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FOR THE COURSE OF WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY ENGINEERING
STATE INSTITUTE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DIRECTOR OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION GOVT. OF ANDHRA PRADESH
Intermediate Vocational Course, 2nd Year : ENVIROMENTAL ENGINEERING (For the Course of Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering) Author : Sri P. Venkateswara Rao, Editor : Sri M. Vishnukanth.
State Institute of Vocational Education Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
Printed and Published by the Telugu Akademi, Hyderabad on behalf of State Institute of Vocational Education Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
First Edition : 2005 Copies :
All rights whatsoever in this book are strictly reserved and no portion of it may be reproduced any process for any purpose without the written permission of the copyright owners.
Text Printed at …………………… Andhra Pradesh.
AUTHOR Puli Venkateshwara Rao, M.E. (STRUCT. ENGG.) Junior Lecturer in Vocational, WS & SE Govt. Junior College, Malkajgiri, Secunderabad.
EDITOR M. VISHNUKANTH, B.TECH.(Civil) Junior Lecturer in Vocational, WS & SE Govt. Junior College, Huzurabad, Karimnagar Dist.
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITARY ENGINEERING
STATE INSTITUTE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
DIRECTOR OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION GOVT. OF ANDHRAPRADESH
It includes air. economic and social impact of the control measures applied. which effect the life and health of human beings and other life. the dimensions of total environment were enlarged to include not only the physical factors. the pollutions. Environmental engineering deals with the application of engineering principles to the control. Environmental engineering is concerned with the control of all those which exercise or may exercise deleterious effect on his development. health and sundial with the consideration of the physical.Introduction CHAPTER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING INTRODUCTION : 1. Thus the term environment is defined as all the systems namely atmosphere. modification and adaption . water. But in the changed situations of rapid industrialization and consequent pollution and other problems. food. hydrosphere (non living components) and biosphere (living components) surroundings us. lithosphere.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Page 1 Originally the term Environment was used to mean the surroundings in which the man lives. waste materials and other ecological problems. works and plays including the physical factors without giving much importance to living components. but also factors as components of the environment.
1. treatment and disposal of all the wastes produced from the town or city such as water from bathroom. illustrates waste products of town or city (outlines of sanitary engineering). water supply systems. chemical and biological factors of the environment in the interest of man’s health. comfort and social wellbeing. wastes from Industries etc are not made. some aspects of environmental engineering. such as ecology. waste water treatment and disposal. broken furniture. they will go on accumulating and create (i) (ii) (iii) Buildings and roads will be in danger due to accumulation of spent water in their foundation Disease causing bacteria will bread up in the stagnate water Drinking water will be polluted. from various industrial processes semi liquid wastes of human and animal excreta.Page 2 Environmental Engineering of the physical. treat and dispose of all the waste products of city in such a way that it may not cause any problem to the people residing in the town. lavatory basins. . If proper arrangements for the collection. crockery. Total insanitary conditions will be developed in the town or city and it will become impossible for the public to live in the town or city. In this textbook. Therefore in the interest of the community of the town or city it is most essential to collect. rural sanitation and air pollution are presented. kitchens. dry refuse of house and street sweepings. Table 1. house and street washings.
1 outlines of sanitary engineering .Introduction Page 3 Table 1.
6. In unsewered areas. Proper disposal of human excreta to a safe place. Final disposal of sewage on land or in near by watercourses after some treatment so that receiving land or water may not get polluted and unsafe for its further use. 1. before its starts decomposition and may cause insanitary conditions in the locality 2. 1. SEWER AND SEWERAGE: Sullage: The liquid waste from latrines.Page 4 Environmental Engineering 1. If the sewage is disposed of on land. . As far as possible the fertilizing elements of sewage may be used in growing crops through farming and getting some income in addition to the disposal of sewage 5. To take out all kinds of wastewater from the locality immediately after its use. 4.1 OBJECT OF PROVIDING SEWERAGE WORKS: The following are the aims and objects of sewage disposal. Urinals stable etc is known as sullage. files. so that mosquitos. 3.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS-SULLAGE. the treatment of sewage from individual houses. SEWAGE. should be done by septic tank or other suitable means and the effluent should be disposed of. it should have such s degree of treatment that it may not affect the sub-soil in anyway. bacteria etc may not breed in it and cause nuisance.
Refuse: The term refuse is used to indicate all kinds of dry wastes of the community (i.Introduction Page 5 Sewage: The term sewage is used to indicate the liquid waste from the community and it includes sullage.) street and house sweepings. Garbage: The term indicates dry refuse which includes decayed fruits. Sewerage: The entire science of collecting and carrying sewage by water carriage system through sewers is known as sewerage. This method is also called dry system and is in practice from very ancient times. Storm Sewage: Which includes surface runoff developed during and immediately after rainfall over the concerned area. stable etc industrial waste and storm water. discharge from latrines. 1. vegetables etc.4 SYSTEMS OF SEWERAGE METHODS: 1. urinals. This sewage is extremely foul in nature and required to be disposed of very carefully.3 CLASSIFICATION OF SEWAGE: 1. grass. Sewer: The underground conducts or drains through which is conveyed are known as the sewers. villages and . Conservancy System: In this system various types of refuse and storm water are collected. Sanitary Sewage: Which includes the liquid wastes of domestic and industrial places. leaves. garbage etc. 2. sweepings. This is method is adopting in small towns.e. conveyed and disposed off separately by different methods in this system. paper pieces.. 1.
In this system sullage and storm water are also carried separately in closed or open drains upto the point of disposal. Human excreta or night soil is collected in separate liquid and semi-liquid wastes by animal drawn carts. dust. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES: 1. The sewer section is small and no deposit of silting because storm water goes in open drains. because storm water can pass through open drains. grass are first dried and then disposed of by burning or in the manufacture of manure. . The quantity of sewage reaching at the treatment plant before disposal is low. broken furniture etc… are burnt. ashes etc are used for filling low lying areas and combustible portions such as dry leaves. waste paper. clay. All the uncombustible portions such as sand. vegetables. The decaying fruits. In this method garbage or dry refuse is collected from the dustbins and conveyed by trucks or covered carts once or twice in a day.Page 6 Environmental Engineering undeveloped portions of large city even it is out of date system. After 2-3 years the buried night soil is converted into an excellent manure which can be used for growing crops. trucks or tractor trailors and buried in trenches. where they are allowed to mix up with streams. 2. rivers or sea. Initial cost is low. 3.
In crowded lanes it is difficult lay two sewers or construct drains roadside causing great inconvenience to the traffic.9 percentage of water and 0. Liquid refuse may get on access in the sub soil and pollute the underground water. . 3. 2. 4. More land is required for human excreta. WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM: In this system. 6. The sewage so formed in water carriage system consists of 99.1 percentage of solid matters. Possibility of storm water may mix with sewers causing heavy load on treatment plant. So all the hydraulic formulae can be directly used in the design of sewerage system and treatment plants. the excremental matters are mixed up in the large quantity of water and are taken out from the city through properly designed sewerage systems where they are disposed off after necessary treatment in a satisfactory manner. Aesthetic appearance of city cannot be increased. This system is completely depends upon the mercy of sweepers at every time and may possibility of spreading of diseases in the town if they are on strike. 2.Introduction DISADVANTAGES: Page 7 1. 7. Decomposition of sewage causes insanitary conditions which are dangerous to the public health. All the solid matters remain in suspension in the sewage and donot change the specific gravity of water. 5.
2. 6. 3. This system is very costly in initial cost. 2. DEMERITS 1. The usual water supply is sufficient and no additional water is required in water carriage system. 5. There is no nuisance in the streets of town and risk of epidemics reduced because of underground sewerage system. COMPARISION OF CONSERVANCY AND WATER-CARRIAGE SYSTEMS: . It is hygienic method because all the excremental matters are collected and conveyed by water only.Page 8 Environmental Engineering MERITS AND DEMERITS OF WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM: The following are the merits of water carriage system. 3. Self cleaning velocity can be obtained even at less gradients due to more quantity of sewage. During monsoon large volume of sewage is to be treated compared to remaining period of year. 8. Less space is occupied in crowded lane as only one sewer is laid 4. Sewer after proper treatment can be used fro various purposes. The land required for the disposal work is less as compared to conservancy system. This system doesnot depend on manual labour at every time except when sewers get choked. 7. 1. The maintenance of this system is also costly.
As there is no foul smell.it may or may not require pumping it depends on the topography of the town. This system is fully dependent on the human agency 7. hence it can be disposed of without any treatment. Sewage is treated before disposing of . Good aesthetic appearance of the city can be obtained. hence no problem of pumping the storm water 5. Less area is required as compared to conservancy system. It involves high initial cost 2. This system is not dependent on the human agency 7. The quantity of waste liquid reaching the disposed point is less. large area is required. 4. Storm water is carried in usually surface drains. latrines remain clean and neat and hence are constructed with room. Page 9 WATER-CARRIAGE SYSTEM 1. Sewage is treated upto required degree of sanitation. 5.Introduction CONSERVANCY SYSTEM 1. 6. 3. they are to be constructed away from the living room 3. Due to foul smell from latrines. Large quantity of sewage highly polluted in nature. 8. The aesthetic appearance of the city cannot be increased 4. Very cheap in initial cost 2. 6. . As sewage is disposed of without any treatment it may pollute the natural water courses 8. For burying of excremental matter. it requires its treatment before disposal so it is costly process.
to obtain the self-cleaning velocity.5 TYPES OF SEWERAGE SUITABILITY: SYSTEM AND THEIR The sewerage system are classified as follows: (a) Combined system (b) Separate system (c) Partially separate system (a) COMBINED SYSTEM: This system is best suited in areas having small rainfall. There is no need of flushing because self-cleaning velocity is available at every place due to more quantity of sewage. 3. House plumbing can be done easily only one set of pipes will be required. it is best suited for crowded area because of traffic problems. As only one sewer is laid in this system. 2. which is distributed. The combined system can also be used in area having less sewage. The sewage can be treated easily and economically because rainwater dilutes the sewage. because at such places self-cleaning velocity will be available in every season. DEMERITS: The following are the demerits of the combined system. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF COMBINED SYSTEM: The following are the merits of combined system 1. throughout the area.Page 10 Environmental Engineering 1. .
2.Introduction 1. where as storm and surface water are taken in another set of sewers. During heavy rainfall. it is uneconomical (b) SEPERATE SYSTEM: When domestic and industrial sewage are taken in one set of sewers. The initial cost is high as compared to seperate system Page 11 2. whereas both types of sewage is to be carried in closed sewer in combined system 3. the quantity to be treated is small which results in economical design of treatment works. It is not suitable for areas having rainfall for smaller period of year because resulting in the silting up of the sewers due to self velocity is not available 3. If whole sewage is to be disposed of by pumping. it is called seperate system. There is no fear of steam pollution. because only sanitary sewage flows in closed sewer and storm water which is unfoul in nature can be taken through open channel or drains. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF COMBINED SYSTEM: The following are the merits of the seperate system 1. During disposal if the sewage is to be pumped. the separate system is cheaper 4. Since the sewage flows in seperate sewer. Separate system is cheaper than combined system. the overflowing of sewers will endanger the public health 4. .
Maintenance cost is more because of two sewers 4. . In busy lanes laying of two sewers is difficult which also causes great inconvenience to the traffic during repairs (C) PARTIALLY SEPERATE SYSTEM: In the seperate system. The work of house-plumbing is reduced because the rain water from roof. 2. can be taken in the same pipe carrying the discharge from the water closets. Flushing is required at various points because self-cleaning velocity is not available due to less quantity of sewage 2. if a portion of storm water is allowed to enter in the sewers carrying sewage and the remaining storm water flows in seperate set of sewers. It is economical and reasonable size sewers are required because as it is an improvement over seperate system. sullage from bath and kitchen.Page 12 Environmental Engineering DEMERITS: 1. There is always risk that the storm water may enter the sanitary sewage sewer and cause over-flowing of sewer and heavy load in the treatment plant 3. it is called partially seperate system MERITS AND DEMERITS OF PARTIALLY SEPERATE SYSTEM: MERITS: 1.
2. . Cost of pumping is more than seperate system when pumping is required because portion of storm water is mixed. There are possibilities of over-flow. In dry weather. DEMERITS: 1. 3. No flushing is required because small portion of storm water is allowed to enter in sanitary sewage.Introduction Page 13 The water from all other places can be taken in seperate sewer or drain. the self cleaning velocity may not develop. 3.
grass. comfort and social well being 2. sweepings. chemical and biological factors of the environment in the interest of mans health. paper pieces. Sewer – The underground conduct or drain through which waste water is conveyed 3. Garbage – dry refuse which include decayed fruits. leaves. Conservancy system – refuse and storm water collected separately and disposed 2. discharge from latrines. The types of sewage systems are 1. Water carriage system – Properly designed sewerage system 5. industries and storm water c. Environmental engineering is deals with the application of engineering principles to the control modification and adaption of the physical. Sewage – liquid waste from community include sullage. Sullage – liquid waste from latrines. Separate system 3. vegetable etc d. The sewage is classified as 1) Storm sewage 2) Sanitary sewage 4. The term used in sewerage a. Partially separate system . garbage etc e. Combined system 2. The system of sewerage methods are 1.Page 14 SYNOPYSIS Environmental Engineering 1. urinals. urinals b. Refuse – all kinds of dry wastes of community of street and house sweepings.
4. . What is water carriage system? 8. Explain the objects of sewage-disposal. Explain the methods of collection of sanitation. What are the methods collection of sanitation? 5. Define the terms (a) Sewage (d) Sullage 2. 5. What are the main objects of sewage disposal? 4. 6. treat and dispose of waste products of town? 3. 2. What are the main types of sewage? 6. Explain the merits and demerits of sewerage systems. What are sewerage systems? ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Compare the methods of collection of sanitation of conservancy & water carriage systems. Why it is necessary to collect. Define the terms (a) Garbage (b) Refuse (b) Sewerage (c) Sewer Page 15 3. What is conservancy system? 7.Introduction SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Discuss the comparative merits and demerits of seperate system and combined system.
(ii) POPULATION: As the population increases the quantity of sewage also increases because the consumption of water is more. it is necessary to determine the quantity of sewage that will flow through the sewer. The sewage consists of dry weather flow and storm water. . industrial or commercial (iv) Ground water infiltration (i) RATE OF WATER SUPPLY: The rate of sewage may be 60 to 70 percent of water supply due to various reasons such as consumption. The quantity is depends on population if it is residential. seasonal and also standard of living of people. type of industry if it is industrial.1 QUANTITY OF DISCHARGE IN SEWERS: The quantity of discharge in sewers is mainly affected by the following factors. (i) (ii) Rate of water supply Population (iii) Type of area served as residential. evaporation. industrial or commercial. use in industries etc. 2. This may be changes daily. (iii) TYPE OF AREA SERVED: The quantity of sewage depends upon the type of area as residential.Page 16 CHAPTER 2 Environmental Engineering QUANTITY OF SEWAGE In order to find out suitable section of sewer.
is known as Dry Weather Flow (D. permeability of soil.W. Practically it has been . the ground water may percolate in the sewer from the faulty joints and cracks in the pipelines.7 to 7.F) VARIABILITY OF FLOW: Practically the average sewage never flows in the sewer.Quantity of Sewage Page 17 Commercial and public places can be determined by studying the developing of other such places. it continuously varies from hour to hour of the day and season to season. size and nature of the faults or cracks in the sewer line.A. The consumption of water in summer is more than in winter or rainy season and this change in consumption of water directly affects the quantity of sewage. The quantity of infiltration water in the sewer depends upon the height of the water table about the sewer invert.2 cum/day/cm of dia of the sewer. (iv) GROUND WATER INFILTRATION: When sewers laid below the water table in the ground. reports (i) (ii) (iii) 4. which includes wastewater from residences and industries. DRY WEATHER FLOW: The sanitary sewage. As per the U.S.5 to 45 cum/hectare area/day 11 to 225 cum/hectare area/km length of the sewer line 0.
2 DETERMINATION OF STORM WATER FLOW: The quantity of storm water.i. which is known as the wet weather flow (W. The following are the factors mainly affect the quantity of storm sewage.W. (i) (ii) Rational method Empirical formulae method (i) RATIONAL METHOD: In this method . the storm water quantity is determined by the rational formula C.2 to 1. that will enter the sewer is to be carefully determined.A Q = --------360 where Q=quantity o storm water in m3/sec C=Coefficient of runoff from table I=intensity of rainfall in mm/hour .Page 18 Environmental Engineering seen that the maximum to average flow of sewage is between 1.5 to 1. (i) (ii) Intensity of rainfall Characteristics of catchment area (iii) Duration of storm (iv) Atmospheric temperature.0 and average to minimum is between 1. wind and humidity Generally two methods are used to calculate the quantity of storm water.F).0 2.
58 A 4 √S ----- (B) Mc. C2. imperviousness. (A) Burkli – Zeighar formula (used in switzerland) C. A2. These formulae are derived after long practical experience and collection of field data. C3 ------. rate of rainfall etc.Cn are their runoff coeff.S.I.Math Formula (used in U.A 5 √S Q = ---------.A Q = ---------------141.Quantity of Sewage A=drainage area in hectares * The runoff coefficient ‘C’ is calculated (overall) ∑AC -----------∑A Page 19 A1C1 + A2C2 + ---------+ AnCn = -------------------------------------. (ii) EMPIRICAL FORMULAE METHOD: For determining runoff from very large areas under specific conditions such as slope of land.= A1 + A2 + --------------+ An Where A1.35 (C) Fuller’s Formula A . A3 ------.i.----148. respectively from table.A) C.An are the different types of areas And C1.
bathrooms and storm water. The joints of drains should be properly and neatly finished .8 M 5/8 (E) Tallbot’s Formula Q = 22.8 Environmental Engineering Q = -------------13. The inner surface of surface should be plastered 2. is called surface drainage. M 0.Page 20 C. which passes through the surface drains.4 M 1/4 Where Q = runoff in cum/sec C = runoff coefficient i = intensity of rainfall in cm/hour S = slope of the area in metre per thousand metre A = drainage area in hectare M = drainage area in square km 2.23 (D) Funnig’s Formula Q = 12. They are less hygienic as they are open and exposed to atmosphere REQUIREMENTS: 1.3 SURFACE DRAINAGE: The sullage from kitchens.
1. They should be laid on easy curves 5.Quantity of Sewage Page 21 3. Rectangular surface drains 2. Semi-circular surface drains 3. 1. U-shaped surface drains 4.1 Types of Surface drains . V-shaped surface drains Fig 2. They should be properly designed with reasonable provision of free board SHAPES OF SURFACE DRAINS: The following are the four shapes. The drain should be laid such a gradient that self-cleansing velocity is developed 4. which are commonly adopted in the construction of surface drains as shown in fig 2.
They however donot develop the required velocity when depth of flow is small and they get easily deposited. The drains are provided with suitable gradients to meinatin the velocity within the range so as to avoid either silting or scouring. These drains will carry fluctuating discharge without depositing solids at any point and capable of producing a good velocity. These drains are constructed either in brick masonary or stone masonary in cement mortar. 2. These drains are readymade semi-circular sections of stoneware or concrete or asbestors cement pipes. U-SHAPED SURFACE DRAINS: These drains are easy to construct and they combine the advantages of semi-circular drains and rectangular surface drains. V-SHAPED SURFACE DRAINS: These drains posses better hydraulic properties but they are difficult to construct. Environmental Engineering RECTANGULAR SURFACE DRAINS: These drains are suitable for carrying heavy discharge. These drains will carry fluctuating to construct. 3. SEMI-CIRCULAR SURFACE DRAINS: These are suitable for streets where the discharge to be accommodated is of small quantity.Page 22 1. 4. The inside surface is smoothly plastered with rich cement mortar. .
As per IS 1742. Hence if two values are known. This nomogram is based on mannings formula in which value of ‘n’ is taken as 0.Quantity of Sewage 2.2 is very commonly used in the design of sewers. For example if the required discharge of a sewer for which n=0. The intersection of this line on velocity scale and diameter scale gives the corresponding values. nomograms. the Nomogram shown in fig can be used conveniently. the calculations have to be done for every sewerline to obtain the necessary gradients.013 is 224 lit/sec.4 Page 23 Use of nomograms as per IS 1742 to determine the unknown values of gradient. Nomogram shown in fig 2. In the design of sewerage scheme for a town.013. . a line is drawn through these two values. the remaining two values can be easily got from the nomogram. This work is simplified by adopting tables. The values given in the Nomograma are for sewers running full. partial flow diagrams etc prepared on the basis of the appropriate formula.765 m/sec. the given self cleansing velocities and estimated discharge use of the formula for every calculation and thus number of calculations flow whole scheme becomes a cumbersome job.00125. and the grade is 0. Thus for this example diameter of sewer is found to be 600mm and the velocity to be maintained is 0. diameter. discharge and velocity.
Page 24 Environmental Engineering Fig 2.2 Nomogram .
diameter of pipes. The factors affecting storm water flow are a. The variations in the flow of sewage may be seasonal. Exfiltration 3. The determination of quantity of sewage is essential for the design of system of collection. daily and hourly and to get maximum flow rate the average flow rate of sewage is to be multiplied by a peak factor 4. The sanitary sewage is called dry weather flow (DWF) which depends upon the following factors a. Nomograms are used in the design of sewers for calculating the gradients. Infiltration of ground water into sewers e. Rate of water supply b.Quantity of Sewage Page 25 SYNOPYSIS 1. treatment and disposal 2. pumping. Population c. velocities and quantities of sewage based on mannings formula 5. Type of area d. Intensity and duration of rainfall b. monthly. Area of catchment .
Rectangular c. U. Semi-circular d. Store and shape of catchment d. Initial moisture content in the soil f. Nature of soil Environmental Engineering e. Empirical formulae 7. Determination of storm water flow by 1.shaped b. V-shaped . The types surface drains used are a.Page 26 c. Number and size of ditches available in the area 6. Rational formula 2.
Explain different types of surface drains 2. What are the factors affecting dry weather flow? 3.Quantity of Sewage Page 27 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. What do you understand by self cleaning velocity? 4. Mention the three factors considered to fix gradient for the sewer? ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Explain different factors that effect quantity of discharge in sewers 3. Define dry weather flow 2. How do you estimate the storm water by rational method and empirical formulae method? .
Deposition of organic matter are reduced to minimum because of no corners 3. No deposit should settle down in the bed of sewers under any circumstances.Page 28 CHAPTER 3 Environmental Engineering SEWERAGE SYSTEMS Sewerage are closed conducts are called sewers and are laid under ground for conveying foul discharges from water-closets of public and domestic buildings. chemical mixed water from industries without creating any nuisance outside the town. These should be laid in the town at such a slope that water in case of flood in river at the outlet should not come out from manholes and cause insanitary conditions 3.1 DIFFERENT SHAPES OF CROSS-SECTIONS FOR SEWERS CIRCULAR AND NON CIRCULAR Generally the sewers of circular shape are adopted because of following facts 1. They are easy to manufacture or construct and handle . Sewers should have such cross-section that self-cleaning velocity should be developed even during dry weather flow. Circular shape affords least perimeter and hence construction cost is minimum for the same area of other shape 2.
1. To bring down the cost of construction 2. which are commonly. to improve the velocity of flow when the depth of sewage is low 3. these are subjected to hoop compression hence the concrete required is minimum and no reinforcement is required 5. They posses excellent hydraulic properties because they provide the maximum hydraulic mean depth when running full or half full. to simplify the process of construction 5. to secure more structural strength 4. Because of circular shape. 3. used for sewers.Sewerage Systems Page 29 4. The bottom portion is narrower and carries small . BASKET HANDLE SECTION: In this type of sewer. to make them large enough for a man to enter for cleaning or repairing SHAPES OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAPES: The following are the non-circular shapes. However the sewers of non-circular shapes are also used for the following reasons 1. The circular sewers prove to be best when the discharge doesnot vary too much and the chances of sewers running with very low depths (less than half) are less. the upper portion of sewer has got the shape of a basket-handle as shown in fig.1.
Page 30 Environmental Engineering discharges during mansoon and combined sewage is carried through the full section. Fig 3. the shape of sewer is in the form of a catenary and only gravity force is acted upon this sewer.1 2.2 . 3. The main advantage of this type of sewer is that it gives slightly higher velocity during low Fig 3. EGG-SHAPED OR OVOID SECTION: This type of sewer is suitable for carrying combined flow. This is suitable for tunnelling work. This shape of sewer is not generally used at present. CATENARY-SHAPED SECTION: In this type of sewer.
circular or paraboloid and top is semicircular with sides vertical or inclined as shown in fig 3. Fig 3. The details are as shown in fig 3.Sewerage Systems Page 31 flow than a circular sewer of the same capacity. The invert of the sewer may be flat.4. 4. But construction of this section is difficult and less stable than circular section.2.4 . PARABOLIC SECTION: This type of sewers are suitable fro carrying comparatively small quantities of sewage and economical in construction. Fig 3. HORSE-SHOE SECTION: This type of sewers are used for the construction in tunnel to carry heavy discharges. This is also suitable when the available headroom for the construction of sewer is limited. Inverted egg-shaped sewer gives better stability and carries heavy discharges. The invert of sewer may be flat or parabolic and upper arch of the sewer takes the form of parabola as shown in fig 3.3. such as truck and outfall sewers.3 5.
5.6.5 7.Page 32 Environmental Engineering 6. SEMI-CIRCULAR: This type of sewers are suitable for constructing large sewers with less available headroom and it posses better hydraulic properties as shown in figure 3. Fig 3. It is some times used to work as a storage tank during the tide it becomes necessary to store the sewage for some period. Fig 3.6 . RECTANGULAR OR BOX TYPE SECTION: The rectangular or box type section of sewer is stable and it is easy to construct as shown in fig 3.
U-SHAPED SECTION: The shape of this section is the true shape of letter as shown in fig. The trench is known as the cunette and adopted for a combined sewer having predominant flow of storm water. SEMI-ELLIPTICAL SECTION: This type of the section is suitable to carry heavy discharges and adopted for soft soil. Fig 3. Or small trench of U shape can be setup in the larger section of sewer as shown in fig 3.8m and posses good hydraulic properties except at low depths as shown in fig 3.8. .Sewerage Systems Page 33 8.7. The dia of sewer may be more than 1. as it is more stable.7 9.
Page 34 Environmental Engineering Fig 3.8 3. Weight: The material should possess moderate weight so as to make easy handling and transportation. 5. Resistance to Abrasion: The material should possess enough resistance to abrasion caused due to grit moving with high velocity. Cost: The cost should be moderate and reasonable 2. Imperviousness: The material of sewer should be impervious nature 4. Resistance to corrosion: The material should be capable of offering resistance to the corrosion because the sewage posseses corrosive qualities 6. Durability: The material should be durable 3. 1. The following are the various materials. which are used for sewers .2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND CHOICE OF TYPES OF SEWERS The following factors are to be carefully considered while making selection for the materials of sewer.
The overall performance is very good 4. These pipes are strong enough to take backfilling and traffic 2. These sewers are cheap and easily available 5.Sewerage Systems (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Asbestos cement sewers Brick sewers Cast-Iron sewers Cement concrete sewers Corrugated iron sewers Plastic sewers Steel sewers Page 35 (viii) Stoneware sewers (ix) Wood sewers STONEWARE SEWERS: The stoneware sewers are also known as the vitrified clay sewers or salt-glazed sewers and they are prepared from various clays and shapes in required proportion. A small quantity of salt is added to kiln get glass like glaze on the surface of pipes. allowed to dry and then burnt in a kiln. The interior surface of sewers are smooth and impervious 3. These sewers are durable and better resistance to corrosion & erosion . ADVANTAGES: 1.
Heavy external loads under railway lane. These sewers can resists the action of acids in sewage if the inner surface is coated with paint or cement concrete. Expensive road surface like C. The places subjected to considerable differences in temperature.5 m depth DISADVANTAGES: 1. 3. These are not strong enough to allow sewage under pressure. Under high pressure. 2.C. 2. CAST IRON SEWERS: The cast sewers possess high strength and they are durable. 6. These sewers are capable of withstand hydraulic pressure upto 0.Page 36 Environmental Engineering 6. can be avoided. foundation. 4.15N/mm2 and bear a load of soil of about 4. 3. Danger of contamination against leakages. 5. Where the ground is likely to subject to heavy movements and vibrations. The cast-Iron sewers are used for following special purpose 1. These are difficult to handle or transport because of heavy weight. These are available in sizes from 150mm to 750mm diameter. These are brittle in nature and may damage in handling or transport. 7. . Where wet ground required to reduce infiltration.
3.Sewerage Systems Page 37 DISADVANTAGES: 1. Inner surface of sewer is smooth. Joints should be carefully filled. ADVANTAGES: 1. 2. For attack of chemical and errosive actions the inner surface should be lined with vitrified clay. These are strong and imperivious. Transportation and handling is difficult CEMENT CONCRETE SEWERS: The cement concrete sewers may be plain or reinforced. The plain cement concrete sewers are used upto the diameter of 600mm and beyond 600mm reinforcement is provided.C. . Larger diameter can be made. 4. Cost is high 2. 4.PIPES: These sewers are made from a mixture of asbestos fibres and cement. 2. A. They are available upto sizes of 900mm. Heavy weight transportation and handling is difficult. DISADVANTAGES: 1.
4. The inside surface is smooth. d) Preparation of bedding. . DISADVANTAGES: 1. Brittle and cannot stand impact forces during handling operations. c) Checking the gradient. 3. g) Back filling. The structural strength is poor and hence cannot be laid to resist heavy external loads.3 LAYING OF SEWERS: The construction of sewer consists of the following works a) Marking center lines of sewers. Light in weight and hence easy to handle.Page 38 Environmental Engineering ADVANTAGES: 1. b) Excavation of trenches. Easy to cut and join. 2. e) Laying of sewers. 3. f) Jionting. 2. Durable and good resistance to corrosion.
For checking the levels of sewer pipes and their alignment temporary benchmarks are established at 200-400 metres intervals.L) of these benchmarks should be calculated with respect to G.T. The reduced level (R. The width of trench depends upon the dia of sewer and depth of sewerline below the ground level. the excavation of trenches is done manually or machinery. After removing pavements. spade or pneumatic drills can be used in case of removing concrete pavements. which starts from the lower end of the sewers and proceeds upwards. For checking the centre line during the construction generally wooden pegs or steel spikes are driven at 10 meters intervals on a line parallel to the centre where while laying sewers. the first step is the removal of pavement. The width of sewerline is 15cm more than external diameter of sewer for easiness in lowering and adjusting the sewerpipe. The excavation of trench sides require shoring and shuttering and also .Sewerage Systems Page 39 MARKING CENTER LINE OF SEWER: The centre line of a sewers are marked on the streets and roads from the plans starting from the lowest point or outfall of the main proceeding upwards. The minimum trench width of 60 to 100cm is necessary for conveniently laying and jointing of even very small size sewers. they will not disturb them. Pickaxes. The setting out of work is done by means of chain and theodolite or compass. On the centre line position of sewer appurtenances are also marked EXCAVATION TRENCHES: After marking the layout of the sewer lines on the ground.S benchmarks.
9 Excavation of Trenches PREPARATION OF BEDDING: Trenches are excavated with proper grade so that sewage may flow in sewer due to gravitational flow only. The centre line of sewers and their grades are transferred from the ground by means of sight rail and boning rod shown in fig no. Fig 3.10.9. . 3.Page 40 Environmental Engineering dewatering is done by gravity method or pumping method as shown in fig. 3.
In the case of castin-site sewers and R. The various types of Pipe-Beddings are as shown in Fig. In the case of very bad soil the trench bottom shall be filled in with cement concrete of appropriate grade.11.Sewerage Systems Page 41 Fig 3. In areas subject to subsidence the pipe sewer shall be laid on a timber platform or concrete cradle supported on piles. 3. . bearing capacity is encountered and soil stabilization shall be done either by rubber. concrete or wooden crib.10 Laying of Sewer Pipes When a sewer has to be laid in a soil underground strata or in a reclaimed land.C section with reinforcement. the trench shall be excavated deeper than what is ordinarily required trench bottom or rock.C.
.11 Various types pipe-bedding LAYING: Smaller size pipes can be laid by the pipe-layers directly by hand only.Page 42 Environmental Engineering Fig 3. But heavier and larger size pipes are lowered in the trenches by passing ropes around them and supporting through hock.
all the joints shall be caulked with tarred gasket in one length for each joint and sufficiently long to entirely surround the spigot end of the pipe.Pipes shall be examined for line and level and the space left in the socket shall be filled in by pouring molten piglead of bestquality as for IS:782 and IS 3114. The joints are carefully cured for sufficient time. For stoneware pipes. For concrete pipes. . JOINTING OF SEWERS: The C.I. The gasket shall then be filled with 1:2 cement sand mortar in a semi-dry condition and a fillet shall be formed round the joint with trowel forming an angle of 45° with the barrel of the pipe as per IS 4217. The joints shall be finished off with a fillet slopping at 45° to the surface of the pipe and cured for 24 hours.Sewerage Systems Page 43 It is the common practice to lay the pipes with their socket end upgrade for easiness in joining. After lowering the pipes these are brought near and spigot end of one pipe is placed in the socketed end of the other after properly placing and arranging the pipes they are suitably joined. Any plastic solution or cement mortar that may have squeezed in the pipe shall be removed to leave the inside of the pipe perfectly clean. Rubber gasket may also be used for jointing. the collars shall be placed symmetrically over the end of two pipes and the annual space between the inside of the collar and the outside of the pipe shall be filled with hempyarn soaked in tar or cement slurry tamped with just-sufficient quantity of water to have consistency of semi-dry condition. well packed and thoroughly rammed with caulking tools and then filled with cement mortar 1:2.
Pipes when the required quantity of water is not available it is done by subjecting the stretch of pipe to an air pressure of 100mm of water by means of hand pump.Page 44 TESTING OF SEWERS: Environmental Engineering Following two tests are done for testing of sewer pipes. There should not be any leak in the pipe or the joint except small sweating on the pipe surface which is allowed. The water is filled through a funnel connected at the lower end provided with a plug. Leakage in 30 minutes determined by measuring the replenished water in the funnel should not exceed 15ml for smaller and 60 ml for larger diameter pipes for 100m length. Testing of sewers done by plugging the upper end with a provision for an air outlet pipe with stopcock. it is desirable to backfill the pipes upto the top. The pipeline under pressure is then inspected while the funnel is still in position. AIR TESTING: This testing is done in large dia. 2. WATER TEST: Each section of the sewer is tested for water tightness preferably between the manholes. In . the joints shall be assumed to be water tight. Water level is noted after 30 minutes in the funnel and quantity of water required to restore the original water in the funnel is determined. If the pressure is maintained at 75mm. To prevent the change in alignment and disturbance after the pipes have been laid. After expelling the air through the air outlet. keeping atleast given length of pipe at the joints. 1. the stopcock is closed and water level in the funnel is raised to 2m above the invert at the upper end.
When the height reaches to 60cm above the crown of the pipe. back filling is stopped for atleast one weak for weathering. stone-pieces and lamps by ramming the soil in layers using with water. After a week. Back filling will be after 7 days for precast pipes and 14 days after in the case of cast-in-site sewers. Reinstatement of the pavement is carried out after about two months after the proper consolidation of the backfill material and there is no danger of risk of crank or settlement in the pavement. The exact position of leak can be detected by applying soap solution to all the joints in the line and looking for air bubbles.Sewerage Systems Page 45 case drop is more than 25mm the leaking joints shall be traced and suitably treated to ensure water-tightness. BACK-FILLING OF TRENCHES: After testing and removing defects of pipeline. During the course of time the back filled soil gets compacted and the filled soil comes to the ground level. . the trenches are back filled with excavated soil after removal of pebbles. again backfilling is started in layers and the trench is filled 15cm above the ground level.
The Non-circular shapes generally used are a. Parabolic section f. Basket handle section b. durability. weight considered in making selection for the material of sewer 5. resistance to corrosion. Sewers are closed conduits which are laid underground for conveying sewage 2. Semi-elliptical section i. The materials used for the manufacture of sewers are a. Sewers of circular shape are adopted because a. Semi circular section h. Rectangular or box type section g. The factors like cost. Construction cost is minimum for same area of other shape b. Poses excellent hydraulic properties d.Page 46 SYNOPYSIS Environmental Engineering 1. construction and handle 3. U-shaped section 4. Asbestos cement sewers . Deposition of organic matter are reduced to minimum c. Horse shoe section e. resistance to abrasion. Egg shaped section d. impervious. Catenary-shaped section c. Easy to manufacture.
Marking center lines of sewers b. Steel sewers h. Excavation of trenches c. Brick sewers c. Preparation of bedding e. Laying of sewers f. Laying of sewers involves the following works a. Testing of sewers are done by the following 1. Back filling 7. Jointing g. Checking the gradient d. Cast-Iron sewers d. Air test Page 47 . Stoneware sewers i. Water test 2.Sewerage Systems b. Wood sewers 6. Plastic sewers g. Corrugated iron sewers f. Cement concrete sewers e.
A. 9. Concrete pipes. Stoneware sewers 2. What are the advantages of circular type of sewers over noncircular type of sewers? 10. 6. A. 5. What are the factors should be considered for selecting the material of sewer? 3. Name the different type of non-circular sewers. Pipes. 2. 2. Explain the laying of sewers. Write short notes on 4. 5. 7. 3. Name any four material used for sewers. Define sewer. Name the types of tests required for sewers. What are the tests required for testing of sewers? Explain. Cement concrete sewers 3. Cast Iron sewers 4. Draw the neat sketch of egg-shaped sewer. .C. Egg-Shaped Sewer. Explain in the following 1. Explain different type of non-circular sewers with neat sketches. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Sewers 4. Horse-Shoe type sewer.C. 8.Page 48 Environmental Engineering SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1.
FUNCTION: Manholes are provided for inspection. If sewerage system will not be maintained properly. ashes. cleaning. gradient or diameter of the sewer. catch basins. a) WORKING CHAMBER: The working chamber has such a size. which should be inaccessible to the public. 1. fats. CONSTRUCTION: A Manhole consists of a) Working chamber.1 MANHOLES LOCATION: Manholes are provided at every change of alignment. oils and greasy matters etc will choke the sewerline. drop manholes.Sewer Appurtenances CHAPTER 4 SEWER APPURTENANCES Page 49 Sewer system require various types of appurtenances for their proper functioning and maintenances. repairs and maintenance of the sewer. Therefore for the proper operation and maintenance of sewerage system. The minimum internal size of the chamber are as follows.1. lamp holes. so that necessary examination and cleaning can be done easily. salt. flushing tanks. b) An access shaft and c) A strong cover on the top flush with the road level. . ventilating shafts and storm role of works etc are essential. street inlets. various devices like manholes.
b) ACCESS SHAFT: The access shaft provides an access to the working chamber. 4.1.2m x 0.8m and 2.1m __________ 1.1 Manhole . by corbelling the working chamber on three as shown in fig no.Page 50 (i) (ii) (iii) Environmental Engineering For depth of 0.8m or less __________ 0. the minimum internal dimensions of the access shaft are 0.4dia circular chamber.2m x 0. So that the cover frame can be fitted in the opening.1m _____1.5m Fig no.9m For depth more than 2.5 x 0.75m For depth between 0.75m x 0. The shaft is formed. 4.9m or 1.
Such manholes which drop the level of invert of the incoming sewer. 4. .Sewer Appurtenances Page 51 COVER: At the top of manhole. Circular shape is structurally more stable and stronger though it is difficult in construction. the manhole cover of cast iron or R.2 DROP MANHOLE: If the difference in level between the branch sewer and main sewer is within 60cm and there is sufficient roof within the working chamber. The top surface of the concrete is called benching and the man stands on its top during cleaning and inspection of the sewerlines over the cement concrete walls not less than 20cm thickness are constructed. the connecting pipe may be directly brought through the manhole wall by providing a ramp in benching. The maximum distance between two manholes should be 30m and the distance between the manhole and gully chambers should not exceed 6m.C. by providing a vertical shaft are called drop manholes.1. The bottom of the manhole is usually made of concrete slightly sloped at the top towards the open channels.C is provided to cover the opening depending upon the type of traffic on the road. The channels are sometimes lined with half-round sewer pipe section. which are in continuation of the sewer line. The manhole covers are provided flush with the road level.
the vertical shaft is taken upto the ground level as shown in fig no. 4.3 STREET INLETS Street inlets or gullies are the openings in the street a or b or gutter to collect the storm water and surface wash flowing along the .Page 52 Environmental Engineering The main purpose being to avoid the splashing of sewage on the man working and on the masonary work. Fig No.2 Drop Manhole 4.2. The branch sewer line is connected to the manhole in such a way that it can be cleaned and rodded when necessary. For inspection of the incoming sewage and cleaning of vertical shaft.1. 4.
4. .4.3 shows the most useful location of street inlet at the street junction in such way that the storm water may not flow across any of the streets or flood the cross walks causing interference with the traffic street inlets are of three types.Sewer Appurtenances Page 53 street and convey it to storm or combined sewer by means of stoneware pipes of 25 to 30cm diameter.3 Street Inlets 1. 4. Fig No. The gutter opening bars are provided to prevent the passage of dry-leaves. papers etc in the sewer line as shown in fig no. 4. CURB INLET: In which an opening is provided in the road curb for the entrance of storm water. Fig No.
Fig No. GUTTER INLET: These are placed directly below the road gutter and storm water directly enters them from the top. 4.4 Curb Inlet 2. The top grating should be sufficiently strong the bear the traffic loads. These inlets are provided with cast Iron gratings at their top to prevent floating matters entering the sewer.Page 54 Environmental Engineering Fig 4.5 Gutter Inlet . The main difficulty with such inlets is that of the heavy cost and these are mostly stolen and the pit remain uncovered as shown in fig no. 4.5. Such inlets catch very large volume of water and are most suitable in roads having steep slopes.
Sewer Appurtenances Page 55 3. 4.4 CATCH BASINS: These are small masonary chambers (75 to 90cm in diameter and 75 to 90cm deep) which are constructed below the street inlet to prevent the flow of grit. Catch basins are provided in the following sections.6.6 Combined Gutter and Curb Inlet 4.7.1. The outlet pipe of catch basin is fixed about 60cm above bottom as shown in fig no. . Fig 4. sand or debris in the sewer lines. The outlet pipe is provided with a trap to prevent the escape of odours from the sewer to the catch basins. 4. COMBINED GUTTER AND CURB INLET: These inlets in which the storm water enters from both the gutter and curb as shown in fig no.
7 Catch Basins 1. When the sewers are laid at very small gradient and velocity of flow is less than self-cleaning velocity. When the drains are passing along the water bound mechadam road or in sandy area and market. These solids are to be removed at frequent intervals for the proper functioning of the catch basin otherwise they will block the passage of storm water in the sewers resulting in the flooding of the streets creating nuisance. Catch basins collect the solids from the storm water. .Page 56 Environmental Engineering Fig 4. 2. Nowadays catch basins are not providing and street inlet may be directly connected with the sewers.
siphonic action takes place and the whole water of the chamber rushes to the sewer pipe and flushes it. the water is automatically released from the tank at required intervals.8.Sewer Appurtenances 4. With the water level reaches certain level in the chamber. 4.8 Automatic Flushing Tanks . In automatic flushing tank. These are usually provided at the beginning point of the sewers and may be either are automatic or worked by hand. Fig 4. which can be adjusted by supply tap and flushes the sewer as shown in fig no.5 FLUSHING TANKS: Page 57 These are masonary or concrete chambers to flush the sewers when the sewers gradients are flat and velocity of sewage is very low. The capacity of these tanks is usually 9 to 14 litre and may be adjusted in such a way as to work twice or thrice a day depending upon the quantity of deposits in the sewer and size of sewer.1. It consists of U-tube with bell cap at its one end connects the chamber with sewer.
0300 2300 1500 1300 500 400 4.1 gives the capacity of the flushing tanks for flushing 65m long sewer of different diameters.50 cum Table 4.80 cum 4.30 cum 2.1.6 REGULATORS: The structures constructed to divert part of sewage in the case of combined sewers are known as the storm water regulators .0050 0.2 gives the approximate quantities of water required for flushing the sewer lines.0075 0.0100 0.Page 58 Environmental Engineering Table 7. Slope Quantity of flushing water in litre 200mm sewer 250mm sewer 2500 1800 1500 800 500 300mm sewer 3000 2300 2000 1000 700 0. S.No. Dia of the sewer 1 2 3 150mm 225mm 300mm Gradient of Sewer 1 in 100 1 in 185 1 in 270 Capacity of flushing tank 1.0200 0.
Sewer Appurtenances OBJECT:
The main object of providing a storm water regulator is to divert the excess storm water to the natural stream or river. The excess sewage will be mainly composed of storm water and it will therefore be not foul in nature and hence decrease in load on the treatment units or pumping stations.
TYPES: 1. LEAPING WEIR: Leaping weir is used to indicate the gap or opening in the invert of a combined sewer. The intercepting weir runs at right angles to the combined sewer. If the discharge exceeds certain limit, the excess sewage leaps or jumps across the weir and it is carried to the natural stream or river as shown in fig no. 4.9.
Fig 4.9 Leaping Weir
2. OVERFLOW WEIR: The excess sewage is allowed to overflow in the channel made in the manhole as shown in fig no. 4.10 and conveyed to the storm water sewer or channel. In order to prevent the escape of floating matter from the combined sewer channel, adjustable plates are provided. In another arrangement, the openings at suitable height above invert are provided along the length of combined sewer as shown.
Fig 4.10 Overflow Weir 3. SYPHON SPILLWAY: The arrangement of diverting excess sewage from the combined sewer by the syphonic action is most effective because it operates on automatically and requires least maintenance.
However it is likely to be clogged due to narrow passage as shown in fig no. 4.11.
Fig 4.11 Syphone Spill Way
Inverted siphon is a sewer section which is constructed lower than the adjacent sewer section and which runs full under gravity with pressure greater than atmosphere as shown in Fig. No. 4.12.
Fig 4.12 Inverted Syphone
PURPOSE: The main purpose of inverted siphon is to carry the sewerline below obstructions such as ground depressions, streams, rivers, railway etc.
Siphon is so designed that a self-cleaning velocity of about 90cm/sec during achieved the period of minimum discharge. For this purpose, the siphon is usually made of three pipe sections-one for carrying minimum discharge, the other for maximum discharge and the third for combined flow in mansoons. The inlet chamber contains three channels, one for each pipe section. When channel no. 1 overflows, the sewage enters in channel no. 2 and pipe no. 2 comes into commission. Similarly, when channel no. 2 also overflows the sewage enters
4. As the down gradient is not continuous in inverted siphon. the sewage is pumped to the sewerline. 3. 3 comes into commission as shown in fig no. It is not possible to give side connections to inverted siphons. The inlet chamber should be provided with screens to remove silt. the floating matter contained in sewage will separate out and it will accumulate in the inlet chamber results in the inefficient functioning of the inverted siphon. If inlet chamber is not properly designed. 4. In sewerage system at some places the sewage cannot flow under its gravitational force only and requires lifting in following circumstances. 3 and pipe no. grit etc from sewage before enters the siphon DISADVANTAGES OF SIPHON: 1.Sewer Appurtenances Page 63 channel no. it is becomes necessary to pump the sewage.2 NECESSITY OF PUMPING SEWAGE-LOCATION AND COMPONENT PARTS OF PUMPING STATION. If some portion of the town is low-laying and the sewage cannot flow by gravity. 2. . 1.12. the silting takes place. 2. When basements are provided in the buildings.
Page 64 Environmental Engineering 3. The topographical conditions of the city should be thoroughly studied to locate the best site of pumping station 2. 4. 4. instead of providing a funnel. the site should be near to the disposal point or at a place where the sewage can be directly disposed off during emergencies 3. At the treatment plants to rise it upto the plant for treatment. When the land is flat and it not possible to get self-cleaning velocity. If the quantity of sewage is very large. Provision should be made to pump all the sewage which will be received during worst conditions of rains . If a ridge intervenes. the sewers are laid at the required slope and after some interval they are allowed to flow under gravity. sometimes it is economical to pump sewage. At the outfall while disposing it is required to be pump if the level of the water course is higher than the outlet of the sewer. The site should be such that during flexed. it should not flooded with river water or seepage from the ground. 6. LOCATION OF PUMPING STATION: The following points should be considered while locating the site of pumping station 1. 5.
Preliminary screening and grit chambers 2. gravel . paper. Large floating matter are removed by passing the see page through flat bar screens. After passing through the screens. rags . provisions should be made for easy removal and installation of pumps and motars for periodical repairs and replacements (i) PRELIMINARY SCREENING AND GRIT CHANNELS: The sewage contains large amount of sand.Sewer Appurtenances Page 65 ELEMENTS OF PUMPING STATION: Every sewage pumping station consists of the following 1. valves. flow recorder. Pumps with driving engine or motar 5. While designing the pump house. leaves etc should be removed before pumping so as to prevent the wear and tear of pumping machinery and increasing its life. the sewage goes into grit channel where heavier inorganic solid matters are removed because of low velocity is maintained . Pumproom or dry well 4. Sump or wet well 3. emergency over-flow etc The capacity of pumping station is determined by the present and future sewage flows based on a designed period of 15years. fittings. Miscellaneous accessories such as pipes.
4. switches of motars. inspection and maintenance as shown in fig no. . sewage level indicators etc should be placed in the wet well at suitable places. The depth of the well depends upon the depth of incoming sewage of inlet. ring or circular shape placed at such a level that sewage from trunk sewer can flow into it by gravity only. The overflow weirs and by-pass arrangements are also provided in the wet wells for diverting the sewage during emergency floods. The main storage inside the well should be free fall inside the wet well to avoid the save harging and back flow. repairs and cleaning of the wet well etc.13. At the top of the wet well manhole with ladders are provided for cleaning. cables of electric motars. The tank having capacity of 20-30cm per minutes average flow is designed in modern practice.Page 66 Environmental Engineering (ii) SUMP OR WET WELL: The sewage from the city is received at pumping station in a tank known as sump or wet well. Guide pipes filled with flats. The sump well is an underground. The bottom of the tank is given a 1:1 slope towards a central pit where the end of section pipe of the pump is placed. Gate valves should be fitted on the incoming sewer lines to stop the sewage flow during inspection .
13 Components of a Pumping Station (iii) PUMP ROOM: This is also called as dry-well and placed in a convenient location such that the pumps can easily function The pump-room is an underground masonary or rccroom with circular or rectangular shape and sewage pumps. their .Sewer Appurtenances Page 67 Fig 4.
control valves etc are installed in it. . The size of pipe should be such that the sewage can flow at a velocity of 0. The length of the pipe is kept small so as to avoid anerobic deterioration and also head due to more number of valves. In some cases a small pump is also provided to pump the leakages from the wet well in this well (iv) PIPES VALVES.9m/sec so as to prevent the settlement of solids in the sewage. FITTINGS etc: Cast Iron pipes with flanged joints should be in all installation works at pumping station so that the dismantling and repair of pumping station equipment.Page 68 Environmental Engineering driving units. bends.6 to 0. Check valve should be provided in the sewerline to prevent the back flow of sewage during floods in the rivers or discharge area. Gate valve should be provided on the sewerline before wet well and on the section and discharge pipe to close the flow of sewage during maintenance. junctions etc should be kept small as possible. maintenance repair and installation of pumps etc. inspection and repair of the pump. The size of the dry well should be sufficient for the movement of operator .
It can pump the sewage upto required elevation. 4. It can pump the required quantity of sewage even in emergency period. 8. (iv) PUMPS WITH DRIVING ENGINE OR MOTOR: The following are the requirements of good sewage pump. Generally centrifugal pumps are used for pumping of sewage provided with automatic or remote control devices and fulfill most of the requirements of the sewage pumps.Sewer Appurtenances Page 69 Pressure gauge is note the section pressure and discharge pressure should be installed at the appropriate position to record section and delivery pressure. . stone etc in the sewage. 5. It should not require high skills in its maintenance and operation. It should not be damaged or worn out by the presence of sand . It should not made more noise during working. 1. gravel. 7. Sewerage level indicator should also be filled in the wet well to record the level of the sewage. It should require less spacing for installation. 3. 6. It should be reliable. It should not corroded by the organic and inorganic wastes of the sewage. 9. It should be cheap in initial cost and maintenance. 2.
P of the driving unit is calculated by the formula.H B.H.P. Rating should be provided around manholes and openings 2. Staircases with landing should be provided in place of ladders .Page 70 Environmental Engineering The pumps can be placed (i) (ii) (iii) Directly in the wet well in the submerged position In the dry well above the sewerage level in the wet well driving unit is gasoline or steam engine In the dry well below the sewage level in the wet well driving unit is electric motar The B. Gaurds should be provided on and around all mechanical equipment 3. = ----------------------------75 x np x nm where Q = discharge H = Water head np = efficiency of pump nm = efficiency of driving engine of motar SAFETY MEASURES: The following safety measures shall be taken at the sewage pumping stations 1.Q. W.H.
The steps of the stair cares should be of non-slippery to prevent slippage 5. To prevent explosure gas leakage. 7. wet well should not be directly connected by any opening to dry well or super structure. the pipes should be given different colours.Sewer Appurtenances Page 71 4. All electrical equipment and wiring should be properly insulated and grounded. 8. To minimize the possibilities of cross connectors. . Fire extinguishers first aid boxes and other safety devices should be provided 6.
Inverted siphon is a sewer section which is constructed lower than the adjacent sewer section and which runs full under gravity with pressure greater than atmosphere 8. Manholes are provided at every change of alignment. Flushing tanks are masonary or concrete chambers to flush the sewers when the sewer gradients are flat and the velocity of sewage is very low 6. lampholes. catch basins.Page 72 SYNOPYSIS Environmental Engineering 1. 3. ventilating shafts and storm relief works etc are essential 2. Catch basins are small masonary chambers constructed below the street inlet to prevent the flow of grit. Regulators constructed to divert part of sewage in the case of combined sewers are known as the storm water regulators 7. requires various types of appurtenances like manholes. repairs and maintenance of the sewer. cleaning. 4. flushing tanks. The location of sewage pumping station selected based on 1)tropographical conditions of city b) should be near to disposal point c) the site should be such that during the flood it should not flooded with river water or see page from the ground . gradient or diameter of the sewer for inspection. drop manholes. street inlets. sand or debris in the sewer lines 5. Street inlets or gullies are the openings in the street curbs or gutter to collect storm water and surface wash flowing along the street and convey it to storm or combined sewer by means of stone ware pipes of 25 to 30 cm diameter. For proper functioning and maintenance of sewer system.
emergency over-flow etc 10. Mislaneous accessories such as pipes.Sewer Appurtenances 9. The following safety measures should be taken at the pumping station a. The elements of pumping station are a. Railing should be around the manholes and openings b. Preliminary screening and grit chambers b. Staircase with landing should be provided in place of ladders d. valves. Pumps with driving engine or motar Page 73 e. Sump or well c. flow recorder. Guard should be provided on and around all mechanical equipment c. Non-slippery type steps of stair case should prevent slippage . fittings. Pump room or dry well d.
Page 74 Environmental Engineering SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. What is the appurtenances? a. Write short notes on catch pits. Describe the following with neat sketch a. ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. c. Manhole b. Lamp hole. State the different sewer appurtenances used in the sewerage scheme and state the location and utility of each. Street inlet. Name any four safety measures taken in the pumping of sewage. 3. Siphon spillways. Flushing tanks . Manhole. What is the purpose of providing catch basins? 6. under. what circumstances it becomes necessary to pump the sewage? 4. b. necessity of providing following sewer 2. What are the requirements of sewage pump? 5. 2. d. What is the purpose of inverted siphon? 7.
What do you understand by the drop manhole? Explain it with neat sketch 4.Sewer Appurtenances Page 75 3. What are the elements of pumping station? Describe each of them 6. Draw the neat sketch of pumping station and mention the purpose of each unit. What points should be kept in mind while locating the site of pumping station? What are the requirements of a sewage pump? 5. .
public and industrial places. which is unstable in nature.C. The nuisance is caused by the oxidizable organic matter. So it is necessary that a sample collected for analysis should be fairly representative of the sewage.2 SAMPLING OF SEWAGE: The constituents of sewage continuously change with the time.1 STRENGTH OF SEWAGE: The strength sewage is its potential to produce nuisance to the man and his environment. 5. If the sewage contains more organic matter is more strong and if the sewage contains less organic matter is considered as less strong. are collected at various depths and at frequent .9% of water and small portion of solids present in the sewage pose threat as they are offensive in nature. 5.O.Page76 Environmental Engineering CHAPTER 5 SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Sewage is a dilute mixture of the various types of wastes from residential. Sewage contains 99. So an understanding the nature of physical. undergoes biodegradation produces very bad odour and causes insanitary and unhealthy environment. the samples of 100 to 150 C. It is expressed in terms of B.D. Hence. design and operation of treatment and disposal facilities and in the engineering management of environmental quality. undergo changes by bio-degradation causes nuisance and pollution. chemical and biological characteristics of sewage is essential in planning.
Samples should be tested immediately as the characteristics are liable for change with the time. Such sampling is called “grab sampling”. which gives the indication of true strength of sewage. Different grab samples collected at frequent intervals in equal volume or proportionate to flow mixed are called “composite sample”. For certain samples.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE: Following are the characteristics of sewage . The bottles should be completed filled without leaving any air in the bottle. preservatives like chloroform. All the samples collected are kept in cool place so that the bacteriological activities may not change the character of sewage before its examination.Sewage Characteristics Page 77 intervals of time (half hourly or hourly collection) samples are taken beneath the surface where particles are mixed due to turbulence. Thoroughly cleaned and sterilized bottles of quartz are used for sample collection. formaldehyde. sulphuric acid etc are also added. The stopper should be firmly inserted and tied with a piece of cloth. Each sample should carry a tag or lable which consists of the following details (a) Source (b) Date (c) Time (d) Preservative added (e) Collectors Identity 5. But care should be taken in selection of preservatives so that the selected preservative does not change the characteristics of sample.
b. which should be able to read upto 0. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1) Solids: The sewage contains both organic and inorganic solids in the form of settleable suspended solids. Other colours in sewage are due to the presence of industrial wastes. grey or light brown colour indicates fresh sewage. It is estimated that 1000kg . If the temperature of sewage is more. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1) Colour: It indicates the condition of sewage as fresh. stale or septic. biological activity is more 4) Turbidity : It is caused due to the presence of suspended matter and colloidal matter. colloidal particles and dissolved solids. dyes etc 2) Odour: It also indicates whether the sewage is fresh or stale. faecal matters etc. Sewage is normally turbid resembling dirty dish water or waste water from baths having other floating matter. Yellow. The settleable solids can be removed by sedimentation but removable of dissolved and colloidal solids required some biological treatment.1°c. Fresh domestic sewage has slightly soapy or oily smell but the stale sewage has of offensive odour due to liberation of hydrogen sulphide and other sulphur compounds 3) Temperature: temperature of sewage is measured by means of ordinary thermometers.Page78 Environmental Engineering a. Black or dark brown colour indicates stale sewage.
“Facultative bacteria” are those. 0. bacteria.225kg is indissolved form. These organisms may be aerobic. which survive and grow both in presence and absence of oxygen. “Aerobic bacteria” are those. carbondioxide. rotifers etc. toxic compounds and heavy metals. which can live and grow in the presence of oxygen dissolved in water medium but anaerobic bacteria can survive and grow in absence of oxygen. anaerobic or facultative in nature.Sewage Characteristics Page 79 of sewage contains approximately 0. algae. phosphorous. hydrogen sulphide. The sewage may also contain proteins.45kg of solids of which 0. sulphur. phenols etc. Further it is noted that 100parts of solids contains approximately 45 parts of organic solids and 55 parts of inorganic solids. compounds of nitrogen. 3) Gases: The sewage contains dissolved oxygen. methane etc. fats. greases. oils. fungi. .112 kg in suspension and 0. protozoa. c. However for a given sample the parameters are to be determined by analysis only 2) Other chemical substances: The sewage contains chlorides.112kg in settleable form. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS : The sewage may contains micro-organisms like viruses. carbohydrates. alkaline substances.
: The amount oxygen consumed for chemical oxidation of organic matter with potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate in an acid solution is called chemical oxygen demand (C. Using this test.D.O. dissolved and colloidal solids in the sewage and the nature may be organic or inorganic. The total solids are the important indicator of the strength of sewage. It is useful in identifying the performance of various steps of treatment plants. chemical and biological parameters. activated sludge process. amount of settleable solids and determined by means of imhoffcone. It is also useful in determining the strength of industrial waters in sewage. The quantity of biodegradable organic matter influences the design of sludge digestion units 5.2.). design .2 ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE: Environmental Engineering The analysis of sewage test samples is to determine the nature and concentration of physical. the amount of carbon in organic matter is measured. The quatitative determination of all these forms is very significant in the sewage treatment depends upon the nature. which cannot be . The information is required for planning. operation and maintenance of treatment of sewage of city/town SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS: 5.2 C.1 TOTAL SOLIDS: The total solids are the quantity of suspended. Amount of dissolved solids influence the design of biological treatment units like trickling filters.O.Page80 5.2.D.
The oxidation process proceeds in two stages. The limitation of this test is its inability to differentiate between the biologically oxidizable and biologically inert material.D: The amount of oxygen required for biochemical oxidation of the decomposable matter at specified temperature within the specified time under aerobic conditions is known as “Biological oxygen Demand”. B. C.D is more.D. But it is found that nearly 70 to 80 percent of total B.O. at 5 days period.D5.3 B. incubated at 20°C is taken as standard value in actual practice.O.D test.O. C.D test is also easy and not affected by interference as in B. test takes only 5 hours for determination where as B.D. is the important parameter in sanitary engineering and influences the planning design and operation of biological units in treatment works . Hence the B.O. test.D takes 5 days.O.O.O.D. indicates the strength of sewage and if B.O.O.O.D. B.D.D.Sewage Characteristics Page 81 determined by B. 5. B.O. is satisfied within 5 days at a temperature of 20°. the nuisance producing capacity of that sewage also increases The complete oxidation of organic matter takes about 2-3 months. In the first stage carboneous matter is oxidized and in the second stage the nitrogen matter is oxidized.O.2.
Page82 Environmental Engineering Sometimes for more accurate results the sample of diluting water is also incubated in the same incubator along with the sewage for 5 days. This test is very delicate and much care is required while conducting the test B.O.2. . The sources of chlorides for domestic waste water are kitchens. urinals and water closets. The excess of chlorides indicates the presence of industrial waste of infiltration of sea water. 5. the PH value is so adjusted that each process is carried out efficiently. The normal chloride concentration in sewage is 120mg/lit.D.D5 = Depletion of oxygen in ppm x diltion factor 5. The PH value of sewage is determined for regulating the various operations of treatment works. It also indicates the capacity to neutralize base or acid and the activity of hydrogen ions.O. of the sewage .5 CHLORIDES: Chlorides are stable and hence not a measure of degree of treatment.The difference in dissolved oxygen content in the incubated sewage sample and plain water in the sewage is the B. In chemical and biological process of treatment.2.4 PH: PH value is defined as the logarithem reciprocal of hydrogen iron concentration.
However.Sewage Characteristics 5. Toxic substances such as sulphides. acetylene. petrol etc which cause damage to the flora and fauna of receiving streams and also affect the treatment processes and some times endanger the safety of the workmen 5. The pollutants in the industrial sewage include the raw materials. cyanides. nitrogen etc that make the receiving water body unfit for further use and also encourage the growth of micro-plants in the body of water 3. which aesthetically objectionable when present in water supplies 6. Acids and alkalis which endanger the growth of fish and other aquatic life and also cause difficulties in the operation of treatment plants 4. The characteristics of industrial waste vary with the type of industry and also plant to plant producing same type of end products. fats and greases and other floating substances which will make the receiving streams unsightly and interfere with the self . chlorides. process intermediates process by products and process chemicals.3 Page 83 CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER: The characteristics of industrial waste cannot be so easily generalized as in the case of domestic wastewater. Oils. These organic substances impose greater load on the biological units of treatment plants 2. Colour producing substances like dyes. end products. alcohol. The organic substances that deplete the dissolved oxygen (D.O) content of stream into the which the industrial wastes are disposed. The inorganic substances like carbonates. the pollutants and characteristics are used as follows 1. They depends upon the actual manufacturing process in the industry.
Conservation of water c.3. These substances also render the treatment operations difficult. The equalization consists of holding the waste for some designed .3. equalization and by-product recovery 5. PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT: Depending upon the way in which the industrial wastes are discharged and the nature of the constituents. Segregation of uncontaminated wastes from contaminated wastes b. Reusing treated waste water for processes requiring lesser quality of water e. Reduction of strength of waste by process changes equipment modifications. Implementing process changes to minimize wastes d. segregation. the waste may require equalization before treatment. the treatment may consists of any one or more of the following processes 5.1 REDUCTION OF VOLUME AND STRENGTH: The following are the methods for the reduction of volume and strength are a.Page84 Environmental Engineering purification of the same.2 EQUALIZATION: When the characteristics of industrial waste water vary in a day and also when the discharge rate is not uniform or continuous.
In the neutralization process the waste is held in the tanks and its PH value is adjusted suitably by either adding alkaline or acidic substances as the case may be.3. oils etc are brought to the surface and then removed .3. 5.4 PROPORTIONING When the industrial waste is treated along with municipal sewage.5 PHYSICAL TREATMENT The physical treatment consists of unit methods like sedimentation by which settleable solids are sedimented and floatation in skimming tanks by which finer particles.3. which produces an effluent of fairly uniform characteristics. the waste may be subjected to proportioning. but also improving the sanitary quality of the treated effluent. 5. Proportioning consists of control of the discharge of the industrial waste into the receiving stream or sewer in a fixed proportion to the flow of domestic waste water This helps not only in protecting the treatment device from shock load.Sewage Characteristics Page 85 period in a continuously mixed basin. This becomes very essential particularly in the case of acidic wastes.3 NEUTRALIZATION When the industrial waste contains excessively acidic or alkaline substances the waste water requires neutralization. 5.
Air stripping BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT: In addition to the conventional biological processes like trickling filters.6 CHEMICAL TREATMENT Environmental Engineering The following are the chemical and physico-chemical processes employed in the treatment of industrial waste are a. Ion Exchange g. activated sludge process. sludge digestion tanks etc special processes involving acclimatized micro-organisms are also employed Biological processes like aerated lageons. Electrodialysis e.Page86 5. Chemical oxidation c. Chemical precipitation b. oxidation ditches etc are also used for treatment of industrial wastes. Reverse osmosis d. Thermal reduction h. Anaerobic lagoons. Adsorption f.3. .
Significance of tests: (i) Total solids: Size sedimentation/imhoffcone trickling filters. operation and maintenance of treatment units 7. Odour. then the sewage is said to be strong (i. The bottle should be completely filled with sample without air and stopper should be firmly inserted and tied with a piece of cloth 5. The characteristics of sewage are (i) (ii) (iii) Physical – Colour.e. Biological characteristics – aerobic.) B.solids.D. other chemical substances. Samples are collected beneath the surface where the particles are mixed due to turbulence is called grab sample for the analysis of sewage 3. Thoroughly cleaned and sterilized bottles of quartz are used for sample collection. chemical and biological parameters and also useful in planning.Sewage Characteristics SYNOPSIS Page 87 1.O. Different grab samples collected at frequent intervals in equal volume or proportionate to flow mixed are called “Composite Sample”. is high 2. The analysis of sewage is to determine the nature and concentration of physical. If the sewage contains more organic matter. activated sludge process . 4. temperature. turbidity Chemical gases .. anaerobic or fraculative 6. design.
– The amount of carboneous matter in organic matter is measured and useful in identifying the performance of various steps of treatment plant. Equalization c.D. It is determined for regulating the various operations of treatment works Chlorides – the normal chloride concentration in sewage is 120mg/lit and excess chlorides indicates presence of industrial sewage (iii) (iv) (v) 8.Page88 (ii) Environmental Engineering C.O.O. Reduction of volume and strength b. Proportioning e. Chemical treatment g. Biological treatment . design and operation of biological units in the treatment of sewage PH-The logarithem of reciprocal of Hydrogen Ion concentration.D – The amount of oxygen required for biochemical oxidation of the decomposable matter and it is an important parameter in palnning. Physical treatment f. Neutralization d. B. The principles of treatment of industrial sewage are a.
What is meant by equalization? 9. 6. List the principles of treatment of industrial waste water and explain any two methods. What is meant by neutralization? 10.D value? 8.O. What is meant by proportioning? ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Explain the significance of following 1) B. Define B. 5.D.D. 3. chemical and biological characteristics of domestic sewage. What is meant by grab sample? Page 89 6. Explain physical. 3.O.O. 2. List the physico-chemical methods used in treatment of industrial sewage. What are the precautions should be taken while collecting samples for analysis? 7.D 2) C. . Define C.D 3) PH 4) CHLORIDES 4.O. What is meant by strength of sewage? 4. What is the significance of B. 2. What is composite sample? 5. List the characteristics of industrial sewage. Explain the method of collecting samples and precautions taken in sampling of sewage.Sewage Characteristics SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1.O.
If the sewage is directly disposed of. The degree of treatment will be mostly be decided by the regulatory agencies and the extent to which the final products of treatment are to be utilized. If the quantity of sewage is more than receiving water will become polluted or the land become sewage sick under such circumstances it becomes essential to do some treatment of the sewage so that it can be accepted by the land or receiving water without any objection. which will convert into harmless substances. it will acted upon the natural forces. Practically the treatment of sewage is required in big cities only where the volume of the sewage is more as well as the quantity of various types of solids. The sewage treatment units can be broadly classified as a) Primary treatment b) Secondary treatment . The main object of the treatment limits is to reduce the sewage contents (solids) from the sewage and remove all the nuisance causing elements and change the character of the sewage in such a way that it can be safely discharged in the natural course applied on the land. The natural forces of purification cannot purify any amount of sewage within the specified time. industrial sewage etc.Page 90 CHAPTER 6 Environmental Engineering SEWERAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL The sewage contains various types of impurities and disease bacteria is disposed of by dilution or on land after its collection and conveyance.
Screens Plain sedimentation Sedimentation with chemicals Trickling filter followed by plain sedimentation (low rate) Trickling filter (High rate) proceeded and followed by plain sedimentation Activated sludge process followed by plain sedimentation (ordinary) Activated sludge process followed by plain sedimentation (high rate) 5 to 20 35 to 65 70 to 90 10 to 20 30 to 70 90 to 95 5 to 10 25 to 40 80 to 95 70 to 90 90 to 95 80 to 95 5.1 shows relative efficiencies of various types of treatment units Percentage removal of S.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal c) Final treatment Page 91 Table 6.Dat 5 day 20°C 1.O. 3. 85 to 90 90 to 98 75 to 96 7. Treatment Unit Suspended Solids Bacteria B. 2. 65 to 96 95 to 96 65 to 96 . 65 to 92 80 to 95 70 to 95 6.No. 4.
6. Sedimentation Intermittent sand filtration Chlorination of settled sewage 85 to 95 Table 6.Page 92 8. 9.2 shows the various types of impurities and required treatment processes. The layout of the treatment plant is as shown in fig no. Fig 6.1 and table 6.1 Environmental Engineering 95 to 98 95 to 98 90 to 95 18 to 30 98 to 99. If the sewage is to be disposed of finally in the river or natural streams the treatment plant should be located on the river bank and it should be down stream side of city and sufficiently away from the water intake works.1 Layout of Sewage Treatment Plant . 10.2 The treatment plant should be located as near the point of disposal as possible.
The more complex compounds are broken up and converted into simpler compounds by decomposition. PURPOSE: The main purpose of the installation of screens is to remove the floating matter of comparatively large size to prevent the possible damage of pumps and other equipments . grit chambers. Pathogenic bacteria In primary treatment. Colloids and organic matter dissolved Biological Growth Disinfection Table 6. Non-settlable suspended and Chemical flocculation some dissolved solids 5.2 6. detritus tanks skimming tanks and sedimentation tanks with or without use of chemicals. Bulky floating and suspended Racks and screens matters 2. the larger solids from the sewage are removed during the treatment process. detritus tanks and matter sedimentation tanks 4.1 PRIMARY TREATMENT: 6.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 93 Impurity Process used for removal 1. The primary treatment includes screen. Oils and greese Floating tanks (skimming tanks) 3. Heavy and coarse suspended Grit chamber.
Page 94 Environmental Engineering LOCATION: The screens should preferably be located just before grit chambers at an angle of 30° to 60° with the direction of flow. wings or cage c. The classification can also be done based on a. Shape as disc. gratings or wire meshes or perforated plates and openings may be of any shape generally they are circular or rectangular. band . The screens are some times accommodated in the body of grit chambers. Hand or mechanical cleaned screens Bar screens coarse or medium size in which bars are palced 5 cm or above and remove rags . sticks. medium or fine screen b. drum. dead animals etc from the sewage and prevent the sewage pumps against damage as shown in fig no.2 .6. TYPES OF SCREENS: (i) (ii) (iii) Racks or bar-screens Perforated or fine screens Comminuters or cutting screens. Opening size as course. rods. The screening element may consists of parallel bars.
3 shows disc type fine screen Fig6. Fine screens may be of drum or disc type and mechanically operated.6.3 Fine Screen .Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 95 Fig 6.5 mm to 6mm. These screens are less common now-a-days because of low efficiency .2 Bar Screens Fine screens have perforations of size about 1. They produces a noticeable effect on the strength of sewage and they considerably reduce the load on subsequent treatment units. high maintenance cost and difficulty in the disposal of screening materials fig no.
fruit skins etc. greese. The disposal screenings may be burial. 6. Fig No.5 shows typical skimming tank.Page 96 Environmental Engineering Comminuters or cutting screens which are very popular in modern sewage works due to their high efficiency and less maintenance cost. Fig 6.4 Communiter 2. wood pieces. Fig No. . soap.4 shows communiter in which cutting screen drum continuously revolves and removes the fine suspended impurities from the sewage. SKIMMING TANKS: These tanks are used to remove oil. 6. incenevation or digestion.
The compressed air sets up the currents and it results in the floating matter of sewage COLLECTION OF FLOATING SUBSTANCES: The floating substances collected at the top of tank are removed either with hand or with the help of mechanical equipment (ii) . The period of aeration and quantity of air will depends upon the quality of sewage.5 Skimming Tank DESIGN ASPECTS: (i) AIR DIFFUSERS: Air diffusers are provided at the bottom of the tank for efficient working of skimming tank.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 97 Fig 6.
Page 98 (iii) (iv) (v) Environmental Engineering DETENTION PERIOD: The detension period of about 3 to 5 minutes are designed OUTLET: The submerged outlet is provided to prevent the floating substances into the outlet channel SHAPE: The shape skimming tank may be elliptical or circular and depth may be about one metre or so The disposal of the skimming obtained from skimming tanks can be done for the manufacture of the soap. wax. The weight of dry gret is about 300kg/m3 and the weight of wet grit is . The skimmings are usually disposed of burning or burying in the ground 3. LOCATION: The grit chambers are placed after pumping stations and before screens or may be changed to suit the local requirements. NATURE OF GRIT: The grit has a specific gravity of about 2. sand and other organic matter by reducing velocity of flow so that the heavier organic materials settle down at the bottom of grit chamber and the lighter organic materials are carried forward for further treatment. GRIT CHAMBERS: The purpose of providing grit chamber in the sewage treatment process is to remove grit. lubricants.5. pitch and other non-edible products.0 to 2.
6. Provision of catch basins. SOURCES OF GRIT: The grit in the sewage is obtained from domestic sewage. . 3. Design of suit chambers. 7. Floors of garages. 2. 5. service stations. Intensity of cleaning the streets. VOLUME OF GRIT: The following factors which affect the volume or quantity of grit in the sewage 1. obtained from domestic sewage. Occurance of storms and their intensity. Characteristics of ground. Area of unpaved surface in the locality. fast storm of the season etc. floors of garages. A stand by unit is essential for the smooth and efficient working of the grit chamber.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 99 about 1600kg/m3. Systems of sewage – combined or separate. 4. The grit contains voids to the extent of 35 to 40 percent. NUMBER: The grit chambers are provided in duplicate.
6. Hydraulic cleaning. Hand cleaning. The horizontal flow grit chamber is more popular as shown in fig no. .6 Grit Chamber CLEANING DEVICES: The grit deposited at the bottom of the tank is to be periodically cleaned by 1. Mechanical cleaning.Page 100 Environmental Engineering TYPES: The grit chambers may be horizontal flow or vertical flow type. 2. Fig 6. 3.6.
6. 5. 4.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 101 DESIGN ASPECTS: 1. 3.2 PRIMARY TREATMENT – PLAIN SEDIMENTATION : OBJECTS: 1. . 2. It can also mixed with poor soil to condition it and acts as good manure for garden crops. This is obtained by dividing the grit chamber into compartments. DEPTH: A minimum of 300mm should be provided and depth to length ratio should be about 1/16. SPACE FOR ACCUMULATION OF GRIT: It is necessary to provide sufficient space at the bottom of grit chamber for accumulation of grit which may be 12 to 27 litres per one million litres of sewage. VELOCITY OF FLOW: The velocity of flow in the grit chamber is kept 200 to 300 mm per sec. The process of sedimentation reduces the strength of sewage to the extent of about 30 to 35%. CLEANING INTERVAL: depending upon the local conditions cleaning interval varies from one to two weeks. DETENSION PERIOD: The grit chambers are designed for a detension period of about 1 minute. DISPOSAL OF GRIT: The disposal of grit is used to reclaim the low lying land.
The material collected at the bottom of sedimentation tanks is known as sludge and partially treated sewage is known as effluent. According to the nature of working a. the suspended particles carried by the sewage tend to settle at the bottom of tanks. 4. both require further additional treatment to make them an objectionable.O. Continuous flow type. Secondary clarifies after filters or activated sludge process. The quantity of settleable solids in the sewage reduces to the extent of 80 to 90%. 2. 3. According to the location a. Fill and draw type.Page 102 Environmental Engineering 2. SEDIMENTATION PROCESS: When the velocity of flow is decreased or when sewage is allowed to stand at rest. TYPES OF TANKS: 1.D to the extent of about 30 to 35%. b. There is a reduction in B. . b. The sewage after being treated in the sedimentation becomes fit for further treatment processes. Primary clarifies before grit chambers.
(iv) The distance between inlet and outlet channel should remain constant. SHAPE OF TANK: (i) Rectangular tanks: The ratios of length to width is about 4 to 5 and the ratio of width to depth is about 2 to 3. (i) (ii) The rate of inflow and outflow are equal.7. The sewage should diffused equally across the entire section of tank. 2. INLET AND OUTLET ARRANGEMENTS: The following points should be noted in the design of inlet and outlet arrangements. The following are the design aspects of the primary clarifies. . A rectangular tank with horizontal flow is a s shown in fig no.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal a. (iii) The outflow should be as thin as possible. Page 103 PRIMARY CLARIFIES OR PRIMARY SEDIMENTARY TANKS: The overall features of primary clarifies are more or less the same as those tanks which are provided in the water supply schemes. 6. 1.
Hopper bottom tank with vertical flow is as shown in fig no.Page 104 Environmental Engineering Fig 6. 6.8 .8. Hopper bottom tank: These tanks may be with horizontal or vertical flow. (iii) Fig No. 6.7 Rectangular Settling Tank (ii) Circular tank: The circular tanks are with vertical flow and it is possible to install conveniently the mechanical scrapers to collect the sludge at bottom of tank as in the case of dorr clarifier.
(i) (ii) Hand cleaning – suitable for rectangular tank with flat bottom. (5) SCUM REMOVAL DEVICES: The primary clarifiers should be provided suitable scum removal devices. (6) SLUDGE REMOVAL: The sludge collected at the bottom of settling tanks should be periodically removed by the following methods. The floating thus caught are sent for further treatment or for final disposal. In this tank the sludge is conveyed to a manhole through sludge removal pipe under hydraulic pressure. Hydraulic Cleaning – This method is suitable for hopper bottom settling tank with vertical flow. . For primary clarifiers are generally designed for a detension period of 1 to 3 hours (average 2 hours) The overflow rate is generally taken as 1000 to 2000 lit per hour per m2. (4) SCUM BUFFLES: The scum baffles in the form of troughs or boards are to be provided to prevent the entry of floating substances into the outlet channel.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal (3) CAPACITY OF TANK: Page 105 The capacity of tank is determined by considering the detension period and overflow rate.
ADVANTAGES: 1. (2) MISLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS: The velocity of flow should be about 300 mm per minute.Page 106 (iii) Environmental Engineering Mechanical cleaning – This method is suitable for rectangular and circular tanks. The efficiency of tank may be reduced due to disturbing effects of the mechanical equipment. 2. 2. The clarifies should be provided with suitable facilities such as handrails. . DISADVANTAGES: 1. ladders. 3. The steelwork is increased. Power required to run the mechanical equipment. The sewage to this extent is prepared to receive the secondary treatment.3 SECONDARY TREATMENT The effluent that is coming out from primary clarifies contains 45 to 50 percent of the unstable or organic matter originally present in the sewage as solution or suspension or colloidal matter. The sludge is removed continuously there is no chance to become septic. The sludge obtained by this method is dense. passages etc for easy access and maintenance of the tanks. 6.
Activated sludge process.1 TRICKLING FILTERS: Trickling filters are used for the biological treatment of domestic and industrial wastes. The sewage is allowed to sprinkle or to trickle over bed of coarse.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 107 The main function of the secondary treatment of sewage is to convert the remaining organic matter into stable form by oxidation or nitrification. A bacteria film known as bio film is formed around the particles of filtering media and for the existence of this film oxygen in supplied by intermittent working of the filter and by provision of suitable ventilation facilities in the body of the filter. Filtration. The oxidation of the organic matter is carried out under aerobic conditions. Trickling filters. . rough. 3. 2. Contact beds. which are amenable to aerobic biological process. The secondary treatment involves the following methods. 6. hard material and it is then collected through the under drainage system. The filters which are commonly employed in the secondary treatment of sewage are of following types 1. Intermittent sand filters.3. 1. 2.
9. fungi. elongated pieces. 1.C. 1. the former is being very common (b) FILTER MEDIA . Standard rate trickling filter. 6.Page 108 Environmental Engineering The colour of film is blackish.The filter media of trickling filter may consists of exushed rock or clinker or specially manufactured material of uniform size varies from 30mm to 80mm approximately cubical in shape and free from flat. dirt or any other undesirable materials (c) FLOORS – The floor of trickling filter is generally made of R. protozoa etc. algae. lichens. High rate trickling filter. of 100 to 150 mm thick and slope towards central drain or towards periphery of filter as shown in fig 6. greenish and yellowish and consists of bacteria.C. STANDARD RATE TRICKLING FILTER: (i) STRUCTURAL FEATURES: (a) SHAPE – The shape of trickling filter may be circular or rectangular. Fig. 2. The trickling filters are broadly divided into the following categories.9 .
3. ventilation and lead the effluent to main channel. Under drains and effluent channel designed to permit free passage of air. . Natural draft ventilation by vent pipes etc. Forced ventilation by mechanical equipment.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 109 (d) UNDER DRAINAGE SYSTEM: The trickling filter should be provided with suitable under drainage system to collect the sewage after it has passed through the filter media at the bottom of filter and sent for further treatment or disposal. (f) DISTRIBUTORS: The function of distributor is to spread the influent evenly on the filtering media. (e) VENTILATORS: The ventilation should be provided for successful working of trickling filter by 1. 2. suitable for rectangular filters. The distributors are divided into two categories 1. b) Rectilinear distributors: These are move back and forth from one to other end. MOVABLE DISTRIBUTORS: a) Rotary distributors: These are rotate around a central support and suitable for circular filters. The under drains consists of specially manufactured blocks or half-round tiles which supports filter media.
Secondly post filtration treatment is required because trickling filter change the character or nature of the suspended solids rather than to remove them totally from sewage. FIXED DISTRIBUTORS: These are spry nozzles discharge the sewage in the form of fine drops. 2) NUMBER: Minimum of two trickling filters should be provided so that one can be stand by unit.8m to 2. (iii) DESIGN ASPECTS: 1) DEPTH : The effective depth of trickling filter is generally kept 1. which are fixed on the surface of filter at appropriate distances and suitable for small installations.8m are adopted only under circumstances such as to avoid pumping etc. (ii) TREATMENT OF SEWAGE : To achieve better results from the trickling filter plant it is desirable and essential to provide primary sedimentation which removes the suspended particles and hence clogging of filter media is avoided. This is done providing secondary clarifies.4m. . The depths smaller than 1.Page 110 Environmental Engineering 2. Dosing tank: The automatic siphonic dosing tanks are provided for the application of sewage on the surface of filter for 3 to 5 minutes and stopped or discontinued for a period of about 3 to 10 minutes.
2) Wear and tear is small because of less mechanical equipment.D per day per 100m3 of filter media iii) Million litres per hectare of surface area 1000 to 2000 15 to 30 25 to 40 (IV) ADVANTAGES 1) It requires smaller volume of water for dilution because of the effluent is highly nutrified and stabilized. 6) The working of trickling filter is simple and doesnot require skilled supervision.O. 4) The trickling filters are flexible in operation.O. 3) It requires less power.O. 7) The moisture content of sludge obtained from the trickling filter is as high as 99 percent or so.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 111 3) RATE OF FILTER LOADING: i) Kg of B.D per hectare-metre per day ii) Kg of B. (V) DISADVANTAGES 1) Cost of construction is high. 2) The loss of head in the filter is high and hence siphonic dosing tanks are essential.D and colloidal matter to the extent of 75 to 80 percent. 5) It may reduce the B. 3) The process may develop fly nuisance and bad odour. .
3. Land requirement Method aeration of Less flexible and More flexible and requires less skilled requires more supervision skilled supervision . 2.9m to 1. Cost of operation Depth Dosing interval It is more 1. 5. II.Page 112 Environmental Engineering 4) The process requires primary treatment of sewage and hence raw sewage cannot be purified by this process.8m It is not more than 15sec and sewage is to be applied continuously Less 1. Feature Standard Rate Trickling filter High rate trickling filter It is less for equal performance 0.8m to 2. The rate of loading increased by adopting. 5) It requires large land area. COMPARISION BETWEEN STANDARD RATE AND HIGH RATE TRICKLING FILTERS No.4m Generally 3 to 10minutes intervals and not applied continuously More 4. HIGH RATE TRICKLING FILTERS High rate trickling filters all similar to the standard rate trickling filters except the rate of loading for high rate trickling is more.
I) Kg of B.O.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal 6. in some be adopted types it may be used daring periods of low & low only 30mm to 60mm 9. Page 113 Quality of It is black and It is brown and not secondary sludge highly oxidized with fully oxidized with slight fine particles fine particles Rate of loading filter 7.D per hectare meter 1000 to 2000 per day ii) Kg of B. Size of media filter 30mm to 80mm .O. Recirculation system 10. Effluent 8000 to 14000 above 45 100 to 300 The effluent is The effluent is highly nitrified and nitrified upto nitrite stabilized stage only and hence it is of inferior quality It is generally not It always included included but it can However.D per day per 3 100m of filter 15 to 50 media iii) Million litres per hectare of surface area per 25 to 40 day 8.
The activated sludge is biologically active and it contains a great number of aerobic bacteria and other micro-organisms which have got an unsual property to oxidize the organic matter. 2. Golden brown . Moisture content of activated sludge is about 95 to 97 percent Fig 6. The following are the properties of activated sludge. 1. Raw sewage can be treated as the process requires sewage treated with primary treatment. 2. The colour of activated sludge indicates the degree of aeration. (1) Mixing of activated sludge : The activated sludge is mixed properly with raw or settled sewage of primary clarifier .2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS: The term activated sludge is used to indicate the sludge which is obtained by settling sewage in presence of abundant oxygen. The activated sludge contains fertilizing constituents.3.10 shows the flows diagram of activated sludge process. 3. Light brown – under aerated sludge.well aerated sludge.Page 114 Environmental Engineering DISADVATAGES: 1. 6. Muddy brown – over aerated sludge. The following three basic operations are involved in the activated sludge process. The effluent is not highly nitrified and hence it requires high volume of water for dilution.
p. Mechanical aeration devices consists of cylindrical cage about 75cm in diameter made of C.3. For economy purpose sometimes the aeration units also . Pasveer of netherland developed this method for treatment of sewage of small estates and colonies. Detension period of 12 to 15 hours is normally provided.8 to 2. is kept at such a level that about 10 to 15cm of them remain dipped in sewage and rotated at about 75 r.5m deep.3 OXIDATION DITCH: Dr. 1 to 5 m wide and 1 to 1. It keeps the solid contents of the sewage in suspension condition. The oxidation ditches are aeration units in the shape of long channels 150 to 1000m long. The loading of sewage can be 0.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 115 (2) Aeration: The effluent is agitated or aerated in the aeration tank and various methods are employed 6. The activated sludge is returned back to the aeration units.5 cum/kg of B.m. After aeration the sewage is allowed to settle in the settling tank.D for treatment of 150cum of sewage standard mechanical aeration is sufficient which aerates the sewage as well as move it and generate a velocity of more than 30cm/sec.I.O. For the aeration of sewage to the extended type of activated sludge process mechanical system is used.
O. These ditches requires about 4.D.D present in the raw sewage. The power consumption in rotating rotars is very high.10 Oxidation Ditch . 6. but as the primary settling tanks and the anerobic digestion processes are eliminated. The rotars are stopped for 2 hours to settle the suspended solids in the bed.4 km/kg of B.10.O. Fig 6. The effluent is taken out and disposed of with or without treatment.Page 116 Environmental Engineering acts as the settling units. When the land is costly and it is very costly to construct oxidation ditch method can be economically used. hence it is compensated. The details are as shown in fig no. The efficiency of the oxidation ditch is more than 95% for suspended solids and more than 98% for B.
3. CONSTRUCTION: The oxidation ponds are constructed with shallow depths of about 900 to 1500mm. The carbondioxide produced in the decomposition of sewage is broken up by algae by the process of photosynthesis into carbon and oxygen. Oxidation ponds are suitable for small towns situated in tropical regions with dry climate and warm temperature. The pond is constructed into compartments of suitable sizes and the sewage is allowed to flow in zigzag manner through these compartments as shown in fig no. It is desirable to provide a free board of about one metre or so.11. These ponds are used to treat raw sewage or partially treated sewage. 6. The aerobic bacteria obtain oxygen from the atmosphere and use it in the decomposition of organic matter of sewage. The carbon is used in producing more carbohydrates and the released oxygen keeps the dissolved oxygen content of water at high level.4 OXIDATION PONDS: An artificial pond of shallow depth formed for the retention of sewage for sufficient time is known as an oxidation pond.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 117 6. . ACTION: The oxidation ponds purify the sewage by dual action of aerobic bacteria and algae. which permits the sunlight to penetrate into the body of sewage for the growth of algae.
ADVANTAGES: 1. The loading may be expressed in terms of B.D. varies from 150 to 300 kg per hectare.11 Oxidation Pond DESIGN ASPECTS: The detention period of 2 to 6 weeks should be provided for proper development of algae. Maintenance and operation of oxidation ponds are simple and easy .O.Page 118 Environmental Engineering Fig 6. Cost treatment in oxidation ponds is low 2.
therefore these are most suitable for middle size towns. where artificial aeration replaces algal oxygenation of the waste stabilization ponds. Hence they constructed away from the residential locality 2. These are highly efficient in removal of B. The oxidation ponds prove economical where land is cheaply available and suitable dry climate exists DISADVATAGES: 1. The aerated lagoon acts as a settling cum aeration tank. straw board and .D (90%) and califorms(99%) 4.3. These oxidation ponds may sometimes become septic due to overloading or unfavourable badly season 6.5 AERATED LAGOONS AND ANAEROBIC LAGOONS: AERATED LAGOONS: An aerated lagoon is an earthen basin about 2.0 m deep in which sewage is filled and aerated by means of diffused air or mechanical aerators. These may give objectionable odours and cause the nuisance of mosquitoes. Commonly mechanical aerators are used and fixed on permanent foundation sewage is sent in these lagoons after passing through the grit chamber. 15 to Rs. The initial cost of construction varies from Rs. 25 per capita.O.5 to 4.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 119 3. without giving any primary treatment. The waste water industries such as paper.
big hotels.5 kg of oxygen / H. . The capacity of lagoon is provided about 30 cum per 2. / hour at 20°C.3. The floats should be manufactured from the non-carrodible water for maximum durability as well as less maintenance cost.P. 6. small institutions.D. B.O.0 kg to domestic sewage. The oxygen capacity varies from 1. carbon dioxide and other gaseous and products of organic acids and cell tissues. conversion efficiency is about 70% in routine and under optimum operating conditions it is raised upto 85%. All the electrical wires.4 SEPTIC TANK: In order to provide satisfactory disposal of sewage received or obtained from isolated buildings. The lagoons are constructed to a depth of about 6m so that the heat energy is conserved and an aerobic conditions are maintained stabilization of sewage is brought about by the combination of sedimentation and anaerobic conversion of organic wastes to methane. cables supplying power to the mechanical aerations should be taken overhead for safety as well as low maintenance purpose The shape of lagoons are normally rectangular.6 ANAEROBIC LAGOONS: These lagoons are anaerobic throughout their depth except for an extremely shallow surface zone. 6.5 to 2.Page 120 Environmental Engineering food industries can also be easily treated by the aerated lagoons. The cost of construction can be reduced by constructing the side walls of lagoons in simple earth work.
During the detention period. the septic tanks may be adopted THEORY: The septic tank is just like a plain sedimentation tank but in septic tank.12. The septic tank should be water tight and material used are resistant to corrosion 2. The scum boards may be provided near the inlet and outlet ends to prevent the escape of scum. The level of outlet is about 150mm lower than inlet as shown in fig 6. The septic tank is provided with cover at top for avoiding the bad smells occur during the digestion period of sludge. bio-chemical reactions by anaerobic bacteria take place as in the case of sludge digestion tanks.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 121 camps etc or undeveloped areas of the locality where municipal sewers are not laid. CONSTRUCTION: 1. . the sewage is purified and the effluent is taken to soak pits for disposal. The septic tank should be such that the direct currents are not established between inlet and outlet by using submerged pipes or buffle walls near the inlet.
C and a manhole is provided in RCC slab for the purpose of inspection and cleaning.C. If necessary. steps may be provided. C.Page 122 Environmental Engineering Fig 6. The sludge is allowed to be accumulated at the bottom of tank and it is removed at intervals either by manual labour or by pumping.I. . 5.12 Septic Tank with Soak Pit 3. 4. The septic tank should provide proper ventilation by air vent pipes. The top cover of septic tank should be made of R.
1. 3.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 123 6. 8. SHAPE: The shape is generally rectangular with length breadth ratio 2:4. 2. 4. DETENSION PERIOD: The detension period varies from 12 to 72 hours commonly being 24 hours. DESIGN ASPECTS: 1. DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT: The effluent of septic tanks is highly odors and it should therefore carefully discharged by the following methods. The accumulation of sludge at the bottom of tank decreases its storing capacity and hence the septic tanks should be cleaned every 6 to 12 months. It is also designed based on per capita basis which varies from 60 to 110 litres per person to be served by the septic tank. CAPACITY: The volume of septic tank is decided by taking the consideration of quantity of flow and detention period. The space for sludge is kept usually at the rate of 15 to 45 litres per capita per year. . Absorption trenches. The septic tanks may be constructed in series to act like two stage sludge digestion tanks but the single stage septic tanks are very popular. FREE BOARD: This should be about 400 to 600 mm. A septic tank thus combines the functions of sedimentation tank. 7. a sludge digestion tank and a sludge storage tank.
6. 5. Trickling filters.Page 124 2. 4. Natural Waters. Surface irrigation. It removes about 90% B.8m. Gardening. Soak pits. There is reduction in the volume of about 60% and 30% less in weight.11. The size of the pit depends upon the quantity of effluent and permeability of subsoil. 8.2 to 1.O. The waste water then percolates into the ground and thus finally disposed. The effluent is applied into the pit so that aerobic bacteria film on the surface of brick bat oxidizes the dissolved organic matter. 7. It doesnot require special attention or skilled super vision.D. 3. 2. effluent and scum obtained from septic tank can be disposed off easily without causing serious nuisance. The cost is reasonable. The total depth of soak pit varies from 1. The pit is filled with bric bats or coarse aggregates. The details of soak pit is as shown in fig. The sludge.6. 5. ADVANTAGES: 1. and 80% suspended solids. 4. Environmental Engineering SOAK PIT: It is a circular or square pit of sufficient dimension. . Soak wells. 3. Sub-surface irrigation.
Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 125 DISADVANTAGES: 1. The working of septic tank is unpredictable and non-uniform.5 SEWAGE DISPOSAL: The liquid effluent of treatment plant has to be disposed properly to avoid further adverse effects. Artificial methods 1. It requires excessive size for serving more persons. The liquid . 2. Disposal on land 2. Direct and indirect reuse of waste water 4. 3. 4. Disposal in water 3. If tank is not properly functioning the effluent is dark and foul smelling worse than influent. 6. 1. The leakage of tank causes air pollution. There are following methods available. DISPOSAL ON LAND: Before disposing on to the land it is to be verified whether the effluent is treated and removed off the pollutants to such an extent as to satisfy the standards for disposal.
Page 126 Environmental Engineering effluent can be advantageously used for irrigation purposes. infiltration capacity of soil. (c) Ridge and furrow method in which the land is ploughed into ridges and furrows. what is called "Sewage sickness". Such adverse phenomenon can be stopped by (1) Applying pretreated sewage instead of raw sewage (2) Stopping the application of sewage on to those lands for certain period (3) By rotation of crops. cotton etc. (b) Sub surface irrigation in which sewage is allowed to enter the land through distributors. The furrows are filled with sewage and crops are grown on ridges. types of crops grown etc. the pores of soils get clogged. filtration by biological action etc. The drain pipes are laid below ground so as to collect it after evaporation. preventing free circulation of air. The methods by which land irrigation (sewage farming) is done are (a) Broad irrigation or surface irrigation in which the sewage is allowed to flow over cultivable lands to grow crops like plantains. The amount of waste water that can be disposed depends on the climatic conditions. This prevents aerobic biological action and thus the purifying capacity of land is reduced. The land disposal can also be done by evaporation ponds in which the sewage is filled in ponds and is made to evaporate. By such continuous application. . during which the sewage gets purified. The continuous disposal of sewage on land may lead to the conditions.
zones where rivers meet the sea. This phenomenon of automatic purification of natural water in due course is called selfpurification. DIRECT AND INDIRECT REUSE OF WASTE WATER: It is generally impossible to reuse a waste water completely or indefinitely. In this method.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal Page 127 2. 3. The method involves disposing sewage in the natural body of water. The reuse of treated effluent by direct or indirect means is a method of disposal that complements the other disposal methods. However.e. i. DISPOSAL IN WATER: This is also called dilution technique. taking the advantage of its "Self Purification" capacity due to natural aeration. ii. iv. Disposal in to rivers and streams. The mechanisms responsible for self purification of water bodies are (a) Dilution (b) Sedimentation (c) Oxidationreduction (d) Sun light. Disposal in to the sea. Water reuse maybe classified according to use as . car should be taken to see that the effluents are treated for the removal of pollutants below tolerance limits before being discharged into natural water bodies. the effluent may be discharged into any one of the nearby water bodies. Disposal in to lakes. Disposal in to estuaries i. iii.
Recreational reuse such as forming artificial lakes for boating etc. lawn. Agricultural reuse i. golf course watering. boiler feed water and process water. 4. 5.e. Oxidation ponds b. 4. . orchards.Page 128 Environmental Engineering 1. Oxidation ditches c. Aerated lagoons d. 3. and to stop sea water intrusion into the aquifers. for irrigation of certain crops. Industrial reuse such as cooling tower water. forests and leaching of soils. Ground water recharge which is one of the most common methods of disposal of treated effluent to replenish ground water supplies. the untreated sewage may also be treated and disposed by the following methods a. 2. Anaerobic lagoons These methods are called low cost treatment and disposal methods. ARTIFICIAL METHODS: In addition to the above three methods.. Municipal reuse for park.
soap. hand. Move complex compounds are broken up and converted into simpler compounds by decomposition 4.O. . Grit chambers remove grit. skimming tanks and sedimentation tanks in which larger solids are removed during the treatment process. The sewage treatment units can be broadly classified as a) Primary treatment b) Secondary treatment c) Final treatment 3. By the plain sedimentation reduces the strength of sewage to the extent of about 30 to 35%.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal SYNOPYSIS Page 129 1.D 30 to 35%. fruit skins etc 6. The primary treatment includes screen. Skimming tanks are used to remove oil. wings or cage Mechanism – hand or mechanical Operation – fixed. The main object of the treatment units is to reduce the sewage contents (solids) from the sewage and remove all the nuisance causing elements 2. settleable solids 80 to 90% and B. grit chamber. wood pieces. moving or movable Generally a) Racks or bar – screens b) Performed or fine screens c) Comminuters or cutting screens 5. greese. sand and other organic matter by reducing the velocity of flow 7. The types screens based on Size – Coarse. drum. medium or fine screen Shape – disc. detritus tanks.
circular or hopper bottom Capacity – detention period 1 to 3 hours (generally 2 hours) overflow rate 1000 to 2000 lit per hour per no2 Slum buffler & removal – to prevent the entry of floating substances into outlet channel and provided some suitable devices Sludge removal – removed by hand. Trickling filters 13.Continuous type b) Location – Primary clarifiers . Contact beds 2. The effluent coming from primary treatment contains 45 to 50% of unstable organic matter and the main function of secondary treatment is to convert into stable form by oxidation or nitrification by filtration and activated sludge process. The methods of disposal of sewage are 1) disposal on land 2) Disposal in water 3) Direct & Indirect reuse of waste water 4) Artificial methods .Secondary Clarifiers 10. 9. Intermittent sand filters 3. 12. The material collected at the bottom of sedimentation tank is known as “sludge” and partially treated sewage is known as “effluent”. The primary clarifiers may have following features Shape – Rectangular.Page 130 Environmental Engineering 8. hydraulic or mechanical cleaning 11. In activated sludge process. The types of sedimentation tanks according to a) Nature of working – Fill and draw type . The filters generally employed in the secondary treatment are 1. the micro-organisms like bacteria oxidize the organic matter by the basic operations a) Mixing of activated sludge b) Aeration 14.
Explain the different units of treatment of sewage? 2. Explain the standard rate trickling filter. Explain the grit chamber with the help of meat sketch. Explain the following a) Oxidation ditch b) Oxidation pond 7. 8. 5. 6. 4. Explain the following a) Aerobic lagoon a) Anaerobic Lagoon . Page 131 What is the purpose of screens? What is the use of skimming tanks? What are the objects of primary treatment? What are the treatment methods in the secondary treatment? What are the advantages of oxidation pond? What is the purpose of soak pit? What are methods of sewage disposal? What is the purpose of grit chamber? What is the use of plain sedimentation? ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. 3. 4.Sewerage Treatment & Disposal SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. 9. Explain the methods of disposal of sewage 10. 2. Explain septic tank with the help of neat sketch 9. Explain activated sludge process 8. 5. Explain the following a) Screens b) Skimming tanks 3. 7. Compare the standard rate trickling filter with high rate trickling filter 6.
1.1 COMPOSITION AND SOURCES: 1. Ashes are the waste products of coal and other fuels from industries 3. cardboard wood.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: The solid waste of the community is known as "refuse". birds etc collected from municipalities cows. 7. diphtheria. The term "refuse" includes all the solid or semi solid waste matter except the night soil. The accumulation of solid waste in the streets and surroundings of houses. crokery etc from dustbins. papers. diarhoae etc Insanitary conditions are developed by the indiscriminate throwing of solid waste in the streets and surroundings. The organic matter undergoes biological degradation and becomes offensive in nature. houses etc 4. 2. hotels. restaurants etc. Rubbish denotes all non putrescible wastes like cans. that the solid waste is properly collected and disposed. goats. . scrap metals. Hence it necessary. Dead animals . brush. Garbage is putrescible wastes from obtained from kitchens. promotes the growth of house flies. which are the transmittes of diseases like typhoid.The dead animals of dog. The refuse may contain both organic and inorganic matter. causing nuisance to the public and effect the health.Page 132 CHAPTER 7 Environmental Engineering SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL 7.
1. Three-bin system In one-bin system the dust-bins are placed in streets at suitable places. In two-bin system.Solid Waste Disposal Page 133 5. Two-bin system 3. 7.The waste materials from different industries distillery. Industrial solid waste . Once or twice in a week.2 SYSTEM OF COLLECTION OF REFUSE: The dry refuse is generally collected in the following systems 1. Street Sweepings . the municipal workers collect the refuse in separate trucks from every house and then take away for disposal. hospitals etc. dye. This system is not properly functioning because people are not taking care in throwing the refuse in the bins and removal of refuse from the bins is also not being properly attended and hence insanitary conditions around the bin.Waste materials collected from street surfaces 6. One-bin system 2. The garbage is collected in one bin and the remaining refuse in the other bin. every house is provided with two metal or plastic bins having top covers. The success of this system depends upon the prompt collection of the refuse from the houses .
Location of dustbins Type of bin system Frequency of collection Population density Number of workers per truck Time of collection Collection routes Cost of collection 7. grit etc and c) other rubbish.5.1. are 1. to 0. meant for receiving a) Garbage b) Inorganic ash. 7. 2. 5. 8. 3.Page 134 Environmental Engineering In three-bin system. which affect the collection of refuse for disposal. 4. The following factors.75 tonnes 2) Trailers of capacity 2 to 3 tonnes 3) Trucks of capacity 5 to 10 tonnes .3 TRANSPORTATION The vehicles used for transporting the refuse from the collection points to the disposal point are 1) Auto-rickshaws of capacity 0. similar to the two-bin system with covers. In this system the bins are regularly collected once or twice in a week and disposed separately. 6.
godowns.4 DISPOSAL METHODS: Page 135 Dry refuse requires careful disposal otherwise results in the unhygienic conditions and puts public health in danger. This method is suitable if the refuse contains ashes. of dry refuse becomes essential to arrive at a satisfactory methods of following dry refuse.5m. SANITARY LANDFILL . flies. street sweepings and rubbish. The reclaimed area obtained by filling of low lying areas with refuse can be used for parks. DUMPING .This method is better than dumping method. golf courses. if proper care not taken sanitary landfill is reduced to ordinary dumping . The trenches are dug out for a depth of about 3 to 5 m and about 6m wide excavated and refuse is placed in trench in layers to a depth of 1. it causes serious problems to the public health due to the breeding of mosquitoes. A careful analysis. qualitatively and quantitatively. scattering of papers and bad smell 2. other recreational purposes. Each layer is compacted with rooters or bulldozers and then covered 150mm layer of earth at the end of each working day when the total height becomes 2.The method of filling low laying areas by refuse is called dumping. 1.Solid Waste Disposal 7. This is the simple effective and cheap method of refuse disposal. The organic matter in the refuse. buildings and overhead tanks.1.5m. If the refuse contain garbage. is decomposes slowly by the time of 2 to 3 years This is an efficient method but requires constant super vision for proper carrying out of filling operations. it is covered with 600mm thick earth layer.
The burnt ash is removed through ash door.5m.Page 136 Environmental Engineering 3. which consists of a furnace provided with grating and a chimney. the compost become ready for use. its emission of large amount of smoke causes air pollution COMPOSTING: The process of making of organic matter along with cattle dung. two methods namely Bangalore method and Indore method popular (i) BANGALORE METHOD: It is an anaerobic and simple method first non-combustible materials like cans. The main disadvantage of this method is. The refuse is charged through the charging door. This process is carried out in an incinerator. This method is particularly suitable for thickly populated area where the site for land filling is not available and used to reduce volume of refuse can be completely destroyed. INCINERATION: This is the best method of disposal of combustible refuse. night soil by the controlled microbial reactions to stable end product which is used for reclaiming waste land or growing crops is known as composting. The refuse and (ii) . This method is effective in killing the larva of the flies and pathogenic bacteria in the mass INDORE METHOD: This is modified method of Bangalore method and involves aerobic decomposition. The material is covered with 15cm layer of earth and left for decomposing. After 4 to 5 months time. In India. An ash pit is provided below the grating.1 x 1. glass etc are separated then the refuse and night soil / cow dung with some water are placed in alternate layers in earthen trenches of size 10 x 1.
Turning of the mass is carried out for the period of 5 to 7 days twice or thrice by showels or other mechanical equipment. The top portion is not filled with refuse. cranes.1 Composting Process of City Refuse i. for transporatation. tippers . Composting can also be done on large scale for the disposal of large quantities of refuse of cities by using mechanical equipment as shown in fig 7.Solid Waste Disposal Page 137 night soil/cow dung are filled n alternate layers in the pit or trench except the top 600mm.. Because of turning of the mass subjected to higher temperature hence pathogenic organism and larva of flies are more thoroughly destroyed.. lifting and loading of refuse into hoppers. . Trucks.... Thus the mass is decomposed aerobically under the action of atmospheric oxygen and aerobic bacteria.. ii...1 Fig 7. By the time period of 15 to 20 days the compost become ready for use.
.....seperation non-compostable. Mechanized silo digesters.... coversion of finer particles and sludge... v. compost is .. viii. prepared by aeration in 3 to 5 days... Hoppers.. Conveyors..magnetic separators separate the non-compostable iron materials...Page 138 iii.belt conveyors working on rollers used to transport the pulverized material from grinders to digesters... vii. iv.. Separators . Grinders . of Environmental Engineering refuse compostable & Screens .seperation according to the size.. vi..
Two-bin system 3. . The refuse is disposed by 1. street sweepings. Incineration 4. Composting of refuse can be done by 1. Sanitary landfill 3. conveyers etc. Indore method 6. diarrhoea etc 2. One-bin system 2. Composting of refuse of big cities can be done on large scale by using mechanical equipment like storage hoppers. Refuse is the solid waste of community consists of ashes. Bangalore method 2. solid waste of industries etc should be properly collected and disposed otherwise decomposition refuse causes diseases like diptheria. Three-bin system 3. vegetable and animal waste materials. Dumping 2. The refuse is collected by 1. grinders.Solid Waste Disposal Page 139 SYNOPYSIS 1. Composting 5. cinder. typhoid. trailers & trucks 4. rubbish. The refuse is transported to disposal place by auto-rickshaws.
Explain different systems of collection of refuse. 5. What is meant by composting? 7. Define Refuse. 5. Name the systems of collection of refuse. What are the sources of refuse? 4.Page 140 Environmental Engineering SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. What is dumping? ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Name the two methods of composting of refuse? 8. What is meant by comsposting? Explain the methods in detail. What is meant by garbage? 3. 3. 4. Name the list of equipment used in composting of city refuse. What are the different methods of disposal of refuse? Explain. 2. 6. Explain the preparation of sanitary land fill what are the advantages over dumping? . Explain the composting of city refuse with the help of neat sketch. 2.
5. effect on the health. To drain away the liquid waste produced as quickly as possible so as to avoid nuisance. the waste water coming from the kitchens.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings CHAPTER 8 DRAINAGE AND SANITATION IN BUILDINGS Page 141 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: In order to maintain in healthy environment. water closet. Hence. To prevent the entry of foul gases from the sewer line. This chapter covers the entire sanitary arrangements above and below he ground in the building. treatment and disposal. urinals of the building has to be drained properly. it leads to stagnation in and around the building causing nuisance. To provide facilities for the quick removal of foul matter such as human excreta from the water closets. 8. bathroom. 3. To collect the sewage systematically for its further conveyance. If the waste is not drained properly. To provide healthy and aesthetic environment in the building. necessary arrangements have to be provided in the building for effective drainage of waste water. 2. . 4.1 AIMS OF BUILDING DRAINAGE 1.
The drainage system should be able to prevent the entry of gases. The branch drains should be as short as possible . The network of pipes should have sufficient accessibility for inspection. 1. The foul matter should be quickly removed away from the sanitary fixtures so as to avoid the putrefaction and production of bad smelling gases. 12. The system should have traps at all necessary points. 2. The pipes should be of non-absorbent materials. 4. The pipes and joints should be airtight to prevent the leakage of waste water or gases. 3. 5. 6. 10. The drainage pipes should be strong and durable. As per as possible drains should not pass under the buildings. obstructions etc. The drains should be given proper ventilation to avoid air locks and syphonage. 7.Page 142 Environmental Engineering 8. 11. which interfere with the functioning of drainage. 8. sewer and other points of outlet should be fixed accurately. deposits. cleaning and removing the obstructions.2 REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN BUILDINGS: The following are the requirements of good drainage system in a building. The levels of building. vermin etc from the sewer into the building. 9. The system should not give scope for air locks or self or induced syphonage.
The entire system should be properly ventilated.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings Page 143 13. It is advisable to lay sewers by the side of building rather than below the building. 4. 1. 3.3 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING AND DESIGN OF HOUSE DRAINAGE For the proper design and construction of house drainage system the following general principles are adopted. 5. 8. 6. The drains should be straight between the inspection chambers or manholes. The drains should not pass near or under the trees to avoid the damage of pipes by the roots 8. The lateral sewers should be laid at proper gradient so that they develop self-cleaning velocity. The material of sewer should not absorb the sewage and should be provided to protect then from external loads by earth cushioning. The layout of house drainage system should permit easy cleaning and removal of obstructions. The house drain should connect to the public sewer only if the public sewer is deeper than house drain otherwise reverse flow from public sewer to the house drain. The house drain should contain enough number of traps at suitable points for efficient functioning of it. 9. . 7. 2. The joints of sewers should be water tight.
Manholes should be provided at all points of intersections and change of direction of pipes 7. 13. Concrete pads should be provided to support the pipes laid on earthfill. 8. siphonage. 3. 11. 5.Page 144 Environmental Engineering 10. Only sanitary fees and quarter bends are used for a change of pipe from horizontal to vertical 6. The possibilities of formation of air locks. All soil pipes. The sewage formed should be conveyed as early as possible after its formation. 1. Long or short sweep quarter bends or two 45° or eight bends for making 90° turn should be provided. undue deposits etc should be properly studied and adequate remedies should be accommodated in the design to avoid them. The rain water from houses is collected from roofs and convey it to storm water drain through catch basins or inlets. waste pipes and ventilating pipes may be graped in shafts or ducts for easy inspection and maintenance . 2. 4. The layout should be simple and direct (both horizontal and vertical). 12.4 GENERAL LAYOUT OF SANITARY FITTINGS TO HOUSE DRAINAGE ARRANGEMENTS The following should be kept in mind in planning the layout of drainage connections to the various fittings. The size of lateral sewers should be such that they will not oveflow at the time of maximum discharge. Horizontal pipes should lay at designed slope.1.
A clear minimum distance of 5cm should be maintained from walls to all surface pipes. The typical layout of single storeyed building drainage system is shown in the fig no 8. Fig 8.1 Plan of the Layout Drainage in Single Storeyed Building . vermin etc into the building. The waste pipes should be separated from house drain by means of gully traps to prevents entry of foul gases. 9. Traps are required for every sanitary fixture and they should be as close to the fixture as possible.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings Page 145 8. 10.1.
The soil pipes and vent pipes are provided with wire cage at the top to avoid the birds making nests in the pipe fig 8. Inspection chamber is provided at the ground where the solid pipe joins the house drain avent pipe or anti syphonage pipe is also provided to preserve the waste seals of sanitary fittings.Page 146 Environmental Engineering In the case of multistoried building . Fig 8.2 Layout of Drainage System in Multistoreyed Building .2 shows the drainage system of multi storeyed buildings. The drainage system in the building is as per IS1172-1971 and IS17421972. sanitary blocks are arranged one above the other on different floors. This facilitates the same soil pipe or waste pipe or vent pipe to serve the various fixtures in different floors.
sinks etc. 2. Traps. 4. kitchens. 2. . Flushing cisterns. Waste pipe – The pipe which carries discharges from sanitary fittings such as bathrooms. 3.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings Page 147 The following technical terms are used in the house drainage 1. Soil pipe – The pipe which carries discharges from soil fittings such as urinals. Cowl . Anti-siphonage pipe – The pipe used in the house drainage to preserve the water seal of traps is known as the antisiphonage.The top of vent pipe provided with slits or narrow openings to escape.2 SANITARY FITTINGS: The sanitary fittings are required in house drainage for the efficient collection and removal of waste water from the house to house drain. 1. water closets etc. 5. The following are some of the sanitary fittings. 3. 6. Water closets. Ventpipe – The pipe installed for the purpose of ventlation is known as ventpipe through which foul gases escape into atmosphere. 8. fresh inlet – The last manhole which connects the house drain with the public sewer is provided with an inlet of fresh air to dilutes the sewage gases.
The internal and external surfaces should be of smooth finish.Page 148 4. Inspection chambers. P-trap. 5. 5. It should be free from any inside projection which are likely to obstruct the passage of flow of sewage. Sinks. 7. It should posses adequate water seal to fulfil the purpose of installation. The function of a trap is to prevent the entry of bad smelling gases into the house. TYPES OF TRAPS: 1. 6. Urinals. which varies from 25 to 75mm Requirements of good trap: 1. It should possess self-cleansing property. a. Wash basins. 8.1 TRAPS - Environmental Engineering A trap is a depressed or bent sanitary fitting which always remains full of water (water seal). Classification according to shape as shown in fig 8. It should be easily fixed with the drain. Bath tubs etc. 6. 3.2. The effectiveness depends upon the depth of water seal. It should be capable of being easily cleaned. 7. . 2. 8. It should be of simple construction. 4.3.
c. Classification according to use as shown in fig 8. Q-trap.4. Page 149 Fig 8.3 Traps according to shapes 2. S-trap.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings b. .
4 Floor trap . grating is provided. Indian type water closet 2. Floor trap – made of cast iron and placed in bathrooms. c. sinks etc. The room in which it is installed is also sometimes referred by the term water closet.made of stone wave and C. Intercepting trap – This trap has water seal of about 100mm and provided in the last manhole of house drainage system. It thus conveys sewage from house to the public sewer. The water closets are of following two types 1.Gully trap & Intercepting trap a.2 WATER CLOSETS: The water closet is a sanitary fitting which is designed to receive human excreta directly from the person using it. 8.2. Gully trap . kitchens. It is placed near the external face of wall and kept slightly higher level than ground level. b. European type water closet .Page 150 Environmental Engineering Fig 8.I.
The details are as shown in fig. Hence its flushing rim is connected to a flushing cistern fixed above the water closet.5. It requires atleast 10 litres of water for flushing. The overall height is including the trap is about 400 to 500mm. The Indian type is usually made of porcelain. Two foot rests are fixed on either side of the closet.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings INDIAN TYPE WATER CLOSET – Page 151 This is fixed in squatting or sitting position.5 Indian Type Water Closet . The width near the one end is 150mm and it is increased to 225 to 280mm near the other end. 8. The overall length of this varies from 450 to 675mm. Fig 8.
3 FLUSHING CISTERNS: In order to flush the water closets and urinals the arrangement made is called flushing cistern.2. It is made of porcelain and fixed above floor level.Page 152 Environmental Engineering EUROPEAN TYPE WATER CLOSET: Fig 8. which is connected to the flushing cistern.6 European Type Water Closet 8. A cover is provided at its top. The pan has flushing rim. These are made of cast-iron or porcelain with a capacity of 5 to 15 litres. When the . It consists of a bell connected to flushing chain through a lever. Fig 8. Overall lengths varies from 500 to 600mm and height 350 to 400mm.6 shows the details of a typical European type water closet.
7 Flushing Cistern 8. BOWL TYPE – The bowl type has a lipped basin with a flushing rim fixed at a convenient height about 0. Stall or Slab type. STALL OR SLAB TYPE – It comprises of a flat wall with slab with partitions on sides. The details are as shown in the fig 8. the bell is lifted up and the water in the tank rushes through the flushing pipe by syphonic action.2. The float valve now allows the water from the inlet into the cistern and thus the cistern is ready for next flushing.4 URINALS – The arrangements provided to receive the urine. They are mainly two types.7.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings Page 153 chain is pulled. Fig 8. It has a floor channel to drain off the . Bowl type.6m. 2. 1. 1. It is flushed through hand operated symphonic type flushing cistern 2.
The stall type urinal range may be flushed by automatic flushing cistern with a capacity of 10 to 15 litres. bends and at about 10m interval on straight runs of the drains.5 INSPECTION CHAMBERS: Inspection chamber is a masonary chamber similar to manhole to provide access for the cleaning. Fig 8.I. They should be constructed at all junctions.2. The details are as shown in fig 8. This chamber is provided with C. The size of this chamber depends on the depth and number of branch connections. The size may be about 60 x 75cm and 90cm deep. inspection and repair of the drain. cover. .8 Stall type Urinal with 3 units 8.Page 154 Environmental Engineering discharge through trapped outlet.8.
6 ANTI-SYPHONAGE PIPE: Page 155 These pipes are provided to prevent syphonage action and consequent sucking of water seals. Hence antisphonage pipe or vent pipe is connected to all traps. Because. the flushing in upper floors creates partial vaccum in the pipe at lower region.9 . so that when the partial vaccum occurs due to flushing. Particularly if several lavatory blocks are situated on different storeys discharging in the same soil pipe or waste pipe.2. the anti syphonage pipe has to be necessarily provided. it may be immediately broken by suction if air from the vent pipe and seals of traps remain infact. inducing syphonic action and thus the water seals are sucked in the lower floors.2.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings 8.7 PLUMBING SYSTEMS: There are three system of plumbing as shown in fig 8. 8.
kitchen. wash basin. design and plumbing. . the waste water from bathroom. urinals etc and human excreta from water closet is discharged through a singh soil pipe and also this pipe acts as ventilating pipe.Page 156 Environmental Engineering Fig 8. 4. Compact plumbing. Improved external appearance because of single pipe.9 Plumbing Systems of House Drainage 1. 2. More economical. 3. Simplicity of layout. ADVANTAGES: 1. The traps should have water seals at all times at least to a depth of 75mm. SINGLE STACK: In this system.
Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings DISADVANTAGES: 1. Water seals may be evaporated during dry weather.
2. Possibility of self or induced syphonage leads sucking of water seals. 3. Due to blockage or bad design, the waste water from drainage pipes may be forced up through traps by back pressure..
2. ONE PIPE SYSTEM: This is same as single stack system but in addition to this there is a separate vent pipe connected to the fittings and the water seals are protected. This is costlier than single stack system.
3. TWO PIPE SYSTEM: In this system, the soil pipe is connected to all water closets and urinals and the other waste pipe is connected to bath, kitchen and wash basins etc. Both soil pipe and vent pipes are separately ventilated by vent pipes. This system provides very effective and trouble free drainage. But this is costly system.
INSPECTION OF BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
The following points should be observed for the inspection of building drainage system. 1. The flow through the drains should be observed by opening the inspection chambers, gully traps. 2. If there are any damp spots, they should be detected as the indicated leakages.
Environmental Engineering 3. The water closets, flushing cisterns, traps should be examined. 4. Emission of bad smell if any from the sanitary block should be detected. 5. A detailed survey of the entire system is made and then completely checked.
TESTING OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
The following are the tests, which commonly employed a. Airtest – in this test, air is blown into the drain after plugging the ends. This soap solution is then applied. The formation of bubbles indicates leakages b. Hydraulic test or water test – the drain is plugged at the lower inspection chamber and the water is filled under the pressure of 0.015 W/mm2. There should not be any visible drop in water level within ten minutes c. Smell Test- Air is mixed with some smelling gas and is allowed to pass through the drainage pipe. Leaky joints can be detected by smelling. d. Colour-water test – Colour water is added from one side. The leakage can be easily seen e. Smoke test – This test is used to detect leakage of rain water pipes and other vertical waste pipes. In this test smoke is forced into the pipe. Leakage can de detected by smell or vision of the smoke through the joint
Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings
8.2.10 MAINTENANCE OF BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEM – The house drainage system should be properly maintained and cleaned at regular intervals for its efficient working. The following points should be carefully noted. a. Entry of undesired elements – The substance like sand, grit, decayed fruits, pieces of cloth, leaves should not allowed into the sewers and collected separately. b. Flushing – Inorder to maintain the house drainage system in proper working order, it is advisable to flush it once or twice a day. c. Inspection – The various units of house drainage system should inspected at regular intervals and damaged pipes / washer of leaky taps should be replaced. d. Use of disinfectants – To maintain good sanitary conditions in the building, phenol or disinfectants should be used.
The term “house drainage’ covers entire sanitary arrangements above or below the ground in the building. Building drainage is provided for a. To prevent the entry of foul gases into sewer lines. b. To provide facilities for quick removal of foul matter such as human excreta from water closets. c. To collect sewage systematically. d. To provide healthy and aesthetic environment in the building.
The pipes used in the drainage arrangement are 1. 2. 3. 4. soil pipe – which collects human excreta. waste pipe – which collects liquid waste from kitchens, bathrooms, wash basins etc. vent pipe – which provides flow of air into or from a drainage system in order to protect water seal. The sanitary fittings used in the drainage system of building are traps, water closets, flushing cisterns, urinals, inspection chambers, wash basins, sinks, bath tubs etc.
5. The traps Depressed or bent sanitary fitting holding always water in the bend so that foul gases cannot pass through this water seal or barrier which are generally used according to shape are 1) P-trap 2) Q-trap 3) S-trap
c) Smoke test leakage of rain water pipes. . b) European type water closet . b) Water test indicates drop in water. d) Emission of bad smell should be detected from any sanitary block if any.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings b) according to use 1) floor trap 2) gully trap 3) intercepting trap Page 161 6. c) two pipe system. Inspection of building drainage system by a) Check the flow through drains by opening gully traps and inspection chambers. b) Detection of damp spots. b) one pipe system. Testing of drainage system are done by a) Air test by leakage test. flush traps should be examined. The plumbing systems are mainly a) single stack system . c) Water closets. 7. The water closets generally used are a) Indian type water closet . 8. 9.
b) Entire drainage system should be cleaned once in a month. d) Phenol or any other approved disinfection should be used regularly to maintain sanitary conditions. Maintenance of building drainage system by a) Washers of leaky taps etc. . grit etc shout not allowed in the sewers. e) Smell test leaky joints.Page 162 Environmental Engineering d) Coloured water test leakage test. c) Sand. 10.
Classify the traps according to the use. What is meant by single stack system? 4. Sketch the layout of drainage in single storeyed building and name the components 4. 5. Name the different systems of plumbing. Define soil pipe and waste pipe. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. 3. 2. What is the function of trap? 3. Name the types of water closets and explain with neat sketches. List out the aims of the drainage of buildings. Name any four sanitary fittings.Drainage & Sanitation in Buildings Page 163 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. What are the requirements of good trap? 9. Name the different types of water closets 10. 8. 2. . Name the types of traps according to the shape . What is the significance of air test? 7. State the requirements of good drainage system in building. 6.
State any six principles of planning and design of house drainage. . conducted in house drainage system. What are the points to be borne in mind during the inspection of drainage system? 8. Explain with neat sketches 1) Floor trap 2) Intercepting trap 6. 7. How you maintain the drainage system? 10. Explain with sketches “one pipe system and two pipe system” of plumbing. Explain the tests.Page 164 Environmental Engineering 5. which can be. 9.
The spilled water around the well and surface runoff. Jaundice. At present the wells are major sources of water requirements in villages. Most of the rural population not yet provided protected water supply systems. 9. ponds and streams etc are generally in polluted condition.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation CHAPTER 9 RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION Page 165 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: The protected water supply system is only available in urban areas to some extent. Hence it is necessary to provide sanitary protection to the well and lift arrangements may be in the form of a permanent rope and bucket . They are mostly depending upon the conventional sources like wells.1 DISINFECTION OF WELLS: The some of the sources of water supply to the rural population are wells. dysentery. percolate into the well and pollute it. poliomyelitis. cholera. gunia worm etc. The wells without parapet walls and concrete platform with drain around them are sure to be polluted. So people consuming this water without any treatment they are made to suffer from water borne diseases like typhoid. ponds and streams. But the country like India is essentially a village based country and majority of population lives in villages. The rural water supply system aim to provide reasonable quantity of protected water to satisfy demands of people and safe guard against the health in the initial stage but comprehensive long ranged planning is quite essential.
Nagpur has evolved a method called “double pot system” for the application of beaching powder to the rural well.Page 166 Environmental Engineering or a pump or a wind mill etc instead of individual rope and bucket. The dosage of the bleaching powder depends on the extent of pollution in the well and the required residual chlorine in the . Fig 9.1 Protected Dug Well NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute).1 shows protected dug well. Fig 9.
effecting disinfecting water. by hanging it with a rope. the practices like cattle cleaning. The dosage upto 4mg/litre may be sufficient for this purpose. bathing.2 shows double pot system. The water slowly and continuously comes into contact with bleaching powder and dissolves chlorine.2 Double part system of disinfection of wells For ponds and streams. Fig 9. Fig 9. The top of this container is closed at top and kept in another bigger container. washing of clothes etc should be stopped and a . The top of this container is also closed with a polythene paper and the whole arrangement is kept in an immersed position in the well. The mixture of bleaching powder and sand may be replaced by every 15 days or so. In this method. The outer container is also provided with hole at bottom. the container with bottom inlet hole is taken and filled with the mixter of sand and bleaching powder in the ratio of 2:1.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 167 water.
Using cow dung for the preparation of cow dung cakes used as fuel is also to be discouraged because these leads to the air pollution and seriously affects the health of village women 4. By the result . Water from the pond or stream can be pumped to a tank. Storing of cow dung in an open pits leads to the cause of like typhoid. Indiscriminate and unscientific disposal of the liquid and solid wastes causes environmental pollution and consequent health hazards. At present the sanitation in and around the villages is generally poor. 2.2 RURAL SANITATION GENERAL INTRODUCTION: The term rural sanitation is used to indicate the development or maintenance of sanitary conditions in rural areas. So this has to be taken care of by disposing liquid waste by land treatment or soakage pits etc. 9. Stagnation of liquid wastes promotes the growth of mosquitos which communicates the diseases like malaria. Proper education should be given to the village regarding the danger of water borne diseases and need for protected water. 3. disinfected and then supplied through taps.Page 168 Environmental Engineering watchman can be arranged disallowing the uses except for drinking purpose. Some of the observations and precautions to be taken in this regard are 1. filarial and also causes pollution of wells. So cowdung can be properly disposed by composting. Open disinfection leads to the pollution of environment and open wells are polluted by surface wash of faecal matters. diahhera etc caused by house files. ophthalma. cholera. biogas plant etc.
8m deep. illiterancy. superstitions.C. spread of diseases etc. shows pit privy. Improper thowing of solid waste materials also causes insanitary conditions due to fly nuisance. composting etc and avoid nuisance 6.0m in plan and 1. sheets is constructed over the .3 x 1.3. PIT PRIVY: Fig 9.5 to 2. which have to be tackled and eradicated for the success of maintaining healthy environment in villages. Ignorance. It is necessary to go for atleast rural sanitary latrines in the absence of systematic water carriage system to deal with human excreta 5.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 169 the occurrence of hookwarm disease to the people who are not using foot wear. lack of sanitary sence etc are highly prevalent among the rural masses. So the solid waste can be affectively disposed by sanitary land fill. At the top of the this pit the squatting seat is provided in a compartment. The super structure is of temporary nature with A. SANITARY LATRINES: The following are the various types of privies or latrines which are constructed to dispose off human excreta without the help of water carriage system a) PIT PRIVY b) BORE-HOLE LATRINE c) AQUA PRIVY d) CESS-POOLS A. which consists of a pit 1.
When the pit is completely filled. The squatting pan along with the compartment is shifted to new trench. which can be reduced by the use of lime. The contents of pits can be taken out after about couple of months and may be used as manure. (b) BORE HOLE LATRINE: It is similar to the pit privy but in place of pit there is a bore-hole. the pit should be located at least 30m away from the well. The bottom of the bore-hole should be 1 to 2m above the highest water table in the locality so that the excreta may not the . To avoid ground water pollution. The size of the hole is 200 to 300mm dia and 4 to 8 m deep.3 Pit Privy This is cheap and construction is simple but there will be some bad odours. it is closed from the top by 60cm thick earth layer and a new pit is excavated by the side of it. A 10cm dia pipe is also provided to take the foul gases. Fig 9. A little earth is thrown every time after the use of latrine.Page 170 Environmental Engineering pit.
making a bore-hole with handauger is easy.4 shows the bore hole latrine.4 Borehole Latrine (c) AQUA-PRIVY: The construction is based on the principle of septic tank. . For avoiding the bad odour water seal trap is provided. the top is covered with a thick layer of soil. This method is suitable for the regions where sandy soils are suitable for the regions where sandy soils are available in which. Fig 9. It consists of a rectangular water tight tank over which the latrine is constructed. The hole should be lined from inside. and another hole is dug by the side of it.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 171 pollute the ground water. Fig 9. When the hole is completely filled up.
undergoing anaerobic digestion.Privy (d) CESS POOLS: The cess pools consists of a pit or chamber lined with dry bricks or stones as shown in fig 9.5 Aqua .5 shows the details of aqua-privy.6. The drop pipe attached to squat plate is made to submerge in the liquid thus avoiding bad smell. The digested sludge after being filled completely has to be removed. Fig 9. The cess pool is . The effluent is percolated into the ground through soak pit or absorption field. The bottom is unlined and allows the liquid to percolate. Fig 9.Page 172 Environmental Engineering The sludge sedimentation on the tank undergoes anaerobic digestion. Only solid matter remain in the cess pool.
which has a calorific value of 4400 to 6200 K. the bio-gas seems to be a good alternative. The following materials can be used as raw materials for the production of combustible gas methane (CH4). . These are also called GOBAR GAS PLANTS.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 173 periodically cleaned. One cess pool can serve the function of more than one building depending upon its capacity. This is an inferior method.Cala in bio-gas plants. as it produces bad smell and polluted the ground water. These plants help in the maintenance of healthy environment in villages. So wells should not be located near these cesspools. with respect to energy crises. Fig 9.6 Cess Pools DESCRIPTION AND OPERATIONAL DETAILS OF BIO GAS PLANT: For rural uplift. These bio-gas plants solves the problem of energy and fertilizer in rural areas and also solves to some extent the problem of sanitation and air pollution.
buffaloes. PH Value – 7. Influent solid materials : optimum gas production is obtained with 1:1 slurry of cow dung and water 6. 2. groundnut. 3.0 to 7. 3.2. 4. Toxity: the slurry does not contain any toxic materials which may destroys anaerobic bacteria. Effect of nutrient deficiency – carbon and nitrogen ratio should lie between 30:1 to 50:1. . cotton waste etc. sugarcane. The effluent of bio-gas plant is an excellent organic manure with enriched nutrients for plant growth and humas materials to improve soil structure for aeration. bulls. The bio-gas production by anaerobic digestion involves hydrolysis and methane formation. 2. 4. For the best results the following factors should be considered. 5. pigs etc. Human excreta and urine from latrines. Cattle dung from cow. ship. Forest litter. Temperature – 30° to 60°C. Quality of raw materials. 1. Agriculture waste like paddy.Page 174 Environmental Engineering 1.
. The inside of tank is plastered with C.M.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 175 TYPES OF BIO-GAS PLANTS: Number of institutes and organizations developed different models of bio-gas plants. The following are the models of bio-gas plants used in rural areas. 1. or masonary as shown in the fig.7. JANATA MODEL I.C. The steel dome rests on this beam when there is no gas accumulation in it and floats in the slurry when sufficient gas accumulates The digester is provided with an inlet and outlet pipes made of A. The dome is supported on a horizontal beam. KVIC MODEL: It consist of a circular tank constructed with brick masonary in cement mortar 1:4 on concrete floor. 9. 1:3 and acts as an anaerobic digester which is divided into two parts by a vertical partition wall A gas holder made of steel sheets in the shape of a circular dome is placed on the top of digester. KVIC MODEL 2.
7 KVIC Model Bio-gas Plant Cow dung is mixed with water in the ratio 1:1 and fed to the digester through inlet tank.Page 176 Environmental Engineering Fig 9. The . The slurry makes a slow vertical movement. then over flows the partition and finally reach the outlet pipe through which it comes out from the outlet tank.
8 with 3m capacity can serve a small family of 5 members. The steel dome is likely to be corroded and get damaged so periodic painting of the steel dome is carried out. JANATA MODEL: The Janata Bio-gas plant is as shown in the fig 9. 3 to 4 cattle can yield this quantity of dung. 3 . For successful operation and production of gas it is necessary that the plant is well maintained without allowing any clogging etc. This model was developed by gobar gas research station. an average 10kg of dung per day (per cattle 4 to 6 kg) during which period the cow dung slurry is digested anaerobically and produce bio-gas satisfies the requirements of family of 8 members. The accumulated gas is taken out through a pipe to the kitchen. Lucknow.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 177 volume of digester is so designed as to hold the slurry for 55 days. in view of its reduced cost. 2. ajitmal. The weight of the dung required is 45kgs.
The tank is constructed on concrete floor. cement mortar and concrete.8 Janata Model Janata bio-gas plant can be constructed with the locally available materials like bricks. which acts as digester is .Page 178 Environmental Engineering Fig 9.
At the middle of the depth of digester. This pipe acts as an outlet for the gas The mixed slurry of 1:1 ratio of cattle dung and water is filled with digester through inlet chamber for 50 days and by anaerobic digestion bio-gas is produced.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Page 179 provided with a dome shaped roof constructed with brick masonary. The Janata Model bio-gas plant is cheaper than KVIC model because of locally available materials without use of steel ADVANTAGES OF BIO-GAS PLANTS: 1. acts as inlet and outlet of the plant the dome shaped roof is filled with a pipe at the crown. The gas in the dome exerts pressure on the slurry thus displacing from the digester to the inlet and outlet tanks. The digester and fixed dome remain below the ground level. The digested sludge acts as good manure. 2. there are two rectangular openings facing each other and coming upto a little above the ground level. outlet and digester depicts the pressure of gas. The energy generated by the plant can be used for cooking. The gas is supplied to the kitchen through the pipe. . The difference of slurry levels in the inlet. lighting and running pumps.
The pathogenic organisms are destroyed during digestion. 5. 9. Ground water pollution is prevented. Unstable and putrescible organic solids are reduced into stable acceptable form. . Asthatic value.Page 180 Environmental Engineering 3. Housefly and mosquito breeding is eliminated. Destruction of weed seeds present in the dung. 8. 4. 6. 7. Handling & disposal of digested sludge becomes easy because no bad odour coming out.
People in rural area consuming water from wells. The disposal of human excreta without the help of water carriage system in rural areas by using a. Aqua privy d. . so rural water system aim to provide reasonable quantity of protected water to satisfy demands of people and safeguard against the health 2. Rural sanitation is used to indicate the development or maintenance of sanitary conditions in rural area 4. Bio-gas plants solve the problem of energy and fertilizer in rural areas and also solves to some extent the problem of sanitation and air pollution 6. JANATA model. cholera. The models of bio-gas plants used in rural areas are 1. KVIC model 2. NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute). Cess pools 5. Nagpur has evolved a method called “double pot system” for the application of bleaching powder to the rural well. Pit privy b. jaundice. Bore hole latrine c. 3. dysentery. ponds and streams without any treatment they are made to suffer from water borne diseases like typhoid.Rural Water Supply & Sanitation SYNOPYSIS Page 181 1. guniaworm etc.
Explain the construction and working of Janata bio-gas plant with neat sketch. How do you carry out disinfection of wells? 2. 3.I. Name any four water-borne diseases. Draw the neat sketch of sanitary protected well. 4. Draw the neat sketch of K. What are the raw materials used for the production of bio-gas? 7. 2. 10. .Page 182 Environmental Engineering SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. What are the factors considered in the bio-gas production for getting good results? 9. What are the reasons for pollution of wells? 3.C. Explain the pit-privy with the help of neat sketch. 5. Name any two models for the production of bio-gas in rural areas. Explain the construction of borehole latrine and draw the figure. What are the precautions to be taken to avoid the pollution of streams and lakes? 5. 6. Name the various types of privies constructed in the rural areas.V. What are the important stages of anaerobic digestion of bio-gas? 8. 6. What is double pot system? 4. What are the advantages of bio-gas? ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. model of bio-gas plant and explain the construction.
animals or properties or which unreasonably abstruct the comfortable enjoyment of life and property. Such as to be injurious to human beings. organ. colour etc in quantities.Air Pollution & Ecology CHAPTER 10 AIR POLLUTION AND ECOLOGY 10.04 . Nitrogen 2.ammonia etc ---0.90 0. It also alters the environment unfavorably.ozone.1. krypton. Carbondioxide 5. of characteristics and of duration. preventive measures and control methods of air pollution has become important for environmental engineers 10. effects. Water Vapour. mist.10 20. smoke. Hence the study of causes.96 ---------100.00 ---------atmosphere air contains ------------the following constitutions expressed in percentage by volume 78.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Page 183 The term air pollution may broadly defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants like dust.2COMPOSITION OF AIR: The 1. carbon monoxide. Oxygen 3. plants.
1. Desert/winds causing the spread of dust particles d. nitrogen oxide etc (b) AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION: The exhaust emissions from transport vehicles of petrol.Page 184 Environmental Engineering 10. f. Natural radio activity of atmosphere due to radioactive minerals in the earth crust and action of cosmic rays.3 SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION: Following are the main sources of air pollution (i) (ii) Natural sources Man made sources (i) NATURAL SOURCES: The following are the natural sources of air pollution a. diesel or kerosene oil. Aerosols of natural origin by volcanic action. Natural chemical reactions. hydrogen sulphide etc into the atmosphere contributing hydrogen fluoride. Volcanic eruptions hydrogen chloride etc c. smoke obtained by forest fires e. sulphur dioxide. bio-chemical reactions releasing carbon dioxide. commercial and domestic purposes produces large quantities of carbon dioxide. (ii) MAN MADE SOURCES: (a) FUEL BURNING OPERATIONS: The combustion of fuel in industries. . carbon monoxide. Electrical storms producing oxides of nitrogen b.
carbon monoxide. sulphur dioxide. nitrogen oxides etc. dust particulate matter and heat from the industries like chemical manufactures. the quality & quantity of pollutants will severity of air pollution. 10. brick. cement manufacture.1.4 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: The adverse effects of air pollution can be classified as follows (i) (ii) Effect on human health Effect on physical properties of atmosphere (iii) (iv) Effect on plants and animals Effect on materials and property . Iron. The factors like wind speed & direction. cotton mills and electric power generating stations etc causes serious air pollution. atmospheric diffusion. diesel locomotives. topographical features of area. hydrocarbons. temperature distribution. (c) INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION: The waste gases like carbondioxide. quarries rice mills.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 185 include road vehicle. flour mills. ships and aeroplanes change the quality of air and results the formation of smog (smoke + fog) which seriously affecting the visibility.
d. nose and throat. automobiles etc at higher concentrations can causes death. impairs the transfer of oxygen b. sulphuric acid plants etc results increased symptoms in cardiac and pulmonary diseased patients when the sulphur dioxide concentration is more than 500 µg/m3 for 24 hours. rubber industry etc effects un eyes leading to lachrymation and polynuclear hydrocarbons may produce cancer. Halogenated solvents from fertilizers industry attacks the lever and sometimes lead to death. Sulphurdioxide from petroleum. Carbon dioxide from coal Industries.Page 186 Environmental Engineering (i) EFFECT ON HUMAN HEALTH a. domestic heat combines with hemoglobin of the blood and forms carboxyheamoglobin in the blood. h. sewerage system. Hydrogen Sulphide from tunnels. paper industry is toxic in nature and causes serious odour problem e. cigarette smoke. acid manufacture etc causes respiratory illness in children. Chlorine from textile industry cause photo chemical oxidants results from atmospheric reactions lead to asthematic attacks in the people. They also causes irritation of eyes. Carbon monoxide from automobile emission. Hydrocarbons from petroleum. . If the level reaches 10%. f. c. headache & lassitude and it reaches to 20%. thermal power stations. petroleum. g. Nitrogendioxide results from electrical discharges solar radiations.
Standing crops. hydrogen sulphide hydrocarbons also causes damage to vegetation. Radioactive substances also causes genetic changes in animals. sugarcane etc. (iii) EFFECT ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS: a. b. smoke from the industries forms smog which seriously effect the visibility on roads and leads to accidents. The rise of carbondioxide in the atmosphere rises the temperature which leads global warming. c. PHYSICAL Page 187 PROPERTIES OF The emissions of automobile exhaust gases. The sensitive vegetation may severly damaged by the even low concentrations of ozone. The oxides of nitrogen and sulphur forms acid rains which causes severe effect on vegetation results in reduction is yield of the crop and also effect on wild life. nitrogen dioxide and sulphurdioxide. Ex.Air Pollution & Ecology (ii) EFFECT ON ATMOSPHERE a. b. chlorine. Hydrogen fluoride. orchards. d. (iv) EFFECT ON MATERIALS AND PROPERTY The materials and property are deteriorated by the following four ways (1) Abration (2) Corrosion .
Air pollution by zoning 3. Lead removed petrol can be used for vehicle instead of ordinary petrol. which is responsible for pollution is replaced by other material in which the ingradients responsible for emission of pollutants are absent. The following are the methods 1.2. Air pollution prevention at source 2.1 Air pollution at source This method is more effective than control equipment method and avoids the capital and maintenance cost of the control equipment.METHODS The control of air pollution can be done independently or combination with the other.Page 188 Environmental Engineering (3) Deposition and removal (4) Chemical attack And also fading away of colours may takes place by the pollution 10. The raw material.2 CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION . . Prevention of air pollution at source can be effected by two ways (i) CHANGE IN RAW MATERIALS: Emission of pollutions reduced by the substitute raw materials or its structure. Air pollution control by stacks and vegetation 10. Air pollution by control devices 4. Example: a.
Low sulphur fuels instead of high sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of SO2. Recycling of non-condensable gases for additional reactions . of workers. the industrial areas are classified into separate groups depending on factory size.2.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 189 b. c. Adoption of two stage combustion for reducing the emission of NO2. 10. quality and quantity of air pollutants released by them while planning the city . By reducing excess air from 15% to 1% during burning of fossil fuels to reduce oxidation of SO2 to SO3 avoids the formation of H2SO4.2 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BY ZOING In this method. (ii) CHANGE IN PROCESS: A particular conventional process of manufacture with results in heavy pollution of air may be replaced by the new process or modified process Example: a. no. c. Use of electrical furnace instead of open hearth furnace in steel industry. b. c. Eg. Polymerization and alkylation of hydrocarbons. Electricity or methane gas instead of petrol or diesel eliminates the carbon monoxide pollution.
each group is zoned and located in such a manner that they are separated from each other as to avoid impact of pollution on residential areas At present following two methods of zoning 1. Exclusive zoing system 2. Performance standard zoning system In performance standard zoing system, the industrial areas classified as below. a. Group - 1 - The small industries, which the emissions are less effect on environment and the variety of products having close relation to cities can be located on the fringer of town and cities least adverse effect on environment located in the city c. Group - 3 - Big industries are more adverse effect on environment are located at a distance of 3 km or more from the residential area The performance standard zoning system is based on characteristics as industrial nuisance include dust, noise, smoke, odour, heat, fire, hazardous gases etc., traffic congestion, obnoxious and hazardous character of industry. It is necessary to place the neat industries away from the obnoxious industry.
b. Group - 2 - Cottage and small scale industries, which have no or
10.2.3 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT
The emission of particulate matter into the atmosphere can be controlled by the installation of certain devices. The selection of device depends upon the following factors.
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1. Characteristics of the gas like pressure, humidity, temperature density, dew point, viscosity etc. 2. Operational factors service requirements. like space required, corrosion,
3. Process factors like concentration of particulate matter, pressure drops, discharge of gas, efficiency required etc. 4. Characteristics of particulate matter like size, shape, density. Electrical conductivity, toxicity, corrosiveness etc. The design of the equipment is influenced by the following factors 1. Initial cost, operational and maintenance. 2. Space requirement of the controlling equipment. 3. Availability of materials for construction and operation. 4. Removal of efficiency of the plant. CLASSIFICATION OF THE EQUIPMENT: Depending upon the method by which the participate matter is collected the equipment is classified as 1. 2. Internal seperators - fabric filters, gravity settling chamber, cyclone Wet collection device - Spray chambers, cyclone scrubbers venturi scrubbers 3. Electro static precipitator - single stage precipitator. - two stage precipitator.
1. GRAVITY SETTLING CHAMBER: The gravity settling chamber is simplest form of pollution control devices. It consists of an enclosed chamber, where the velocity of the dust laden gas is considerably reduced (0.3 to 3m/sec), which allow the dust particles to settle down by gravitational force. At such reduced velocities the particles settle down to the hopper bottom and dust is removed from dust outlet. The dust free gas is taken out through outlet. The gravity settling chamber is effective in particle size of 100µ. The gravity settling chamber is shown in fig 10.1
Fig 10.1 Gravity settling Chamber
ADVANTAGES: 1. It is simple in construction and operation. 2. It is cheapest device and hence can be used where larger particles are to be separated.
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3. It acts as preliminary screening device before the treatment is more effective. DISADVANTAGES 1. The settling chamber can be used only to remove larger sized particles. 2. It is not by itself a solution for controlling of air pollution.
CYCLONE: The cyclone works on the principle of separating the particles from the gas by transforming the inlet gas velocity into double vertex. The entering gas spirals down at the inner surface and then spirals upward at the central portion of the cyclone as shown in fig 10.2. Due to inertia, the dust particles tend to concentrate on the surface of the cyclone wall, from where they are led to the receiver. These are cheaper in cost and best suited to dry dust particles of size 10-40µ. The cyclones can handle a wide range of physical and chemical conditions of operations as compared with other collection equipments.
2 Cyclone 3.Page 194 Environmental Engineering Fig 10. sedimentation and electrostatic seperation. FABRIC FILTER: The fabric filter method is the older and often the most reliable method. diffusion. The inertial dust particles of size 0. the direction of streams of gas is changed.01µ size are caught by the bag. When the dust laden gas passes over fabric bags. The dust particles thus deposited on the inner side of the fabric filter are cleaned by . The collection of the particles on the fibres is due to several collecting mechanism such as inertial impaction interception.
.3 Fabric Filter ADVANTAGES: 1. Fig 10. Fabric filter is also called "Bag Filter" or cloth filter as shown in fig 10. Efficiency of collection is high (about 99%) 2.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 195 sending compressed air in the fabric filter are cleaned by sending compressed air in the reverse direction and removed through dust outlet. Moderate pressure drop and power consumption.3.
The electrostatic precipitators may be two types namely a.Page 196 Environmental Engineering 3. Suitable for moderate temperatures only 3. 4. No water is required for exhaust gases. There is a hopper at the bottom with an outlet to remove the collected particulates. It has a centrally arranged discharge electrode with a weight at bottom. . Electrostatic attraction is used as the basic force for seperation of participate matter from the gas.4 shows the single stage cylindrical electrostatic precipitator consists of cylindrical container with an inlet and outlets. Two stage precipitators Fig 10. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Single stage precipitators b. The wall of the container is earthened so as to make it a collector electrode. Not suitable for situations when liquid condensation occurs 4. Maintenance cost high due to bag replacement 2. Recovery of dust in a dry and often reusable form. They require more space for installation ELECTRO STATIC PRECIPITATORS: The electrostatic precipitator is one of the most widely used collection device for both solid and liquid particulates very effectively. The discharge electrode is supplied with power.
The collected dust is removed periodically from the surface by . The charged particles move to the inner surface of the container and are caught by the surface.4 Single Stage Cylindrical Electrostatic Prespitater The particles move upward along with the stream of air and the particles are charged in an electric field generated by the discharge electrode. The cleaned gas then emerges at the top.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 197 Fig 10.
2. The polluted gas.99%. The efficiency of collection is high as 99. DISADVANTAGES: 1.Page 198 Environmental Engineering rapping it. It cannot collect gaseous pollutants. The range of the size of precipitators is enormous. 3. 4. 2. The atmosphere can assimilate a small quantity of pollutant without producing a noticeable adverse effects Stack is a chemney constructed to a sufficient height so that it releases the polluted gases at a great height into the atmosphere producing no ill effects. dilutes itself with the atmosphere and .3 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BY STACKS AND VEGETATION a. It can operate at high temperature and pressure. This dust then falls to the dust hopper and is accumulated there for periodic removal ADVANTAGES: 1. The precipitator requires certain gaseous pollutants to be present along with particulate matter. after release from the chemney. 3. Certain dusts can be collected by the precipitator only with great difficulty. Power requirement is low. for good collection efficiency. 10. STACKS: The stacks work on the principle of dilution of gases with huge quantities of atmospheric air.
The role of vegetation in this regard may be explained by the following points 1. greater is the reduction of concentration. The stacks serve as pollution controllers for odourous gases or low concentrated pollutants The diameter of the stack depends upon the exhaust gas flow rate and exist velocity required.5 times height of the surrounding buildings. The plants consume carbondioxide for the preparation of required carbohydrates. the plants help us in the reduction and control of air pollution. The exist velocity required is taken as 1. by the process of photosynthesis and releases oxygen into the atmosphere. Thus the carbondioxide pollution of air is reduced and on the other hand the air is reduced and on the other hand. The height of stack is atleast 2.5 times the maximum wind velocity. the environment is freshened by the contribution of oxygen by plants .3 AIR POLLUTION VEGETATION CONTROL BY STACKS AND (II) POLLUTION CONTROL BY VEGETATION: The Vegetation plays a great role in the control of air pollution. Thus the height. Some pollutants may be essential for their growth and others may be decremental whatever may be the effect of the pollutants on them.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 199 get diffused and distributed. 10.
2. The gaseous and liquid pollutions of air also obsorbed by the plants during the process of respiration and thus the concentration of those pollutants is reduced in the air 3. The dust particles and other particulate matter are intercepted by plants and get deposited on the leaves and twigs. Thus the plants acts as collectors of dust and particulate matter, and from this the qualitative and quantitative measurement of air pollution can be done. During the rain, these deposited particles are removed by natural scrubbing
ENVIRONMENT: The environment is defined as all the systems namely atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere (non-living components) and biosphere (living components) surrounding us. It includes air, water, food, shelter, the pollutants, waste materials and other ecological problems which affect his life and health Because recent developments like the deteriorating quality of environment is actually deteriorating the quality of life on this planet. And also by globality leads to the establishment of organizations like 1. United nations environment programme (UNEP) 2. Global Environmental monitoring system (GEMS) 3. World commission on Environment and development (WCED) 4. World conservation strategy (WCS) 5. World wide fund for nature (WWFN)
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6. Scientific Committee on problems of the environment (SCOPE) 7. United nations conference in environment and development (UNCED)
10.4.1 BIO SPHERE: Biosphere is the life-supporting environment of planet earth which consists of atmosphere, Hydrosphere and lithosphere in which air, water and soil are the chief media
10.4.2 ATMOSPHERE: The multi layered gaseous envelope surrounding the planet earth is called atmosphere. The atmosphere is divided into five distinct layers namely 1. Trosphere – 1) extended 0 to 8km at poles and extended 0 to 18km at equator 2) Temperature decreases at the rate of 1°C for 165m if ascent. 3) Contains dust particles & 90% of earth’s water vapour 4) All the important processes leading to the climatic and weather conditions 2. Stratosphere1) extended upto 50km 2) Temperature remains constant upto 20km and increases upto the 50km 3) Contains ozone layer which absorbs ultra violet rays
Page 202 3. Mesosphere: 1) Extended upto 80km
2) Temperature decreases with height reaching upto minus 100°C at 80km 4. Ionosphere: 1) This layer located between 80 and 400km 2) Temperature increases with height due to radiation from sun 3) Contains electrically charged ions which reflect radio waves back to the earth surface and enables wireless communication 5. Exosphere: 1) Extended beyond 400km and merged with the outer space
10.4.3 ACID RAIN: The urban and industrial air pollution increases the concentration of sulphurdioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO2) in the air. The industries like thermal power plants release SO2 and automobiles release NO2 which combines with water vapour to produce air borne sulphuric acid (H2SO4) 60 to 70% and Nitric acid (HNO3) 30 to 40% results in acid rain. Acid rains have assumed to be global ecological problem because these oxides travel longer distances, during the journey, undergo physical and chemical transformation to produce more hazardous products The affects of acid rain are 1. Effect on human health: Skin problems, harmful to the lungs causes respiratory problems.
Air Pollution & Ecology
2. Effect on Vegetation: Increases the acidity of soil, surface water and thus affecting aquatic life, plants and productivity 3. Effect on material: By acid rains, corrodes the buildings, monuments, statues, bridges, fences and railing etc.
10.4.4 GREEN HOUSE EFFECT: The term green-house is used to mean a building made mainly of glass with heat and humidity regulated for growing plants. The atmosphere is like the glass in a green-house. The increased concentration of CO2 from industries and automobiles and chemicals like chloro-fluoro carbons (CFCs) present in the atmosphere absorb the long wave radiation and radiate energy back to the earth resulting the increase in the temperature of the earth. This global warming phenomenon is known as green-house effect By green-house effect the following are the changes in the climate of earth 1. By the rise in temperature would cause the polar ice caps to melt resulting in the rise of sea level, which would submerge the low laying regions. 2. The plants and animals will be affected resulting in distruption in the eco system. 3. In temperate regions, the winter will be shorter and warmer, and the summer will be longer and hotter. 4. The tropics may become wetter and sub-tropics which already dry may become drier
This is dangerous in the sense that ultra violet rays from the sun cannot be filtered and rays reach the earth surface. Increase of skin cancers and eye ailments. 10. Damage of immune system. 1. Effect crop yield especially that of timber. which interact among themselves and with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined . Eco system is defined as any unit that includes all the organisms (i. 2.4. Shorter life of paints and plastics.e. 3..) communities in a given area. Thus holes are formed in the ozone layer.Page 204 Environmental Engineering 5.5 ECOLOGY AND ECO SYSTEM: Ecology indicates the study of inter-relationship of organisms and their environment.5 OZONE LAYER DEPLETION: The ozone layer is vital for the life on the earth because it acts as an umbrella against the harmful ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. These chlorine atoms react with ozone converting ozone (O3) to Oxygen (O2). 4. The following are the affects of ozone layer depletion. 5. 10. Disturbance in ecosystem. Certain chloro-fluro carbons (CFCs) get accumulated in greater amounts at high altitudes releases chlorine atoms under the influence of ultra violet radiation. The rapid pace of industrilization with the drastic falling of forests will create a layer of impenetrable gases on the earths atmosphere converting the earth planet to a hot house.
Thus the ecosystem may be as small as pond. There exists nutritional relationships (Food Links) among the organisms of such a system. For the sake of convenience. desert. a crop land or as large as ocean. desert. biotic diversity and material cycle (exchange of material) within the system. Fig 10. forest.5 shows diagrammatic representation of eco system. the earth can be considered as a gaint ecosystem where non living and living components constantly acting and reacting up on each other bringing structural and functional changes in it.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 205 tropic (nourishing) structure. we generally study nature by making its artificial sub divisions into of smaller ecosystems such as terrestrial (forest). grass land. Keeping in this view. Through these unit ecosystems are separated from each other with time and space but functionally they are linked with each other forming an integrated whole.5 Diagrammatic Representation of Eco System . Fig 10. aquatic man engineered land etc.
Fig 10.5. The fig 10. The producers are mainly two types .Page 206 Environmental Engineering The relationship between the plants. animals and environment: The living organisms and their nonliving environment are separated Inter related and interact with each other and thus maintain a balance. which fix light energy of sun and produce complex organic substances with the help of minerals derived from water and earth.6 shows the generalized scheme of nutritionalships (Food Links) among the living organisms of such system.1 COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM: PRODUCERS: These are photo autotrophic green plants and photosynthetic bacteria and to lesser extent chemo synthetic microbes.6 Generalised Scheme of Nutritional Relationships among Different Biotech Components of an Eco-system 10.
Macro consumers are further divided into the following types 1. fish and frogs. Macro Consumers: The macro consumers depends for their neutrition on the organic food manufactured by producers. Herbivores or primary consumers: These animals feed directly in living plants or plant remains. Photoplanktons which are microscopic floating or suspended lower plants (Algae) CONSUMERS: These are Heteotrophic components of the living organisms. They consume the matter built up by producers. Carnivores order-I or secondary consumers: These carnivores feed on the herbivores and include chiefly insects. 2. 1. rearrangement and decomposition of complex organic materials.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 207 1. . The consumers are further categorized into the following. Macrophytes which included mainly the rooted large sized plants. 2. The consumption of matter by the consumers is done by the activities of utilization.
10. no spontaneous transformation (as light to food for example) can be 100 percent efficient . Energy is transformed from one type into another but is neither created nor destroyed 2. 1. Micro Consumers or Decomposers They absorb only fraction of the decomposed organic matter. medium of mineral elements to the original medium. They bring about the decomposition of dead organic matter of both plants and animals to simple forms and help in returning of mineral elements to the original. proteins and fats. which feed on her bivoles and consumers.Page 208 Environmental Engineering 3. Carnivores order-2 or tertiary consumers: These are large fish as the game fish. which feed on the smaller fish. They also include other animals. 2.2 Flow of Energy in an Eco System: In an ecosystem one can observe the energy flow or transfer of energy from one trophic level to other in succession.5. No process involving an energy transformation will occur unless there is a degradation of energy from a concentrated form into a disposed from because some energy is always disposed into unavailable heat energy. The primary producers trap radiant energy of sun and transfer that to chemical or potential energy of organic compounds such as carbohydrates. The energy flow is a universal phenomenon and is due to operation of laws of thermodynamics.
10.7 Fig10.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 209 The interaction of energy and materials in the ecosystem is the primary concern to ecologist.7 Energy Flow Diagram . The sequence of energy flow including further transfers to animals and man as shown in fig no. Infact. the one way flow of energy and circulation of materials are the two great principles of general ecology.
20. c) Effects on plants and animals. oxygen. Air pollution is defined as the presence of one or more contaminants in the atmosphere or ambient air. volcanic eruptions.03 & 0. . b) Air pollution prevention at source.95. 4. d) Effects on materials and properties. 5. plant and animals.Page 210 Environmental Engineering SYNOPYSIS 1. forest fires. The normal air consists of nitrogen. automobile pollution. 2. The effects of air pollutions are a) Effects on human health. desert winds. pollution due to industries etc. carbondioxide and others in the percent respectively are 78. The control of air pollution may be by a) Zoning. radio activity of earth. of such quantity and duration as may be injurious to human. The sources of air pollution are 1) Natural sources are electrical storms. natural chemical reactions bio-chemical reactions etc 2) Manmade sources are combustion of fuels.94. c) Air pollution control by controlling device and equipment d) Air pollution by stacks and vegetation.08. 0. 3. b) Effects on physical properties of atmosphere.
Lithosphere. Certain chloro-floro-carbons get accumulated in greater amounts at high altitudes and releases chlorine atoms under the influence of ultra violet radiation and the chlorine atmos react with ozone . The atmosphere consists of a) Troposphere (0 to 18 km) b) Stratosphere(18 to 50km) c) Mesosphere (50 to 80km) d) Ionosphere (80 to 400km) e) Exosphere(beyond 400km) 10. By this rise of sea level. 8. The atmosphere is multilayered gaseous envelope surrounding the planet earth is called atmosphere. shelter. The term environment is defined as all the systems namely atmosphere. Biosphere is the life supporting environment of the planet earth which consists of air. which in turn causes as Green house effect. hydrosphere and biosphere surrounding us and includes air. Acid rain is due to the increase of the pollutants of SO2 and NO2 due to urban or industrial may produce acid rain which causes health effects. which may submerge the low laying areas of world map. water. 13. 9. waste materials and other ecological problems which affect his life and health. 7. effect on materials and effect on crop production 11. pollutants. By the increase of concentrations of CO2 and other gases causes increases in temperature of earth. Ecology is the term indicates the study of inter relationship of organisms and their environment. water and soil.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 211 6. food. 12.
Eco system is defined as any unit that includes all the organisms which interact among themselves. biotic diversity and material cycle within the system. skin cancers and effect on plants. The energy flow is a universal phenomenon and is due to operation of laws of thermodynamics. 14. . 13. The components of ecosystem are producers and consumers. so that the flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure. 15.Page 212 Environmental Engineering and changes to oxygen. Thus holes are formed in the ozone layer through which the rays of the sun are directly comes on to the earth results increases of radiation. and with the physical environment.
What are the effects of acid rain? 17. 11. Define Ecology. Define producers and consumers. What is Biosphere? 14. Name the main type of air pollution. Name any four chemical pollutants. CO2 7. What are the main sources of natural air pollutions? 4. NO2 9. What are the components of Ecosystem? 19. . What are the effects of following pollutants 5. What is meant by zoing? 12. Define air pollution. 15. SO2 8. 10. 3. Name any four control equipment used in control of air pollution. 13.Air Pollution & Ecology Page 213 SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. 18. Name the different layers of atmosphere. 16. Define atmosphere. Hydrocarbons 6. 2. Define environment. Name the methods of control of air pollution.
13. Explain gravity settling chamber with neat sketch. Explain the electrostatic precipitator. What is meant by Ecosystem and explain with the help of sketch. What is green house effect? What are its adverse effects? 4.Page 214 Environmental Engineering ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS 1. What is meant by ozone layer depletion and what are the effects? 5. Explain air pollution control by stacks and vegetation. 6. Explain the working of cyclone with the help of neat sketch. Explain air pollution control by zoing. Explain the effects of air pollution. 2. 11. 9. 12. . Explain briefly with the help of diagram the concept of energy flow. Explain fabric filters. 10. 3. 8. What is meant by acid rain? Explain the effects. Explain various sources of air pollution. 7.
13.S. and Air Pollution Engineering by Water supply Engineering by Santhosh Kumar Garg.Ramachandraiah. Water Supply & Waste Water Disposal by G. Environmental Lab Manual by Shivaji Rao.C. Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering by G. Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering by Rangawala. . 15.Geyar & Oken.K.M. Water Treatment and Sanitation.Willianson.Garg. J.W.R. 18.P. 4. 7. 17. Birdie. IS12183:1987 code practice for plumbing in multi storeyed buildings by BIS. 8. 14. Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering by V. 6. Waste Water Treatment & Disposal by Medcaff & Graw. 3.N. Environment Engineering by Balijeet Kapoor. 10. Sewage Disposal S. SP 35(S&T) 1987 – Hand Book on water supply and drainage with special emphasis on plumbing by BIS.Hardenbergh & E.A. Solid Waste Management by Shivaji Rao. 16.Simple Methods for Rural Areas by H. 19.Rodie.Steel.Deolalikar. Water Supply & Waste Water Disposal by W. 5.G. Plumbing Designs & Practice by S. 11. 2. Environmental Engineering by M. 9. Water Supply & Sewerage by E.Fair. IS 1172-1993 code of practice for water supply in buildings by BIS.Vazirani. 12.Mann and D. Water supply and Sanitary Engineering by Duggal.REFERENCE BOOKS 1.
Define sewage and sewerage.O. . What is the use of grit chamber? 8. What is meant by dry weather flow? 3. Define B. What is the purpose of manhole? 5. 10. 2. 4.D. Explain systems of sewage disposal. What are the effects of acid rains? MAX MARKS : 50 SECTION – B Note: 1) Attempt any five of the following 2) Each question carries 6 marks 11.MODEL PAPER SUB: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING II YEAR WS & SE TIME : 3 HRS SECTION – A Note: 1) Attempt all questions 2) Each question carries 2 marks 1. Define air pollution. 7. Name any four sewer materials. Explain the significance of the following tests. What is meant by strength of sewage? 6. 12. What is meant by composting? 9.
14. Industrial waste treatment – equalization.D 13. Ozone layer defletion. a.O. Explain the testing and maintenance of sanitary fittings. Draw the neat sketch of cyclone and explain the operation. * * * . Explain the following briefly. b. Explain the following briefly. b. 16.a) solids b)B. Sanitary land fill. Draw the neat sketch of JANATA model biogas plant and explain the operation. 18. Effects of air pollution. a. Incineration. 15. 17. Disinfection of wells. b. Explain the disposal methods of solid waste by a.
…. INDEX ………. 8. 9. 4.……. of periods 05 15 15 15 10 35 20 15 10 20 160 Pg. 10.CONTENTS Chapter No.…………. 6. 7.…. No. 1. No. 2. Name of the chapter Introduction Quantity of Sewage Sewerage Systems Sewer Appurtenances Sewage Characteristics Sewage treatment and disposal Solid waste disposal Drainage and Sanitation in Buildings Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Air pollution and Ecology TOTAL PERIODS MODEL PAPER….. 5. 1 16 28 49 76 90 132 141 165 183 . 3. REFERENCE BOOKS…….
INDEX A Acid rains Action of activated sludge Activated sludge process Aerosols Air pollutants Air pollution Analysis of sewage Aqua privies E Ecology Effects of air pollution Environment Environmental health hazard F Fertilizers Flushing cisterns Flushing tanks Fog B Bio-gas Bore-hole prives C Catch basins Catch pits Cesspools Cleaning and maintenance of sewers Composition of air Construction of sewers Control of air pollution G Garbage collection and removal Garbage disposal Green-house effect Grit chambers H House drainage I Importance of air pollution D Drainage plans of buildings Drop manholes Dry weather flow Dust M Manholes Materials for sewers Methods of sludge disposal .
Micro-organisms O Oxidation ponds Ozone layer P Pit privies Primary clarifiers Primary treatment of sewage Principles of house drainage Properties of sewage Pumping of sewage Purpose of sanitation Sewage as fertilizer Sewer Sewer appurtenances Sewerage Shapes of sewers Sizes of sewers Skimming tanks Sludge digestion Sludge digestion tanks Sludge disposal Smoke Sources of air pollution Surface drains Systems of sewerage Q Quality of sewage Quantity of sewage Quantity of sludge T Testing of drains and pipes Trickling filters U Urban air pollution R Refuse Rural sanitation V Ventilation of sewers S Sanitary fittings Sanitary protection of wells Screens Secondary clarifiers Secondary treatment Septic tanks W Wash basins Water-borne diseases Water closets .
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