) is true for n > 1. assume that √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) + (1 − 2)2(n−1) = 2N for some integer N and that √ √ √ (1 + 2)2(n−1) − (1 − 2)2(n−1) = a 2
for some positive integer a. then 2n+2 divides
k2 − 1 for all natural numbers n. so the problem reduces to proving that 2|(k2n + 1). as k2 − 1 = (k − 1)(k + 1) is divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k because n both (k − 1) and (k + 1) are divisible by 2 and one of them is divisible by 4. i. The assertion is thus established by induction. we see that 2n+2 divides (k2n − 1). √ √ √ Solution: We proceed by induction on n. and
√ √ √ (1 + 2)2 − (1 − 2)2 = 4 2. This simpliﬁes to √ √ √ √ (3 + 2 2)(1 + 2)2n−2 + (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2 .
n
.” If n = 1.
Therefore P(1) is true. This is obviously true since k2n odd makes k2n + 1 even.. Let P(n) be the proposition: “(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n is even and (1 + 2)2n − (1 − √ √ 2n 2) = b 2 for some b ∈ N.
10 Example Prove that
Chapter 1
√ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2
is an even integer and that
for some positive integer b. for all integers n ≥ 1. Consider now the quantity √ √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)2n = (1 + 2)2 (1 + 2)2n−2 + (1 − 2)2 (1 − 2)2n−2 . Solution: The statement is evident for n = 1. the above simpliﬁes to
an even integer and similarly √ √ √ √ √ (1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = 3a 2 + 2 2(2N) = (3a + 4N) 2.
an even integer. which is divisible by 169.e. √ √ 12N + 2 2a 2 = 2(6N + 2a). and let us prove that n n n+1 n+1 2n+3 |k2 − 1. Assume that 2n+2 |k2 − 1. and so P(n) is true.4 which reduces to 27 · 169N + 169 · 4n.
11 Example Prove that if k is odd. The assertion is thus established by induction.

1) We now establish the truth of the assertion of the problem by induction on n. assume that nonnegative real numbers w1 . a1 a2 ak Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good. The assertion is thus proved by induction. ak are positive integers (not necessarily distinct) satisfying 1 1 1 + + · · · + = 1. if n is good both 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. But (??) implies the truth of P(n + 1) whenever P(n) is true. 2a1 2a2 2ak 3 6 2 3 6 Therefore. 2n + 9 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 3 + 6 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1. . prove that every integer ≥ 33 is good. . Solution: We ﬁrst prove that if n is good. a1 a2 · · · an ≤ n Proof: Since the square of any real number is nonnegative. a2 . and 1= Then 2n + 8 = 2a1 + 2a2 + · · · + 2ak + 4 + 4 and 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ···+ + + = + + = 1.
13 Theorem (Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality) Let a1 . For assume that n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers n. . n + 2. . x2 = 2 +1 k−1 2 Upon expanding. we have √ √ ( x1 − x2 )2 ≥ 0. where a1 . It consists in proving a statement ﬁrst for powers of 2 and then interpolating between powers of 2.
. . 2 which is the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality for n = 2. then 2n + 8 and 2n + 9 are good. a2 . w2k−1 satisfy k−1 w1 + w2 + · · · + w2k−1 (1. . w2 . Then
1 1 1 + + ··· + . . an be nonnegative real numbers.2) ≥ x1 x2 . (1. . . k > 2. 2n + 7” are good. n + 1. that is. . . we see that P(33) is true. . 2a1 2a2 2ak 4 4 2 4 4 Also. .. We now present a variant of the Principle of Mathematical Induction used by Cauchy to prove the Arithmetic-MeanGeometric Mean Inequality. Assume that the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality holds true for n = 2k−1 .3) ≥ (w1 w2 · · · w2k−1 )1/2 . x1 + x2 √ (1. a1 a2 ak
√ a1 + a2 + · · · + an n . .Mathematical Induction
12 Example (USAMO 1978) An integer n will be called good if we can write
5
n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak . k−1 2 Using (??) with y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 x1 = 2k−1 and y k−1 + · · · + y2k . . By the statement of the problem.

Thus all the powers of 2 raised to an even power belong to M .. assume that 2k−1 < n < 2k . Prove
√
that M is the set of all natural numbers. yn = a n . Solution: We will prove this by induction. belong to M . k 2
(1. but √ Since M is a nonempty set of positive integers. and yn+1 = yn+2 = · · · = y2k = Let A= Using (??) we obtain a1 + a2 + · · · + an + (2k − n) 2k a1 + · · · + an n a1 + a2 + · · · + an . since 4 belongs to M so does 4 · 4 = 42 . which gives the required result. and so we have proved the Arithmetic-Mean-GeometricMean Inequality for powers of 2. n = 1. . 2s] contains a power of 2. n
a1 + · · · + an and G = (a1 · · · an )1/n . )( ) ( 2k−1 2k−1
Chapter 1
Applying (??) to both factors on the right hand side of the above . Prove that every interval [s. i. Since the square roots belong as well to M we get that all the powers of 2 raised to an odd power also belong to M . n
≥ a1 a2 · · · an (
a1 + · · · + an (2k −n) ) n
1/2k
. we obtain
k y1 + y2 + · · · + y2 k ≥ (y1 y2 · · · y2k )1/2 . This means that 1 belongs to M . 2. If s is not a power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive powers of 2. secondly we will prove that every power of 2 is in the set and ﬁnally we will prove that non-powers of 2 are also in the set.
which is to say that
k k nA + (2k − n)A ≥ (Gn A2 −n )1/2 . . First we will prove that 1 belongs to the set. etc. In conclusion. Since 1 belongs to M so does 4. Hence s < 2r+1 < 2s. √ a also belongs to M .
Solution: If s is a power of 2.e.6 we obtain that y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k + 2k−1 2k−1 ≥ 2 ã Å y1 + y2 + · · · + y2k−1 y2k−1 +1 + · · · + y2k 1/2 . .
.u
(a1 a2 · · · an )1/n ≤
a1 + a2 + · · · + an . Let y1 = a 1 . In this way we obtain that all numbers of the form 4n = 22n .4)
This means that the 2k−1 -th step implies the 2k -th step. . . then there is nothing to prove. it has a least element. .
15 Example Let M be a nonempty set of positive integers such that 4x and [ x] both belong to M whenever x does. Now. By assumption a < a unless a = 1. n
14 Example Let s be a positive integer. 2k
This translates into A ≥ G or which is what we wanted. This yields 2r+1 < 2s. all powers of 2 belong to M .. there is an integer r for which 2r < s < 2r+1 . y2 = a 2 . . say a.

3 Let n ∈ N. for all natural numbers n. (n + 1)4 ) belongs to M since this would entail that z would belong to A1 . for a sufﬁciently large positive integer k we have 2−k < log2 (n + 1) − log2 n.3.3. We will now show that eventually these intervals are so large that they contain a power of 2. (n + 1)2 ). Problem 1. then 12 + 32 + 52 + · · · + (2n − 1)2 = Problem 1. n+1 n+2 3n + 1 Problem 1. then 1 · 2 + 2 · 5 + · · ·+ n · (3n − 1) = n2 (n + 1).9 Prove that (2n)! 4n < n + 1 (n!)2 for all natural numbers n > 1. <√ 2 · 4 · 6 · · ·(2n) 3n + 1 Problem 1.3. By induction we can r r show that no member in the interval Ar = [n2 . n(4n2 − 1) .3. n > 1. Thus the interval [n2 . thereby obtaining a contradiction to the hypothesis that no element of the Ar belonged to M . 3
+ · · · + (−1)n equals (−1)
n (x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n)
n!
for all non-negative integers n.3. a contradiction. Prove that 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) 1 .Practice
7
Assume now that n ∈ N fails to belong to M . Problem 1. (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M . (n + 1)2 ) belongs to M .3.8 Prove that if n is a natural number.2 Prove that 1− x x(x − 1) x(x − 1)(x − 2) + − 1! 2! 3! x(x − 1)(x − 2) · · ·(x − n + 1) n! Problem 1.3.3. Prove that a1000 > b999 .6 Let n ∈ N. and an = 3an−1 . Observe that n cannot be a power of 2.7 Prove that if n is a natural number. Since the function f: R x
is decreasing. Problem 1. because every member of y ∈ A1 satisﬁes [ y] = n.1 Prove that 11n+2 + 122n+1 is divisible by 133 Problem 1. Since n ∈ M we deduce that √ no integer in A1 = [n2 . 2s] where s is a positive integer contains a power of 2.
. 2n2 ] is totally contained in [n2 . b1 = 4.3. We have thus obtained the desired contradiction.3. Prove the inequality 1 1 1 + + ···+ > 1. But every interval of the form [s. Similarly no member z ∈ A2 = [n4 .10 Prove that the sum of the cubes of three consecutive positive integers is divisible by 9. Problem 1.5 Let a1 = 3.4 Prove that » √ π 2 + 2 + · · · + 2 = 2 cos n+1 2
n radical signs
for n ∈ N.
k k k k k k
Practice
Problem 1. The function f:
∗ R+ x
→ R → log2 x → R∗ + → 2−x
is increasing and hence log2 (n + 1) − log2 n > 0. bn = 4bn−1 when n > 1. This implies that (n + 1)2 > 2n2 .

8 Problem 1.3.11 If |x| = 1, n ∈ N prove that 1 4 8 2n 2 + + + ···+ + n 2 2 8 1+x 1+x 1+x 1+x 1 + x2 equals 1 2n+1 . + x − 1 1 − x2n+1 Problem 1.3.12 Is it true that for every natural number n the quantity n2 + n + 41 is a prime? Prove or disprove! Problem 1.3.13 Give an example of an assertion which is not true for any positive integer, yet for which the induction step holds. Problem 1.3.14 Give an example of an assertion which is true for the ﬁrst two million positive integers but fails for every integer greater than 2000000. Problem 1.3.15 Prove by induction on n that a set having n elements has exactly 2n subsets. Problem 1.3.16 Prove that if n is a natural number, n5 /5 + n4/2 + n3/3 − n/30 is always an integer. (n − 1) 3. Prove that if n > 1, then 1 · 3 · 5 · · ·(2n − 1) < nn .

Chapter 1

5. Prove that if n > 1 then

4. Prove that if n > 1 then Ä ä 1 1 n (n + 1)1/n − 1 < 1 + + · · · + . 2 n

7. Let y1 , y2 , . . . , yn be positive real numbers. Prove the Harmonic-Mean- Geometric-Mean Inequality: n √ ≤ n y1 y2 · · · yn . 1 1 1 + + ···+ y1 y2 yn

6. Given that u, v, w are positive, 0 < a ≤ 1, and that u + v + w = 1, prove that Å ãÅ ãÅ ã 1 1 1 −a −a − a ≥ 27 − 27a + 9a2 − a3 . u v w

Å ã 1 1 1 1 . 1 + + ···+ < n 1 − + 2 n (n + 1)1/n n + 1

8. Let a1 , . . . , an be positive real numbers, all different. Set s = a1 + a2 + · · · + an . (a) Prove that 1 < s − ar 1 . ar

1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n Problem 1.3.17 (Halmos) ) Every man in a village knows instantly when another’s wife is unfaithful, but never when his (b) Deduce that own is. Each man is completely intelligent and knows that ev4n n 1 1 ery other man is. The law of the village demands that when . <s < s ar (s − ar ) n − 1 ar a man can PROVE that his wife has been unfaithful, he must 1≤r≤n 1≤r≤n shoot her before sundown the same day. Every man is completely law-abiding. One day the mayor announces that there Problem 1.3.19 Suppose that x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are nonnegative is at least one unfaithful wife in the village. The mayor always real numbers with tells the truth, and every man believes him. If in fact there are exactly forty unfaithful wives in the village (but that fact x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≤ 1/2. is not known to the men,) what will happen after the mayor’s Prove that announcement?

Problem 1.3.18 bers with

1. Let a1 , a2 , . . . an be positive real numa1 · a2 · · · an = 1.

(1 − x1)(1 − x2 ) · · · (1 − xn) ≥ 1/2. Problem 1.3.20 Given a positive integer n prove that there is a polynomial Tn such that cos nx = Tn (cos x) for all real numbers x. Tn is called the n-th Tchebychev Polynomial. Problem 1.3.21 Prove that 1 1 13 1 + + ···+ > n+1 n+2 2n 24 for all natural numbers n > 1.

Use induction to prove that a1 + a2 + · · · + an ≥ n, with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an = 1. 2. Use the preceding part to give another proof of the Arithmetic-Mean-Geometric-Mean Inequality.

Fibonacci Numbers

9

Problem 1.3.22 In how many regions will a sphere be divided Problem 1.3.24 Let F0 (x) = x, F(x) = 4x(1 − x), Fn+1 (x) = by n planes passing through its centre if no three planes pass F(Fn (x)), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that through one and the same diameter?

1

Problem 1.3.23 (IMO 1977) Let f , f : N → N be a function satisfying f (n + 1) > f ( f (n)) for each positive integer n. Prove that f (n) = n for each n.

Fn (x) dx =

0

22n−1 . 22n − 1

(Hint: Let x = sin2 θ .)

1.4

Fibonacci Numbers

f0 = 0, f1 = 1, fn+1 = fn−1 + fn , n ≥ 1. (1.5)

The Fibonacci numbers fn are given by the recurrence

Thus the ﬁrst few Fibonacci numbers are 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . . . A number of interesting algebraic identities can be proved using the above recursion.

16 Example Prove that

**f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − 1. Solution: We have f1 f2 f3 . . . fn Summing both columns, f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − f2 = fn+2 − 1, as desired.
**

17 Example Prove that

= f3 − f2 = f4 − f3 = f5 − f4 . . . = fn+2 − fn+1

**f1 + f3 + f5 + · · · + f2n−1 = f2n . Solution: Observe that f1 f3 f5 . . . f2n−1 Adding columnwise we obtain the desired identity.
**

18 Example Prove that

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

= = = . . . =

f2 − f0 f4 − f2 f6 − f4 . . . f2n − f2n−2

Solution: We have

2 fn−1 fn+1 = ( fn+1 − fn )( fn + fn−1 ) = fn+1 fn − fn + fn+1 fn−1 − fn fn−1 .

Thus

2 fn+1 fn − fn fn−1 = fn ,

10 which yields

2 2 2 f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn fn+1 .

Chapter 1

**19 Theorem (Cassini’s Identity)
**

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n , n ≥ 1.

Proof: Observe that

2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn

= = =

2 ( fn − fn−2 )( fn + fn−1 ) − fn − fn−2 fn − fn−1 ( fn−2 − fn ) 2 −( fn−2 fn − fn−1 )

2 Thus if vn = fn−1 fn+1 − fn , we have vn = −vn−1 . This yields vn = (−1)n−1 v1 which is to say 2 2 fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n−1 ( f0 f2 − f1 ) = (−1)n .

u

20 Example (IMO 1981) Determine the maximum value of

m2 + n 2 , where m, n are positive integers satisfying m, n ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. Solution: Call a pair (n, m) admissible if m, n ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 1981} and (n2 − mn − m2)2 = 1. If m = 1, then (1, 1) and (2, 1) are the only admissible pairs. Suppose now that the pair (n1 , n2 ) is admissible, with n2 > 1. 2 As n1 (n1 − n2) = n2 ± 1 > 0, we must have n1 > n2 . Let now n3 = n1 − n2 . Then 1 = (n2 − n1 n2 − n2 )2 = (n2 − n2 n3 − n2 )2 , making (n2 , n3 ) also admissible. If n3 > 1, in the 1 2 2 3 same way we conclude that n2 > n3 and we can let n4 = n2 − n3 making (n3 , n4 ) an admissible pair. We have a sequence of positive integers n1 > n2 > . . ., which must necessarily terminate. This terminates when nk = 1 for some k. Since (nk−1 , 1) is admissible, we must have nk−1 = 2. The sequence goes thus 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . ., 987, 1597, i.e., a truncated Fibonacci sequence. The largest admissible pair is thus (1597, 987) and so the maximum sought is 15972 + 9872. √ √ 1+ 5 5−1 −1 be the Golden Ratio. Observe that τ = . The number τ is a root of the quadratic equation Let τ = 2 2 2 x = x + 1. We now obtain a closed formula for fn . We need the following lemma.

21 Lemma If x2 = x + 1, n ≥ 2 then we have xn = fn x + fn−1 .

Proof: We prove this by induction on n. For n = 2 the assertion is a triviality. Assume that n > 2 and that xn−1 = fn−1 x + fn−2 . Then xn = xn−1 · x = ( fn−1 x + fn−2 )x = fn−1 (x + 1) + fn−2x = ( fn−1 + fn−2 )x + fn−1 = fn x + fn−1 u

22 Theorem (Binet’s Formula) The n-th Fibonacci number is given by

1 fn = √ 5 n = 0, 2, . . . .

ÇÇ

√ ån Ç √ ån å 1+ 5 1− 5 − 2 2

Proof: We keep t ﬁxed and prove this by using strong induction on s.u
Practice
.
τ n − (1 − τ )n =
√ 5 fn . Thus n Ç å ä n k 1 Ä 2 fk = √ (τ )3n + (1 − τ )3n = f3n . 1 + 2τ = τ 3 . In virtue of the above lemma. k
Ç å n k 2 fk k
= = =
Ç å n k τ k − (1 − τ )k √ 2 k 5 k=0 n Ç å n Ç å n k n k 1 √ τ − 2 (1 − τ )k k 5 k=0 k k=0 1 n √ ((1 + 2τ ) − (1 + 2(1 − τ ))n) . This ﬁnishes the proof. The following theorem will be used later.t ≥ 0 are integers then
fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 .Practice √ √ 1+ 5 1− 5 and 1 − τ = . Proof: The roots of the equation x = x + 1 are τ = 2 2
2
11
τ n = τ fn + fn−1
and Subtracting from where Binet’s Formula follows. = ft fs−1 + ft+1 fs by the Fibonacci recursion. which is trivially true. k 5 k=0 as wanted. Assume that s > 1 and that fs−k+t = fs−k−1 ft + fs−k ft+1 for all k satisfying 1 ≤ k ≤ s − 1. For s = 1 we are asking whether ft+1 = f0 ft + f1 ft+1 .u
23 Example (Cesàro) Prove that
n k=0
(1 − τ )n = (1 − τ ) fn + fn−1 . = fs−2 ft + fs−1 ft+1 + fs−3 ft + fs−2 ft+1 by the inductive assumption = ft ( fs−2 + fs−3 ) + ft+1 ( fs−1 + fs−2 ) rearranging. = fs−1+t + fs−2+t trivially. 5
n
As τ 2 = τ + 1.
n k=0
Ç å n k 2 fk = f3n . We have fs+t = fs+t−1 + fs+t−2 by the Fibonacci recursion. Similarly 1 + 2(1 − τ ) = (1 − τ )3 .
Solution: Using Binet’s Formula.
24 Theorem If s ≥ 1.

f 2k 2
Problem 1. Problem 1.4.16 Prove that fn 10n
Hint: What is
1 fn−1 fn
−
1 ? fn fn+1
is a rational number. f 2k f 2n √ 1 7− 5 = .
Chapter 1 Problem 1. fn+1 fn+2
(−1)
k=1
k
Problem 1.17 Find the exact value of
1994
Problem 1.4.4.
2 fn − fn+l fn−l = (−1)n+l fl2 .5 Prove that
2 2 fn + fn−1
n→∞
Problem 1.4.12 Problem 1. Problem 1. m = ± fn+1 . f2n+1
Problem 1.4.2 Prove that
2 2 fn+1 = 4 fn fn−1 + fn−2 .4. n > 1. then there is an integer n such that k = ± fn .3 Prove that
2 f1 f2 + f2 f3 + · · · + f2n−1 f2n = f2n .4.
Problem 1. k
1/ f2n = 4 − τ .
n=0
Problem 1.4.12 Prove that fn 1 =√ .18 Prove the converse of Cassini’s Identity: If k and m are integers such that |m2 − km − k2 | = 1. k
∞ n=1
Problem 1.4.7 Prove that
n n
Problem 1.
Deduce that
∞ k=0
Problem 1.10 Prove that
∞
Ç
å 1995 fk . fn−1 fn+1
Ç å n fk = f2n . Prove that the largest n such that fn ≤ N is given by Å ã 1 √ log N + 5 2 Ç √ å .
.9 Prove that
∞ n=1
fn = 1.4.15 (Cesàro) Prove that (n − k) f2k+1 .8 Prove that
∞ n=2
1 = 1.4 Let N be a natural number.13 Prove that lim fn+r = τr.4. n= 1+ 5 log 2 Problem 1.1 Prove that fn+1 fn − fn−1 fn−2 = f2n−1 . fn
Problem 1. n n→∞ τ 5 lim Problem 1. n > 2.4.4.4.
n k=0
f2k =
k=1 k=0
Problem 1.4.6 Prove that if n > 1.4.4.11 Prove that
∞
arctan
n=1
1 = π /4.14 Prove that
n k=0
= f2n+1 .
f2n −2 1 = 2+ .4.

. Solution: First observe that if we choose n + 1 integers from any string of 2n consecutive integers. 32. {7.
25 Example (Putnam 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen from the arithmetic progression 1. 64. . . . there must be two that differ by 10. one can ﬁnd two of them. . 16. . . Solution: We partition the thirty four elements of this progression into nineteen groups {1}... 22.. .
27 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99 inclusive. . 2}. .5
Pigeonhole Principle
The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n + 1 pigeons ﬂy to n holes. any such two will satisfy the stated inequality. 2. prove that one must select some two that differ by 10.
Solution: There are 210 − 1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form with a given 10-element set.. . This apparently trivial principle is very powerful. . 3. Prove
that there must be two distinct integers in A whose sum is 104.. say a and b. 94}. . . 2. . 13. . .
which satisfy b < a ≤ 2b. {a + 2. This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers {a + 1. a + n + 1}. 82. {31. two of the seven numbers must lie in one of the six sets.. 14}. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve is 90 + 91 + · · · + 99 = 945 < 1023. {10. {3. 62. 100} .
. 80} and {81. {61. 100. . . and obviously.. a + 2n}. . there must be at least two different subsets that have the same sum. {41. To each of these subsets we associate the sum of its elements. . . . . .Pigeonhole Principle
13
1. . Let us see some examples. which add to 104. 62} and {63. . By the Pigeonhole Principle. {a + 1. 61. by the above observation (let n = 10).
26 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not exceeding 126. 100}. prove that there are two disjoint nonempty subsets of the set with equal sums of their elements. there will always be some two that differ by n. . 55}. we must perforce choose eleven from some group. {49. {a + n.
28 Example No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from
{1. Solution: Split the numbers {1. . . . . . 60}. . there must be two that belong to the same group... . 2. 42. a + 2.. {4. Therefore. 40}. 126} into the six sets {1. 4. 126}. by the Pigeonhole Principle there must be two integers that belong to one of the pairs. a + n + 2}. 30}. . . . . From that group. a + 2n} into the n pairs and if n + 1 integers are chosen from this. . 97}. 5. {52}. . . 8.20}. 4. 6}. If we select ﬁfty ﬁve integers. 29. {15. 100}.. So now group the one hundred integers as follows: {1. a + 3. {7.. . . {21. . there must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons. Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets. .

1/3). In their letters
only three different topics are discussed.
32 Example (Canadian Math Olympiad 1981) Let a1 . Charlie must write to at least six of the people of one topic. x7 . By the Pigeonhole Principle. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds with each other on topic II. say Charlie. . a5 . b with
0<
1 a−b <√ . say a. . . . Choose a particular person from this group of six. Otherwise.e. we obtain the 7-tuple (a1 . . Prove that there at least three people who write to each other about the same topic. “50”. . He corresponds with sixteen others. . 1/3. . ak + ak+1 + ak+2 }. . If any pair of these six people corresponds on topic I. .
1≤k≤5
determine the minimum possible value that M can take as the ak vary. What is the minimum number of discs that must me drawn in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label?
Solution: If we draw all the 1 + 2 + · · · + 9 = 45 labelled “1”. . two of seven points will lie on the same interval. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten discs from a label. which shows that M = 1/3.
Practice
. . then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II. . a7 be nonnegative real numbers with
a1 + a2 + . we obtain
0 < tan(a j − ai ) = tan a j − tan ai 1 π < tan = √ . If M = max ak + ak+1 + ak+2. say topic I. ) into six non-overlapping subintervals of 2 2 2 2 π equal length. these six correspond amongst themselves only on topics II or III. a1 + a2 . three discs “3”. ﬁfty discs ‘‘50”. . 6 Since the tangent increases in (−π /2.
30 Example (IMO 1964) Seventeen people correspond by mail with one another—each one with all the rest. Otherwise. 1 + tana j tan ai 6 3
as desired. a6 . there must be three of the ﬁve remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics. Solution: Since a1 ≤ a1 + a2 ≤ a1 + a2 + a3 and a7 ≤ a6 + a7 ≤ a5 + a6 + a7 we see that M also equals
1≤k≤5
max {a1 . then Charlie and this pair do the trick. These nine quantities then average 3/9 = 1/3. If a1 = a1 + a2 = a1 + a2 + a3 = a2 + a3 + a4 = a3 + a4 + a5 = a4 + a5 + a6 = a5 + a6 + a7 = a7 = 1/3. say ai < a j . Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of these topics. . Put these 1 + 2 + 3 + · · ·+
50 = 1275 labeled discs in a box. + a7 = 1. . “9” and any nine from each of the discs “10”. 0. two discs “2”. π /2). prove that we can always ﬁnd two.
31 Example Given any seven distinct real numbers x1 . By the Pigeonhole Principle. By the Pigeonhole Principle. M ≥ 1/3. a2 . i. . a7 ) = (1/3. a3 . By the Pigeonhole Principle. a2 . . a7 . 0. 0. . Then 0 < a j − ai < . Solution: Choose a particular person of the group. . we have drawn 45 + 9 · 41 = 414 discs. and we are done.
We are thus taking the maximum over nine quantities that sum 3(a1 + a2 + · · · + a7 ) = 3.14
Chapter 1
29 Example (AHSME 1994) Label one disc “1”. and we are done again. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without replacement. say Eric. and we are done. these three people only correspond with one another on topic III. 0. a4 . 1 + ab 3
Solution: Put xk = tan ak for ak satisfying −
π π π π < ak < . . Divide the interval (− . a6 + a7 . one of these is ≥ 1/3. say topic II.

colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its mum size of a sum free subset of {1. 2. some two that differ by 10. there is a non-empty proper subset whose sum is not more than 2/n in size. Show that any subset with n + 2 elements solute value not exceeding 1 and whose sum is 0. . Prove that there must be four consecutive consonants. prove that you must select some two that differ by 9.5. distance 2/2.11 Show that if the points of the plane are it is at most the average of the numbers. 2n − 1}. then some pair of them will be at most at of Problem 1.7 (Stanford 1953) Bob has ten pockets and forty four silver dollars. 2. considering p pockets and n dollars.5. . and some two that differ by 13. rn . There Problem 1. 1979) Nine mathematicians meet at an international conference and discover that amongst any three of them. rn be real numbers in the interval [0. Show that there are numbers εk .5.
Problem 1. but that you need not have any two that differ by 11. Show that is not sum free. r2 . or a decreasing sequence with at least m + 1 Problem 1. n + 2.13 Let r1 . Problem 1. . . however. Problem 1. 1]. Problem 1. What is the minimum number of people in the party who know everyone else?
. There are N people seated at this table in such a way that the next person to be seated must sit next to someone. 1947) Prove that amongst six people members. If each of the mathematicians can speak at most three languages.15 (USAMO. or at least three who do not know one another. Prove that there must be ﬁve consecutive consonants.5. .5. . some two that differ by 12. Generalise the problem. 1982) In a party with 1982 persons. . . 1.5. .5.5.1 (AHSME 1991) A circular table has exactly sixty chairs around it. Can he do so? 2. Hint: Observe that the set {n + 1. coloured with two colours. What is the smallest possible value of N? Answer: 20. εk = 2.5.9 Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given. 2n − 1} of n + 1 el. English alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order.5.6 (MMPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the lute value at least . 100}. . prove that there are at least three of the mathematicians who can speak the same language. Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle.14 (USAMO. 1 not all zero. a colouring of the points of the plane with two the set add up to a third element of the set. in a room there are at least three who know one another. Problem 1.
15 Problem 1. . . at least two speak a common language. r2 . show that there will always exist two points of Problem 1.2 Show that if any ﬁve points are all in. 2n
Problem 1.. He wants to put his dollars into his pockets so distributed that each pocket contains a different number of dollars. . . . numbers there is always one number which is at least the average of the numbers and that there is always one member that Problem 1.Practice Problem 1. What is the maxi.5 We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of is.3 (Eötvös. .4 Show that in any sum of non-negative real the same colour which are one unit apart.10 If the points of the plane are coloured with three colours.12 Let r1 . 1 ≤ k ≤ n.Problem 1.8 No matter which ﬁfty ﬁve integers may be selected from {1. n > 1 be real numbers of abements is sum free.5. there will always exist an equilateral triangle with all its vertices of the same colour. amongst any group of four there is at least one person who knows each of the other three. .
n
3. Give a list to show that there need not be ﬁve consecu−1. Give an example in which any subsum has abso1 Problem 1. . Prove that there is either an increasing sequence with at least n + 1 members.5. n−1 1. 0. The problem is most interesting when n= Why? (p − 1)(p − 2) . a square √ side 1. 2
k=1
εk rk ≤
n . such that tive consonants. . vertices of the same colour.5. or on.5.5.

Any two distinct points of Pn are joined by a straight line segment which is then coloured in one of n given colours.18 Let Pn be a set of en! + 1 points on the plane.5. each of whom knows both or else knows neither of the two.5.17 (USAMO. For each ∞ pair of these mathematicians. 1985) There are n people at a party. some three were sleeping simultaneously. Show that at least one monochromatic triangle is formed. ment. there are at least n/2 − 1 of them. Prove that there are two people such that. of the remaining n − 2 people. Prove that.
Chapter 1
Problem 1.) both were sleeping simultaneously.5. 1986) During a certain lecture. there was some moment when (Hint: e = 1/n!.16 (USAMO. Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship. at some mon=0
.16 Problem 1.
Problem 1. each of ﬁve mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice.

there are integers u. This forces n + 1|2 and so n + 1 = 1 or n + 1 = 2. y|z then x|z. n are integers with c|a. We write this as a|b. we say that a divides b if there is an integer c such that ac = b.
37 Theorem The product of n consecutive integers is divisible by n!. then c|(am + nb). z are integers with x|y.
2.Chapter
2
Divisibility
2.t with sc = a. The choice n + 1 = 1 is out since n ≥ 1. m. Also.
17
. v with xu = y. Among every two consecutive integers there is an even one. etc.The following theorem goes further. y.
Solution: Observe that 15x2 − 11x − 14 = (3x + 2)(5x − 7). If a. c|b.1 Divisibility
33 Deﬁnition If a = 0.
If a does not divide b we write a |b. We have 7s = 3x + 2 for some integer s and so 15x2 − 11x − 14 = 7s(5x − 7).). Solution: n2 + 1 = n2 − 1 + 2 = (n − 1)(n + 1) + 2. giving x|z. Thus am + nb = c(sm + tn). It should be clear that if a|b and b = 0 then 1 ≤ |a| ≤ |b|. among every three consecutive integers there is one divisible by 3. yv = z. giving c|(am + bn). giving the result.tc = b.u
35 Example Find all positive integers n for which
n + 1|n2 + 1. Proof: There are integers s.
36 Example If 7|3x + 2 prove that 7|(15x2 − 11x − 14. Hence xuv = z. The following properties should be immediate to the reader. c. If x. b.
34 Theorem
1. b are integers. so that the only such n is n = 1.

Problem 2. However. .5 Prove that if n > 4 is composite. (n − 1)!. for all integers n. .
40 Theorem If k|n then fk | fn . prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) · · · (2n) is divisible by 2n . for each 1 ≤ k ≤ mn + 1..1. 5. or n + 1 of them.1.7 Prove that for n ∈ N.6 Prove that there is no prime triplet of the form p. then the product of them is 0. we multiply by (−1)n . and see that the corresponding product is positive. the integers ak corresponding to these nk ’s cannot divide each other.1. the assertion follows. n4 − 1. separately. the cases when n is and is not a are divisible by 5 perfect square. It is clear that if fn | fkn then fn | f(k+1)n . . then the are at least m + 1 nk ’s that are the same.18
Chapter 2 Proof: Assume ﬁrst that all the consecutive integers m+ 1.)
. then n divides n is a positive integer.
Proof: Letting s = kn. Prove that you can ﬁnd either m + 1 of them
no one of which divides any other. n n!m! n!
If one of the consecutive integers is 0.8 (AIME 1986) What is the largest positive integer n for which (n + 10)|(n3 + 100)? (Hint: x3 + y3 = (x + y)(x2 − xy + y2). Problem 2. Problem 2. Problem 2. . If this is so. p + 2. that can be selected from ak . Solution: Let. ak+1 . . 1985) If Problem 2. n9 − 6n7 + 9n5 − 4n3 is divisible by 8640. .4 Demonstrate that for all integer values n. p + 4. amn+1 .1. .1.9 (Olimpíada matemática española.3 Prove that (2m)!(3n)! (m!)2 (n!)3 is always an integer. Since fn | fn·1 . If no nk is greater than n. . Problem 2.1.1. which of the following (Hint: Consider.1.) n2 − 4. the divisibility by n! follows from the fact that binomial coefﬁcients are integers: Ç å m+n (m + n)! (m + n)(m + n − 1) · · ·(m + 1) = = . m+ 2. 7. and so there is nothing to prove. m+ n are positive.1 Given that 5|(n + 2).1. (n!)! is divisible by n!(n−1)! Problem 2. If all the n consecutive integers are negative.t = n in the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 we obtain f(k+1)n = fkn+n = fn−1 fkn + fn fkn+1 . except for 3.u
Practice
Problem 2.
39 Example (Putnam 1966) Let 0 < a1 < a2 < . . n2 + 8n + 7. starting with ak and each dividing the following one. because ak |al implies that nk ≥ nl + 1. n2 − 2n? Problem 2.u
38 Example Prove that 6|n3 − n. < amn+1 be mn + 1 integers. nk denote the length of the longest chain. and so we apply the ﬁrst result.2 Prove that n5 − 5n3 + 4n is always divisible by 120.
Solution: n3 − n = (n − 1)n(n + 1) is the product of 3 consecutive integers and hence is divisible by 3! = 6. each dividing the following.

Since d > 1. 0 ≤ r < b. k = 0. 6. k ∈ Z and C = {. . then p is of the form p = 6k ± 1 (the other choices are either divisible by 2 or 3). Thus (for example) 1059 = 5 · 179 + 164. 15.
Solution: By the Division Algorithm. k ∈ Z. 5. . .
44 Deﬁnition A prime number p is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are 1 and p.
Solution: By the Division Algorithm. q3 . 2. 10. assume that bq1 + r1 = a = bq2 + r2 . k ∈ Z.} is the family of integers of the form 3k + 1. . 13. If p > 3 is a prime. From this. . 1417 = q2 d + r. Now. Thus we must have 0 ≤ r < b. 11. 3. Then r2 − r1 = b(q1 − q2 ). . But |r2 − r1 | < b. For assume that r ≥ b. . since r − b ≥ 0. For example. Thus Z = A ∪ B ∪C where is the family of integers of the form 3k. which means that r = 164. This completes the proof. 3k + 1 or 3k + 2 where k ∈ Z. where a/b denotes the integral part of a/b. S has a least element. If the integer n > 1 is not prime. Consider the set S = {a − bk : k ∈ Z and a ≥ bk}. 16. Find the value of d − r. 1. 18. r such that a = bq+r.Division Algorithm
19
2.
Solution: n2 + 23 = n2 −1 + 24 = (n −1)(n + 1)+ 24. 3. 19 are prime. Then S is a collection of nonnegative integers and S = ∅ as a − b · 0 ∈ S . −5. that is b|(r2 − r1 ). 7. 6k ± 1.2
Division Algorithm
Proof: We use the Well-Ordering Principle. then we say that it is composite. .} B = {. But then a − (q + 1)b ∈ S and a − (q + 1)b < r which contradicts the fact that r is the smallest member of S . 1. for some integers q1 . . . From this it also follows that q1 = q2 . 5. 6k ± 2 or 6k + 3. If we take n = 24k ± 1. 358 = 1417 − 1059 = d(q2 − q1 ). We conclude that d − r = 179 − 164 = 15. is the same as the family 3k − 1. Hence d|358 = 2 · 179. . −1. .
45 Example Show that if p > 3 is a prime. 2. b are positive integers. Since either k or 3k − 1 is even. 0.
. then there are unique integers q. −3. . By construction. . But (6k ± 1)2 − 1 = 36k2 ± 12k = 12k(3k − 1). whence r2 = r1 . 2312 = q3 d + r. q2 . k ∈ Z. 7. 1059 = q1 d + r. then 24|(p2 − 1). all these values make the expression divisible by 24. −9. −4. 17. 4. By the Well-Ordering Principle. − 7.
43 Example Show that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24 for inﬁnitely many n. 9. . say r. 20 are composite. k ∈ Z. we conclude that d = 179. the Division Algorithm makes a partition of all the integers according to their remainder upon division by n. It is important to realise that given an integer n > 0. The number 1 is neither a prime nor a composite. 9. 4. . Observe that the family 3k + 2. 8. there must be some q ∈ Z such that r = a − bq since r ∈ S . u
41 Theorem (Division Algorithm) If a. Then r > r − b = a − bq − b = a − (q + 1)b ≥ 0. . . 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. r ≥ 0.
42 Example (AHSME 1976) Let r be the remainder when 1059. 1253 = 2312 − 1059 = d(q3 − q1 ) and 895 = 2312 − 1417 = d(q3 − q2 ). 12k(3k − 1) is divisible by 24. A = {. 12. −6. −2. every integer lies in one of the families 3k. . integers come in one of six ﬂavours: 6k. . 14.
It is quite plain that q = a/b . − 8.
For example. 8. d|1253 = 7 · 179 and 7|895 = 5 · 179. Let us prove that r < b. 6. To show that r and q are unique. 0 ≤ r1 < b. 0 ≤ r2 < b.} is the family of integers of the form 3k − 1. 2.

e. 1111.6 Let n > 1 be a positive integer. then there are unique integers q and r such that a = qb + r.
. 111. then there are unique integers q and r. then 3|a and 3|b
Solution: Assume a = 3k ± 1 or b = 3m ± 1. The assertion follows.2.2. Problem 2. a = qb + ε r.2 Show that if a and b are positive integers.2. is the square of an integer. Two of them must lie in one of these two groups. and ε = ±1 such that Problem 2. Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1.
Problem 2.3 Show that the product of two numbers of the form 4k + 3 is of the form 4k + 1. 2 2 Problem 2. then we are done.
47 Example Prove that no integer in the sequence
11. 2n + 1 is prime.9 Prove that 3 never divides n2 + 1. 11111.2.. . . If not. y such that x(x + 1)|y(y + 1) but Problem 2. one can always choose two so that a3 b − ab3 is divisible by 10. b2 = 3y + 1.
49 Example Prove that if 3|(a2 + b2 ). no matter which integers are substituted. − < r ≤ .2.
Solution: It is clear that a3 b − ab3 = ab(a − b)(a + b) is always even. . Problem 2.
Hint: Try x = 36k + 14.20
46 Example Prove that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1.1 Prove the following extension of the Division composite.
48 Example Show that from any three integers.8 Prove that any integer n > 11 is the sum of two b b positive composite numbers. x |(y + 1) and (x + 1) |(y + 1). If one of the three integers is of the form 5k. Algorithm: if a and b = 0 are integers. Hint: Think of n − 6 if n is even and n − 9 if n is odd.2.5 Demonstrate that there are no three consecutive odd integers such that each is the sum of two squares and also greater than zero. then the other is x |y and (x + 1) |y. 0 ≤ r < |b|. and so they cannot be the square of any integer. i.2. (2a + 1)2 = 4(a2 + a) + 1 and so the assertion follows.10 Show the existence of inﬁnitely many natural remainder 1 upon division by 8. Problem 2.7 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n such that 4n2 + 1 is divisible by both 13 and 5. and so there must be two whose sum or whose difference is divisible by 5. But then a2 + b2 = 3t + 1 or a2 + b2 = 3s + 2. y = (12k + 5)(18k + 7).2.
Chapter 2
Solution: By the Division Algorithm. 3 |(a2 + b2).
Practice
Problem 2.2.4 Prove that the square of any odd integer leaves Problem 2. All the numbers in this sequence are of the form 4k − 1. Then a2 = 3x + 1. Squaring. Problem 2.2. we are choosing three integers that lie in the residue classes 5k ± 1 or 5k ± 2. Solution: The square of any integer is of the form 4k or 4k + 1. numbers x. any integer comes in one of two ﬂavours: 2a or 2a + 1. (2a)2 = 4a2 .

k
k=1
and every term is divisible by n2 . n = 2. and so n4 + 4 cannot be a prime.Some Algebraic Identities
21
2. i. By the Binomial Theorem. so this number cannot be a prime. Each term in the denominator is < p. b then p divides a. since n2 + n + 1 is always greater than 1.
. for integer n > 1.3
Some Algebraic Identities
In this section we present some examples whose solutions depend on the use of some elementary algebraic identities.
It is easy to see that if n ≥ 3.e. p−1 2 p−2 (p − 1)/2 (p + 1)/2
After summing consecutive pairs.
Each factor is greater than 1 for n > 1. each factor is greater than 1. Clearly one must take n odd.
52 Example Find all integers n ≥ 1 for which n4 + 4n is a prime. Solution: If n = 1 this is quite evident.
51 Example Prove that n4 + 4 is a prime only when n = 1 for n ∈ N. Solution: Arrange the sum as 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ··· + + .
53 Example Prove that for all n ∈ N . If the expression were prime. we must have n − 1 = 1.
Solution: Observe that
n4 + 4 = = = =
n4 + 4n2 + 4 − 4n2 (n2 + 2)2 − (2n)2 (n2 + 2 − 2n)(n2 + 2 + 2n) ((n − 1)2 + 1)((n + 1)2 + 1). the p on the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.
54 Example Prove that if p is an odd prime and if
a = 1 + 1/2 + · · ·+ 1/(p − 1). n2 divides the quantity
(n + 1)n − 1.
50 Example Find all the primes of the form n3 − 1. Thus the only such prime is 7.
Solution: The expression is only prime for n = 1. the numerator of the resulting fractions is p. n Ç å n k n (n + 1) − 1 = n.
Solution: n3 − 1 = (n − 1)(n2 + n + 1). Assume n > 1. Since p is a prime. For n ≥ 3 odd all the numbers below are integers: n4 + 22n = = = n4 + 2n22n + 22n − 2n22n Ä ä2 (n2 + 2n )2 − n2(n+1)/2 (n2 + 2n + n2(n+1)/2)(n2 + 2n − n2(n+1)/2).

z. Thus the expression 2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 7. xy = 0. y. Since 7 and 271 have no prime factors in common. contrary to the assertion that xn + yn = zn .
Solution: If a = 103 . In that case.
57 Example ((UM)2C4 1987) Given that 1002004008016032 has a prime factor p > 250000. Therefore p = 250501. the result follows at once from the identity n−1 an − 1 ak = a = 1. a−b
where k < 250000. the result being otherwise trivial. Solution: It is clear that if the relation xn + yn = zn holds for natural numbers x. we may suppose that x < y. Thus the expression is also divisible by 271.
n
Without calculation we see that 8767
˝ ˝ 56 Example (Eotvos 1899) Show that
2345
− 81012345 is divisible by 666. Solution: We may assume that x = y. 2903n − 464n is divisible by 2903 − 464 = 9 · 271 and 261n − 803n is divisible by −542 = (−2)271. 1856) If x. By symmetry.
58 Example (Grünert. So assume that xn + yn = zn and n ≥ z. ﬁnd it. and 261n − 464n is divisible by 261 − 464 = −203 = 7 · (−29). Then zn − yn = (z − y)(zn−1 + yzn−2 + · · · + yn−1 ) ≥ 1 · nxn−1 > xn . This establishes the assertion. Solution: By the preceding problem. n are natural numbers n ≥ z. b = 2 then 1002004008016032 = a5 + a4b + a3b2 + a2 b3 + ab4 + b5 = This last expression factorises as a6 − b6 a−b = = = (a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)(a2 − ab + b2) 1002 · 1002004 · 998004 4 · 4 · 1002 · 250501 · k.
2903n − 803n − 464n + 261n is divisible by 1897 for all natural numbers n. a−1
k=0
upon letting a = x/y and multiplying through by y .
. a6 − b6 . y. then the relation
xn + yn = zn does not hold. z then x < z and y < z.22
55 Example Prove that
Chapter 2
xn − yn = (x − y)(xn−1 + xn−2y + xn−3 y2 + · · · + xyn−2 + yn−1 ) Thus x − y always divides xn − yn . we can conclude that the expression is divisible by 7 · 271 = 1897. Also. 2903n − 803n is divisible by 2903 − 803 = 2100 = 7 · 300 =.

.
. x + y divides xn + yn .6 If a. 2. Prove that for n = 1.2 Prove that 199 + 299 + 399 + 499 is divisible by 5. xx + 1. Problem 2. 5001993 + 5011993 is divisible by 1001.7 Prove that 100|1110 − 1. 2.1 Show that the integer 1.3. n n+1 bn+1 − an+1 > (n + 1)a. k = 2. Problem 2. . Prove that bn ((n + 1)a − nb) < an+1 .
is the square of an integer. . n obviously share their prime factors and m − 1 = 2(2k−1 − 1) shares its prime factors with n − 1 = 2k+1 (2k−1 − 1).3.Practice
59 Example Prove that for n odd.3. . 2. .11 and observing that (−y)n = −yn for n odd. .3. n = (2k − 1)2 . . . . .
is composite. Show that Å 1 1+ n ãn+1 Å > 1+ 1 n+1 ãn+2 n = 1. . Solution: It sufﬁces to take x = 2n − 1.. prove that (a + 1/2)n + (b + 1/2)n is an integer only for ﬁnitely many positive integers n. . . 3. xx + 1.1
91 ones
2. . Show that
Problem 2.
Practice
Problem 2. . there is another natural number x such that each term of the sequence
x + 1.3. Then m. the number 1······1−2··· 2
2n 1′ s n 2′ s
3..3 Show that if |ab| = 1.. Thus if n is odd. then a4 + 4b4 is composite. .3.4 Demonstrate that for any natural number n. is divisible by n. .5 Let 0 ≤ a < b. Solution: This is evident by substituting −y for y in example 1. b−a 4.
60 Example Show that 1001 divides
11993 + 21993 + 31993 + · · · + 10001993.3. n) such that M and n share their prime factors and (m − 1. . 21993 + 9991993. Problem 2. Problem 2. Solution: Follows at once from the previous problem.
Problem 2.
1. b are positive integers.
23
xn + yn = (x + y)(xn−1 − xn−2 y + xn−3y2 − + − · · · + −xyn−2 + yn−1). . . . since each of 11993 + 10001993. Å Å ã ãn+1 1 n 1 1+ < 1+ n = 1.
62 Example Determine inﬁnitely many pairs of integers (m.
61 Example (S250) Show that for any natural number n. Solution: Take m = 2k − 1. n − 1)
x
share their prime factors. .

22 (ITT.12 Prove that the number 22225555 + 55552222 is divisible by 7. then k a is even and n is a power of 2.17 Find all the primes of the form n + 1.
3
1 1 1 + + ··· + . Problem 2. 444889. 4. 1 < a ∈ N. k = 1. Problem 2.3.26 (IMO. 1 < a ∈ N.14 Prove that if an − 1.3. n+1 n+2 2n
Problem 2. 4489. 1994) Let a.24 Problem 2.21 Let a.13 Prove that if an + 1. 1989) How many primes amongst the positive integers. d be complex numbers satisfying a + b + c + d = a3 + b3 + c3 + d 3 = 0. 4 · · · · · · 4 8 · · · 8 9. positive integer. 2..3. then the number 13n + 6 is divisible by 7. c.15 (Putnam. . Prove that a pair of the a. Primes of the form 22 + 1 are Problem 2. Problem 2. b are natural numbers such that 1 1 1 1 1 a = 1 − + − + ···− + .3.3. b.10 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that if n is an even natural number. Show that 3(ab + bc + ca) ≤ (a + b + c)2 ≤ 4(ab + bc + ca).16 Find the least value achieved by 36k − 5k . beginning and ending in 1? Problem 2.24 Let k ≥ 2 be an integer.3. c. Simplify the expression » » √ √ a + 2 a − 1 + a − 2 a − 1. c.3.19 Let a > 1 be a real number.3. 3. . is prime.
is the square of an integer. b. c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. Prove that 1 A1/n − B1/n < n for all n = 2.3.3. Primes of the form 2n − 1 are called Problem 2.3.9 Demonstrate that every number in the sequence 49. b. is prime. 1979) If a. 22 + 1 divides 22
2n +1 n 2 n
− 2.18 Find a closed formula for the product P = (1 + 2)(1 + 22)(1 + 22 ) · · · (1 + 22 ).3. Show that if n is a called Fermat primes. b.20 Let a.8 Let A and B be two natural numbers with the same number of digits.3. d be real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d 2 = ab + bc + cd + da. Problem 2.3. 44448889. . b 2 3 4 1318 1319 prove that 1979|a.3. . Problem 2. . . A > B.)
Hint: What is (n2 + n − 1)2? Problem 2. then a = 2 and n is a prime. then nk can be represented as the sum of n successive odd numbers. 1 1 1 1 1 − 1 − + − + ···+ 2 3 4 2n − 1 2n Problem 2. (Hint: Consider 22225555 + 45555 + 55552222 − 42222 + 42222 − 45555.11 Find. Prove that a = b = c = d.23 Prove that the product of four consecutive natural numbers is never a perfect square.
Problem 2. Problem 2.3. .3. d must add up to 0. with proof.3.
n 4′ s n−1 8′ s
Chapter 2 Problem 2. . Suppose that A and B have more than half of their digits on the sinistral side in common.3.
. Problem 2. . Problem 2. written as usual in base-ten are such that equals their digits are alternating 1’s and 0’s. Problem 2..25 (Catalan) Prove that Mersenne primes. Use this to prove that for all positive integers n. the unique square which is the product of four consecutive odd numbers. . Problem 2.

31 Show that if k is odd. show that if 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 . Prove that none of the digits 2. . 7. 4.3.Practice Problem 2.3. 5. equals the ﬁfth raised to the fourth power?
.
25 Problem 2. Conversely.3. a2 + a b2 + b n= + . n ∈ N.29 (Putnam.30 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) Prove that amongst ten successive natural numbers. 3.28 Demonstrate that there are inﬁnitely many Problem 2.3. + n. square triangular numbers.3. 7.3. each raised to the fourth power. Problem 2. . then n is the sum of two triangular numbers. 9 can be the last digit of a triangular number.32 Are there ﬁve consecutive positive integers such that the sum of the ﬁrst four.
Problem 2. 2 2 write 4n + 1 as the sum of two squares. 1975) Supposing that an integer n is the sum of two triangular numbers. 1 + 2 + ···+ n divides 1k + 2k + · · · + nk . 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 where x and y are expressed in terms of a and b. Problem 2.27 (Polish Mathematical Olympiad) A triangular number is one of the form 1 + 2 + . there are always at least one and at most four numbers that are not divisible by any of the numbers 2.

m ∈ Z. ac ≡ bd mod m 4. Proof: As a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. and it means that n|(a − b). It also indicates that a and b leave the same remainder upon division by n. Then
1.
mod 9. Thus 61987 ≡ 6 · 61986 ≡ 6(62 )993 ≡ 6(−1)993 ≡ −6 ≡ 31 mod 37. b. and (5) follows from (4). These equalities give (1).
65 Example Prove that 7 divides 32n+1 + 2n+2 for all natural numbers n. Zn
3.
Solution: Observe that 32n+1 ≡ 3 · 9n ≡ 3 · 2n mod 7 and 2n+2 ≡ 4 · 2n mod 7. ak ≡ bk mod m 5.
64 Example Find the remainder when 61987 is divided by 37.
Solution: 62 ≡ −1 mod 37. u Congruences mod 9 can sometimes be used to check multiplications. we deduce that a ≡ b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b + nk. Since n|(a − b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a − b. If f is a polynomial with integral coefﬁcients then f (a) ≡ f (b) mod m. which is patently false. For example. Property (4) follows by successive application of (3). d. We start by mentioning some simple properties of congruences.
63 Lemma Let a. Thus a ± c = b ± d + m(k1 ± k2 ) and ac = bd + m(k2 b + k1 d).Chapter
3
Congruences.
. (2) and (3). k ∈ with a ≡ b mod m and c ≡ d mod m. we can ﬁnd k1 . For example 875961 · 2753 = 2410520633. c. Hence 32n+1 + 2n+2 ≡ 7 · 2n ≡ 0 for all natural numbers n. k2 ∈ Z with a = b + k1 m and c = d + k2 m.1 Congruences
The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß. a − c ≡ b − d mod m 3. 26 mod 7. −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7. a + c ≡ b + d mod m 2. For if this were true then (8 + 7 + 5 + 9 + 6 + 1)(2 + 7 + 5 + 3) ≡ 2 + 4 + 1 + 0 + 5 + 2 + 0 + 6 + 3 + 3 But this says that 0 · 8 ≡ 8 mod 9.

then x2 ≡ 2 mod 5.
7
7
mod 10.
67 Example Find the perfect squares mod 13.
Solution: If x2 = 2 − 5y2. 42 ≡ 3. and 10. we obtain 02 ≡ 0. 22 ≡ 4. 77 ≡ 74t+3 ≡ (74 )t · 73 ≡ 1t · 3 ≡ 3 Thus the last digit is 3. Now 22225555 + 55552222 ≡ 35555 + 42222 ≡ (35 )1111 + (42 )1111 ≡ 51111 − 51111 ≡ 0 mod 7. has at least one Sunday the 1st. 32 ≡ 9.
68 Example Prove that there are no integers with x2 − 5y2 = 2. Hence 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641. 52 ≡ 12. etc. 9.Congruences
66 Example Prove the following result of Euler: 641|(232 + 1). thus each year. Upon assembling all this. has at least one Friday 13-th. the ﬁrst day of a month in each year falls in one of the following days: Month Day of the year mod 7 January 1 1 February 32 4 March 60 or 61 4 or 5 April 91 or 92 0 or 1 May 121 or122 2 or 3 June 152 or 153 5 or 6 July 182 or183 0 or 1 August 213 or 214 3 or 4 September 244 or 245 6 or 0 October 274 or 275 1 or 2 November 305 or 306 4 or 5 December 335 or 336 6 or 0 (The above table means that.
Solution: It is enough to prove that each year has a Sunday the 1st.
7
Solution: We must ﬁnd 77 mod 10. 4. Now. 5555 ≡ 4 mod 7 and 35 ≡ 5 mod 7. Squaring the nonnegative integers up to 6.
Solution: First observe that we only have to square all the numbers up to 6. Now. Therefore the perfect squares mod 13 are 0. This last congruence and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641 yield −24 · 228 ≡ 1 mod 641. 62 ≡ 10 mod 13. which means that there is an integer t such that 77 = 3 + 4t. But 2 is not a perfect square mod 5.
70 Example Find the units digit of 77 . 12.
Solution: 2222 ≡ 3 mod 7. which means that 641|(232 + 1). including any leap year. because r2 ≡ (13 − r)2 mod 13. each remainder class modulo 7 is represented in the third column. 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 yields 54 · 228 = (5 · 27 )4 ≡ (−1)4 ≡ 1 mod 641. whether leap or not.
69 Example Prove that 7|(22225555 + 55552222). 1.) Now. 72 ≡ −1 mod 10. 12 ≡ 1. Also.
71 Example Prove that every year. 3.
27
Solution: Observe that 641 = 27 · 5 + 1 = 24 + 54 . depending on whether the year is a leap year or not. Now. 72 ≡ 1 mod 4 and so 77 ≡ (72 )3 · 7 ≡ 3 mod 4. and so 73 ≡ 72 · 7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 74 ≡ (72 )2 ≡ 1 mod 10.
. that March 1st is the 50th or 51st day of the year.

24. k = 1. All perfect fourth powers mod 16 are ≡ 0 or 1 mod 16.. (3)199 k
199 k=0
199
(−1)k
k=0
Ç
å 200 199−k a (−3)k ≡ 3199 k
Ç
k=0 å 200 = −3199 . . n2 . 1979) Determine all nonnegative integral solutions
(n1 . k 199
1 a
200
Ç
å 200 200−k a (−3)k ] = k
199 k=0
Ç
å 200 199−k a (−3)k . apart from permutations. 15. . . 2. This produces the inﬁnitely many values sought. . But 1599 ≡ 15 mod 16.
Chapter 3
Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. 24 ≡ 2. 2. produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k + 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at even places of the sequence of 3.. 24. k = 1. .. As a ≡ 3 mod 10. and 6.
74 Example Prove that 2k − 5.
77 Example (Putnam. 2. 3. .
Solution: 21 ≡ 2. 1. 3. . Then [(1020000)/10100 +3] = [(a−3)200/a] = [
200
Since
k=0
(−1)k
Ç
å 200 = 0.
73 Example Are there positive integers x. 1994) The increasing sequence
3. Finally. . . . . the term sought is (3(997) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ (3(−3) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ 82 − 1 ≡ 63 mod 1000. 22 ≡ 4. . k = 1. k
(−1)
k
k=0
Ç
å 200 ≡ −3199 ≡ 3 mod 10. . 2. 2. 23 ≡ 1. The remainder sought is 63. k = 1.28
72 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 2n + 27 is divisible by 7. We must ﬁnd the 997th term of the sequence 3k + 1. . . 26 ≡ 1 mod 7 and so 23k ≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k. Thus 2y + 15 ≡ 2. or 4 mod 7. Hence 23k + 27 ≡ 1 + 27 ≡ 0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. . . 22 ≡ 4. produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k − 1)2 − 1 which are the terms at odd places of the sequence 3. k = 0. . consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect square. 15. The perfect cubes mod 7 are 0. of the Diophantine equation n4 + n4 + · · · + n4 = 1599. 15. . 4. k
. . . y such that x3 = 2y + 15?
Solution: No.
76 Example (USAMO. this requires n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k − 1. or 6 upon division by 7.
75 Example (AIME. . The sequence 3k − 1. Thus 2k − 5 can leave only remainders 3. This is an impossibility. never leaves remainder 1 when divided by 7. 23 ≡ 1 mod 7. This means that n4 + · · · + n4 1 14 can be at most 14 mod 16. every power of 2 is congruent to 1. n14 ) if any. . 1986) What is the units digit of
1020000 ? 10100 + 3 Solution: Set a−3 = 10100. . Now. . 1. or 5 mod 7. The sequence 3k + 1. 48. and this cycle of three repeats. Since 3 is prime.. . . 2. . What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of the sequence is divided by 1000? Solution: We want 3|n2 − 1 = (n − 1)(n + 1). 48. 24. 25 ≡ 4. 48.. 1 2 14 Solution: There are no such solutions.

= a2n+1. we have more than three distinct residue classes.
å √ √ 6n + 2 k 3 = (1 + 3)6n+2 + (1 − 3)6n+2 . and this may only happen if they are all equal. . .
≡ 3(3n+1)/2 mod 4 ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 mod 4. since (n − 2)! is divisible by k!. This solves the problem. The property stated in the problem is now shared by ak /2 or (ak − 1)/2. n > 3. b = 2 − 3. . Since n > 3. c ∈ Z. all the ak must have the same parity. Solution: Using the Binomial Theorem.
81 Example Let
Prove that for all n ∈ N.
when n is of the form 2k.
.
80 Example Prove that
n−1
(kn)! ≡ 0 if n. . say k for which −k ≡ a. a2 . Continuing in this manner we arrive at the conclusion that the ak are all congruent mod 2k for every k. n ≥ k ≥ 2. n |(k + c).
mod
r=0
(n + r)
Solution: (kn)! = M(n − 1)!n(n + 1) · · ·(2n − 1) for some integer M ≥ 1.
82 Example Prove that
6n+2 Ç k=0
n(n − 1)(n − 2)!(1 − 1/2! + · · · + (−1)n−1 /(n − 1)! + (−1)n/n!) Ä ä (n − 1) m + (−1)n−1n/(n − 1) + (−1)n/(n − 1) (n − 1) (m + (−1)n) . n |(k + b). −23n+1 2k
mod 23n+2
√ √ Also.
79 Example (Putnam. k ∈ N. or all odd. Thus there must be a residue class. . with a = 2 + 3. b.
29
Solution: The integers a. 4k + 3 or 4k + 1 respectively. Thus they are all congruent mod 4. there is an integer k such that n |(k + a).Congruences
78 Example Prove that for any a. no matter which of the ak be taken. depending on whether they are all even. The assertion follows. . Solution: As the sum of the 2n integers remaining is always even. the remaining
ones can be divided into two sets of n integers with equal sums. b. 23n+1. Prove that a1 = a2 = . n!! ≡ n! n! − n!! = = = mod (n − 1). −k ≡ c.
where M is an integer. k ≤ n − 2. n > 3. c belong to at most three different residue classes mod n. mod n. n ∈ N. if n is odd. 2k 3n + 1 2 Ç3n + 1å
r=0
1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2
=
2r
23n+1−2r 3r . 2S := 2
3n+1 Ç k=0
å 6n + 2 k 3 ≡ 0. a2n+1 be a set of integers such that if any one of them is removed. 1973) Let a1 . Solution: We have
n!! = n! (1/2! − 1/3! + · · ·+ (−1)n /n!). −k ≡ b.

Practice
Problem 3. for which the root-mean-square of the ﬁrst n positive integers is an integer? Note.
2(6n + 1)33n mod 8 4n + 2 mod 8.30 As 2S = 23n+1 (a3n+1 + b3n+1). are all integers.2 (AIME 1983) Let an = 6n + 8n .10 Prove that if 7|a2 + b2 then 7|a and 7|b. 1986) What is the smallest integer n > 1.8 (AHSME 1992) What is the size of the largest subset S of {1. a2 − b2.1.12 Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a n2 + 15n + 122 is divisible by 6.1.4 Prove that if 9|(a3 + b3 + c3 ). 1 ≤ n ≤ 25 such that Problem 3. we have.
Problem 3.1.1.1. .6 Prove that if a − b..15 Prove that if p is a prime. c. 1 3n+1 (a + b3n+1) 2 =
2r≤3n
Chapter 3
mod 23n+3. .a2 . Problem 3.1.1 Find the number of all n.1. visible by p.5 Describe all integers n such that 10|n10 + 1.1.3 (P OLISH M ATHEMATICAL O LYMPIAD ) What digits should be put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in order to give a number divisible by 13? 7|42 + 22 + 1 for all natural numbers n..17 Prove that every non-multiple of 3 is a perfect power of 2 mod 3n .1.1. perfect square cannot be equal to 1991. 2.1. a3 − b3.1. Problem 3.) Problem 3. . b. for odd n.1.18 Find the last two digits of 3100 . S ≡ (−1)(n−1)/2 23n+1 If n is even.13 Prove that Problem 3. Ç å n n − [ ] is dip p
n n
Problem 3. then 3|abc. 50} such that no pair of distinct elements Problem 3. . Problem 3.1. Problem 3.14 Prove that 5 never divides Ç å n 2n + 1 23k .11 Prove that there are no integers with 800000007 = x2 + y2 + z2 . . Determine the remainder when a83 is divided by 49. for all n ≥ p.9 Prove that there are no integer solutions to the equation x2 − 7y = 3. . Problem 3.
.16 How many perfect squares are there mod 2n ? Problem 3. 2k + 1 Problem 3. The root mean square of n numbers a1 . a4 − b4 .1. Problem 3. Ç å 3n + 1 2r+1 3n−2r 2 3 2r + 1
≡ ≡ So for even n. .1. for k=0 integers a. of S has a sum divisible by 7? Problem 3.1. (Hint: n2 + 15n + 122 ≡ n2 + 3n + 2 = (n + 1)(n + 2) mod 6. Problem 3.7 Find the last digit of 3100 .an is deﬁned to be ã Å 2 2 2 1/2
a1 + a2 + ··· + an n . S ≡ 23n+2 2n + 1 mod 23n+4 .. then a and b must also be integers.1. Problem 3. Problem 3.19 (USAMO. .1.

and hence 44443 ≡ 73 ≡ 1 mod 9.
Proof: Let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0 be the base-10 expansion of n. For example. we have an ample number of rules of divisibility. we have 10 j ≡ 1 mod 9. r which satisfy the equation pa = qb + r c (a. Find the sum of the digits of B. a3 . b. Amongst all natural numbers ≤ 159984 the one with maximal digit sum is 99999. Thus the sum of the digits of B is at most 12.) Solution: We have 4444 ≡ 7 mod 9. 7 ≡ 44444444 ≡ A ≡ B ≡ C mod 9. As 10 ≡ 1 mod 9.24 Let x and ai .
83 Theorem (Casting-out 9’s) A natural number n is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of it digits is divisible by 9. we have 10 j ≡ (−1) j mod 11. As 10 ≡ −1 mod 11. Problem 3.Divisibility Tests Problem 3. 912282219 ≡ 9−1+2−2+8−2+2−1+9 ≡ 7 mod 11 and so 912282219 is not divisible by 11. Let B be the sum of the
digits of A. so the sum of the digits of 44444444 is at most 9 · 17776 = 159984. the number is divisible by 3 but not by 9. namely 12. Problem 3. Of all the natural numbers ≤ 45. z are positive integers with xn + yn = zn for an odd integer n ≥ 3. it follows that C = 7.
85 Example (IMO.20 Find all integers a. Problem 3.1. a2 .
3. whence A ≤ 159984. c. whence the theorem. . . q. r need not necessarily be different). 1975) Let a1 . and so 8924310064539 is divisible by 11.22 (IMO. whereas 8924310064539 ≡ 8 − 9 + 2 − 4 + 3 − 1 + 0 − 0 + 6 − 4 + 4 − 3 + 9 ≡ 0 mod 11. p. . 4444 log10 4444 < 4444 log10 104 = 17776. u
84 Example (AHSME. Prove that for every s ≥ 1 there are inﬁnitely many am that can be written in the form am = xas + yat with positive integers x and y and t > s.
n 2
(−1)i ai is divisible
i=0
by x2 ± x + 1.23 For each integer n > 1.25 ((UM)2C9 1992) If x. . . It follows that n = ak 10k + · · · + a1 10 + a0 ≡ ak + · · · + a1 + a0 . i = 0. n is divisible by 11 if and only if the alternating sum of its digits is divisible by 11. prove that n − n + n − 1 is divisible by (n − 1)2. The most famous one is perhaps the following. 1. be an increasing sequence of positive integers. prove that z cannot be a prime-power. Now.
31 Problem 3.1. Let C be the sum of the digits of B. so it follows that B ≤ 45. What is the largest power of 3 that divides this number? Solution: By the casting-out-nines rule. Therefore. 1975) When 44444444 is written in decimal notation. (A and B are written in decimal notation.2
Divisibility Tests
Working base-ten. Therefore n ≡ (−1)k ak + (−1)k−1 ak−1 + · · · − a1 + a0 mod 11. For let n = ak 10k + ak−1 10k−1 + · · · + a1 10 + a0.1. that is. . 39 has the largest digital sum. k be arbitrary integers. This means that 44444444 has at most 17776 digits. A criterion for divisibility by 11 can be established similarly. By the casting-out 9’s rule.21 Show that the number 16 is a perfect 8-th is divisible by x2 ± x + 1 if and only if power mod p for any prime p. .1. b. q. 1992) The two-digit integers from 19 to 92 are written consecutively in order to form the integer
192021222324 · · ·89909192. But since C ≡ 7 mod 9.1. Thus 44444444 = 44443(1481) · 4444 ≡ 1 · 7 ≡ 7 mod 9. the sum of its digits is A. Prove that
k
ai (x2 + 1)3i
i=0 k
Problem 3.1. c. y.
. this number is divisible by 9 if and only if 19 + 20 + 21 + · · ·+ 92 = 372 · 3 is. a > 1 and all prime numbers p.

2y. and let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + anxn . 1952) Let
Chapter 3
n
f (x) =
k=0
ak xn−k
be a polynomial of degree n with integral coefﬁcients. then if we read these digits in the same How much did each chicken cost? direction beginning with any other digit.2. If a0 . Problem 3.32
86 Example (Putnam.7 ((UM)2C8 1991) Suppose that a0 .2.
Problem 3. . the new 1953-digit number is also divisible by 27. By the relative primality of a and b it follows that a|a0 . b|an . . The other four length 60.2. . amongst themselves in the morning. Problem 3.2. Prove that if the 1953-digit numbers obtained when we read Problem 3. . Problem 3. Answer: 73 cents.
Practice
Problem 3. and 3 divides 321. It reads 88 chickens these digits in dextrogyral sense beginning with one of the digat the total of $x4. one of them wakes up and decides to take his share.2. After throwing a coconut to a monkey to make the division come out even. Then 0 = bn f (a/b) = a0 bn + a1 bn−1 a + · · · + an−1 ban−1 + an an . 321 is a cute three-digit number because 1 divides 3. What
. mod 2. 2 divides 32. an are integers with an = 0. Problem 3. Solution: Suppose that f (a/b) = 0.5 Five sailors plan to divide a pile of coconuts fn+60 ≡ fn mod 10. sailors do likewise. an and f (1) are all odd. where a and b are relatively prime integers.2. Test whether 90908766123456789999872 is divisible by 8. where x and y are unreadable digits.2. one after the other. For example.6 Prove that a number which consists of 3n identical digits is divisible by 3n . For example.1 (AHSME 1991) An n-digit integer is cute if its n digits are an arrangement of the set {1.4 An old receipt has faded. How many cute sixdigit integers are there? Answer: 2. Show that if 1 ≤ k ≤ n. he Thus the last digit of a Fibonacci number recurs in cycles of takes one ﬁfth of the pile and goes back to sleep. Suppose that x0 is a rational number such that p(x0 ) = 0. its is divisible by 27. prove that f (x) = 0 has no rational roots. 111 111 111 is divisible by 9.2 How many ways are there to roll two distinguishable dice to yield a sum that is divisible by three? Answer: 12. . Hence a0 bn + aabn−1 a + · · · + an−1ban−1 + anan ≡ a0 + a1 + · · · + an = f (1) ≡ 1 but this contradicts that a/b is a root of f . k ∈ N if and only if the number formed by its last k digits is divisible by 2k . each throwing a coconut to the monkey and taking one ﬁfth of the remaining pile.8 1953 digits are written in a circular order. n} and its ﬁrst k digits form an integer that is divisible by k for all k.9 (Lagrange) Prove that Problem 3. Problem 3. During the night. then ak x0 + ak+1 x2 + · · · + anxn−k+1 0 is an integer. a1 . 2.2.10 Prove that In the morning the ﬁve sailors throw a coconut to the monkey 2 2 f2n+1 ≡ fn+1 mod fn . and divide the remaining coconuts into ﬁve equal piles.2. is the smallest amount of coconuts that could have been in the original pile? Answer: 15621 Problem 3. whence a and b are both odd.2. .3 Prove that a number is divisible by 2k . . 1 ≤ k ≤ n.

1.Complete Residues
33
3. 0) are in Z12 such that a +12 b = 0?
. +3 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 +6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 2 2 3 4 5 0 1 3 3 4 5 0 1 2 4 4 5 0 1 2 3 5 5 0 1 2 3 4
Table 3. i. 2} such that a + b ≡ c mod 3. We now let 0 represent all those integers that are divisible by 3..
It is clear that given any ﬁnite set of integers. 15. a2 . . 4. there is c ∈ {0. Given a.3. as the group of residues under addition mod n. A set a1 . +6 > on Table (1.
87 Deﬁnition If a ≡ b mod n then b is called a residue of a modulo n. and 2 all those integers that leave remainder 2 upon division by 3. 3} does not. since any integer x is congruent to one and only one member of A .e. In Z3 we note that −0 = 0. 6. 7. −1 = 2. c ∈ Z3 we have a +3 (b +3 c) = (a +3 b) +3 c. We then deﬁne a +3 b to be equal to c. i. We deﬁne addition in Z3 as follows. but the set C = {−3. 1. As a further example we present the addition table for < Z6 . We denote the additive inverse of a by −a. We then say that < Z3 . −2 = 1. 1 represent all those integers that leave remainder 1 upon division by 3. for all a. 3. Now. 0 satisﬁes 0 +3 a = a +3 0 = a for all a ∈ Z3 2.
Practice
Problem 3. b) = (0. The operation addition in Z3 is associative. We observe that Z3 together with the operation +3 as given in Table ?? satisﬁes the following properties: 1. 5} forms a complete set of residues mod 6. 2}. b. that is. Problem 3. an element such that a +3 b = b +3 a = 0. 3. and consider the set Z3 = {0. 1. let us take n = 3.2: Addition Table for Z6
Tied up with the concept of complete residues is that of Zn . Table ?? contains all the possible additions. as −3 ≡ 3 mod 6.2). −1. 2. an is called a complete residue system
modulo n if for every integer b there is exactly one index j such that b ≡ a j mod n. For example. We will explore later the multiplicative structure of Zn .3. . The element 0 ∈ Z3 is an identity element for Z3 . 22. As an example. −2.1: Addition Table for Z3
Table 3. +3 > forms a group and we call it the group of residues under addition mod 3. the set A = {0. 35} forms a complete residue set mod 6. Notice that the set B = {−40.1 Construct the addition tables for Z8 and Z9 .e. Every element a ∈ Z3 has an additive inverse b. Similarly we deﬁne < Zn . 2. b ∈ Z3 we consider a + b mod 3.3
Complete Residues
The following concept will play a central role in our study of integers.2 How many distinct ordered pairs (a. 1. . +n >. this set will form a complete set of residues modulo n if and only if the set has n members and every member of the set is incongruent modulo n.

This is denoted by [a. b is divisible by (a.e. say d. d|a. b]|c. b ∈ Z. Then c = c · 1 = cax + cby = cax + asy. To do this we prove that d|a.
88 Theorem (Bachet-Bezout Theorem) The greatest common divisor of any two integers a. For example. x. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. u
It is clear that any linear combination of a. not both zero. b) = 1. t|d. then r ∈ A is smaller than the smaller element of A . gcd(1998. This entails dq = a. then t|d. b are not zero. because any common divisor of a and b must divide the largest common divisor of a and b. i. ±b is in A . n. Clearly one of ±a. that is. then [a. there is an integer s with as = bc. 1999) = 1. We see then that if a|c and if b|c. Therefore. b) = 1. b).t|b.u 34
. since c is a common multiple of both a and b.
89 Lemma (Euclid’s Lemma) If a|bc and if (a.e. b are relatively prime. This is denoted by (a. Thus if d|a and d|b then d|(a.t|b. there are integers x. We ﬁrst prove that d|a. then a|c. i. y with ax + by = 1. b].
Proof: As (a. it must be divisible by the smallest common multiple of a and b. then they have no factor greater than 1 in common. b can be written as a linear combination of a and b. the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of a. we can ﬁnd integers q. y with
(a. Then r = a − dq = a(1 − qx0) − by0. −6) = 2. By the Well Ordering Principle. A has a smallest element. The most important theorem related to gcd’s is probably the following. there are x0 . If (a. We can similarly prove that d|b. If r > 0. Thus if a. If a. b) = 1. We prove that d = (a. b = tn for integers m. By the Division Algorithm. Thus r = 0. The theorem is thus proved. as wanted. Then a = tm. b is called the greatest common divisor of a and b. b) = ax + by. b) or sometimes by gcd(a.Chapter
4
Unique Factorisation
4. not both zero. y ∈ Z}. Hence d = ax0 + bx0 = t(mx0 + ny0 ). Proof: Let A = {ax + by|ax + by > 0. Assume that t|a. r. b). Since a|bc. namely d. b are integers. a contradiction. we say that a and b are relatively prime or coprime.. From this it follows that a|c. as both a. b).1 GCD and LCM
If a. (68. b is called the least common multiple of a and b. d|b and that if t|a. b). 0 ≤ r < d such that a = dq + r. there are integers x. the largest positive integer that divides both a. y0 such that d = ax0 + by0 .

n) = 1 implies (m2 . b) ã = 1. y such that ax + by = d. this last quantity equals (m2 . (a. b). b)c) divides (a. b)c) divides a and bc and hence gcd(a. b)2 . But this is a linear combination of a/d. (m. Thus cd2 is a common divisor of ca and cb and hence d1 |cd2 . Proof: Since (a. ) = 1. and a/d. (a. then cd2 |ca. (a. But then (a/d)x + (b/d)y = 1. By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem we can ﬁnd integers x. b) and so it divides (a. bc) = c(a. cb) = c(a. This ﬁnishes the proof. b)c)| gcd(a. (a. (m. b)c). b) for any non-zero integer c. Thus (m. Thus gcd(a. b)c it divides bc. bc) = (a. b)2 (a.u
94 Example Let (a. b). a2 − ab + b2) = 1 or 3.e. Therefore (a. We conclude that (a/d.
(a2 .u
91 Theorem Let c be a positive integer. (a. Using the preceding problem again. b). hence it divides ac and bc. y with d1 = acx + bcy = c(ax + by). Proof: Let d1 = (ca. cd2 |d1 . n). b) (a. In conclusion. d d Proof: By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. b/d) = 1... (m2 . It follows that d1 = csd2 . b2 ) = (a. u
It follows similarly that (ca. i.e. c. i. n) = 1.GCD and LCM
90 Theorem If (a. (m2 . n) = (n. bc) divides a and c(a. We prove that d1 |cd2 and cd2 |d1 . bc). By Theorem ??. (a. Prove that (a + b. On the other hand. b)c). b/d are integers. then
35
a b ( .u
93 Theorem (a2 . b/d) divides this linear combination. n2 ) = 1. bc) divides (ac. which is what we wanted. cd2 |cb. Using the preceding lemma twice. (a. (m2 . Then
(ca. As d2 |a and d2 |b. b/d and so (a/d. we deduce
Ç
b2 a2 . (a. bc) divides a and bc.
Proof: Assume that (m. divides 1.
.
and hence
By Theorem ??. Å b a . (n. n)m) = 1. b2 ) = (a. b)2
å
= 1. cb) = |c|(a. (a. b) = 1. upon multiplying by (a. b. There is an integer s then such that sd2 = ax + by. n)n) = (m2 . As (m. b)2 . there are integers x.
92 Lemma For nonzero integers a. n)m)n). b)2 . n) = 1. But ax + by is a linear combination of a. n2 ) = (m2 . cb) and d2 = (a.
(a. b) = d. b and so it is divisible by d2 .

k = 1. . Then am − 1 = (ad )s − 1 is divisible by ad − 1 and similarly. for let n = 200.
Solution: The numbers km! + 1. Therefore dn |(2(200−n)+(2n+1)) = 401.. 14n + 3
Solution: 2(21n + 4) − 3(14n + 3) = −1. m form an arithmetic progression of length m and common difference m!. Then d|(s(lm! + 1) − l(sm! + 1)) = (s − l) < m. As fn+1 − fn = fn−1 and d divides the sinistral side of this equality.
n≥1
Solution: We have the following: dn = (100 + n2. 1 ≤ l < s ≤ m. Therefore. Thus d|( fn − fn−1 ) = fn−2 . Prove that
Chapter 4
(am − 1.
99 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions in which the terms are pairwise relatively prime. b2 ) = 3(a.
96 Example (IMO. Solution: Set d = (m. This means that any two terms of this progression are coprime. l. . 3b2 ) = 3(a2 . In the same manner. But then d|(sm! + 1 − sm!) = 1. Hence. Now. . 116. . an − 1 is divisible by ad − 1. y with mx + ny = d.
97 Example (AIME.
95 Example Let a. then a200 = 100 + 2002 = 100(401) and a201 = 100 + 2012 = 40501 = 101(401). y ≤ 0. Thus 1 ≤ d < m and so. Iterating on this process we deduce that d| f1 = 1 and so d = 1. 2n + 1 = ld. This means that dn |401 for all n. d = 1. For each n let dn = (an . d|m!. an − 1) = a(m. 2n + 1) = 1.e. . since then d would be negative. So. . n = 1. where we have used the fact that m is odd. and 2m − 1 = kd. d|3a2 . Could it be that large? The answer is yes.36 Solution: Let d = (a + b. assume without loss of generality that x > 0. Thus dn |(2(100+n2)−n(2n+1)) = 200−n. 100 + (n + 1)2) = (100 + n2. Thus d|(−1)n .td = n. we must have d|2. As td + 1 = ud − 1. 2mn = (ld − 1)m = j
j=0
ud − 1. an − 1). whence d = 1. Then t|(amx − 1) and t|(a−ny − 1). d|(sm! + 1). Notice that x and y must have opposite signs (they cannot obviously be both negative. .
. where t = k d . . 1959) Prove that the fraction
21n + 4 is irreducible for every natural number n.n) − 1. d ≤ n). It follows that d must be an odd number. 2 = (kd + 1) = td + 1.
Solution: Let d = (2m − 1. Now d divides (a + b)2 − a2 + ab − b2 = 3ab. . i. d| fn−1 . The assertion is established. sd = m. 104. a2 − ab + b2). Similarly. Thus (ad − 1)|(am − 1. They cannot both be positive because then d ≥ m + n. Hence d divides 3b(a + b) − 3ab = 3b2 . an+1 ). 100 + n2 + 2n + 1) = (100 + n2. . fn+1 ). Suppose that d|(lm! + 1). 2. t|((amx − 1) − ad (a−ny − 1)) = ad − 1. 2n + 1). then (2m − 1. n be positive integers. 2n + 1). for some natural n−1 Ç å n n− j n− j−1 mn n numbers k. 2. when in fact we have d ≤ m. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x.
n≥1
98 Example Prove that if m and n are natural numbers and m is odd. Set t = (am − 1. m. 109.
Solution: Let d = ( fn . 1985) The numbers in the sequence
101. 2 Aliter: By Cassini’s Identity fn−1 fn+1 − fn = (−1)n . Thus max dn = 401. But then d|(3a2 . a = 1. an − 1). Find max dn .. n). b)2 = 3. are of the form an = 100 + n2.
100 Example Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime. Thus the numerator and the denominator have no common factor greater than 1.

fm )| fyn and ( fn . Hence ( fn . otherwise a would be negative. a contradiction. c = f(m.. Observe that fyn = fa−xm = fa−1 f−xm + fa f−xm+1 upon using the identity fs+t = fs−1 ft + fs ft+1 of Theorem ??. fn ) = f(9. and since the dextral side is an integer. there are integers x. i. n
Ç
åÇ å Ç å 2n 2n 2n . fm )| fa f−xm+1 . y cannot be both negative. a = (m. Solution: By the binomial absorption identity. we have that fn | fyn . Now. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem. Solution: Set d = ( fn . fm | f−xm . Observe that x. This implies that ( fn . We saw earlier that ( fn .m) . This means that d = (17. fm )| f−xm+1 . which obviously must be odd. fm ). fn ) = (34. a|m we have a ≤ n.GCD and LCM
101 Example Prove that
37
( fm . f3 or f9 . and we assume without loss of generality that x ≤ 0. it must be the case that n + 1 divides
Ç å Ç å 2n + 1 2n + 1 2n = . Thus they are of opposite signs.n) . fn ).. n+1 n
Since 2n + 1 and n + 1 are relatively prime. Thus fa |( fm .e. Since a|m and a|n.
Solution: Let d = (17. fm ) > 1. a contradiction to the preceding problem in the case when ( fn .. fm )| fa . Find the greatest common divisor of
Ç
å 2n . a ≤ m. fm ). Therefore ( fn . fn ) = f(n. They cannot be both positive since then a = xm + yn ≥ m + n. Then (17. fm ) would be dividing two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. y > 0. fm )| f−xm . As n|yn.. n+1 n n+1
104 Example Let n be a natural number. then ( fn . n). fn ) = 1.. fa | fm and fa | fn by Theorem ??. We will prove that c|d and d|c. . fn ) = ( f9 . which is what we wanted to prove. This forces d = 1. The case = 1 is a triviality. As a|n.n) = f1 . If it were the case that ( fn . 2 or 34. m|(−xm).
Ç å 2n 1 Cn = . fm )| f−xm .
102 Example Prove that no odd Fibonacci number is ever divisible by 17. c|d. y such that xm + yn = a.
103 Example The Catalan number of order n is deﬁned as
Prove that Cn is an integer for all natural numbers n. 1 3 2n − 1
. .

5. etc. .
n
Ç
Solution: Arrange the 100 integers into the 50 sets {1. then take a = 2k + 1. Let A denote the set of integers ≤ 1260 which are multiples of 2. 2k − 1 2k − 1 2k − 2 But 2k − 1 |2l+1 for k > 1. These two are clearly relatively prime (why?). 2. b. Problem 4. we see that it has divide 2l+1 .. . If n is even. B the set of multiples of 3. {5. .38 Solution: Since
Chapter 4
å 2n = 22n−1. 4}. Since the gcd must divide = 2n. {3. b = 2k − 1. If n = 4k + 2. b] = ab for all natural numbers a.
Practice
Problem 4.
107 Example How many positive integers ≤ 1260 are relatively prime to 1260?
Solution: As 1260 = 22 · 32 · 5 · 7. 100. . This establishes the claim. then is either of the form 4k or 4k + 2. the problem amounts to ﬁnding those numbers less than 1260 which are not divisible by 2. there must be two that will lie in the same set. 2}. b = n − 2. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. 29!37!). as consecutive integers are relatively prime. 2k − 1 k=1 Ç å 2n a the gcd must be of the form 2 . Now. 6} . {99. k > 1 take a = 2k + 3.
106 Example Prove that any natural number n > 6 can be written as the sum of two integers greater than 1.
105 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1.
. We claim that 2l+1 divides all of them. each of the
summands being relatively prime.1 Show that (a. |A ∪ B ∪C ∪ D| = |A| + |B| + |C| + |D| −|A ∩ B| − |A ∩C| − |A ∩ D| −|B ∩C| − |B ∩ D| − |C ∩ D| +|A ∩ B ∩C| + |A ∩ B ∩ D| + |A ∩C∩ D| +|B ∩C ∩ D| − |A ∩ B ∩C ∩ D| 630 + 420 + 252 + 180 − 210 − 126 − 90 − 84 −60 − 36 + 42 + 30 + 18 + 12 − 6 = 972. Ç å Ç å 2l+1 m 2l+1 m 2l+1 m − 1 = .
=
The number of integers sought is then 1260 − 972 = 288. We may write n = 2l m. or 7.1. Since we are choosing ﬁfty one integers. b = 2k − 1. . Show that there are two that are relatively prime. where M is odd. If n = 4k. Solution: If n is odd. we may choose a = 2. 3. b)[a.2 Find lcm (23!41!. 100}. where l is the largest 1 power of 2 that divides n. Those two are relatively prime.1. .

Problem 4. k k k n−1 n+1 n gcd . (n + 1)! + 1) = 1. n > 1 with tions: 1.1. b) = 12. k.1. [a. b)n = (an . . and lcm (a.1.
108 Theorem If n > 1.8 Let the integers an . n ∈ N.
39
Problem 4. 1974) Call a set of integers conspiratorial if no three of them are pairwise relatively prime. Problem 4. (Hint: Consider n mod 12.. b. b.15 Prove that there are no positive integers a. Problem 4. 2. then in any set of c consecu.3 Find two positive integers a. bn ) = 1 ∀ n. bn be deﬁned by the relation √ √ an + bn 2 = (1 + 2)n .. An integer different from 1 which is not prime is called composite.1. 7n3 + 18n2 − n − 2) = 1. It is clear that if n > 1 is composite then we can write n as n = ab.) j k
Problem 4. What is the largest number of elements in any conspiratorial subset of the integers 1 through 16?
4.9 Prove or disprove the following two proposi. 1 < a ≤ b < n. .)
Problem 4. Fm ).
.1. b such that a2 + b2 = 85113.Problem 4.1. k−1 k+1 k Problem 4.1. all b ∈ N such that (2b − 1)|(2a + 1). . b ∈ N. (an − bn)|(an + bn ). . . If a. then n is divisible by at least one prime. b.1.
n
Problem 4. c are pairwise relatively prime natural numbers each exceeding 1. b) = 1764.11 Let Fn = 22 + 1 be the n-th Fermat number.4 Find a.1.14 Prove that any natural number n > 17 can be written as n = a + b + c where a. b ∈ N. c. Prove that gcd(an .1. 16n + 10n − 1.17 (Putnam.1. b] = 432.1. . a < b. n ≥ k > 0 be integers. then in any set of b consecutive integers there are two whose product is divisible by ab. Prove that the greatest common divisor of the numbers Ç åÇ å Ç å equals n n+1 n+k ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå . Write two of the summands in the form 6k + s and the third summand as a constant. b ∈ N with (a. Clearly 2 is the only even prime and so 2 and 3 are the only consecutive integers which are prime. with proof.. Problem 4.1.10 Let n.Problem 4.1. (Hint: Prove
k j=0
Ç åÇ å k n+ j (−1) j = (−1)k . If a. .Primes Problem 4.1.2
Primes
Recall that a prime number is a positive integer greater than 1 whose only positive divisors are itself and 1. a. n = 1. a < b < c. Problem 4. ÇÇ åÇ åÇ åå n−1 n n+1 gcd . bn ) for all natural Problem 4. Find (Fn .6 Let a ∈ N. Find.
2.5 Prove that (a. k k+1 k−1 is 1. .7 Show that (n3 + 3n + 1. ∈ N.13 Demonstrate that (n! + 1.12 Find the greatest common divisor of the sequence numbers n. Problem 4..16 Prove that the binomial coefﬁcients have the tive integers there are three whose product is divisible following hexagonal property: by abc.

Now either N is a prime. or is of the form 4k ± 1. This integer is greater than 1 and so by the preceding problem. it must have a prime divisor p. 5.
Proof: Let p1 . u
112 Example Prove that there are arbitrarily long strings that do not contain a prime number. Construct the integer n = p1 p2 · · · pk + 1. which is ≤ n. The assertion follows. pk be a list of primes. . then n = ab > n n = n. We have thus shown that given any ﬁnite list of primes of the form 4k − 1 we can always construct an integer which is divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on that list. then it must have a prime factor p with p ≤
√ n. in view of the preceding problem. it has at least one divisor > 1. . |A5 | =
. a contradiction. Thus we have shown that no ﬁnite list of primes exhausts the set of primes. in which case it is a prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. say q. all the composite numbers in the range 10 ≤ n ≤ 100 have a prime factor amongst 2. 1 < a ≤ b < q. Observe that N is not divisible by any of the primes in our collection. . all of the prime factors of N cannot be of the form 4k + 1. p2 .
Solution: Let k ∈ N. which contradicts the minimality of q. Then |A2 | = 50. i. By the preceding theorem. for the product of any two primes of this form is again of this form. If both a and b are > n.u
110 Lemma The product of two numbers of the form 4k + 1 is again of that form. u
114 Example Find the number of prime numbers ≤ 100.
Proof: Any prime either equals 2.e. 1√ a ≤ b < n. We will show that the collection of primes of the form 4k − 1 is inexhaustible. Thus N must be divisible by some prime of the form 4k − 1 not on the list. .. We claim that q is prime. n must have a least positive divisor greater than 1. .
Proof: (4a + 1)(4b + 1) = 4(4ab + a + b) + 1. . and hence a prime factor. Construct the number N = 4p1 p2 · · · pn − 1. < √ Thus n has a factor = 1 and ≤ n. . p2 . . . that the set of primes is inﬁnite.u
111 Theorem There are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 4n + 3. . By the Well Ordering Principle. p2 . . N ≥ 11.u
109 Theorem (Euclid) There are inﬁnitely many primes. Let {p1 .40
Chapter 4 Proof: Since n > 1.. . or 7. k ≥ 2. pn } be any ﬁnite collection of primes of the form 4k − 1. In the latter case. k! + k is composite. Observe that p must be different from any of p1 . For if not then we can write q as q = ab. 3.
113 Theorem If the positive integer n is composite. or it is a product of primes. |A3 | = 33. .
√ Solution: Observe that 100 = 10. Since each pk is ≥ 3. But then a is a divisor of n greater than 1 and smaller than q. Then each of the numbers k! + 2.
√ √ √ Proof: Suppose that n = ab. Let Am denote the multiples of M which are ≤ 100. pk since n leaves remainder 1 upon division by any of the pi .

Prove. 1 2 p−1
p p
Ç å Ç å p p as = = 1.1 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many primes of the form 6n + 5. n ∈ Z. k
Solution: By the Binomial Theorem: Ç å Ç å Ç å p p p 2 − 2 = (1 + 1) − 2 = + + ··· + . 7 is the only prime triplet of the form p. 5.
Ç å Ç å p p whence p|k! . then p divides 2 p − 2. Prove that 42|n7 − n. |A70 | = 1. Problem 4.2. Ç å p 115 Lemma If p is a prime. divides p. 2. |A6| = 16.5 Let p be an odd prime and let (a. |A210 | = 0. n ∈ Z. k Proof: Ç å p p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1) = k! k
yields
116 Example Prove that if p is a prime. by induction on n.2.2.
Problem 4. Problem 4. p |k!. By Euclid’s Lemma. |A30 | = 3. |A14 | = 7.
where we have subtracted the 1. Prove Fermat’s Little Theorem: if p |n.2. |A15 | = 6.Practice
41
20. By the preceding lemma. ap + bp a + b.2. Prove that Å ã necessarily distinct) primes. as k < p. This establishes 0 p the assertion. p + 4. |A21 | = 4. 5. because 1 is neither prime nor composite. p + 2. then p|(n p−1 − 1).6 Prove that 3. or 7 ≤ 100 − 1 4 + 100 − (50 + 33 + 20 + 14) + (16 + 10 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 2) −(3 + 2 + 1 + 0) − 0 − 1 25.2 Use the preceding problem to show that there are inﬁnitely many primes p such that p − 2 is not a prime.2. |A105 | = 0. prove that the prime factorisation of p + q has at least three (not Problem 4.u k k
Ç å p k! = p(p − 1) · · ·(p − k + 1). |A10 | = 10. is divisible by p for all 0 < k < p.
.
Practice
Problem 4. p divides each of the terms on the dextral side of the above. 4. |A7 | = 14. it must be the case that p| . a+b Problem 4. Now. |A35 | = 2. 3.3 If p and q are consecutive odd primes.4 1. b) = 1. Extend this result to all n ∈ Z. that p|(n p − n). 3. Thus the number of primes ≤ 100 is = = = = 100 − ( number of composites ≤ 1) − 1 4 + 100 − multiples of 2. 5. |A42 | = 2. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ N. Prove that 30|n5 − n.

2)
Since x + y = max(x. 37 are prime.
Proof: Let n > 1. it clearly follows that ab = (a.
117 Theorem Every integer greater than 1 is a product of prime numbers. If n is a prime.7 Let n > 2. We can write then n = q1 q2 n2 . by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. we arrive at a chain n > n1 > n2 · · · > 1. 1 < n1 < n. Assume that n is composite and let q1 be its least proper divisor. 1 ≤ j ≤ s.5. 1 2 where the p j are primes. ak > 0.
.2) we conclude that every p must be a q and every q must be a p. upon dividing by p j j . n = pa1 pa2 · · · pk k . . Similarly. then we have nothing to prove.
(4. 3. . By Euclid’s Lemma (example 1. Also.
one way. and so 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 111.5. u
a It is easily seen.1)
max(a1 . Otherwise. Now. If a j > b j for some j then. q1 is a prime.b1 ) max(a2 . b) = p1 and also [a. Assume that n = pa1 pa2 · · · pas = qb1 qb2 · · · qtbt s 1 2 1 2 are two canonical factorisations of n. Prove that if one of the numbers 2n − 1 and 2n + 1 is prime. .bn ) p2 · · · pn . This implies that s = t. as all 2. and this process must stop before n steps. We will show now that such decomposition is always possible for a positive integer greater than 1. a2 > 0. the alternative a j < b j for some j is ruled out and so a j = b j for all j.2. as n is a positive integer. This ﬁnishes the proof.b ) p2 · · · pn n n . then we arrived at the result.
118 Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic) Every integer > 1 can be represented as a product of primes in only
a
p1 < p2 < · · · < pk .
4.b1 ) min(a2 . assume that n1 is composite. that if a has the prime factorisation a = p11 pa2 · · · pan and b n 2 b1 b2 has the prime factorisation b = p1 p2 · · · pbn . b] = p1
min(a1 .b2 ) max(an .42
Chapter 4
Problem 4. For example 23 32 52 73 is the canonical factorisation of 617400. b)[a. y). Finally. apart from the order of the factors. Continuing the argument. as guaranteed by Theorem 4. b].b2 ) min(a . 666 is clearly divisible by 6. (it may be the case that some of the ak and some of the bk are zero) then n
(a. s s 1 2
b
b
b
which is impossible. 1 < n2 < n1 < n. We cannot further decompose 1332 as a product of positive integers greater than 1. Eventually we then have n = q1 q2 · · · qs . the canonical factorisation of n. and let q2 be its least prime divisor. We call the preceding factorisation of n. from p1 < p2 < · · · < ps and q1 < q2 < · · · < qt we conclude that p j = q j . . By Theorem 4. as the sinistral side is divisible by p j and the dextral side is not. a1 > 0. we obtain p a1 p a2 · · · p j j 1 2
a −b j
j−1 j+1 · · · pas = pb1 pb2 · · · p j−1 p j+1 · · · pbs . u We may arrange the prime factorisation obtained in the preceding Theorem as follows. y) + min(x. If n1 is a prime. then the other is composite.3
Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
Consider the integer 1332. It is clearly divisible by 2 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 666. Set n = q1 n1 .
(4. 111 is also divisible by 3 and so we obtain 1332 = 2 · 2 · 3 · 3 · 37. Proof: We prove that a positive integer greater than 1 can only have one canonical factorisation.

sheer nonsense. The 1 number 2k−1 PS is a sum. Since n2 −1 and n are relatively prime. This is impossible. n2 − 1 is a perfect kth power (k ≥ 2) and n is also a perfect kth power.
120 Example Prove that if the polynomial
p(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn−1 + · · · + an−1x + an with integral coefﬁcients assumes the value 7 for four integral values of x. etc... as 33 is the product of 4 different factors and the expression above is the product of 5 different factors for n = 0. Since the factors m − ak are all distinct.
121 Example Prove that the product of three consecutive integers is never a perfect power (i. the product of the factors is m5 . by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. and P the product of all the odd natural numbers not exceeding n. are integers. Solution: Let k be the largest integer such that 2k ≤ n. 1 ≤ k ≤ 4. n2 − 1 and n2 would be consecutive perfect kth powers. except for 2k−1 P k . The sinistral side of this last equality has an odd number of prime factors (including repetitions). Assume that p(ak ) − 7 = 0 for distinct ak . Now.Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
119 Example Prove that
43
√ 2 is irrational. b. all whose terms. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. 33 can be decomposed as the product of at most four different integers 33 = (−11)(3)(1)(−1).
Solution: Observe that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 = (m − 2n)(m − n)(m + n)(m + 2n)(m + 3n). They cannot be multiply to 33. by the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Then 2b2 = a2 . whereas the dextral side has an even number of prime factors.). But then. If n = 0. Assume that there is an integer M with p(m) = 14. then it cannot take the value 14 for any integral value of x.
123 Example Prove that the sum
S = 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/4 + · · ·+ 1/n is never an integer. This contradicts the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. we have decomposed the integer 7 into at least four different factors. If n = 0. a perfect square or a perfect
cube. Solution: First observe that the integer 7 can be decomposed into at most three different integer factors 7 = −7(1)(−1).
√ Solution: Assume that 2 = a/b with relatively prime natural numbers a.
. the factors in the above product are all different. and 33 is clearly not a ﬁfth power. 2
124 Example Prove that there is exactly one natural number n for with 28 + 211 + 2n is a perfect square. Then 7 = p(m) − 7 = (m − a1 )(m − a2)(m − a3 )(m − a4 )q(m). Solution: Let the integer be (n −1)n(n + 1) = (n2 −1)n. Then p(x) − 7 = (x − a1)(x − a2 )(x − a3 )(x − a4 )q(x) for a polynomial q with integer coefﬁcients.
122 Example Prove that m5 + 3m4 n − 5m3n2 − 15m2n3 + 4mn4 + 12n5 is never equal to 33.e.

By symmetry. Show that there must be one that
divides some other. c. Since there are only ﬁfty odd integers between 1 and 100. the 737 numbers k ck have all their prime factors smaller than 26. i. we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a2 . 23}. βk ) − max(αk . 11. 1 Delete this pair. 2 From the 1981 integers remaining. Thus two (at least) of the integers chosen must share the same odd part. we can ﬁnd a pair of distinct a1 . We can continue this operation as long as 3 we have at least 513 integers. For example (even. even. γk ) = 2 min(αk . according to the parity of the components. a perfect square. c =
pkk . By unique factorisation. 7. Thus we may perform this operation n + 1 times. But then ci c j = a2 implies that ai bi a j b j = a4 . odd. a] (a. b.
. Delete this pair. Thus to each number in the set. βk . c)2 [a. there must be two
whose product is a square. d. there are only ﬁfty possibilities for m. From the 1983 integers remaining. two (at least) will have the same parity in their exponents. βk . Now. b. . c]2 = . we are able to gather 737 pairs ak .
125 Example Prove that in any set of 33 distinct integers with prime factors amongst {5. c)(c.
with primes pk .
126 Example (IMO. Since we have 1985 > 513 numbers. i = j. we will have two different ones whose product is a square. such that ci c j = a2 . b =
pk k . b3 such that a3 b3 = c2 . b)(b. a) Solution: Put a=
α β γ
pk k . . then k2 − 482 = (k − 48)(k + 48) = 2n . Therefore. we associate a vector (a. n = 736. odd. bk such that ak bk = c2 . γk ) − max(αk . s = 5. b.
128 Example (USAMO 1972) Prove that
(a. 1985) Given a set M of 1985 distinct positive integers. c][c. without loss of generality. Thus if we gather 513 of these numbers.t − s = 2. we can ﬁnd a pair a3 . These vectors come in 32 different ﬂavours. and the product of these two will be a square. γk ) − min(βk . [a. .44
Chapter 4
Solution: If k2 = 28 + 211 + 2n = 2304 + 2n = 482 + 2n . Solution: Any number in our set is going to be of the form 2a 3b 5c 7d 11 f 13g 17h 19 j 23k . we may ﬁnd two distinct cm say ci and c j . Since we have 33 integers. none with a prime factor greater than 26. where m is odd. Start weeding out squares. Thus we have found four distinct numbers in our set whose product is a fourth power. 2. k − 48 = 2s . odd) is one such class. By unique factorisation. γk ) − max(βk . b][b.
127 Example Let any ﬁfty one integers be taken from amongst the numbers 1. a fourth power. f ). βk ) − min(αk . and since 737 > 513. 13. prove
that M contains a subset of four distinct elements whose product is the fourth power of an integer. s + t = n. were n is the largest positive integer such that 1985 − 2n ≥ 513. The assertion is equivalent to showing 2 max(αk . giving s + t = n = 12. b2 such that a2 b2 = c2 . γk ). and thus the smaller will divide the larger. we may assume. 100. that αk ≥ βk ≥ γk .. γk ) − min(αk . . But then 2t − 2s = 96 = 3 · 25 or 2s (2t−s − 1) = 3 · 25 .e. The equation to be established reduces thus to the identity 2αk − αk − αk − βk = 2γk − βk − γk − γk . Solution: Any of the ﬁfty one integers can be written in the form 2a m. k + 48 = 2t .
Solution: Any number in our set is going to have the form 5a 7b 11c 13d 23 f . b1 such that a1 b1 = c2 .

3. If s = 1. There are r = 6r2 ways 2
. n+1 . are clearly distinct. we see that all the Ak are different. Solution: By unique factorisation. Consequently. cannot be divisible by 2n = 2k+1 .. If a1 ≤ 2n/3 . c. shows that for k = (n + 1)/2 the result is false. together with the k given distinct a’s. a. d) such that
3r 7s = [a. we see that the only valid values for n are n = 2. p2 = 3. consider a1 = 2t1 A1 . . a] = [d. at least one of the integers is common to both sets. . Ak odd. n/2 + 2. s > 2k+1 . if we take m = (s + 2k+1 − 1)/2 and l= ® 1 + m − 2k+1. Moreover. c. b]. n must be divisible by K 1 2 1 2 and so K ≤ n. since. give 2k − 1 > n positive integers. b. Clearly nl/2 < pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l .
132 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < an ≤ 2n be integers such that the least common multiple of any two exceeds 2n. . Now. then S is divisible by n. and let k j be the √ √ √ k k +1 k +1 unique integers such that p j j ≤ n < p j j . with 0 < l < m < n. Hence pk1 +1 pk2 +1 · · · pl l ≤ K 2 and thus nl/2 < K 2 . The sequence n/2 + 1. By hypothesis. 2 ≤ i ≤ k. . . n. 24. But if s > 1. each not greater than n. . Let lcm(1. 2. c. Prove
that a1 >
2n . Prove that 2
131 Example Let 0 < a1 < a2 < · · · < ak ≤ n. 12. or [a1 . a j ] = 2t j 3A1 = a j ≤ 2n. 1 + m − s. This implies that l < 4 and so n < 49. 2S = (l + m)(m − l + 1). .
133 Example (Putnam. and 3A1 < 2n. 4. 1980) Derive a formula for the number of quadruples (a. so that at least once ar − a1 = a j . d must be of the form 3m 7n . 6.
√ √ Solution: Suppose n is divisible by all the integers ≤ n. Solution: Set n = s2k with s odd. .Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
129 Example Prove that n = 24 is the largest natural number divisible by all integral a. 1 2
k k +1
Clearly then K = pk1 pk2 · · · pl l . 8. each of a. be integers. By inspection. . M must equal Ç å 4 2 r for at least two of the four numbers.
130 Example (Irving Kaplansky) A positive integer n has the property that for 0 < l < m < n. 0 ≤ n ≤ s. then 3a1 = 2t1 3A1 ≤ 2n. they coincide in some order with the set of all positive odd numbers less than 2n. Since 3A1 would then be an odd number < 2n. b. 1 ≤ a ≤
45 √ n. pl be all the primes ≤ n. . n − 1. nl/2 < n2 . c] = [b. which has one factor even and one factor odd. + m is never divisible by n. Prove that this is possible if and only if n is a power of 2. These contradictions establish the assertion. Hence. and n must equal s for at least two of the four numbers. where k >
a1 + a j = ar is soluble. Let p1 = 2. 3
Solution: It is clear that no one of the numbers can divide another (otherwise we would have an lcm ≤ 2n). d] = [c. d. . and a j = 2t j 3A1 . Solution: The k − 1 positive integers ai − a1. a j ] = 2t1 3A1 = 3a1 ≤ 2n. Thus either [a1 . These. 0 ≤ m ≤ r. n ) = K. . Hence. . s < 2k+1 . b. Since there are n of them. writing ak = 2tk Ak . its even factor is less than 2n. 3A1 = A j for some j.
S = l + (l + 1) + .

. p2 . .11 (USAMO 1973) Show that the cube roots of three distinct prime numbers cannot be three terms (not necessarily consecutive) of an arithmetic progression. . . (Hint: Look at the largest power of 3 ≤ n). . 3.1 Prove that log10 7 is irrational. 5. Let s be the smallest j for which p j > n − j + 1. j ≤ i ≤ n. Problem 4.3.3. . c) of positive integers for which [a.3 Find the smallest positive integer such that n/2 is a square and n/3 is a cube. . Problem 4. Set N1 = p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1.3. and Prove N p j = p j p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1
(Hint: Why is 36k − 1 − 5k = 0?) Problem 4. then t is prime.4 How many integers from 1 to 1020 inclusive.8 Find the number of ways of factoring 1332 as the product of two positive relatively prime factors each greater than 1. Problem 4.3.5 Prove that the sum 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/7 + · · ·+ 1/(2n + 1) is never an integer.3. c] = [a. There is a j. pt be different primes and Problem 4.3. There is a t. or perfect ﬁfth powers? Problem 4.
k=1
Problem 4. Problem 4. divides at most one of the N pk . c] = 2000. Problem 4.46
Chapter 4
Ç å 4 of choosing exactly two of the four numbers to have exponent r.12 Let 2 = p1 .2 Prove that log 3 log 2 is irrational.3.3.9 Let p1 . p2 < p1 · · · pn . such that all of p1 . Answer: 3. r = 4r ways of choosing exactly three to have exponent 3 Ç å 4 r and = 1 of choosing the four to have exponent r. Thus there is a total of 1 + 4r + 6r2 of choosing at least two of the 4 four numbers to have exponent r. n) = 1. 1 ≤ t ≤ ps . . The required formula is thus (1 + 4r + 6r2)(1 + 4s + 6s2).
Practice
Problem 4. pn fail to divide t p1 p2 · · · ps−1 − 1. (Bonse’s Inequality) For n ≥ 4. Similarly. be the primes in their natural order and suppose that n ≥ 10 and that 1 < j < n. b] = 1000.3.3. . 1 2 1 2 the p’s being different primes. . n+1
Problem 4. Factorisations differing in order are considered the same. 1 < j < n. Answer:
t
(1 + min(ak . Factorisations differing in order are considered the same.6 Find min 36k − 5k . a2 . Problem 4.
k≥1
factoring pa1 pa2 · · · ptat as the product of two positive relatively 1 2 prime factors each greater than 1. [b. .3. 3 = p2 .7 (AIME 1987) Find the number of ordered triples (a. . . 1 ≤ k≤ j 2. Find the number of ways of following property: if 1 ≤ t ≤ n and (t. N2 = 2p1 p2 · · · p j−1 − 1.10 Let n = pa1 pa2 · · · ptat and m = pb1 pb2 · · · ptbt . Problem 4.3. The s above is > 4 and so ps−1 − 2 ≥ s and p1 p2 · · · ps < ps+1 · · · pn . are not perfect squares. . for which p j > n − j + 1.3. Find the number of the common factors of m and n. Each pi . bk )). 4. there are 1 + 4s + 6s2 ways of choosing at least two of the four numbers to have exponent s.13 Prove that 30 is the only integer n with the a1 . . and hence pn+1 < p1 p2 · · · ps . at be natural numbers. perfect cubes. . .
1. Answer: 2t−1 − 1. b.

c). not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million. 3. such that Problem 4. c be integers. . is 2. 0) for which √ √ Problem 4. it is alinteger.3. . c. Problem 4. Sn is an integer?
47
2.
. whose difference. number) whose sum is divisible by 100.20 Given n numbers x1 .14 (USAMO 1984) 1. prove that if |a + b 2 + c 3| > 10−21 . c) = (0.3. . . xn each of which √ √ is equal to ±1. or else. (Putnam 1955) Prove that there is no increasing or a decreasing sequence. . 2. . Prove that if n is odd.18 Prove that from any ﬁfty two integers it is ala + b 2 + c 3 = 0. b. an be any pero o mutation of the numbers 1. except for (a. b. Prove that Problem 4.17 Prove that from any sequence formed by arranging in a certain way the numbers from 1 to 101. the x1 x2 + x2 x3 + · · · + xn x1 = 0. . ways possible to choose 11 numbers (which must not necessarily be consecutive members of the sequence) which form an Problem 4. 0. one |a + b 2 + c 3| < 10−11 . a2 . (Putnam 1980) Let a.Practice Problem 4. . . ways to choose two. triplet of integers (a.3. . . For which positive product integers n is there a ﬁnite set Sn of n distinct positive (a1 − 1)(a2 − 2) · · · (an − n) integers such that the geometric mean of any subset of is an even number. not all zero and each of absolute value less than a million.3. n.3.3. then n is a multiple of 4.19 Prove that from any one hundred integers it √ √ is always possible to choose several numbers (or perhaps.16 (E˝ tv˝ s 1906) Let a1 . whose sum. . Is there an inﬁnite set S of distinct positive integers such that the geometric mean of any ﬁnite subset of S is an Problem 4. x2 . divisible by 100. (Putnam 1980) Prove that there exist integers a.15 1.3. b. b.

16) = 2. Hence (3456. Thus d is a common divisor of both (a + nb) and b.
134 Theorem Prove that if a. . 18) = (2. 158 + 88) = (88. since b. rn ) = rn . Proof: Set d = (a. . Now.
Solution: (3456. Thus c is a common divisor of a and b. 158). 246) = (158. This implies that d|c. . Let a. 0 < r2 < b. 158) = (70. and cannot contain more than b positive terms. . 246) = (13 · 246 + 158. b be positive integers. b) = (a + nb.
(5. 0 < r4 < r3 . . 246) = (158. (158. d|b. implying that c|d. 88) = (18. 246) = 2. . rn−2 rn−1 = = = . Finally. c|(a + nb). r2 ) = (r2 . b). As d|a. then
(a. to be proved below. it follows that d|(a + nb). . b). b). u
135 Example Use Theorem ?? to ﬁnd (3456. r3 ) = · · · = (rn−1 . . 246). After using the Division Algorithm repeatedly. b. r2 . 48
. 70) = (16. by the preceding example. 246). (88.Chapter
5
Linear Diophantine Equations
5. This completes the proof. rn−1 qn−1 + rn rn qn .1)
The sequence of remainders will eventually reach a rn+1 which will be zero. c = (a + nb. is a monotonically decreasing sequence of integers. b). = = bq1 + r2 . 0 < rn < rn−1 . that (a. It is called the Euclidean Algorithm and it is described as follows. then
rn = (a. . n are positive integers. 0 < r3 < r2 . c|b imply that c|((a + nb) − nb) = a. b) = (b.
136 Theorem If rn is the last non-zero remainder found in the process of the Euclidean Algorithm. The Euclidean Algorithm rests on the fact. . .1 Euclidean Algorithm
We now examine a procedure that avoids factorising two integers in order to obtain their greatest common divisor. . r2 q2 + r3 r3 q3 + r4 . On the other hand. we ﬁnd the sequence of equalities a b r2 . r3 .

r|r3 . . rn |rn−2 .
. 5 = 5 · 1. .
The last non-zero remainder is 1. 23 = 3 · 6 + 5. rn |b. rn = = = . 29) by means of the Euclidean Algorithm.
23x + 29y = 7. . r|r2 . .
139 Example Find integer solutions to
5 = 23 − 3 · 6. Hence. .
6−1·5 6 − 1 · (23 − 3 · 6) 4 · 6 − 1 · 23 4(29 · 1 − 23) − 1 · 23 4 · 29 − 5 · 23. Thus rn is a common divisor of a and b and so rn |(a. From the ﬁrst equation. b). Solution: From the preceding example. thus (23. 6 = 29 · 1 − 23.Euclidean Algorithm Proof: From equations ?? r2 r3 r4 . = a − bq1 b − r2q2 r2 − r3 q3 . . . we see that r|rn . 6 = 1 · 5 + 1. we see that the linear diophantine equation ax + by = c has a solution in integers if and only if (a. u
137 Example Find (23. Upon iterating the process. b). rn |a. Solution: We work upwards. This gives the desired result. 23(−35) + 29(28) = 7. From the second equation. we see that rn |rn−1 . .
138 Example Find integers x. b)|c. 23(−5) + 29(4) = 1. rn−2 − rn−1 qn−1
49
Let r = (a. y that satisfy the linear diophantine equation
23x + 29y = 1. y = 4. An equation which requires integer solutions is called a diophantine equation. starting from the penultimate equality in the preceding problem: 1 = 6 − 1 · 5. 29) = 1. 1 = = = = = This solves the equation. rn |r2 . which solves the problem. But starting at the last equation ?? and working up. with x = −5.
Solution: We have 29 = 1 · 23 + 6. The Euclidean Algorithm is an efﬁcient means to ﬁnd a solution to this equation. Multiplying both sides of this equality by 7. . By the Bachet-Bezout Theorem.

b. 8173826342)
.
141 Example Can you ﬁnd integers x. t ∈ Z. y0 ) of the linear diophantine
equation ax + by = c any other solution of this equation will have the form b a x = x0 + t . a a |(y0 − y′ ). b). b)|c. (4554. we have a(x′ − x0 ) = b(y0 − y′ ). This ﬁnishes the proof. We can ﬁnd a family of solutions by letting x = −5 + 29t. 987) 2. 36) Problem 5. d d d which is to say x′ = x0 + tb/d. y = y0 − ta/d is also a solution. b) and t ∈ Z. y = 4 − 23t.t ∈ Z. the pair x0 = −5. Solution: By Example ??. Let (x′ . in virtue of Euclid’s Lemma. all the solutions are given by x = −1 + 123t. From this b a a ′ (x − x0 ) = t . y′ ) satisfy ax′ + by′ = c.
Practice
Problem 5.1. Let us prove that any solution will have this form.2 Solve the following linear diophantine equations. d d where d = (a. c are integers such that (a. Thus there is an integer t such that t = y0 − y′ .1. y = 15 − 1728t.
142 Theorem Assume that a. then x = x0 + tb/d. a ′ b (x − x0 ) = (y0 − y′ ). (34567. y0 ) is a solution of ax + by = c. (8098643070. d d that is. y = y0 − t . (3456. Proof: It is clear that if (x0 .1 Find the following: 1. Then given any solution (x0 . By Theorem ??. y such that 3456x + 246y = 73?
Solution: No. y = y0 − ta/d. 600) 3. d d Since (a/d. y0 = 4 is a solution. 3456(−1) + 246(15) = 234.50
140 Example Find inﬁnitely many integer solutions to
Chapter 5
23x + 29y = 1. u
143 Example Find all solutions in integers to
3456x + 246y = 234. Solution: By inspection. Dividing by d = (a. As ax0 + by0 = c also. 246) = 2 and 2 |73. b/d) = 1. provided solutions exist: 4. (560.

n) − 1). 3456x + 246y = 44 3. Then x = = ≡ x0 + n(qd + r)/d x0 + nq + nr/d x0 + nr/d mod n. n be integers. 24x + 25y = 18 2.69 and each egg costs $0. 1.
.
Thus every solution of the congruence ax ≡ b mod n is congruent mod n to one and only one of the d values x0 + nt/d. . . ((a. n) incongruent solutions
mod n. 0 ≤ t ≤ d − 1. y = y0 − at/d.t ∈ Z. then it has (a. 7) = 1. as (5.
144 Theorem Let a. 0 ≤ r < d. 1998x + 2000y = 33 Problem 5. By the Euclidean Algorithm 7 = 5 = 2 = Hence.
= 5−2·2 = 7 − 5 · 1. 1 2 which gives 1 = 5 − 2 · 2 = 5 − 2(7 − 5 · 1) = 5 · 3 − 7 · 2. (x.1. we obtain (a. since the absolute difference between any two of them is less than n. We ﬁrst solve the linear diophantine equation 5x + 7y = 1. then there are d incongruent solutions mod n. we write t ′ as t ′ = qd + r.3 Prove that the area of the triangle whose vertices are (0. (b. . If the congruence ax ≡ b
mod n has a solution. d = (a. Letting t take on the values t = 0. n)|b. where x0 . It is clear then that the congruence ax ≡ b mod n has a solution if and only if (a. a). there should only be one solution mod 7. n) mutually incongruent solutions.35. y) is |by − ax| . how many eggs and how many bananas did the woman buy?
5. b. If each banana costs $0.2
Linear Congruences
We recall that the expression ax ≡ b mod n means that there is t ∈ Z such that ax = b + nt. Thus if there is a solution to the congruence.78 for some bananas and eggs.
Proof: From Theorem ?? we know that the solutions of the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b have the form x = x0 + nt/d. y0 satisfy ax0 + ny = b. n). 0). Whence 3 = 5(9) − 7(6).4 A woman pays $2.
146 Example Solve the congruence
5·1+2 2·2+1 2 · 1.
3x ≡ 6
mod 12. Thus x ≡ 2 mod 7. Hence. This gives 5 · 9 ≡ 3 mod 7 which is the same as 5 · 2 ≡ 3 mod 7.u
145 Example Find all solutions to the congruence 5x ≡ 3 mod 7
Solution: Notice that according to Theorem ??. If x = x0 + nt ′ /d is any other solution. the congruencial equation in x.Linear Congruences 1.1. 2
51
Problem 5. ax ≡ b mod n is soluble if and only if the linear diophantine equation ax + ny = b is soluble.

we must have n |(x − y). n) ax ≡ ay mod an . b) = 1.u Theorem ?? gives immediately the following corollary. b) = 1 then the number of positive integers m that cannot be written in the form ar + bs = m for nonnegative integers r. 2.3
A theorem of Frobenius
If (a. the above congruence implies a fortiori that ax − ay = tn for some integer t. n)
upon multiplying by a. there is always an integer solution to ax + by = n regardless of the integer n. b be positive integers. This gives the required result. n) = 1. As (a. We now add a few theorems and deﬁnitions that will be of use in the future. n/(a. This yields (x − y) a n =s . Then
ax ≡ ay if and only if x≡y
mod n n . Problem 5. 6. 38 ≤ x ≤ 289 satisfy 3x ≡ 8 mod 11?
5. y be integers and let a. n be non-zero integers.52
Chapter 5
Solution: As (3. the three incongruent solutions modulo 12 are t = 2. By letting t = 0. n) mod n . the congruence has three mutually incongruent solutions. n). n) (a. If (a. If (a. 12) = 3 and 3|6. This implies that x≡y Conversely if x ≡ y mod n implies (a. By Theorem ??. (a. b) = d > 1 then the linear form ax + by skips all non-multiples of d. (a. By inspection we see that x = 2 is a solution.
148 Corollary If ax ≡ ay mod n and (a.
. n)
Since (a/(a. all the solutions are thus of the form x = 2 + 4t.
147 Theorem Let x. (a.2. (a. (a.
149 Theorem (Frobenius) Let a. n) by Euclid’s Lemma (Lemma ??).
Practice
Problem 5. n)
mod
Proof: If ax ≡ ay mod n then a(x − y) = sn for some integer s.1 Solve the congruence 50x ≡ 12 mod 14. We will prove the following theorem of Frobenius that tells un when we will ﬁnd nonnegative solutions to ax + by = n. s equals (a − 1)(b − 1)/2. 10. 1.2 How many x. n) divides a. n)) = 1 by Theorem ??.t ∈ Z.2. then x ≡ y mod n.

. On the other hand. 2a + k .. a − 1 a a + 1 a + 2 .
150 Theorem Let a.. After each play. w ≤ a − 1. b be relatively prime positive integers. b) > 1.
151 Example (Putnam. (a... . We claim that no two distinct multiples of b. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1 is non-attainable. 0 ≤ y < v < a. 1994) Ninety-four bricks. If vb −ka were attainable. b ∈ N. For a number directly above vb is of the form vb −ka for some natural number k. . Consider the inﬁnite array 0 1 2 .. 2a − 1 2a 2a + 1 2a + 2 . each measuring 4′′ × 10′′ × 19′′ . b) = 1. . the ﬁrst alternative is dismissed. . (a − 1)(b − 1) = 70 = 2(35) = 5(14) = 7(10). y. By Corollary ?? we obtain v ≡ y mod a. The conditions a > b.. It has been noticed that there are thirty ﬁve non-attainable scores and that one of these is 58.A theorem of Frobenius Proof: Let us say that an integer n is attainable if there are nonnegative integers r. . implying thus that if an integer n is attainable so is every integer directly below it.. The columns of this array are arithmetic progressions with common difference a. if n is attainable. Therefore we deduce vb ≡ bv − ka ≡ ax + by mod a which yields bv ≡ by mod a. b) = 1 we invoke Corollary 5. on the j-th column. As 58 = 0 · 71 + 2 · 29.
152 Example (AIME. (a. Since 0 ≤ v. b = 8. according to the outcome. If n > ab −a −b. This contradicts the fact that 0 ≤ y < v < a. k . By Theorem ??. two numbers on the same column are congruent mod a.. w ≤ a − 1 can belong to the same column. This yields by ≤ ax + by = vb − ka < vb. then the equation is soluble in nonnegative integers. a > b). Hence. y for n = ab −a −b. The line 11x + 8y = 58 passes through (6. .... so is n + ka. then ax+ by = vb −ka for some nonnegative integers x. hence the greatest value that is not attainable is (a − 1)b − a. 0 ≤ v ≤ a − 1. 10) and thus it does not pass through a lattice point in the ﬁrst quadrant. Now. b) = 1 yield the two possibilities a = 71. . are to be stacked one on top of another to
form a tower 94 bricks tall. 1971) A game of solitaire is played as follows. Clearly all multiples of b are attainable.. s with ar + bs = n. we must have v = w. Thus the number of unattainable numbers is precisely the numbers that occur just above a number of the form vb. b = 8. . Hence a(v − w) ≡ 0 mod a. and his score accumulates from play to play.1 to deduce v − w ≡ 0 mod a. Hence (a.. the number of non-attainable scores is (a − 1)(b − 1)/2. The numbers directly below a number n have the form n + ka where k is a natural number.u
The greatest unattainable integer occurs just above (a − 1)b. Find a and b. there are inﬁnitely many such integers. How many different tower heights can be achieved using all 94 of the bricks?
. 3a − 1 . The unique solution is a = 11. Then the equation
ax + by = n is unsoluble in nonnegative integers x.. Solution: The attainable scores are the nonnegative integers of the form ax + by... . Since (a. b = 2 and a = 11. If this were so then we would have vb ≡ wb mod a. vb and wb with 0 ≤ v. which gives the following theorem. a 2
as we wanted to show.. a + k . Hence the number of unattainable numbers is given by
a−1 a−1 v=0 j=0
53
vb − j (a − 1)(b − 1) = . This implies that y ≡ v mod b. there are (vb − j)/a values above vb. Clearly. . the player
receives either a or b points. −1) and (−2.. Now we show that any number directly above one of the multiples vb.. . . Therefore. If (a. Each brick can be oriented so it contributes 4′′ or 10′′ or 19′′ to the total height of the tower.

s < 1991. 7. b.3.54
Chapter 5
Solution: Let there be x. for we would have 170 ≡ 181b mod 11. ax + by ≤ c. every integer ≥ (2 − 1)(5 − 1) = 4 can be written in the form 2y + 5z. c be positive real numbers. x + y + z = 94.)
. Problem 5. namely n = 1. mn = 11a + 181b.
n→∞
lim
S(n) . Let (n. x ≥ 0.2 (AIME. and 469 can be thus represented. if = + for a.3. b) = 1. a. The answer is thus 170/1991.5 (IMO. 468. which yields b ≥ m. z ≥ 0. 4. y ≥ 0. Now. 1983) Let a. n ≤ 180. s) = 1. but 170m < 181. z bricks of height 4′′ . s1 |r1 . Prove that 1991 only if there exist integers m. y + z ≤ 94.
Practice
Problem 5. (n. s = 11s1 and then nr1 s1 = 11as1 + 181br1. namely n = 1 and n = 3. r) = (b. and 469 are not representable in the form 4x + 10y + 19z. b with (∗) 1 ≤ m ≤ 10.
2. y + z ≤ 94. For mn > 181 except if m = 1. By Theorem ??. (a. Letting x = 94 − y − z.
153 Example
n is the sum of two positive integers with denominator < 1991 if an 1. Thus of the 471 nonnegative integers n ≤ 470. b ∈ N. By Theorem ?? there are (3 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 4 exceptions. Conversely. (a. but then n would not be of the form n ≡ 181 mod 11. 466. so b ≡ m mod 11. we count the number of different nonnegative integral solutions to the inequality 376 + 3(2y + 5z) ≤ 1786.1 Let a. which leads to r1 |11as1 and so r1 |s1 . 0 ≤ n ≤ 470 except for 1.3. y. (a. 468. b) = 1. 4 ≤ n ≤ 470 will be “good” only if we have 470 − n = 3x + 5z. n a b n a b = + does the trick. we see that 469 can be written in the form n = 2y+ 5z. b ≥ 1. 3. (Hint: [s] − [t] = [s − t] or [s − t] + 1.4 Let a. 1991 181m 11m 1991 r s and r. and the number of exceptions is (2 − 1)(5 − 1)/2 = 2. c be pairwise relatively of nonnegative solutions to the equation ax + by = n is equal prime integers. Then the number Problem 5. Find the largest positive rational with denominator 1991 that cannot be written as the sum of two positive rationals each with denominators less than 1991. each ≤ 8. z ≥ 0. Solution: (a) If (∗) holds then But n = 170 does not satisfy (∗). a ≥ 1. 1991) = 1 satisﬁes (∗) with b = 1 and M such that mn is of the form mn ≡ 181 mod 11. and 19′′ respectively. Then every integer n.3 Let a > 0. n
Problem 5. whence r1 = s1 = m. b. we may suppose r = 181r1 . y ≥ 0. that is 2y + 5z ≤ 470. 4x + 10y + 19z ≤ 19 · 94 = 1786. (b) Any n > 170. 466. 463. and (∗) follows. say. We are asking for the number of different sums 4x + 10y + 19z with the constraints x ≥ 0. 1995) What is largest positive integer Evaluate that is not the sum of a positive integral multiple of 42 and a positive composite integer? ax + by = n. 10′′ .3. n. This means that 463. y) satisfying number of nonnegative solutions to x ≥ 0. 2. Let S(n) denote the there are at least c2 /2ab pairs of integers (x.3. and the number of different sums is 471 − 6 = 465. b ≥ 1. Demonstrate that 2abc − ab − bc − ca is the to largest integer not of the form n n [ ] or [ ] + 1. y ≥ 0. Similarly. Prove that Problem 5. ab ab bcx + acy + abz. Using x = 96 −x−y. 1991) = 1. b > 0.

Solution: We want n such that
n≡ 2 n≡ 1 n≡ 1 35n ≡ 28n ≡ 20n ≡ 70 28 20
mod 4. We will develop a method to solve congruences like this one. . In the language of congruences we are seeking x such that x ≡ 2 mod 5. This means that x ≡ −37 ≡ 18 mod 55. we have 5x = 35 + 55b. Thus all n ≡ 106 mod 140 will
156 Theorem (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Let m1 .4
Chinese Remainder Theorem
In this section we consider the case when we have multiple congruences. . . each exceeding 1. u
. ≡
a1 a2 . Thus x = 11x − 10x = 33 − 70 + 55a − 110b. so does the parametric family x = 147 + 385t. mk be pairwise relatively prime positive integers. Pj Q j ≡ 1 mod m j . mod 140. mod 140. .
155 Example Find a number n such that when divided by 4 leaves remainder 2. . we have 11x = 33 + 55a.Chinese Remainder Theorem
55
5. x ≡ 4 mod 11. .
≡ ≡ . ak be arbitrary integers.e.
Solution: Since x = 3 + 5a.
As n = 21n − 20n. . . i. a2 . which we know exists since all the mi are pairwise relatively prime. ak
mod m1 mod m2 mod mk
Proof: Set Pj = m1 m2 · · · mk /m j . Then the system of congruences
x x . and let a1 . Let Q j be the inverse of Pj mod m j . One veriﬁes that all the numbers x = 18 + 55t. m2 . .t ∈ Z. The uniqueness of the solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk can be easily established. and it is thus called the Chinese Remainder Theorem.t ∈ Z verify the given congruences. x ≡ 0 mod 7. As x = 7 + 11b. . we have n ≡ 3(35n − 28n) − 20n ≡ 3(70 − 28) − 20 ≡ 106 mod 140. mod 140. One may check that x = 147 satisﬁes the requirements. and leaves remainder 4 when divided by 11. . . and when divided by 7 leaves remainder 1. when divided by 5 leaves remainder 1. This number clearly satisﬁes the conditions of the theorem. and that in fact. 1 ≤ j ≤ k.
154 Example Find x such that
x≡3
mod 5 and x ≡ 7
mod 11. mod 7. mod 5. Consider the following problem: ﬁnd an integer x which leaves remainder 2 when divided by 5.
This implies that
do. The method is credited to the ancient Chinese.. x has a unique solution modulo m1 m2 · · · mk . is divisible by 7. Form the number x = a1 P1 Q1 + a2 P2 Q2 + · · · + ak Pk Qk .

. there exists a solution to the following system of congruences.56
157 Example Can one ﬁnd one million consecutive integers that are not square-free?
Chapter 5
Solution: Yes. . −1000000 mod p2 . x x .
Practice
Problem 5. . 2
2 mod p1000000. x + 1000000 are a million consecutive integers. 1 mod p2 . each of which is divisible by the square of a prime. .2 (USAMO 1986) 1. . 5x ≡ 2 mod 8. x ≡ 0 mod 11 Problem 5. . Let p1 . p2 .4.
The numbers x + 1. . x + 2.4. . . . x ≡ 10 mod 11 3. . x ≡ ≡ . Do there exist fourteen consecutive positive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p. Do there exist twenty-one consecutive integers each of which is divisible by one or more primes p. 2 ≤ p ≤ 13?
.
. . 3x ≡ 2 mod 9. . . .1 Solve the following systems: 1. p1000000 be a million different primes. 4x ≡ 3 mod 7. . By the Chinese Remainder Theorem. x ≡ −1 mod 4. x ≡ 2 mod 5 2. 2 ≤ p ≤ 11? 2. ≡ −1 −2 .

This means that m − a = α . a ∈ Z. we deduce by (1) that
α = n α /n + nθ = n α /n + nθ . α + β .1 Greatest Integer Function
The largest integer not exceeding x is denoted by x or x . We also utilise the notation {x} = x − x . n n
This yields the required result.e. The greatest integer function enjoys the following properties:
158 Theorem Let α . The fact that x is the unique integer satisfying these inequalities. Then
1. α + β is less than the integer α + β + 2.
α +a = α +a α = n α n
α + β ≤ α +β ≤ α + β +1
Proof: 1. A useful fact is that we can write any real number x in the form x = x + {x}. we obtain
α α = + Θ. Write α /n as α /n = α /n + θ . From the inequalities α − 1 < α ≤ α . is often of use. 3. so its integer part α + β must be less than α + β + 2. We obtain thus α + β ≤ α + β . it must be less than or equal to the integral part of α + β . 2. but α + β < α + β + 2 yields α + β ≤ α + β + 1. 0 ≤ nθ ≤ nθ < n. of course. We also call this function the ﬂoor function. Thus x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x. β ∈ R. and so 0 ≤ nθ /n < 1. Let m = α + a . to denote the fractional part of x.Chapter
6
n∈Z
Number-Theoretic Functions
6. which. u 57
. Since n α /n is an integer. which is what we wanted. i. This proves the inequalities. β − 1 < β ≤ β we get α + β − 2 < α + β ≤ α + β . Since α + β is an integer less than or equal to α + β . can also be written as x ≤ x < x + 1. If we let Θ = nθ /n. Then m ≤ α + a < m + 1. 0 ≤ θ < 1. 0 ≤ Θ < 1. n ∈ N.
Now. 0 ≤ {x} < 1. 3. Hence m − a ≤ α < m − a + 1. 2. Also. and ||x|| = min |x − n| to denote the distance of a real number to its nearest integer.

it must be the case that (1 − 2)n is the fractional part of (1 + 2)n or (1 + 2)n + 1 √ √ √ √ depending on whether n is odd or even. 2/3) ∪ [2/3. 1).
√ √ √ √ √ 2n ). 1/2) ∪ [1/2. always even. (1 + 2)n − 1 <√ + 2)n + (1 − 2)n < √ + 2)n . 1) = [0. 2k
k
√ √ (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2)n = 2
0≤k≤n/2
√ √ √ √ an even integer. 2/3). then 2t = 1. If t ∈ [1/3. 1). always odd for even n. l = 2
161 Example Prove that the integers
with n a nonnegative integer.√ respectively.
. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = −2. √ √ l(l + 1) 2n . Conversely. then both 2t and 3t are = 0.
162 Example Prove that the ﬁrst thousand digits after the decimal point in
√ (6 + 35)1980 are all 9’s. It must be the case that m = 2n . 1). another contradiction.58
159 Example Find a non-zero polynomial P(x. √ √ (6 + 35)1980 + (6 − 35)1980 = 2k. and 3 2t − 2 3t = −1. Solution: We claim that 3[2t] − 2[3t] = 0. If m ≥ 2n +1. Solution: By the Binomial Theorem
Ä
√ än 1+ 2 Ç å n (2) := 2N. y) = (3x − 2y)(3x − 2y − 1)(3x − 2y + 1)(3x − 2y + 2). We divide [0. y) such that
Chapter 6
P( 2t . We can then take P(x. Solution: Reasoning as in the preceding problem. ±1 or −2. are alternately even or odd. 1/3) ∪ [1/3. 1) as [0. we observe that x has unit period. [3t] = 1. 3t ) = 0 for all real t. If t ∈ [2/3. a Solution: Let 2n = m(1 + √ √ 2 2 contradiction. so it is enough to prove the claim for t ∈ [0. then [2t] = 1. (1 (1 √ n √ n √ n whence (1 + √2) + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n . let n = triangular numbers. In order to prove the claim. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 1. If m ≤ √2n − 1 then 2n ≤ ( 2n − 1)( 2n + 1) = 2n 2 − 1 ≤ 2n − 1 < 2n. and so (1 + 2)n = 2N − 1. Thus for odd n. If t ∈ [1/2. and for n even 2N := (1 + 2)n + (1 − 2) = (1 + 2)n + 1. then 2n ≥ ( 2n +1) ≥ 2n+1. 1/3). If t ∈ [0. 1/2) then [3t] = 1 and [2t] = 0. Since l < 2n < l + 1. Since −1 < 1 − 2 < 0. So all the integers with the required property are the . 3t = 2. and so 3 2t − 2 3t = 0.
160 Example Describe all integers n such that 1 +
√ 2n 2n.

k + 1) which happens if and only if |a − b| < 1. and the result follows. (1 − 5)] ∪ [ (1 + 17).
Solution: Let Tn be the n-th non-square. As m = k. . 2 2 2
.
Neither 4n + 2 nor 4n + 3 are squares since squares are either congruent to 0 or 1 mod 4. 1 1 Since n. Hence. in which case m + k = k and f ( f (m)) = f (m + k) = m + 2k = (k + 1)2 + j − 1. If j = 0. f ( f (m)). and an even integer. . the set A of all the m with excess j. for x ∈ R. (1 + 21)). 0 ≤ j ≤ k and the set B with all those m’s with excess j. Prove that for every positive integer m. f (m) = k2 + j + k = (k + 1)2 + j − k − 1. . the sequence
m. This means that f ( f (m)) is either a square or f ( f (m)) ∈ A with an excess j − 1 smaller than the excess j of m. b ∈ [k. Solution: Observe that a = b if and only if ∃k ∈ Z with a. Thus the n-th non-square is Tn = n + n + 1/2 . the given equation has a solution if and only if |x2 − 2x − 2| < 1.
163 Example (Putnam 1948) If n is a positive integer. . m2 + m + 1 are all integers. √ It is thus enough to consider the alternative m ∈ A. . k < j < 2k + 1. Assume that m ∈ B. m2 − m. with 0 ≤ j − k − 1 ≤ k − 1 < k + 1. √ Observe that k2 ≤ m < (k + 1)2 = k2 + 2k + 1. which is clearly nonsense). But then m = n + . We have then m2 < n + m < (m + 1)2 or m2 − m < n < m2 + m + 1. so √ √ 4n + 2 = 4n + 3 . these inequalities imply m2 − m + < n < m2 + m + .
166 Example Solve the equation
x2 − x − 2 = x . we see that Tn = n + m. This means that either f (m) is a square or f (m) ∈ A. Split the m’s into two sets.
164 Example Find a formula for the n-th non-square. f ( f ( f (m))). Solving these inequalities it is easy to see that the solution is thus √ √ √ 1 1 1 x ∈ (−1. whence we reach a square. it is easy to see that
√ √ n+ n+1 = 4n + 2 . 0 ≤ j ≤ 2k. (for if 10 √ hence 0 < (6 − 35)1980 < 10−1980 which yields √ 1 2k − 1 + 0.
√ √ √ √ 4n + 1 < n + n + 1 < 4n + 3. 2
165 Example (Putnam 1983) Let f (n) = n +
√ n . 9 = 2k − 1980 < (6 + 35)1980 < 2k. f (m).Greatest Integer Function
59
√ √ 1 < 6 − 35. that is to say. Solution: Let m = k2 + j. we have nothing to prove. As there are m squares less than Tn and n non-squares up to Tn . demonstrate that
√ Solution: By squaring. There is a natural number m such that m2 < Tn < (m + 1)2 . (m − 1/2)2 < 4 4 √ √ 1 2 n < (m + 1/2) . 10
1979 nines
This proves the assertion of the problem. At each iteration the excess will reduce and eventually it will hit 0. contains at least one square of an integer. But 0 < 6 − 35 < 1/10. upon squaring 3500 < 3481.9 .

1 ≤ k ≤ a − 1 are each on this line. points with integer coordinates. then = . a a Proof:
k=1
ka rectangle. This rectangle contains (a − 1)(b − 1) xb lattice points. equals the number of lattice points on the upper half of the rectangle.
3 106 106 1 6 k+1 k
106
1 dx √ <√ . (a. y. x + x + y + y ≤ 2x + 2y holds. (0.1.1. 0) to (k.2 If x. 0). y real numbers. This rectangle is split into two halves by the line y = .3 If n > 1 is a natural number and α ≥ 1 is a real number.1. the assertion follows. 0). except for the endpoints. 0 < m < a. a contradiction. and their number is shared equally by the halves. i. Hence 1998 + 1/10 < The integral part sought is thus 1998. k
1 √ < 1999.e. n
. when is it true that x y ≤ xy ? [α ] > Problem 6. m a kb kb The points Lk = (k. n).60
167 Theorem If a. prove that
α . 0 < n < b. Similarly. x k
dx √ < x
106 −1 k=1
1 √ . Since there b k=1 are (a − 1)(b − 1) lattice points in total. k k=1
106
Practice
Problem 6. ). Thus n/m is a reduction for the irreducible fraction b/a. b). equals the number of lattice points on the a a a−1 kb kb is the number of lattice points on the lower half of the vertical line that goes from (k. (a. For if there were a lattice point n b (m.. Thus for positive integer k.e. b). i. Now. u
168 Example Find the integral part of
b−1
1 √ . ). a We claim that there are no lattice points on this line. Problem 6. b 2
Consider the rectangle with vertices at (0. b are relatively prime natural numbers then
a−1 k=1
Chapter 6
kb = a
b−1 k=1
ka (a − 1)(b − 1) = . 1 √ < k+1 Summing from k = 1 to k = 10 − 1 we deduce 1 √ < k k=2 The integral is easily seen to be 1998.1 Prove that for all real numbers x. k k=1 Solution: The function x → x−1/2 is decreasing.

5.
1≤n≤b−1
Problem 6. nβ ] still contains no integers but has length at least 1/6.1. 2k+1
k=0
Problem 6. 3. prove that n + 2 − n/25 3 = 8n + 24 . 3. Prove that … y m for all natural numbers n. 4. 25 Problem 6. 2. 5. 5.
Problem 6. the equality m+n n−m+1 + =n 2 2 holds.1. b 2 2
Problem 6.1.1.22 A triangular number is a number of the form 1+2+· · ·+n. n.21 For which natural numbers n will 112 divide √ 4n − (2 + 2)n ? Problem 6. 2. Prove where there are n occurrences of the integer n is 2n + 1/2 . Prove that an (a − 1)(b − 1) d − 1 = + .1. Problem 6.1. y > 0. n n Problem 6. where the summation runs through all positive integers x not divisible by the mth power of an integer exceeding 1. 1994 1995
Problem 6. n ∈ N. √ 4n + 1 . . Problem 6.20 Let m ∈ N with m > 1 and let y be a positive na + nb = nc + nd real number. Prove that [α ] + [−α ] = −1 or 0 and that α − 2 α /2 = 0 or 1. n n n Problem 6.
61 Problem 6. Prove that
n
N=
k=1
n =2 k
√ 1≤k≤ n
√ 2 n − n .1. min(k + n/k ) =
k∈N
Problem 6. prove that ab b ≥a .6 Prove that √ (2 + 3)n is an odd integer.1.1.1.10 If a.9 Prove that for all integers m. Find a formula for the nth non-triangular number. evaluate the sum ∞ n + 2k .23 (AIME 1985) How many of the ﬁrst thouProblem 6. 4.18 Let d = (a. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that [nα .5 Let α be a real number. b are odd.1.7 Show that the n-th element of the sequence 1. k
Problem 6.17 (Circle Problem) Let r > 0 and let T denote √ the number of lattice points of the domain x2 + y2 ≤ r2 .1.4 If a. 2x + 4x + 6x + 8x ?
. prove that = y .1.11 If n is a natural number. b. c.13 Let [α .15 (Putnam 1973) Prove that if n ∈ N.19 (Eisenstein) If (a. d are positive real numbers such that Problem 6.12 Solve the equation x x = . .1.1. 5. Problem 6. 4. β ] be an interval which contains no sand positive integers can be expressed in the form integers.8 Prove Hermite’s Identity: if x is a real number √ 2 0<x≤r 2 and n is a natural number then nx = x + x + 1 2 n−1 + x+ + ···+ x + . b a 4
1≤n≤(b−1)/2 1≤n≤(a−1)/2
Problem 6. x > 0.14 (IMO 1968) For every natural number n. that r r 2 − x2 + 4 √ 2 .1. then an (a − 1)(b − 1) bn + = .1. b) = 1 and a.1.1. b). b. n are positive integers.1. x x a + b = c + d.Practice Problem 6. 4.16 (Dirichlet’s principle of the hyperbola) Let N be the number of integer solutions to xy ≤ n. 3. T = 1+4 r +8 Problem 6. . 5.

.28 Let k ≥ 2 be a natural number and x a positive real number.62 Problem 6.32 Prove that Ç 1 (−1)
1994x + 1995x 0
1993 1994x
åÇ
1994 1995x
å
dx = 0.. 2x. . 34x have no 7’s in their decimal expansions. .26 Prove that the n-th number not of the form ek .1.1. Problem 6. You may appeal to Wallis Product Formula: 3. .33 Prove that √ √ √ √ n+ n+1 = n+ n+2 . etc. 2x.. n→∞ n 1 x 2. when n is a natural number. Problem 6.2
De Polignac’s Formula
We will consider now the following result due to De Polignac..
Problem 6. . Can you improve the “gap” between 34 and 79? 2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 π · · · · · · · ··· = . .1. 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 9 2
Problem 6. 100
k=19
Find the value of 100r . .34 (Putnam 1976) Prove that ã Å n 2n −2 = ln 4 − 1. . f (n)
n=1
Problem 6.
169 Theorem (De Polignac’s Formula) The highest power of a prime p dividing n! is given by
∞ k=1
n .1.29 1.24 (AIME 1987) What is the largest positive integer n for which there is a unique integer k such that 8 n 7 < < ? 15 n + k 13 Problem 6. Find the exact numerical value of 1995 1 . is Tn = n + ln(n + 1 + ln(n + 1) ) .27 (Leningrad Olympiad) How many different integers are there in the sequence 12 22 19802 .1. 2.1. Problem 6. Prove that » √ k x = k x ..
Problem 6. Find a real number x = 0 such that Problem 6.1.1. ? 1980 1980 1980 Problem 6. 1 n n lim dx = log3 (4/π ). . the number of factors contributing a second factor of p is n/p2 . Prove that for any real number x = 0 at least one of x. pk
Proof: The number of integers contributing a factor of p is n/p .u
170 Example How many zeroes are at the end of 300!?
.25 Prove that if p is an odd prime.1.1.. lim n→∞ k k
1≤k≤n
6. then √ (2 + 5) p − 2 p+1 is divisible by p. .1.1.35 (Putnam 1983) Prove that x. k = 1. 79x has a 7 in its decimal expansion.30 (AIME 1991) Suppose that r is a real number for which 91 k r+ = 546. .
Chapter 6 Problem 6.31 (AIME 1995) Let f (n) denote the integer closest to n1/4.

173 Example Given a positive integer n > 3. the highest power of 7 that divides the highest power of 7 dividing into 500! is 71 + 10 + 1 = 82. Solution: We claim that the least common multiple of the numbers in question is p
p
n/p
. Prove that the quantity
n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is an integer. and so 7 does not divide . the power of p dividing n! is n/p j =
j≥1 j≥1
(n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . which establishes the assertion. 500 500
Ç
å 1000 ? 500
172 Example Let n = n1 + n2 + · · · + nk where the ni are nonnegative integers. prove that the least common multiple of the products x1 x2 · · · xk (k ≥ 1). By De Polignac’s Formula this is
∞
300/5k = 60 + 12 + 2 = 74. Similarly.
The power of p dividing n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is
j≥1
n1 /p j + n2 /p j + · · · nk /p j . Solution: From (3) in Theorem ?? we deduce by induction that a1 + a2 + · · · + al ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + al .
Since n1 /p j + n2/p j + · · · + nk /p j ≤ (n1 + n2 + · · · + nk )/p j . For any prime p. is less than n!. we see that the power of any prime dividing the numerator of n! n1 !n2 ! · · · nk ! is at least the power of the same prime dividing the denominator. the number of zeroes is thus determined by the highest power of 5 in 300!.
p prime
. Since there are more factors of 2 in 300! than factors of 5. Since = (500!)2 500 Ç å Ç å 1000 1000 is 164 − 2 · 82 = 0.
k=1
171 Example Does
7
2 Solution: The highest power of 7 dividing into 1000! is 1000/7 + 1000/7å + 1000/73 = 142 + 20 + 2 = 164. whose
factors xi are the positive integers with
x1 + x2 + · · · xk ≤ n.De Polignac’s Formula
63
Solution: The number of zeroes is determined by how many times 10 divides into 300. Ç 1000 1000! .

2. n.8 (AIME 1992) Deﬁne a positive integer n to be Problem 6. 2α .2.1 (AHSME 1977) Find the largest possible n such that 10n divides 1005!. 6) = 1.2. How many positive integers less than 1992 are not factorial Problem 6. .5 (AIME 1983) What is the largest two-digit m!n! prime factor of the integer is an integer. Problem 6. Suppose that pα j |x j .12 ProveåÇ å the following result of Catalan: Ç å Ç m+n 2m 2n divides .2. Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅ and Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N.2. . Problem 6. 2. This proves the claim.. 3α .}. then (2n − 4)! n!(n − 2)! Problem 6. Ç å 200 ? Ç å 100 √ 2n Problem 6.
. . k = n/p . Prove that 2n prove that the exponent of p in the factorisation of n 5x + 5y ≥ 3x + y + 3y + x .2.. the base-ten representation of m! ends with exactly n zeroes.2. Using the result of part 1 or otherwise. Two sequences Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are said to be complementary if they partition the natural numbers. equals 1. n m n
We deﬁne the spectrum of a real number α to be the inﬁnite multiset of integers Spec(α ) = { α . The assertion of the problem now follows upon applying De Polignac’s Formula and the claim.3 Find the exponent of the highest power of 24 tails? that divides 300!.2. we see that there is at least one product for which equality is achieved. . .2. and an arbitrary prime p. prove that (5m)!(5n)! m!n!(3m + n)!(3n + m)! is an integer for all positive integers m. (n.2.2. Clearly pα1 + · · · + pαk ≤ n and since pα ≥ α p. .
Practice
Problem 6.
Problem 6.7 Prove that if n > 1. .6 (USAMO 1975) 1.9 Prove that if m and n are relatively prime positive integers then (m + n − 1)! Problem 6. .64
Chapter 6
Consider an arbitrary product x1 x2 · · · xk . n + 1) lcm .2. But on choosing x1 = · · · = xk = p. 2.11 Prove that ÇÇ å Ç å Ç åå n n n lcm(1.10 If p is a prime divisor of with p ≥ 2n n Ç å Problem 6. p(α1 + · · · αk ) ≤ n or α1 + · · · + αk ≤ p Hence it follows that the exponent of an arbitrary prime p is at most n/p . pα j +1 |x j .2 Find the highest power of 17 that divides a “factorial tail” if there is some positive integer m such that (17n − 2)! for a positive integer n. = 1 n+1 2 n
6.e..4 Find the largest power of 7 in 300!. we have n . Problem 6. .. is an integer.3
Complementary Sequences
Problem 6. i.

9. 37. 16.}. . n nτ and nτ + n = n(τ + 1) are complementary if 1/τ + 1/(τ + 1) = 1. hence n = [mα ]. the Golden ratio. it is clear that Spec(α ). But N/α − 1 + N/β − 1 < N/α + [N/β ] < N/α + N/β . 4. 17. Spec(β ) eventually contain the same integers. 1926) If α > 1 is irrational and
1 1 + = 1. 1957) If the sequences
Spec(α ) and Spec(β )
Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are complementary. The following theorem establishes a criterion for spectra to be complementary. and we delete a3 + 3 = 7.
175 Theorem (Bang’s Theorem. α β Proof: If both α . and √ Spec(2 + 2) = {3. Proof: Since α > 1. 13. 12. β are irrational.
174 Theorem (Beatty’s Theorem. α β then the sequences are complementary. whence α > 1 (and so β > 1 also). 2. 16. 4. Solution: What we are asking for is a sequence {Sn } which is complementary to the sequence {S√+ n}. . 3. as this is true for any N ≥ 1 each interval (n. it follows that 1/α + 1/β = 1. 23. 8. u n
176 Example Suppose we sieve the positive integers as follows: we choose a1 = 1 and then delete a1 + 1 = 2. By Beatty’s Theorem. 21. The n-th term is thus an = nτ . Thus the next available integer is 4 = a3 . β are positive irrational numbers with 1 1 + = 1. 10. 40. 11. 19. . . But then τ = (1 + 5)/2. The next term
is 3. which we call a2 . 18. . 15. Thereby we leave the integers 1. 5. then n/α + n/β = 1. Find a formula for an .Practice For example. n + 1) contains exactly one such term.}
65
are complementary. which implies that Spec(α ) = N. 25. If Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) is ﬁnite. u The converse of Beatty’s Theorem is also true. Since the sandwiched quantity is an integer. and so are not disjoint. we gather that N −2 < N/α + N/β < N. Thus the total number of terms not exceeding N in Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) is N − 1. 20. Spec(α ) ∩ Spec(β ) = ∅. we deduce [N/α ]+ [N/β ] = N −1. lim n→∞ n 1 but since ( n/α + n/β ) → 1/α + 1/β as n → ∞. 12. 24. . 47. If 0 < α ≤ 1. 6.
Practice
. 27. 34. the last inequality being strict because both α . 17. β are rational numbers. 11. 8. etc. 14. It follows that Spec(α ) ∪ Spec(β ) = N. 22. 6. given n there is an M for which mα − 1 < n ≤ mα . 51. . then α . 7. 30. 14. . Spec(α ) and Spec(β ) are each sequences of distinct terms. and the total number of terms not exceeding N taken together in both sequences is N/α + N/β . β > 1. and then we delete a2 + 2 = 5.. Thus α and β must be irrational. it appears that the two sequences √ Spec( 2) = {1. 44. 9. As 1/α + 1/β = 1. .

6. Then F is also multiplicative. 9. the number of distinct prime divisors of n. we have d(20) = 6. 4. We will now show that the functions d and σ are multiplicative. we say that f is then a multiplicative function. For this we need ﬁrst the following result. 3. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. If f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of natural numbers m. d2 ) = 1.3. Ω(n) =
pα ||n
α. b are natural numbers with (a. 11. n we say then that f is totally multiplicative. n. If f is an arithmetic function which is not identically 0 such that f (mn) = f (m) f (n) for every pair of relatively prime natural numbers m.
and
φ (n) =
1≤k≤n
1.) For example.
This completes the proof. u
. ω (20) = 2.66 √ 1+ 5 Ratio. The following functions are of considerable importance in Number Theory: d(n) σ (n) φ (n) the number of positive divisors of the number n. if n = ab. 17. 5. ω (n) =
p|n
1. σ (n) =
d|n
d. { τ τ 2 n }. (d1 . the number of positive integers not exceeding n and relative prime to n. b) = 1 then F(n) =
d|n
f (d) =
d1 |a d2 |b
f (d1 d2 ). σ (20) = 42.1 (Skolem) Let τ = { τ τn 2
Chapter 6 Prove that the three sequences (n ≥ 1) }. we see that φ (20) = 8. Thus there is a one-to-one correspondence between positive divisors d of ab and pairs d1 . 19 are the positive integers not exceeding 20 and relatively prime to 20.n)=1
(The symbol || in p ||n is read exactly divides and it signiﬁes that pα |n but pα +1 |n. 10 and 20 are the divisors of 20. then there is a positive integer a such that f (a) = 0. (a.
α
177 Theorem Let f be a multiplicative function and let F(n) =
d|n
f (d). 13. counting multiplicity. r 1 2 A multiplicative function is thus determined by its values at prime powers.
ω (n) Ω(n)
In symbols the above functions are: d(n) =
d|n
1. the number of primes dividing n.
Since f is multiplicative the dextral side of the above equals f (d1 ) f (d2 ) =
d1 |a d2 |b d1 |a
f (d1 )
d2 |b
f (d2 ) = F(a)F(b). Then r 1 2 f (n) = f (pa1 ) f (pa2 ) · · · f (par ). 2. 7. b) = 1. every divisor d of ab has the form d = d1 d2 where d1 |a. { τ 2 n } are complementary.
(k.4
Arithmetic Functions
An arithmetic function f is a function whose domain is the set of positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex numbers. If f is multiplicative. Hence. Since the numbers 1. d2 of positive divisors of a and b. Hence f (a) = f (1 · a) = f (1) f (a) which entails that f (1) = 1. d2 |b. the sum of the positive divisors of n. Ω(20) = 3. since 1. be the Golden Problem 6. Let f be multiplicative and let n have the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par .
Proof: Suppose that a.

An
attendant performs a sequence of operations T1 .
182 Example (Putnam 1967) A certain locker room contains n lockers numbered 1. . the condition of being locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. Thus n = pα qβ and either 1 + α = 2. This gives at most 2 n divisors. We give now some examples pertaining to the divisor function. As n = a · . Solution: Observe that locker m. say. After all the n operations have been performed it is observed that all lockers whose numbers are perfect squares (and only those lockers) are now open or unlocked. . one of these divisors must be a a √ √ ≤ n. because n ≥ 3 and so we must exclude the divisors 1 and 2. the answer is 16. pa and so
d|n
d(pa ) = a + 1. 1 + β = 3 or 1 + α = 6. p3 . p and q. p. . the divisors of pa are 1. p2 . n must be of one of the forms pq2 or p5 . where p. n and are originally locked. 2. . 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Hence. then r 1 2 d(n) = (1 + a1)(1 + a2) · · · (1 + ar ). .Arithmetic Functions
67
Since the function f (n) = 1 for all natural numbers n is clearly multiplicative (indeed.
Interchanging the order of summation 1=
j≤n k≡0
j≤k≤n
j≤n
n . This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . j
mod j
which is what we wanted to prove. . . Now.
180 Example Find all positive integers n such that d(n) = 6. . For example. .
Solution: Since 6 can be factored as 2 · 3 and 6 · 1. .
. totally multiplicative). It follows that n must divide 180.
√
n n Solution: Each positive divisor a of n can paired with its complementary divisor . Prove this mathematically. The assertion is proved.
179 Example Prove that d(n) ≤ 2 n.
181 Example Prove that
n n
d(k) =
k=1 j=1
n j
Solution: We have
n
n
d(k) =
k=1 k=1 j|k
1. Since n there are 18 divisors of 180. T2 . will be unlocked after n operations if and only if m has an odd number of divisors. q are distinct primes. d(2904) = d(23 · 3 · 112) = d(23 )d(3)d(112 ) = (1 + 3)(1 + 1)(1 + 2) = 24. the desired n must have only two distinct prime factors. 1 + β = 1. Tn whereby with the operation Tk . d(m) is odd if and only if m is a perfect square. . the theorem above shows that d(n) = 1 is a multiplicative function.
178 Example (AHSME 1993) For how many values of n will an n-sided polygon have interior angles with integral degree
measures? (n − 2)180 Solution: The measure of an interior angle of a regular n-sided polygon is . . 1 ≤ m ≤ n. If p is a prime.

the only possibilities d are d ≡ 1.
184 Theorem An even number is perfect if and only if it is of the form 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) where both p and 2 p − 1 are primes. σ (2 p−1(2 p − 1)) = σ (2 p−1 )σ (2 p − 1) = (1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 2 p−1)(1 + 2 p − 1) = (2 p − 1)2(2 p−1). then there are at least three divisors of m.
Solution: Let s ≥ n. One deduces that 2s+1 |σ (m). (s. n/d ≡ 2 mod 3 or vice versa. We propose to show that b = 1. 5 or 7 mod 8. This entails that if n has the prime factorisation n = pa1 pa2 · · · par . Then σ (2 p − 1) = 1 + 2 p − 1.
183 Example (Putnam 1969) Let n be a positive integer such that 24|n + 1. which yields σ (m) ≥ 1 + b + m. We take x = 5s. n Solution: Since 24|n + 1. Write n = 2s m. Conversely. no divisor is used twice in the pairing. If p is a prime. If b = 1.
Practice
. and so σ (m) = 2s+1 b for some natural number b. b = m. totally multiplicative). For example. d ≡ 1. 2 w r r 1 This last product also equals
a a p11 +1 − 1 p22 +1 − 1 par +1 − 1 · ··· r . But then (2s+1 − 1)b = m. m odd. It is easy to see that a natural number is perfect if and only if 2n =
d|n
d. n/d ≡ 5 mod 8 or vice versa. σ (n) = 2n = 2s+1 m. namely 1. since n perfect is. Thus b = 1. the above theorem entails that σ is multiplicative.d=6
d=
1 + 2 + 3. and so m = (2s+1 − 1)b = 2s+1 − 1 is a prime. 2 p − 1) = 1. In all cases d + n/d ≡ 0 mod 3 and mod 8. As d( ) ≡ −1 mod 3 or mod 8. 6 is perfect because 6 =
d|6. Also. Observe that b + m = (2s+1 − 1)b + b = 2s+1 b = σ (m). b and m. Hence (2s+1 − 1)σ (m) = 2s+1 m. let n be an even perfect number. Then σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ) = 31σ (s2 ). n ≡ 1 or 2 mod 3 and d ≡ 1. p1 − 1 p2 − 1 pr − 1
We present now some examples related to the function σ . This means that 2s+1 − 1 is a Mersenne prime and hence s + 1 must be a prime. This implies that 24| d. 10) = 1. whence 24 divides d + n/d.68
Chapter 6
Since the function f (n) = n is multiplicative (indeed. Then σ (n) = σ (2s )σ (m) = (2s+1 − 1)σ (m).
Proof: Suppose that p. a contradiction. then clearly σ (pa ) = 1 + p + p2 + · · ·+ pa . and so b|m.u
185 Example Prove that for every natural number n there exist natural numbers x and y such that x − y ≥ n and σ (x2 ) = σ (y2 ). y = 4s. and 2 p−1 (2 p − 1) is perfect. As d ≡ n/d. d ≡ 3. Prove that the sum of all divisors of n is also
divisible by 24. n/d ≡ 7 mod 8 or vice versa. r 1 2 then 2 σ (n) = (1 + p1 + p1 + · · · + pa1 )(1 + p2 + p2 + · · · + pa2 ) · · · (1 + pr + p2 + · · · + par ). 3.
d|n
We say that a natural number is perfect if it is the sum of its proper divisors. Since (2 p−1 . 2 p − 1 are primes. The following theorem is classical.

b. only one of its prime factors occurs to an odd power. .4. Problem 6.8 Let n be a perfect number. all the others occur to an even power. Problem 6..4.16 Prove that 1 1 σ (n!) Problem 6.2 Describe all natural numbers n such that Problem 6. Problem 6.14 Characterise all n for which σ (n) is odd.4. Describe dk (n) for sufﬁciently large k. j
Problem 6.
6.
d|n
Problem 6.4.Euler’s Function.17 Prove that an odd perfect number must have n=1 n=1 at least two distinct prime factors.4. How many positive integer divisors of n2 are less than n but do not di. Problem 6.7 Let m ∈ N be given.3 Prove that d(2n − 1) ≥ d(n).13 Prove that σ (n) = n + k.20 Prove that every odd perfect number having three distinct prime factors must have two of its prime factors 3 and 5. This requires more work than that done for d and σ . Problem 6.4. then σ (n) > Problem √ Ω(1024) and φ (1024).4.4. k = 2. Reduced Residues
Recall that Euler’s φ (n) function counts the number of positive integers a ≤ n that are relatively prime to n. .19 Show that an odd perfect number must contain one prime factor p such that. Problem 6.4.10 Prove that the power of a prime cannot be a perfect number.
31 19 n n
Problem 6.12 Prove that if n is composite. Problem 6. Problem 6.4.4. 3.4 Prove that d(n) ≤ 3n with equality if and only if n = 12.4.4. 1 − tn Problem 6.15 Prove that p is a prime if and only if σ (p) = √ 1 + p. Reduced Residues
69
Problem 6.4.Problem 6. c} such that a × b × c = 462.4. dk (n) = d(dk−1 (n)).21 Prove that there do not exist odd perfect numbers having exactly three distinct prime factors.4.4. holds: n! 2 n ∞ ∞ tn d(n)t n = . 6.4. d Problem 6.4. First we need the following deﬁnitions. n + n. 1995) Let n = 2 3 .5 Prove that the following Lambert expansion ≥ 1 + + ··· + .
.9 Prove that d=n
d|n d(n)/2
.5
Euler’s Function. Show that 1 = 2.
Problem 6. σ (1024). if the highest power of p occurring in n is pa . We will prove now that φ is multiplicative. ω (1024).23 Find the number of sets of positive integers vide n? {a.22 Prove that Problem 6. k > 1 a ﬁxed natural d(n) = 10.4.11 (AIME.4. Problem 6. all other prime factors must occur to an even power.1 Find the numerical values of d(1024). number has only ﬁnitely many solutions.18 Prove that in an odd perfect number.4. Problem 6.
σ (k) =
k=1 j=1
j
n . Prove that the set A = {n ∈ N : m|d(n)} contains an inﬁnite arithmetic progression.6 Let d1 (n) = d(n). . Problem 6. both p and a are congruent to 1 modulo 4.4.

For if ia + k ≡ ja + k mod b then a(i − j) ≡ 0 mod b. the canonical reduced residues mod 12 are 1. b − 1] which implies that |i − j| < b. and φ (550) = φ (2 · 52 · 11) = φ (2) · φ (52 ) · φ (11) = (2 − 1)(52 − 5)(11 − 1) = 1 · 20 · 10 = 200. ... (a. We claim that no two integers k.. As k ≡ ma + k mod a.u If p is a prime and m a natural number. . We are now ready to prove the main result of this section. 1 ≤ k ≤ a. Since (a. . 5. (n − 1)/n.. which is what we wanted to show. . . . . . b) = 1.. . a 2a 3a .
Proof: Let n be a natural number with n = ab. congruent to the integers 0.. n/n are irreducible?
n
Solution: This number is clearly
k=1
φ (k).
... 1. Each integer on this column is of the form ma + k. ...... There are φ (a) integers relatively prime to a in the ﬁrst row. This means that the b integers in any of these φ (n) columns are. 1 2 3 a+1 a+2 a+3 2a + 1 2a + 2 2a + 3 ... φ (48) = φ (24 · 3) = φ (24 )φ (3) = (24 − 23 )(3 − 1) = 16. 2a + k . 2/n. . The φ (n) integers 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 less than n and relatively prime to n are called the canonical reduced residues modulo n. j ∈ [0... 2p. k . . But exactly φ (b) of these are relatively prime to b.. (b − 1)a + 1 (b − 1)a + 2 (b − 1)a + 3 . in some order. Now i. Now consider the k-th column. (b − 1)a + k on the k-th column are congruent modulo b. . (b − 1)a + k .
189 Example Let n be a natural number. . then 1
a φ (n) = (pa1 − p11 −1 ) · · · (pk k − pk k 1 a a −1
). pm−1 p are the only positive integers ≤ pm sharing any prime factors with pm .. 19. b − 1. . 7. 3p. Thus φ (pm ) = pm − pm−1 . n > 1 is a set of φ (n) incongruent integers modulo n that are relatively
prime to n.. 5. .. if a n = pa1 · · · pk k is the factorisation of n into distinct primes. We shall determine ﬁrst the number of integers in the above array that are relatively prime to a and ﬁnd out how may of them are also relatively prime to b. the integers p.
For example. 187 Deﬁnition A reduced residue system modulo n. 2.. a + k. . We must determine how many of these integers are relatively prime to b. For example.70
Chapter 6
186 Deﬁnition Let n > 1. . we deduce that i − j ≡ 0 mod b thanks to Corollary ??. ab as follows. b) = 1. . This means that there are exactly φ (a) columns of integers that are relatively prime to a. . a+k .. . This means that exactly φ (a)φ (b) integers on the array are relatively prime to ab. Since φ is multiplicative. . How many of the fractions 1/n..... . 11 and the set {−11.
188 Theorem The function φ is multiplicative. k will have a common factor with a if and only if ma + k does. 23} forms a reduced residue system modulo 12. ba
Now. an integer r is relatively prime to m if and only if it is relatively prime to a and b. . We arrange the ab integers 1. This forces i = j. .. . ... . 0 ≤ m ≤ b − 1.

1 ≤ n − a ≤ n and (n − a. 2d. We gather that n=
d|n
φ (n/d).
71
a=
1≤a≤n
nφ (n) . Prove that the equation
φ (x) = n!
is soluble.
Solution: Observe that p > 4 must be a multiple of 6. (a. d. . . n} and so Td (n) = n. ) = 1. . 6) = 1. whence n =
φ (d). Note that the elements of Td (n) are found amongst the integers n k n n d. But then ( .Euler’s Function.
Proof: For each divisor d of n. ) = 1. (m.n)=1
The assertion follows. 2
(a. and p > 4. 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d and (k. But d there are exactly φ (n/d) such a. ab ≥ 1. φ (n/d) =
d|n
But as d runs through the divisors of n. We then have φ (p) ≤ 2a 3b−1 φ (m) ≤ 2a 3b−1 m = p/3. so p = 2a 3b m.
191 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. n) = d.u
d|n
192 Example If p − 1 and p + 1 are twin primes. As d varies over the divisors of n. This implies that (a.
d|n
We claim that Td (n) has φ (n/d) elements. n/d runs through the divisors of n in reverse order.
(a. Reduced Residues
190 Example Prove that for n > 1. d d d d n Therefore counting the elements of Td (n) is the same as counting the integers a with 1 ≤ a ≤ n/d. let Td (n) be the set of positive integers ≤ n whose gcd with n is d.n)=1
Solution: Clearly if 1 ≤ a ≤ n and (a.
(a.
. n) = 1.
193 Example Let n ∈ N. . . prove that 3φ (p) ≤ p. the Td partition the set {1. ) = 1. . . 2.n)=1
whence 2S =
1≤a≤n
n = nφ (n). Thus S=
1≤a≤n
a=
1≤a≤n
n − a. Then
d|n
φ (d) = n. then k = ad. If k ∈ Td (n).n)=1
(a. n) = 1.

k = 1. skip k..5. . In general we can show that φk (n) > 2 2 4 4 1 2−k−1 k+2 n .3 (AIME 1992) Find the sum of all positive rational numbers that are less than 10 and have denominator 30 when written in lowest terms. The integer x will have the same prime factors as n provided that p−1
(p − 1)|n. Let n =
pα ||n
pα . It follows that x = n2 /φ (n). p 1 p 2 · · · p ar ≥ ··· r p1 p2 pr 2 pa1 /2 pa2 /2 · · · par /2 r 1 2 … » √ √ 1 1 1 1 This last quantity equals n/2. p ã Problem 6. Show that ∀ k ∈ N. 2 p1 − 1 pr − 1
a a 1 p 11 p 22 · · · p ar p r − 1 a1 a2 p1 − 1 p2 − 1 r . 4
φ (n) =
195 Example Find inﬁnitely many integers n such that 10|φ (n).5.5. . this last condition is clearly satisﬁed. then n must be of the form 2a 3b for nonnegative integers a. It is
p|n
clear then that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for φ (x) = n to be soluble under the restriction that x has precisely the same prime factors as n is (p − 1)|n.5. .5. . then skip k people.5.4 Prove that φ (n) ≥ n2−ω (n). Problem 6.5.7 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1. continuing until you tag someone for the second time. This restriction implies that φ (x)/x = φ (n)/n.
. Then φ (11k ) = 11k − 11k−1 = 10 · 11k−1.6 If φ (n)|n.10 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite.8 (Mandelbrot 1994) Four hundred people are standing in a circle.
Practice
Problem 6. An explicit solution to the problem is thus
p|n
x = (k!)2 /φ (k!). 2. If n = k!. φk (n) > 1 for all sufﬁciently large
n.
Solution: Take n = 11k . Problem 6.1 Prove that Å 1 .5. then n has at least three distinct prime factors. Problem 6.
Solution: Let pa1 pa2 · · · par be the prime factorisation of n. then n has at least four prime factors. . When is equality achieved? Problem 6. We conclude that n ≥ 22 implies that φk (n) > 1. Therefore φ1 (n) > φ (n) > n = n1/4 . For how many positive values of k less than 400 will every person in the circle get tagged at least once? Problem 6. b. Problem 6. Then x =
pα ||n
pα . and so on. Clearly r 1 2 p 11 p 22 · · · p r r Hence
a /2 a /2 a /2
> 2r−1 ≥
pr 1 p1 ··· .5 Prove that φ (n) > √ n for n > 6.9 Prove that if φ (n)|n − 1 and n is composite. Answer: 400 Problem 6.
194 Example Let φk (n) = φ (φk−1 (n)).72
Chapter 6
Solution: We want to solve the equation φ (x) = n with the constraint that x has precisely the same prime factors as n. where φ0 (n) = φ (n).
φ (n) = n
p|n
1−
Problem 6. k = 1.2 Prove that if n is composite then φ (n) ≤ n − √ n. then n must be squarefree. You tag one person. .5. then tag another. . 2.5.

u
198 Example Find the inverse of 5 mod 7. we would like 1 to be the multiplicative identity.11 For n > 1 let 1 = a1 < a2 < · · · < aφ (n) = n − 1 be the positive integers less than n that are relatively prime to n.
.
Solution: We are looking for a solution to the congruence 5x ≡ 1 mod 7. Then a possesses an inverse modulo n if and only if a is relatively prime to n. The answer is thus 4 ·6 2 = 2. To obtain 4 ·6 2 we ﬁrst multiplied 4 · 2 = 8 and then reduced mod 6 obtaining 8 ≡ 2 mod 6. n) = 1.5. For if x. a be integers. we encounter some problems.1: Multiplication Table for Z6
196 Deﬁnition Let n > 1 be a natural number. Problem 6. This implies that (a. For example. Prove that ω (n) ≤ g(n). a has an inverse mod n. This immediately yields ax ≡ 1 mod n.
It is easy to see that inverses are unique mod n. Another look at the table shows the interesting product 3 ·6 2 = 0. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. Conversely if (a. y such that ax + ny = 1. Deﬁne the Jacobsthal function g(n) :=
1≤k≤φ (n)−1
73 (Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem). How to deﬁne multiplication in Zn ? If we want to multiply a ·n b we simply multiply a · b and reduce the result mod n. which entails the existence of an integer s such that ab − 1 = sn. (ya)x ≡ y mod n. As an example.. by the Bachet-Bezout Theorem there are integers x. 3. We need to be able to identify the invertible elements of Zn . Hence x ≡ y mod n. We would then deﬁne the multiplicative inverse of a to be that b that has the property that a ·6 b = b ·6 a = 1. let us consider Table ??.6
Multiplication in Zn
In section 3. i. we see that 0. For that we need the following. i. We are now going to investigate the multiplicative structure of Zn .5.12 Prove that a necessary and sufﬁcient condition for n to be a prime is that
max
ak+1 − ak
to be the maximum gap between the ak . 2.e. ab − sn = 1. and 4 do not have a multiplicative inverse. Then ab ≡ 1 mod n.
6. An integer b is said to be the inverse of an integer a modulo n if ab ≡ 1 mod n. n) = 1. ·6 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 0 2 4 0 2 4 3 0 3 0 3 0 3 4 0 4 2 0 4 2 5 0 5 4 3 2 1
Table 6. By inspection we see that this is x ≡ 3 mod 7.e. n).Multiplication in Zn Problem 6. y are inverses to a mod n then ax ≡ 1 mod n and ay ≡ 1 mod n.5 we saw that Zn endowed with the operation of addition +n becomes a group.
σ (n) + φ (n) = nd(n). Multiplying by y the ﬁrst of these congruences. But then. Why is it interesting? We have multiplied to non-zero entities and obtained a zero entity! Does Z6 form a group under ·6 ? What is the multiplicative identity? In analogy with the rational numbers.
Proof: Assume that b is the inverse of a mod n.
197 Theorem Let n > 1.

Now. This is clear if n|a. . 34 ≡ 4.u If (a. 24 ≡ 2 mod 7. ordn a|t. 31 ≡ 3. 23 ≡ 1 mod 7. n) = 1 and let t be an integer. The pattern 2. a will have a multiplicative inverse if and only if (a. Hence y = 0 and thus t = x · ordn a. n) = 1 we must have (a j . 1 ≤ t − s ≤ n.
Proof: Assume that ordn a|t. n). then a has an order in view of Theorem ?? and the Well-Ordering Principle. n) = 1. Then there is an integer s such that sordn a = t. Clearly a = 0. etc. Given n. and so the order of 3 mod 7 is 6. This contradicts the deﬁnition of ordn a as the smallest positive integer with that property. Then a ∈ Z has an order mod n if and only if (a. This is a linear combination of a and n and hence divisible by (a. This entails that (a. aφ (n) }. we say that a has order m mod n. We thus see that only the reduced residues mod n have an inverse.
203 Theorem Let (a. assume that at ≡ 1 mod n and t = x · ordn a + y. We let Z× = {a1 . 32 ≡ 2.e. n) = 1. . a2 . 0 ≤ y < ordn a. which is to say at ≡ at−s at mod n.74
Chapter 6
According to the preceding theorem. Using Corollary ?? we gather that at−s ≡ 1 mod n.
Proof: Since (a. It is easy to see that the operation ·n is associative. This prompts the following deﬁnition.
201 Deﬁnition If m is the least positive integer with the property that am ≡ 1 mod n. there exists a positive integer k ≤ n such that ak ≡ 1 mod n. we can ﬁnd s. 33 ≡ 6.
Proof: If (a. Hence as ≡ at mod n gives at−s as ≡ at−s at mod n. 1. 26 ≡ 1 mod 7. a3 . The existence of an order entails the existence of a positive integer m such that am ≡ 1 mod n. there is an integer s with am + sn = 1 or a · am−1 + sn = 1. . there must be a smallest positive integer with this property. As there are n + 1 numbers and only n residues mod n. u The following theorem is of utmost importance.. n) = 1.
199 Example (IMO 1964) Prove that there is no positive integer n for which 2n + 1 is divisible by 7. n) = 1 for all j ≥ 1. the Pigeonhole Principle two of these powers must have the same remainder mod n. i. which proves the result. 35 ≡ 5. .
Conversely. Hence. We conclude that Z× is a group under the operation ·n . . Then at ≡ 1 mod n if and only if ordn a|t.t with 1 ≤ s < t ≤ n + 1 such that as ≡ at mod n. Hence assume that a has an order mod n. not all integers a are going to have an order mod n. By the Well-Ordering Principle.
Solution: Observe that 21 ≡ 2. The question as to which integers are going to have an order mod n is answered in the following theorem. Then ay ≡ at−xordn a ≡ at · (aordn a )−x ≡ 1 · 1−x ≡ 1 mod n. n since it inherits associativity from the integers. 25 ≡ 4 mod 7. Consider the sequence a. a2 . the preceding theorem tells us that there is a positive integer k with ak ≡ 1 mod n. n) = 1. .
202 Theorem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. because then am ≡ 0 mod n for all positive integers m.
If y > 0 we would have a positive integer smaller than ordn a with the property ay ≡ 1 mod n.
200 Theorem If a is relatively prime to the positive integer n. 4.u
. This gives at ≡ asordn a ≡ (aordn a )s ≡ 1s ≡ 1 mod n.
For example. . We write this fact as ord7 3 = 6. an+1 mod n. repeats thus cyclically. . n We now give some assorted examples. n) = 1. This says that there is no power of 2 which is ≡ −1 ≡ 6 mod 7. 36 ≡ 1 mod 7. That is. 22 ≡ 4.

. n is not square-free then
µ (m)µ (n) = 0 = µ (mn). we deduce from Corollary ?? that ri ≡ r j mod n. r2 . If both M and n are square-free then
µ (m)µ (n) = (−1)ω (m) (−1)ω (n) = (−1)ω (m)+ω (n) = µ (mn). . We want 2n ≡ 1 mod 7. n) = 1. ar2 .
Practice
Problem 6. 35. . Thus for example µ (6) = 1. ar2 . . . 0 if n > 1. 7.
75
Solution: Observe that the order of 2 mod 7 is 3. . 9. r2 . 7. . 5.
205 Theorem Let n > 1. .
207 Deﬁnition The Möbius function is deﬁned for positive integer n as follows:
Thus µ is 1 for n = 1 and square free integers with an even number of prime factors. 12. a. 11 are the 5.6. . u
209 Theorem
µ (d) =
d|n
ß
1 if n = 1. a ∈ Z. If r1 . . arφ (n) is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. 55 is also a reduced residue system modulo 12. If r1 . n) = 1. 5. Again. 6. Suppose that ari ≡ ar j mod n for some i = j.. . This contradicts the fact that the r’s are incongruent. b ∈ Z. . 11 is a reduced residue system modulo 12 and (12. and 0 for non-square free integers. The following result will be used repeatedly. 5) = 1.
. . 25. . rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. .7
Möbius Function
1 µ (n) = (−1)ω (n) 0 if n = 1. n) = 1.Practice
204 Example (IMO 1964) Find all positive integers n for which 2n − 1 is divisible by 7. if ω (n) < Ω(n). as 1. arφ (n) are mutually incongruent mod n. arφ (n) + b is also a reduced set of residues modulo n. rφ (n) is a reduced set of residues modulo n. Thus n = 3.
208 Theorem The Möbius Function µ is multiplicative. −1 for square free integers with an odd number of prime factors.
If one of m. Since (a.
Proof: We just need to show that the φ (n) numbers ar1 .1 Find the order of 5 modulo 12.u For example. (a. the set 5. then ar1 . The following corollary to Theorem ?? should be immediate. if ω (n) = Ω(n).
6.
This proves the theorem. . the 1. (a. . . ar2 + b. .
Proof: Assume (m. . 25. µ (30) = −1 and µ (18) = 0. n) = 1. 35. 55 in some order and 1 · 5 · 7 · 11 ≡ 5 · 25 · 35 · 55 mod 12. . .
206 Corollary Let n > 1. so the theorem follows. then ar1 + b. . It must then be the case that 3|n.

2 If f is an arithmetical function and F(n) =
φ (n) = n
d|n
µ (d) . the inner sum will be 0 unless s = n. n d| s n In view of theorem ??.
n r| s
Using Theorem ??. F be arithmetic functions with f (n) =
d|n
µ (d)F(n/d) for all natural numbers n. k
d|n k=0
By the Binomial Theorem this last sum is (1 − 1)ω (n) = 0. Then F(n) =
d|n
f (d). µ (d) = (−1)k . the inner sum is different from 0 only when = 1. For all such d.7. which means that the above sums simplify to f (n).7.u
Practice
Problem 6.u
210 Theorem (Möbius Inversion Formula) Let f be an arithmetical function and F(n) =
d|n
f (d). d
.
211 Theorem Let f .u
=
s|n
We now show the converse to Theorem ??. Hence only the term s = n in the outer s sum survives.
Proof: We have
d|n
µ (d)F(n/d) =
d|n d|n
=
ds|n
f (s) n s| d µ (d) f (s) f (s)
µ (d). in which case the entire sum reduces to F(n). Then
f (n) =
d|n
µ (d)F(n/d) =
d|n
µ (n/d)F(d).
Proof: We have f (d)
d|n
=
d|n s|d
µ (s)F(d/s) µ (d/s)F(s)
d|n s|d
= =
s|n
µ (r)F(s).76 Ç
Chapter 6 å ω (n) square-free divisors d of n with exactly k prime factors. Proof: There are k The sum in question is thus å ω (n) Ç ω (n) µ (d) = (−1)k .1 Prove that Problem 6.

6 Given any positive integer k. prove that F(n) = f ( j).7.7.
Problem 6.
Problem 6.5 Prove that
d|n
µ (d)d(d) = (−1)ω (n) .7.
f (n) =
j=1
µ ( j)F([n/ j]).Practice
n
77 Problem 6. f (n) = j=1 µ (n + 1) = µ (n + 2) = · · · = µ (n + k). then
k=1
|µ (d)| = 2ω (n) . k=1
.3 If F is an arithmetical function such that Problem 6. prove that there n n exist inﬁnitely many integers n with µ (k)F([n/k]).7.4 Prove that
d|n n
f ([n/k]).

Chapter

7

a p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. mod p in view of

More on Congruences

7.1 Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

212 Theorem (Fermat’s Little Theorem) Let p be a prime and let p |a. Then

Proof: Since (a, p) = 1, the set a · 1, a · 2, . . . , a · (p − 1) is also a reduced set of residues Theorem ??. Hence (a · 1)(a · 2) · · ·(a · (p − 1)) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·(p − 1) mod p, or a p−1(p − 1)! ≡ (p − 1)! mod p.

As ((p − 1)!, p) = 1 we may cancel out the (p − 1)!’s in view of Corollary ??. This proves the theorem.u As an obvious corollary, we obtain the following.

213 Corollary For every prime p and for every integer a,

ap ≡ a

mod p.

Proof: Either p|a or p |a. If p|a, a ≡ 0 ≡ a p mod p and there is nothing to prove. If p |a, Fermat’s Little Theorem yields p|a p−1 − 1. Hence p|a(a p−1 − 1) = a p − a, which again gives the result.u The following corollary will also be useful.

214 Corollary Let p be a prime and a an integer. Assume that p |a. Then ord p a|p − 1.

**Proof: This follows immediately from Theorem ?? and Fermat’s Little Theorem.u
**

215 Example Find the order of 8 mod 11.

**Solution: By Corollary ?? ord11 8 is either 1, 2, 5 or 10. Now 82 ≡ −2 mod 11, 84 ≡ 4 mod 11 and 85 ≡ −1 mod 11. The order is thus ord11 8 = 10.
**

216 Example Let a1 = 4, an = 4an−1 , n > 1. Find the remainder when a100 is divided by 7.

78

Theorems of Fermat and Wilson

79

Solution: By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 46 ≡ 1 mod 7. Now, 4n ≡ 4 mod 6 for all positive integers n, i.e., 4n = 4 + 6t for some integer t. Thus a100 ≡ 4a99 ≡ 44+6t ≡ 44 · (46 )t ≡ 4 mod 7.

217 Example Prove that for m, n ∈ Z, mn(m60 − n60) is always divisible by 56786730.

Solution: Let a = 56786730 = 2 · 3 · 5 · 7 · 11 · 13 · 31 · 61. Let Q(x, y) = xy(x60 − y60 ). Observe that (x − y)|Q(x, y), (x2 − y2 )|Q(x, y), (x3 − y3 )|Q(x, y), (x4 − y4 )|Q(x, y), (x6 − y6 )|Q(x, y), (x10 − y10 )|Q(x, y), (x12 − y12 )|Q(x, y), and (x30 − y30 )|Q(x, y). If p is any one of the primes dividing a, the Corollary to Fermat’s Little Theorem yields m p − m ≡ 0 mod p and n p − n ≡ 0 mod p. Thus n(m p − m) − m(n p − n) ≡ 0 mod p, i.e., mn(m p−1 − n p−1) ≡ 0 mod p. Hence, we have 2|mn(m − n)|Q(m, n), 3|mn(m2 −n2 )|Q(m, n), 5|mn(m4 −n4 )|Q(m, n), 7|mn(m6 −n6 )|Q(m, n), 11|mn(m10 −n10 )|Q(m, n), 13|mn(m12 −n12 )|Q(m, n), 31|m n30 )|Q(m, n) and 61|mn(m60 − n60 )|Q(m, n). Since these are all distinct primes, we gather that a|mnQ(m, n), which is what we wanted.

218 Example (Putnam 1972) Show that given an odd prime p, there are always inﬁnitely many integers n for which p|n2n + 1.

**Answer: For any odd prime p, take n = (p − 1)2k+1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .. Then n2n + 1 ≡ (p − 1)2k+1 (2 p−1 )(p−1) + 1 ≡ (−1)2k+1 12k + 1 ≡ 0
**

2k

mod p.

219 Example Prove that there are no integers n > 1 with n|2n − 1.

Solution: If n|2n − 1 for some n > 1, then n must be odd and have a smallest odd prime p as a divisor. By Fermat’s Little Theorem, 2 p−1 ≡ 1 mod p. By Corollary ?? , ord p2 has a prime factor in common with p − 1. Now, p|n|2n − 1 and so 2n ≡ 1 mod p. Again, by Corollary ??, ord p 2 must have a common prime factor with n (clearly ord p2 > 1). This means that n has a smaller prime factor than p, a contradiction.

220 Example Let p be a prime. Prove that

1.

2.

Ç

å p−1 ≡ (−1)n n Ç å p+1 ≡0 n

mod p, 1 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

mod p, 2 ≤ n ≤ p − 1.

3. If p = 5 is an odd prime, prove that either f p−1 or f p+1 is divisible by p. Solution: (1) (p − 1)(p − 2) · · ·(p − n) ≡ (−1)(−2) · · · (−n) ≡ (−1)n n! mod p. The assertion follows from this. (2) (p + 1)(p)(p − 1) · · ·(p − n + 2) ≡ (1)(0)(−1) · · · (−n + 2) ≡ 0 mod p. The assertion follows from this. (3) Using the Binomial Theorem and Binet’s Formula ÇÇ å Ç å Ç å å n n 1 n +5 fn = n−1 + 52 + ··· . 1 2 3 5 From this and (1), 2 p−2 f p−1 ≡ p − 1 − (5 + 52 + · · · + 5(p−3)/2) ≡ − 5(p−1)/2 − 1 4 mod p.

80 Using (2), Thus But by Fermat’s Little Theorem, 5 2 p f p+1 ≡ p + 1 + 5(p−1)/2 ≡ 5(p−1)/2 + 1 2 p f p−1 f p+1 ≡ 5 p−1 − 1 mod p. mod p.

Chapter 7

p−1

≡ 1 mod p for p = 5. The assertion follows.

221 Lemma If a2 ≡ 1 mod p, then either a ≡ 1 mod p or a ≡ −1 mod p.

Proof: We have p|a2 − 1 = (a − 1)(a + 1). Since p is a prime, it must divide at least one of the factors. This proves the lemma.u

222 Theorem (Wilson’s Theorem) If p is a prime, then (p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p.

In other words,

Proof: If p = 2 or p = 3, the result follows by direct veriﬁcation. So assume that p > 3. Consider a, 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2. To each such a we associate its unique inverse a mod p, i.e. aa ≡ 1 mod p. Observe that a = a since then we would have a2 ≡ 1 mod p which violates the preceding lemma as a = 1, a = p − 1. Thus in multiplying all a in the range 2 ≤ a ≤ p − 2, we pair them of with their inverses, and the net contribution of this product is therefore 1. In symbols, 2 · 3 · · ·(p − 2) ≡ 1 mod p. (p − 1)! ≡ 1 · Ñ j é · (p − 1) ≡ 1 · 1 · (p − 1) ≡ −1 mod p.

2≤a≤p−2

This gives the result. u

223 Example If p ≡ 1 mod 4, prove that

As (−1)(p−1)/2 = 1, we obtain the result.

**Solution: In the product (p − 1)! we pair off j, 1 ≤ j ≤ (p − 1)/2 with p − j. Observe that j(p − j) ≡ − j2 mod p. Hence Å ã p−1 −1 ≡ (p − 1)! ≡ − j2 ≡ (−1)(p−1)/2 ! mod p. 2
**

1≤ j≤(p−1)/2

Å

ã p−1 ! ≡ −1 2

mod p.

224 Example (IMO 1970) Find the set of all positive integers n with the property that the set

{n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} can be partitioned into two sets such that the product of the numbers in one set equals the product of the numbers in the other set. Solution: We will show that no such partition exists. Suppose that we can have such a partition, with one of the subsets having product of its members equal to A and the other having product of its members equal to B. We might have two possibilities. The ﬁrst possibility is that exactly one of the numbers in the set {n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4, n + 5} is divisible by 7, in which case exactly one of A or B is divisible by 7, and so A · B is not divisible by 72 , and so A · B is not a square. The second possibility is that all of the members of the set are relatively prime to 7. In this last case we have n(n + 1) · · ·(n + 6) ≡ 1 · 2 · · ·6 ≡ A · B ≡ −1 mod 7.

But if A = B then we are saying that there is an integer A such that A2 ≡ −1 mod 7, which is an impossibility, as −1 is not a square mod 7. This ﬁnishes the proof.

Proof: Let a1 . . Problem 7.1. . n) = 1. 42) = 1 prove that 168|m − n .5 If p is a prime prove that p|a p + (p − 1)!a for 1 ·3 · · · (p −2) ≡ 2 ·4 · · · (p −1) ≡ (−1) all integers a. .1 Find all the natural numbers n for which 3|(n2n + 1).3 Find all primes p such that p|2 p + 1.Practice
81
Practice
Problem 7.
6
6
Problem 7. by Euler’s Theorem.
Problem 7.
Solution: As φ (100) = 40. mod 100. Thus aa1 · aa2 · · · aaφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) or aφ (n) a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) ≡ a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) mod n. Thus 31000 = (340 )25 ≡ 125 = 1 and so the last two digits are 01.1. we may cancel the product a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) from both sides of the congruence to obtain Euler’s Theorem. Problem 7.u Using Theorem ?? we obtain the following corollary. As (a. Problem 7. 227 Example Find the last two digits of 31000 .12 Prove that 19|(22 integers k.
Problem 7. . Answer: p = 3 only.11 Prove that if p is an odd prime mod p Problem 7.1. Prove that q p−1 + pq−1 ≡ 1 mod pq. aφ (n) be the canonical reduced residues mod n.
6k+2
+ 3) for all nonnegative
7. n) = 1.1. .4 If p and q are distinct primes prove that pq|(a pq − a p − aq − a) for all integers a. Problem 7.1. due to Euler. . n) = 1.6 If (mn. a2 .1.1.1.
As (a1 a2 · · · aφ (n) .2
Euler’s Theorem
In this section we obtain a generalisation of Fermat’s Little Theorem. aa1 .8 If p is an odd prime prove that n p ≡ n mod 2p for all integers n.1.9 If p is an odd prime and p|m p + n p prove that p2 |m p + n p.1.
mod n. aa2 .1.7 Let p and q be distinct primes.10 Prove that n > 1 is a prime if and only if (n − 1)! ≡ −1 mod n. .
2 2 2 2 2 2 (p−1)/2 Problem 7.2 Prove that there are inﬁnitely many integers n with n|2n + 2.
225 Theorem (Euler’s Theorem) Let (a. The proof is analogous to that of Fermat’s Little Theorem. Then ordn a|φ (n). Problem 7. aaφ (n) also forms a set of incongruent reduced residues. 340 ≡ 1 mod 100. n) = 1. Problem 7.1.
.
226 Corollary Let (a. . Then aφ (n) ≡ 1 mod n.

Solution: As m + n = n − m + 2m. by Euler’s Theorem.
Solution: First observe that φ (100) = φ (22 )φ (52 ) = (22 − 2)(52 − 5) = 40.
1978m are equal. 1978s ≡ 3s ≡ 1 mod 5. (ii) (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 is divisible by 77 . mod 125. hence 716 ≡ 1 mod 40. (ii)′ a2 + ab + b2 is divisible by 73 .e. Since s is the smallest positive integer with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. Since 125|(1978 − 1) we have 5|(1978s − 1). Now. Since the second factor is odd.82
228 Example Find the last two digits of 77
1000
Chapter 7 . this last congruence implies that s = 4. Similarly 197820 ≡ 19784 · (19784)4 ≡ 6 · 64 ≡ 6 · 46 ≡ 26 mod 125. to the last three digits of 1978n.e. m = 3..
229 Example (IMO 1978) m.
s
1978100 ≡ 1
mod 125
This means that s = 20 and so s = 100. By Euler’s Theorem and so by Corollary 7. n are natural numbers with 1 ≤ m < n. b such that: (i) ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7. we take n −m = s = 100 and m = 3.
230 Example (IMO 1984) Find one pair of positive integers a. and ﬁnally. Since s|100. respectively. Now. Find m. ord1251978 is the smallest positive integer s with 1978s ≡ 1 mod 125. Finally. 1000 = 16 · 62 + 8.3 s|100. 740 ≡ 1 mod 100. Justify your answer.
. In their decimal representations. i. the last three digits of
1000
≡ 71+40t ≡ 7 · (740)t ≡ 7
mod 100. n such that m + n has its least value. i.
Solution: We ﬁrst factorise (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 as ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 . n = 103. Hence. 7(a6 b + ab6 + 3(a5b2 + a2 b5 ) + 5(a4b3 + a3 b4 )) 7ab(a5 + b5 + 3ab(a3 + b3) + 5(a2 b2 )(a + b)) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 − a3 b − ab3 + a2 b2 +3ab(a2 − ab + b2) + 5ab) 7ab(a + b)(a4 + b4 + 2(a3b + ab3) + 3a2b2 ) 7ab(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2)2 .. We now rule out the ﬁrst two possibilities. 23 must divide the ﬁrst and so m ≥ 3. m + n = 106. or 100. Using the Binomial Theorem we have (a + b)7 − a7 − b7 = = = = = The given hypotheses can be thus simpliﬁed to (i)′ ab(a + b) is not divisible by 7. This means that 71000 = 1 + 40t for some integer t. We are given that 1978n − 1978m = 1978m(1978n−m − 1) is divisible by 1000 = 23 53 . Observe that 19784 ≡ (−22)4 ≡ 24 · 114 ≡ (4 · 121)2 ≡ (−16)2 ≡ 6 This means that s = 4. 20. Upon assembling all this 77 This means that the last two digits are 07. This means that 71000 ≡ (716 )62 78 ≡ 162 78 ≡ (74 )2 ≡ 12 ≡ 1 mod 40. φ (40) = φ (23 )φ (5) = 4 · 4 = 16. we minimise n − m.

11 (Putnam 1985) Describe the sequence a1 = 3. and so if x is not divisible by 7 we have (x98 )3 ≡ 1 mod 73 . an = 7an−1 .2.10 (USAMO 1982) Prove that there exists a positive integer k such that k · 2n + 1 is composite for every positive integer n. .4 Let p |10 be a prime. as 12 + 1 · 18 + 182 = 343 = 73 .2 Prove that 504|n9 − n3 . We must verify now the conditions of non-divisibility.2. Thus letting a = 298 . b = 18 give an answer.9 Prove that for every natural number n there exists some power of 2 whose ﬁnal n digits are all ones and 11 .
n n n
Problem 7. n|(2 − 1).
n!
Problem 7. . we ﬁnd that a = 1.2. 11. Problem 7.3 Prove that for odd integer n > 0.6 Let (m. Prove that p divides inﬁnitely many numbers of the form Problem 7. n) = 1. Letting x = 3 we ﬁnd that 398 ≡ 324 mod 73 . b = 1. For example. there is an integer n divisible by s. Problem 7. twos. letting x = 2 we see that 298 ≡ 4 mod 7.8 Find the remainder of 1010 + 1010 + · · · + 1010 upon division by 7. which gives the ﬁrst part of (ii)’. Prove that mφ (n) + nφ (n) ≡ 1 mod mn. Using trial and error. b = 1 is another solution.
2 10
Problem 7.2. We leave to the reader to verify that a = 324.
.
Practice
Problem 7. Problem 7.2. (ii)’ is implied by ß 3 a ≡ b3 mod 73 ′′ (ii) a ≡ b mod 7.1 Show that for all natural numbers s. As a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2).2. we obtain a + b ≥ 19. Let us look for more solutions by means of Euler’s Theorem. Problem 7.
Now φ (73 ) = (7 − 1)72 = 3 · 98.Practice
83
As (a + b)2 > a2 + ab + b2 ≥ 73 .2.2.2. Problem 7.5 Find all natural numbers n that divide 1 + 2 + · · · + (n − 1) . Problem 7.7 Find the last two digits of a1001 if a1 = 7.2.2. such that the sum of the digits of n equals s. an = 3an−1 mod 100 for large n.

So x2 − 10x − 22 < x. P(x) = 2 and x2 − 10x − 22 = 2.Chapter
8
n = a0 10k + a1 10k−1 + · · · + ak−1 10 + ak. but x2 − 10x − 22 = 1. 13. P(x) = 0. y has the form 250 · · ·0(n − 2 zeroes). . 24
From this we gather that n ≥ 2 (otherwise. 6 · 10n would not be divisible by 24).
n−2 zeroes
232 Example (IMO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x2 −
10x − 22. If x had one digit. 0 .
233 Example A whole number decreases an integral number of times when its last digit is deleted. Therefore. an−1 = 0. If x = 12.
84
. y = 25 · 10k−2. whence x has either one digit or x = 10. P(x) = x2 − 10x − 22. ak ≤ 9.
Solution: Let the number sought have n + 1 digits. j ≥ 1. then a0 = x2 − 10x − 22. If x = 11. P(x) = 1. P(x) = a0 a1 · · · an−1 ≤ 9n−1 an−1 < 10n−1an−1 ≤ x (strict inequality occurs when x has more than one digit). . For n ≥ 2. Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x. but this equation has no integral solutions.
Scales of Notation
8. where y is a number with n digits (it may begin with one or several zeroes). 65789 = 6 · 104 + 5 · 103 + 7 · 102 + 8 · 10 + 9. 0 ≤ a j ≤ 9. and we deduce that x < 13. but x2 − 10x − 22 = 0. Now. any natural number n can be written in the form
where 1 ≤ a0 ≤ 9. 11.1 The Decimal Scale
As we all know. x = 12 is the only solution. that is. For example.
231 Example Find all whole numbers which begin with the digit 6 and decrease 25 times when this digit is deleted. If x = 10. Then this number can be written as 6 · 10n + y. Solution: Let x have the form x = a0 + a1 10 + a2102 + · · · + an−110n−1. We conclude that all the numbers sought have the form 625 0 . The condition of the problem stipulates that 6 · 10n + y = 25 · y whence y= 6 · 10n . Find all such numbers.

how many different numerators are required? abc . then p(n) is equal to that digit. . = 0. This implies that j must be odd. which gives the result. 66. We obtain all the three digit numbers from 001 to 999 by expanding the product (0 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 0. and so p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(n) = 111 + 112 + · · ·+ 999 = (1 + 1 + 2 + · · ·+ 9)3 − 1. a1 be the consecutive digits of A and A′ = a′ a′ . once for 110.abcabcabc . an integer. Let A = a10 a9 . 39. 55. . the fraction is already Solution: Observe that 0. once for 011.The Decimal Scale
85
Solution: Let 0 ≤ y ≤ 9. What is the largest prime factor of S? Solution: Observe that non-zero digits are the ones that matter. we see that the sinistral side of the above equality is the even number 2(a1 + a2 + · · · + s a10 ).22. and 811 have the same value p(n). If abc is neither divisible by 3 nor 37. 0 < r < 1. 810. and 99.) As 463 − 1 = 33 · 5 · 7 · 103. 108. by 1’s. and 999 = 33 · 37. m and x natural numbers. If y = 0.) The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is thus 640 + 12 = 660. 26. any natural number x will do. By the Inclusion-Exclusion Principle. . we just have to substitute the (possible) zeroes in the decimal representation. and we obtain 11. 1
235 Example (AIME 1994) Given a positive integer n. 88. 118. Continuing in this fashion. a j+1 +a′j+1 = 10.
Solution: Clearly A and A′ must have ten digits. 16. the sought numbers are: the multiples of 10. Prove that if A + A′ = 1010 . then A is divisible by 10. 37|s. where 3|s. and 10x + y = mx. 14. 33. 48. . x = 1. let p(n) be the product of the non-zero digits of n. (In the last sum. 0 ≤ j ≤ 9 for which a1 +a′ = a2 +a′ = · · · = a j +a′j = 0. 36.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(999). There are 12 fractions of this kind. a j+2 +a′j+2 = 1 2 a j+3 + a′j+3 = · · · = a10 + a′ = 9. 800. Thus (0 + 1 + 2 · · · + 9)3 − 0 = 001 + 002 + · · ·+ 999. c are not necessarily distinct. On adding all these sums. and thus not in S. 17. But this implies that a1 + a′ = 0. once for 100. 44. 11. once for 001. In order to obtain p(n) for a particular number. for example. and we obtain the multiples of 10. where we subtracted a 0 in order to eliminate 000. If y = 1. 77. the numbers 180. b. that have a repeating decimal expansion of the
form 0. (Observe that we do not consider fractions of the form l/3t . etc. the number required is 103. = 999 in lowest terms. k ≥ 2. 111 is repeated various times.abcabcabc .
236 Example (AIME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r. where the digits a. We must have x|y.
which equals 463 − 1. 28. once for 101. we gather l a1 + a′ + a2 + a′ + · · · + a10 + a′ = 10 + 9(9 − j). 1 2 10 Since the a′ are a permutation of the as . . Now. 12. 13. 3 |l. . To write the elements of S as fractions in lowest terms. 19. Also. . So. a′ . 15. because fractions of this form are greater than 1. there are 999 − (999/3 + 999/37) + 999/3 · 37 = 648 such numbers. fractions of the form s/37.abc. and A′ be a number written with the aid of the same digits with are arranged in some
other order. and j = 9 10 implies that there are no sums of the form al + a′ . 1 ≤ l ≤ j.
234 Example Let A be a positive integer. This requires 10 + y/x = m. 37 |s are in S. (If n has only one
digit. 18. 24. Notice that j = 0 implies that there are no sums of the form a j+k + a′j+k .
. If y = 2. x = 1 or x = 2 and we obtain 12 and 22. . 10 9 1 A+A′ = 1010 if and only if there is a j.

Solution: Let n be an arbitrary positive integer with k digits.6 Given that n ≥ 2. bac.11 The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15 let N be number obtained from m by writing the same digits in such that every digit of n is either 0 or 8.7 Let t be a positive real number. because the hundredth digit enters the sequence in the placement of the two-digit integer 55.1. to add the number and to reveal their sum N.1.
Problem 8. .1. Then all of the n consecutive integers m + 1. 1 1 1 e = 2 + + + + ··· . where a.3 (AIME 1989) Suppose that n is a positive integer and d is a single digit in base-ten. .86
Chapter 8
237 Example (Putnam 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10
digits. . . Find f1988 (11). .1. Problem 8.
Practice
Problem 8. f (1987). The magician asks his victim to form {1000.1. Prove that at least one digit in the decimal representation of the number M + N is even. let f1 (k) denote the square of the sums of the digits of k. the “maProblem 8. Problem 8. m + 2. If the 10n digit of this sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit numbers are placed.. . reversed order. Play the magician and determine abc if N = 319.5 Let m be a seventeen-digit positive integer and Problem 8. Compute n/15.1.1 Prove that there is no whole number which decreases 35 times when its initial digit is deleted. . The total number of digits in numbers with at most r digits is g(r) = r 10r − 1 10r − 1 j · 9 · 10r−1 = r10r − . If told the value of N.13 (IMO 1969) Determine all three-digit numprove that e is irrational. 1001.9 (AIME 1987) An ordered pair (m. bers N that are divisible by 11 and such that N/11 equals the
. deﬁne f (n) to be m. Prove that there is a positive integer n such that the decimal expansion of nt contains a 7.4 (AIME 1992) For how many pairs of consec. n) of nonnegative integers is called simple if the addition m + n requires no carrying. cab and cba.gician” asks one of the participants to think of a three-digit number abc. 810 Problem 8. let fn (k) = f1 ( fn−1 (k)). Find the number of simple ordered pairs of nonnegative integers that sum 1492.2 A whole number is equal to the arithmetic mean of all the numbers obtained from the given number with the aid of all possible permutations of its digits. c represent the digits of the number utive integers in in the order indicated. For example f (2) = 2. is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. Find. we get (r − 1)10r < g(r) < r10r . Find all whole numbers with that property. Problem 8. with proof. Thus g(1983) < 1983 · 101983 < 9 9
j=1
104 · 101983 = 101987 and g(1984) > 1983 · 101984 > 103 · 101984.8 (AIME 1988) Find the smallest positive integer whose cube ends in 888. Solution: There are 9 · 10 j−1 j-digit positive integers.d25d25d25d25 .1. As 0 < < 10r . . Problem 8. Therefore f (1987) = 1984.. .12 (AIME 1988) For any positive integer k.m + n begin with 1234567890 and one of them is divisible by n. Let m = 123456789 · 10k+1.
238 Example (Putnam 1987) The sequence of digits
12345678910111213141516171819202122 .1.1.1.1.10 (AIME 1986) In the parlor game. For Problem 8.1. Problem 8. Find n if n = 0. b. 2! 3! 4! Problem 8. the magician can is no carrying required when the two integers are added? identity abc. . 2000} the numbers acb. Problem 8.1.

however. .16 A Liouville number is a real number x such that for every positive k there exist integers a and b ≥ 2.
239 Example Express the decimal number 5213 in base-seven. it must be the case that a4 = 2. We gather that a2 = 5.. .14 (IMO 1962) Find the smallest natural num. 16 6 62 63
4 + proper fraction = a1 + proper fraction. Thus 5213 − 2 · 74 = 411 = a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 . Problem 8. Multiply by 62 to obtain 6 6 5 + proper fraction = a2 + proper fraction. Now. of the other digits. Show that Champernowne’s number Problem 8. Since a4 is an integer. + 2 = 2+ r r r
.that ber having last digit is 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in front |x − a/b| < b−k . Let r ∈ Q and let ε > 0 be given.
8. divide by 74 to obtain 2 + proper fraction = a4 + proper fraction. a4 = 0.
Solution: If 4.. Given any positive integer r > 1.Non-decimal Scales sum of the squares of the digits of N. . .1.15 is irrational. express any number in base r. ﬁnd the last thousand digits of 1 + 50 + 502 + · · · + 50999. . 1.. such that 5213 = a4 74 + a373 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0.
87
Problem 8.
240 Example Express the decimal number 13/16 in base-six. then 4. We thus want to ﬁnd 0 ≤ a0 .17 Given that 1/49 = 0.123456789101112131415161718192021 .
Solution: Write Multiply by 6 to obtain
13 a1 a2 a3 = + + + . .41 is in scale r.
Solution: Observe that 5213 < 75 . Prove or disprove that π is the sum of two Liouville numbers. such Problem 8.1. a4 ≤ 6.41 is a perfect square in any scale of notation.. Hence 13/16 − 4/6 = 7/48 = 2 + 3 + . .1.
χ = 0. a2 a3 Thus a1 = 4.45136. the resulting number is four times as large as the original number.1. Prove that there exists a positive integer n such that |10n χ − r| < ε .
241 Example Prove that 4. we can. Dividing 411 by 73 we obtain 1 + proper fraction = a3 + proper fraction. 2. Continuing in this fashion. we deduce that 13/16 = .2
Non-decimal Scales
The fact that most people have ten ﬁngers has ﬁxed our scale of notation to the decimal.41 = 4 + ã Å 1 2 4 1 . . Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 211257.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551. Thus a3 = 1.

Solution: If the terms of the sequence are written in base-3.. . This will happen if and only if x0 has a repeating expansion with a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 as the repeating block . 2..
From this we see that 63x − 6 < 12345 ≤ 63x. . 8x = 8 · 195 + 4a1 + 2a2 + a3 . 10. 3. To obtain the 100-th term of the sequence we just write 100 in binary 100 = 11001002 and translate this into ternary: 11001003 = 36 + 35 + 32 = 981. . 9.
244 Example (AIME 1986) The increasing sequence
1. .
Adding we ﬁnd that x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 63 · 195 + 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 . Thus. . 13. Then 2x = 2 · 195 + a1. 111. . The total number of values for which x0 = x5 is thus 32 − 1 = 31.a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 . . = 0. There are 25 = 32 such blocks. 2 2 2 with ak = 0 or 1. the terms of the sequence in ascending order are thus 1. . . . For how many x0 is it true that x0 = x5 ? Solution: Write x0 in base-two. let
xn =
for all integers n > 0. 3. which is outside [0. 10. x0 =
k=1 ∞
ß
2xn−1 if 2xn−1 < 1 2xn−1 − 1 if 2xn−1 ≥ 1
an an = 0 or 1. 12. In the binary scale.e.88
242 Example Let x denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x. Recall that x satisﬁes the inequalities x − 1 < x ≤ x.a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 . 2n
The algorithm given just moves the binary point one unit to the right. . Does the equation
Chapter 8
x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x = 12345 have a solution? Solution: We show that there is no such x.
Practice
. Thus x − 1 + 2x − 1 + 4x − 1 + · · ·+ 32x − 1 < ≤ x + 2x + 4x + 8x + 16x + 32x x + 2x + 4x + · · ·+ 32x. . consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums distinct powers of 3. of course. 11. This cannot be because 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 ≤ 31 + 15 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 57 < 60. 16x = 16 · 195 + 8a1 + 4a2 + 2a3 + a4 . . Hence 195 < x < 196. 4. 1). 32x = 32 · 195 + 16a1 + 8a2 + 4a3 + 2a4 + a5. . Write then x in base-two: a1 a2 a3 x = 195 + + 2 + 3 + . i.
243 Example (AHSME 1993) Given 0 ≤ x0 < 1. then x0 = 1. But if a1 = a2 = · · · = a5 = 1. 110. . 101. 100. these numbers are. For x0 to equal x5 we need 0. 4x = 4 · 195 + 2a1 + a2 . . 1. Find the hundredth term of the sequence. they comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit 2. . 31a1 + 15a2 + 7a3 + 3a4 + a5 = 60.

1987) For each positive integer n. B(6) = B(1102) = 2. one has
∞
n=1
(−1) 2n
2n x
= 1 − 2(x − x ).2 Prove that for x ∈ R. g are polynomials. B(15) = B(11112) = 4.2. Calculate E(n) lim 2 . 1982) The base-eight representation of a perfect square is ab3c with a = 0. Does continuation of this process always lead to a balanced triple after a ﬁnite number of performances of the balancing act? Problem 8.A theorem of Kummer Problem 8. 1 2 3
8. x3 ) of positive irrational numbers with x1 + x2 + x3 = 1 and f . 1. Problem 8. For which positive real numbers x does the series
∞ n=1
89 where x′ = 2xi if xi = x j and x′j = 2x j − 1. let α (n) be the number of zeroes in the base-three representation of n.1 (Putnam. Show that no three integers in C are in arithmetic progression. Find the value of c. x2 . pk
. n→∞ n Problem 8.
exp
n=1
B(n) n2 + n
a rational number? 2.2. If a triple is not balanced. x3 ) = (x′ .3 (Putnam. The
exact power m of a prime p dividing n! is given by
m= Proof: By De Polignac’s Formula
n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) .4 (AHSME.
Problem 8. 1981) Let E(n) denote the largest k such that 5k is an integral divisor of 11 22 33 · · · nn . (P UTNAM 1981) Is
∞
xα (n) n3
converge? Problem 8.2.2. x ≥ 0.6 Let C denote the class of positive integers which.8 What is the largest integer that I should be “balancing act”: permitted to choose so that you may determine my number in twenty “yes” or “no” questions? B(x1 . If the new triple i is not balanced. is called balanced if xn < 1/2 for all 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. when written in base-three.2. x2 .2.2.3
A theorem of Kummer
We ﬁrst establish the following theorem. one performs the following Problem 8.
245 Theorem (Legendre) Let p be a prime and let n = a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak−1 p + ak be the base-p expansion of n. do not require the digit 2.2. For example. x′ . (P UTNAM 1984) Express
2m −1
(−1)B(n) nm
n=0
Problem 8. one performs the balancing act on it. x′ ). p−1
∞
m=
k=1
n .5 (Putnam. 1977) An ordered triple of in the form (−1)m a f (m) (g(m))! where a is an integer (x1 . say x j > 1/2.7 Let B(n) be the number of 1’s in the base-two expansion of n.

.u
. Sb =
b j . Let Sa =
k j=0
a j . +c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk
We deduce that a + b = c0 + c1 p + · · · + ck pk + εk pk+1 . n/p = a0 pk−1 + a1 pk−2 + · · · ak−2 p + ak−1 . 0 ≤ c j ≤ p − 1. and adding them: a + b + ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . Proof:
k j=0
Ç
å a+b is equal to the a
Let a = a0 + a1 p + · · · + ak pk .
εk−1 + ak + bk = εk p + ck . By adding all the equalities above. Upon using Legendre’s result from above. + εk−1 pk + εk pk+1 . . .u
246 Theorem (Kummer’s Theorem) The exact power of a prime p dividing the binomial coefﬁcient
number of “carry-overs” when performing the addition of a. b = b0 + b1 p + · · · + bk pk . and ak + bk > 0. . and ε j = 0 or 1. which gives the result. (p − 1)m = (a + b) − Sa+b − a + Sa − b + Sb = (p − 1)(ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk ). ε0 + a1 + b1 = ε1 p + c1. p2 . . Let c j . n/p2 = a0 pk−2 + a1 pk−3 + · · · + ak−2 . b written in base p. 0 ≤ a j . . p. = p−1
as wanted. + εk−1 pk =
ε0 p + ε1 p2 + . b j ≤ p − 1. Thus
∞
n/pk
k=1
= a0 (1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−1 ) + a1(1 + p + p2 + · · · + pk−2 )+ · · · + ak−1 (1 + p) + ak pk − 1 pk−1 − 1 p2 − 1 p−1 = a0 + a1 + · · · + ak−1 + ak p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 a0 pk + a1 pk−1 + · · · + ak − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) = p−1 n − (a0 + a1 + · · · + ak ) . . . ε1 + a2 + b2 = ε2 p + c2. n/pk = a0 . . . . . we obtain similarly: Sa + Sb + (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk−1 ) = (ε0 + ε1 + · · · + εk )p + Sa+b − εk . .90
Chapter 8 Now.
Multiplying all these equalities successively by 1. . be deﬁned as follows: a0 + b0 = ε0 p + c0.

Chapter
9
p
Miscellaneous Problems
247 Example Prove that
1 p
p prime
diverges.3 diverges as x → ∞. 1 + + 2 + ··· = p p p
p≤x p≤x
p prime
p prime
248 Example Prove that for each positive integer k there exist inﬁnitely many even positive integers which can be written in more than k ways as the sum of two odd primes. (9. 1 − x2
This yields
p>2 p prime
x p−1 ≤
√ x C√ .1) p p n
p≤x
p prime
n∈Fx
Now.
n∈Fx
1 1 > .
As the harmonic series diverges.
Solution: Let ak denote the number of ways in which 2k can be written as the sum of two odd primes. But ã Å 1 1 1 + O(1). the product on the sinistral side of 2. n n≤x n
This ﬁnishes the proof.3. 1 − x2
91
. Assume that ak ≤ C ∀ k for some positive constant C. By the Unique Factorisation Theorem Å ã 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + ··· = . Then Ü ê2
∞
xp
=
p>2 p prime
k=2
ak x2k ≤ C
x4 . Solution: Let Fx denote the family consisting of the integer 1 and the positive integers n all whose prime factors are less than or equal to x.

249 Example (IMO 1976) Determine. x + 1/n) into two sets: { |uk /vk − ui /vi | ≥ 1/vi ≥ 1/n. sk }. 2. . 2(a − 1)}. n
with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = · · · = an . with proof. we must take ak = 2 or ak = 3. in order to maximise the product. Prove that
the number of irreducible fractions a/b.
250 Example (USAMO 1983) Consider an open interval of length 1/n on the real line. k.s = Show that Qr.92 Integrating term by term. where p is a prime
(rs)! . Deﬁne us+k = ck sk . Thus we want to make the ak as equal as possible. Since 1976 = 3 · 658 + 2.
p>2 p prime
Chapter 9
1 √ ≤ C p
1 0
√
x 1 − x2
dx =
√ C. Therefore. contained in the given interval is at most (n + 1)/2. 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 + 3. 2. . . but the sum remains the same. . We must take as many 2’s and 3’s as possible. since we are assuming ak ≥ 4. Solution: Suppose that
n
a1 + a2 + · · · + an = 1976. yk+r = uk+r /vk+r . r!s!
.
But the leftmost series is divergent.
251 Example Let
Qr. for every tk there are integers ck such that n/2 ≤ ck tk ≤ n. we replace it by two numbers 2. Hence the number of distinct rationals is r + s ≤ n − n/2 ≤ (n + 1)/2. Then the sum is not affected. which contradicts that the open interval is of length 1/n. . k = 1. No two of the yl . We shall replace some of the ak so that the product is enlarged. where n is a positive integer. thus we should take no more than two 2’s. 1 ≤ l ≤ r + s are equal. the largest number which is the product of positive integers whose sum is
1976. contradicting the hypothesis that the open interval is of length 1/n. with denominators 1 ≤ tk ≤ n/2 and tk those uk /vk . 1 ≤ b ≤ n. s with denominators n/2 < vk ≤ n. But then |sk /tk − si /ti | = |msi − sk |/tk ≥ 1/n. where all these fractions are in reduced form. . By the Pigeonhole Principle.s mod p.ps ≡ Qr. the largest possible product is 2 · 3658. and we obtain a contradiction. ti |tk for some i. If we have an ak ≥ 4. Aliter: Suppose to the contrary that we have at least (n + 1)/2 + 1 = a fractions. .tk . . say tk = mti . but 23 < 32 . . vs+k = ck tk . Let sk . By
we want to maximise
k=1
the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality
n 1/n
ak
k=1
≤
a1 + a2 + · · · + an . The set of denominators is a subset of {1. . for otherwise y j = yk would yield Solution: Divide the rational numbers in (x. r. . but 2(ak − 2) ≥ ak . Now. ak − 2. 1 ≤ k ≤ a be the set of numerators and denominators. k = 1. ak . Now. . 2.

ps − 1
å js − 1 s−1
mod p
mod p.
Practice
Problem 9.0. Find n. Problem 9. 0 < r < and its last two digits are equal to each other. y such that 3x2 − 7y2 = −1.8 Determine two-parameter solutions for the “almost” Fermat Diophantine equations xn−1 + yn−1 = zn .+ + + a1 a2 an−1 an a1 a2 · · · an has at least one solution for every n ∈ N.0.
k! = y2 . Problem 9. x2 . c such that 1987 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc..2 Find all integral solutions of the equation
x
Problem 9.0.ps =
r j=1
it follows from that
(1 + x) j ps−1 ≡ (1 + x p) js−1 (1 + x) p−1 Ç å Ç å jps − 1 js − 1 ≡ ps − 1 s−1
Ç
Ç
å jps − 1 . a3 +b3 +c3 −3abc = (a+b+c)(a2 +b2 +c2 −ab−bc−ca).0.13 Prove that 1.4 (USAMO 1985) Determine whether there are any positive integral solutions to the simultaneous equations
2 x1 + x2 + · · · + x2 = y3 . z.6 (AIME 1987) Find the largest possible value of k for which 311 is expressible as the sum of k consecutive positive integers.s =
j=1
93
r
and Qr.Practice Solution: As Qr.0.12 Show that there are inﬁnitely many integers x. 2.0.
.9 (AIME 1984) What is the largest even integer which cannot be written as the sum of two odd composite numbers? Problem 9.0.5 Show that the Diophantine equation 1 1 1 1 1 + + .0.0.3 Find all integral solutions of the equation
x
k! = yz . Problem 9. b.7 (AIME 1987) Let M be the smallest positive square such that its ﬁrst two digits are equal to each other integer whose cube is of the form n + r. xn+1 + yn−1 = zn . Problem 9..11 Find the integral solutions of x2 + x = y4 + y3 + y2 + y. Problem 9. x1985 . . Find integers a. 2 1985
x3 + x3 + · · · + x3 = z2 1 2 1985 with distinct integers x1 .0. Problem 9. Problem 9.1 Find a four-digit number which is a perfect Problem 9.0. .
k=1
Problem 9.10 Prove that are inﬁnitely many nonnegative integers n which cannot be written as n = x2 + y3 + z6 for nonnegative integers x.0. 1/1000. . y. xn+1 + yn+1 = zn .
k=1
Problem 9.
whence the result. .0. where n ∈ N.

of the series at any point is also a perfect square.22 Prove that any positive rational integer can be expressed as a ﬁnite sum of distinct terms of the harmonic series.0. Prove that Ç å Ç å which can be represented as the sum of two squares. z such that P3 + Q3 + R3 − 3PQR = (x3 + y3 + z3 − 3xyz)2 4. Show that ci ≡ 0 mod p for all i ≥ 1. Problem 9.0.18 Find all integers with x4 − 2y2 = 1. Problem 9.17 Find all positive integers with mn − nm = 1.0.0. If a 1 1 1 = 1 + + + ··· + . b.14 Find all integers n such that n4 + n + 7 is a perfect square.25 Prove that the coefﬁcients of a binomial expansion are odd if and only if n is of the form 2k − 1. Determine the Problem 9.23 (Wostenholme’s Theorem) Let p > 3 be a prime. y..27 Let p be a prime. Show that Ç å p−1 ≡ (−1)k mod p k for all 0 ≤ k ≤ p − 1. Problem 9. 1.0. c with 19872 = a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc? Problem 9.0.94 3. Problem 9. a ∈ N.0.26 Let the numbers ci be deﬁned by the power series identity (1 + x + x2 + · · · + x p−1 )/(1 − x) p−1 := 1 + c1x + c2 x2 + · · · . Ç å maximum number of terms in the sequence. pk ≡ 0 mod p. R in x. Problem 9. Problem 9.20 (IMO 1977) In a ﬁnite sequence of real numbers. Problem 9.24 Prove that the number of odd binomial coefﬁcients in any row of Pascal’s Triangle is a power of 2. Demonstrate that Ç å pk − 1 ≡ (−1)a mod p. 1/3.0. and the sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. .19 Prove that for every positive integer k there Problem 9. 0 ≤ a ≤ pk − 1.30 Let p be a prime and let k.0. Problem 9.15 Prove that 19911991 is not the sum of two perfect squares. Can you ﬁnd integers a.0. Problem 9. Q.0.21 Determine an inﬁnite series of terms such that each term of the series is a perfect square and the sum for 0 < a < pk .29 Demonstrate that for a prime p and k ∈ N.
Problem 9. b 2 3 p−1 then p2 |a. z > 1 such that x!y! = z!. a Problem 9.0. Problem 9.0.0.0. Find polynomials P.0.
Chapter 9 Problem 9. 1/2. a
. pa a ≡ mod p.0. the sum of any seven successive terms is negative. y > 1.16 Find inﬁnitely many integers x > 1. .28 (Putnam 1977) Let p be a prime and let a ≥ exists a sequence of k consecutive positive integers none of b > 0 be integers. . pb b Problem 9.