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SCIENCE REVIEWER

Fields of science

Acoustics The study of sound.


Aeronautics Aircraft design, construction, and navigation.
Agronomy science of soil management and crop production
Anatomy The study of organisms and their parts.
The study of the origin, behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural
Anthropology
development of humans.
Archaeology The study of past human lives by examining remaining material evidence.
Astronomy The study of outer space.
Astrophysics The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of stellar phenomena.
Bacteriology The study of bacteria, especially in relation to medicine and agriculture.
Biochemistry The study of the chemical substances and processes in living organisms.
Biology The science of life and living organisms
Botany The study of plants.
Cardiology The medical study of the heart.
Cartography The art or technique of making maps or charts.
The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of
Chemistry
matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.
The study of the physical universe considered as a totality of phenomena in
Cosmology
time and space.
Crystallography The science of crystal structure and phenomena.
Ecology The study of organisms and their environment.
The study of the formation, early growth, and development of living
Embryology
organisms.
Endocrinology The study of the glands and hormones of the body.
Entomology The scientific study of insects.
Enzymology The study of the biochemical nature and activity of enzymes.
Forestry The science and art of cultivating, maintaining, and developing forests.
Gelotology The study of laughter.
Genetics The study of heredity and inherited traits.
The chemistry of the composition and alterations of the solid matter of the
Geochemistry
earth or a celestial body.
Geodesy The geologic science of the size and shape of the earth.
Geography The study of the earth and its features.
Geology The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the earth.
The physics of the earth and its environment, including the physics of fields
Geophysics
such as meteorology, oceanography, and seismology
Hematology The study of the blood and blood-producing organs.
Histology The study of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues.
Horology The science of measuring time and making time pieces
Hydrology The study of the properties and effects of water on earth.
Ichthyology The study of fish.
Immunology The study of the immune system of the body.
Linguistics The study of language and phonetics.
Mechanics Design, construction, and use of machinery or mechanical structures.
Medicine The science of diagnosing and treating disease and damage to the body.
Meteorology The study of weather and atmospheric conditions.
Metrology The science of measurement.
Microbiology The study of microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms.
The study of minerals, including their distribution, identification, and
Mineralogy
properties.
Mycology The branch of botany that deals with fungi.
Neurology The study of the nervous system and disorders affecting it.
Nucleonics The study of the behavior and characteristics of nucleons or atomic nuclei.
Nutrition The study of food and nourishment.
Oceanography The exploration and study of the ocean.
The study of the development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
Oncology
tumors.
Optics The study of light and vision.
Paleontology The study of prehistoric life through fossils.
The study of disease and its causes, processes, development, and
Pathology
consequences.
Petrology The study of the origin, composition, structure, and alteration of rocks.
Pharmacology The science of the composition, use, and effects of drugs.
Physics The science of matter and energy and interactions between the two.
Physiology The study of the functions of living organisms.
Psychology The study of the mental process and behavior.
Radiology The use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Robotics The science of technology to design, fabrication, and application of robots.
Seismology The study of earthquakes.
Spectroscopy The study of radiant light.
Systematics The science of systematic classification.
Thermodynamic The study of relationships and conversions between heat and other forms of
s energy.
Toxicology The study of poisons and the treatment of poisoning.
Virology The study of viruses and viral diseases.
Volcanology The study of volcanoes and volcanic phenomena.
the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of
Zoology
animals.
Famous Scientists and their Invention

» Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 - August 2, 1922): Invented the


first practical telephone following extensive work on elocution and
deafness.

» Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 26, 1723):


Invented the microscope. Leeuwenhoek is also considered as the first
microbiologist in the world and the father of microbiology.

» Archimedes (c. 287-212 BC): Invented the Archimedean Screw, used for
drawing water out of flooded ships, or from canals for irrigation. Archimedes
also discovered the method for determining the volume of irregular objects.

» Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 - April 17, 1790): Invented the
lightning rod and bifocals, among other inventions. He is also famous as
one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

» Brahmagupta (c. 597 - 668 AD): Brahmagupta was the first to use zero as
a number, although it had been in use before his time as a symbol,
representing the order of magnitude of the number in question (7 - 70 - 700
etc.). Consequently, he devised the rules of arithmetic involving zero.
Brahmagupta was also the first to note that the product of two negative
numbers is a positive number.

» Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 - January 8, 1825): Invented the cotton


gin, which helped speed up the industrial revolution by a great degree.
» Elias Howe (July 9, 1819 - October 3, 1867): The Sewing machine

» Emile Berliner (May 20, 1851 - August 3, 1929): Phonograph records

» Felix Hoffmann (January 21, 1868 - February 8, 1946): Formulated


aspirin and heroin in medically usable forms.

» Fritz Pfleumer (March 20, 1881 - August 29, 1945): Invented the magnetic
tape used in audio cassettes.

» Galileo Galilei (February 15 1564 - January 8 1642): Invented, among


other devices, the telescope and the military compass. Galilei made several
crucial astronomical observations (such as Jupiter's four largest moons,
which are called the Galilean moons in his honor), and promoted the
Copernican view that the earth revolves around the sun -- the latter inviting
the wrath of the Church.

» Garrett Augustus Morgan (March 4, 1877 - July 27, 1963): Invented the
traffic signal and a version of the gas mask (mainly for firefighters).

» Hans von Ohain (December 14, 1911 - March 13, 1998): Jet engine

» Heinrich Focke (October 8, 1890 - February 25, 1979): Built the first
practicably functional helicopter.

» Jagadish Chandra Bose (Basu) (November 30, 1858 - November 23,


1937): Invented the crescograph, a device to measure growth in plants.
Bose invented the crescograph to aid his own research on the effects of
external stimuli on the growth of plants. Bose also made pioneering
research in the field of radio transmission, and demonstrated the first
wireless signalling in the world. Marconi's future (and patent-yielding)
research was aided by Bose, who made his research available to the
scientific community instead of rushing off to privatize the invention of the
radio.

» Johannes Gutenberg (1395 - February 3, 1468): Invented the letterpress


printing press also known as mechanical printing press. This invention is
regarded as one of the most important in human history.

» Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 - January 14, 1874): Invented an


early version of the telephone that only worked on an 'on/off' basis, and
thus could only convey a steady note when spoken into. It failed at
reproducing articulated speech (which is a constantly changing mixture of
different vibrations) and was thus impractical.

» John Logie Baird (August 13, 1888 - June 14, 1946): Invented the first
practical Television. Baird's original design was electromechanical rather
than fully electronic. He also invented the color television tube.

» Karl Benz (November 25, 1844 - April 4, 1929): Invented the first self-
propelled, gasoline-powered automobile.

» Karl Friedrich von Drais (April 29, 1785 - December 29, 1851): Invented a
pedal-less early version of the bicycle, the draisine.

» Karlheinz Brandenburg (b. June 20, 1954): Co-inventor of MP3


Technology

» Konrad Zuse (June 22, 1910 - December 18, 1995): Built the first
working, programmable, electromechanical computer.

» Laszlo Jozsef Bíro (September 29, 1899 - October 24, 1985): Invented
the ballpoint pen, still commonly called biro after him.

» Levi Strauss (February 26, 1829 - September 26, 1902): Denim trousers
(Jeans)

» Melitta Bentz (January 31, 1873 - June 29, 1950): Coffee filter

» Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943): Built the Tesla induction
motor, the Tesla coil and a pioneering mechanism for wireless (radio)
communication.

» Orville and Wilbur Wright (Orville: August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948 /
Wilbur: April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912): Invented the airplane, i.e.,
successfully completed the first powered heavier-than-air flight.

» Otto Lilienthal (May 23, 1848 - August 10, 1896): An early pioneer of
gliders. Lilienthal designed and built several flying machines, including
monoplanes, biplanes and gliders.

» Percy Spencer (July 9, 1894 - September 8, 1970): Microwave oven

» Peter Henlein (1479 - 1542): Considered the inventor of the pocket watch
(early history of watches has not been sufficiently determined).

» Rudolf Diesel (March 18, 1858 - disappeared September 29, 1913):


Invented the compression combustion engine, which was named the Diesel
engine after him.

» Rudolf Hell (December 19, 1901 - March 11, 2002): Formulated


pioneering technology for the scanner and the fax machine (hellschreiber).

» Thomas Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931): Edison was
involved in countless inventions, either directly or through the several
engineers he employed. He is known for the invention and
commercialization of the electric light and the phonograph.

» William Henry Perkin (March 12, 1838 - July 14, 1907): First to produce a
synthetic aniline dye -- mauveine, of the color mauve.

... And Discoverers

» Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955): Perhaps the most
famous scientist in history, Einstein formulated the theory of general
relativity, and the famous equation of mass-energy equivalence -- E=mc2.

» Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 - March 11, 1955): Discovered the


fungus responsible for the production of penicillin, Penicillium notatum.

» Andreas Vesalius (December 31, 1514 - October 15, 1564): First to


describe the human skeletal system and muscular system accurately and in
great detail.

» Aryabhata (476 AD - 550 AD): Approximated the value of pi to 3.1416 -- 5


significant figures (4 decimal places), and was possibly the first to note the
irrationality of pi. Aryabhata also did commendable work in trigonometry,
creating one of the earliest trigonometric tables (later found to be accurate),
and astronomy, discovering the daily rotation of the earth.

» Carl Linnaeus (May 12, 1707 - January 10, 1778): Formed the
taxonomical system of binomial nomenclature, wherein the name of the
genus is followed by the name of the species. For instance, human beings
are termed as Homo sapiens, wherein Homo is the genus and sapiens is
the species.

» Carl Wilhelm Scheele (December 9, 1742 - May 21, 1786): Discovered


oxygen, although Joseph Priestly published his findings first and is thus
given credit for the discovery.

» Sir Chandrashekhar Venkata Raman (November 7, 1888 - November 21,


1970): Discovered the change in the wavelength -- and thus the color -- of
light traveling through a transparent medium, a phenomenon later named
after him -- the Raman effect.

» Charles Darwin (February 12, 1809 - April 19, 1882): Formulated the
theory of evolution, explaining the huge diversity in organisms as a result of
millions of years of unceasing evolution programmed by natural selection.
» Copernicus (February 19, 1473 - May 24, 1543): The first to accurately
describe the solar system as heliocentric (having the sun at the center)
rather than geocentric (having the earth at the center); some Greek
scholars had previously described a heliocentric solar system, but none
was accurate. Weirdly -- given the travails Galileo would later face -- the
Church was curious, even accepting, about Copernicus' findings. However,
a few months after Copernicus published his findings, they were ridiculed
and "refuted" on the basis of wrong but conventionally accepted wisdom.

» Dmitri Mendeleev (February 8, 1834 - February 2, 1907): Created a


comprehensive periodic table of elements, incorporating the Newland's law
of octaves and leaving blanks where he theorized the presence of elements
that had not yet been discovered. Most of these gaps were later found to be
correct.

» Edward Jenner (May 17, 1749 - January 26, 1823): Discovered the
process of vaccination by proving that deliberate (or accidental) infection of
cowpox provided immunity against smallpox, an untreatable disease in
Jenner's time. Jenner is said to have saved more lives than any other man
in history!

» Ernest Rutherford (August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937): Discovered the
phenomenon of radioactive half-life and the change in the atomic number of
the element due to radiation, sowing the seeds of the extensive future
research into nuclear fission. Due to his highly influential findings,
Rutherford is termed the 'father of nuclear physics'.

» Francis Crick - James Watson (Crick: June 8, 1916 - July 28, 2004 /
Watson: b. April 6, 1928): Discovered the double-helical structure of the
DNA molecule.

» Georg Ohm (March 16, 1789 - July 6, 1854): Discovered the


proportionality between the voltage and the resultant current in a circuit,
now known as Ohm's law: I (current) = V (voltage)/ R (resistance)

» Heinrich Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894): Proved the


existence of electromagnetic waves by constructing radio equipment.
Although Hertz didn't realize the full ramifications of his work, the seminal
research led to the discoveries made by Jagadish Chandra Bose, Marconi
et al.

» Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 - August 25, 1908): Discovered


radioactivity in uranium salts.

» Isaac Newton (December 25, 1642 - March 20, 1727): One of the most
revered scientists in history (and rightly so), Newton discovered and
formulated the laws of gravity and the three laws of motion, along with
invaluable work in several other fields. He was also closely involved in the
development of calculus.

» James Chadwick (October 20, 1891 - July 24, 1974): Discovered the
electrically neutral particle in atoms, neutron.

» Johann Kepler (December 27, 1571 - November 15, 1630): Formulated


the laws of planetary motion, which are named after him.
» Marie Sklodowska-Curie - Pierre Curie (Marie: November 7, 1867 - July
4, 1934 / Pierre: May 15, 1859 - April 19, 1906): Expounding on the work of
Marie's Doctoral Advisor Henri Becquerel, Marie and Pierre Curie
discovered the radioactive elements Radium (Ra) and Polonium (Po). Their
work in radioactivity (a term coined by Marie Curie, incidentally) resulted in
Marie Curie, Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel receiving the 1903 Nobel
Prize in Physics.

» Max Planck (April 23, 1858 - October 4, 1947): A theoretical physicist by


nature and profession, Planck formulated the quantum theory, considered
one of the most important theories of modern physics.

» Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 - August 25, 1867): Discovered


electromagnetic induction, laws of electrolysis and fundamental relations
between light and magnetism. Faraday is considered the greatest
experimentalist.

» Neils Bohr (October 7, 1885 - November 18, 1962): Formulated the Bohr
model of the atom.

» Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 - July 28, 1968): Discovered nuclear fission.
During the related research, Hahn collaborated with Lise Meitner and her
nephew Otto Frisch, who confirmed Hahn's results and coined the term
'nuclear fission'; Hahn was initially baffled by the results, which did not fit in
the prevalent scientific paradigm.

» Robert Koch (1843-1910): Renowned for the isolation of Bacillus


anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae, the bacteria
responsible for the diseases anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera, respectively.
Although the diseases may not sound sinister in the 21st century, they were
among the deadliest in the 19th century. Koch is also known for his
eponymous postulates about the determination of the particular microbe
responsible for a disease.

» Srinivasa Ramanujan (December 22, 1887 - April 26, 1920): Isolated from
the European mathematics community, Srinivasa Ramanujan rediscovered
several previously discovered theorems, as well as several new ones.
Ramanujan's groundbreaking and unorthodox derivations are still being
heavily researched by mathematicians all over the world.

» Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (March 27, 1845 - February 10, 1923):


Discovered the X-ray, and thus considered the father of diagnostic
radiology.

» William Harvey (April 1, 1578 - June 3, 1657): Described the 'double


cycle' nature of the human circulatory system (organs-veins-heart-lungs-
heart-arteries-organs).
LABORATORY APPARATUS AND THEIR USES
Test tube
- use for combining chemicals
Crucible
- used to head substances at a very high temperature
Pipette
- used for accurate measurement of substances
Wire gauze
- used to spread heat
Burette
- measures volume of solution
Clay triangle-
wire frame with porcelain used to support the crucible
Forceps-
used to hold small amount of solution
Graduated cylinder
- measure approximate volume
Graduated pipette
- measure solution's volume
Condenser
- used in distillation
Wash glasses
- holding small samples or for covering beakers
Wash bottles
- used to dispense water
Tong-
used to pick large amount of solution
Mortar and Pestle
- used to grind paste or powder
Beakers
are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solidsamples. They are
also used to catch liquids from titration andfiltrates from filtering operations.
Used to measure approximatevolume.
Volumetric flasks
are used to measure precise volumes of liquid or to make precise dilutions.
Glass funnels
are for funneling liquids from one container to another or for filtering when
equipped with filter paper
Clay triangles
are placed on a ring attached to a ring stand as asupport for a funnel,
crucible, or evaporating dish
Bunsen burners
are sources of heat
plastic syringe
- measures small volumes of liquid.
gas syringe-
it is usually made of glass.
test tube holder
- it holds a test tube.
test tube brush
– use in cleaning the test tube
erlenmeyer flask
- used in applications where solutions must bemixed multiple times.
florence flask
- (also known as a
boiling flask
) is a typeof flaskused as an item of laboratory glassware. It can be used as
a

container to hold solutions of chemicals


round bottom flask
- used as laboratory glassware, mostlyfor chemical or biochemicalwork.
watch glass-
used in chemistryas a surface to evaporate a liquid, tohold solids while being
weighed, or as a cover for a beaker .
evaporating dish
- used to heat and evaporate liquids.
thermometer -
use to measure temperature
stirring rod-
used to mix chemicals and liquids for laboratorypurposes.
Tripod
- used to keep things above bunsen burners when you needto heat
something
dropper-
used for administering liquid medicines, especially one for dispensing
medications into the eye.
centrifuge-
used to separate suspensions in liquids.
reagent bottle-
used to hold liquid chemicals.
Filter paper-
use to separate the solid particles from the solution
Microscope-
used for magnifying small objects
FORMS OF ENERGY

Kinetic Energy:

Consider a baseball flying through the air. The ball is said to have "kinetic
energy" by virtue of the fact that its in motion relative to the ground. You
can see that it is has energy because it can do "work" on an object on the
ground if it collides with it (either by pushing on it and/or damaging it
during the collision).

The formula for Kinetic energy, and for some of the other forms of energy
described in this section will, is given in a later section of this primer.

Potential Energy:

Consider a book sitting on a table. The book is said to have "potential


energy" because if it is nudged off, gravity will accelerate the book,
giving the book kinetic energy. Because the Earth's gravity is necessary to
create this kinetic energy, and because this gravity depends on the Earth
being present, we say that the "Earth-book system" is what really possesses
this potential energy, and that this energy is converted into kinetic energy
as the book falls.

Thermal, or heat energy:

Consider a hot cup of coffee. The coffee is said to possess "thermal


energy", or "heat energy" which is really the collective, microscopic,
kinetic and potential energy of the molecules in the coffee (the
molecules have kinetic energy because they are moving and vibrating,
and they have potential energy due their mutual attraction for one
another - much the same way that the book and the Earth have potential
energy because they attract each other). Temperature is really a measure
of how much thermal energy something has. The higher the temperature,
the faster the molecules are moving around and/or vibrating, i.e. the more
kinetic and potential energy the molecules have.
Chemical Energy:

Consider the ability of your body to do work. The glucose (blood sugar) in
your body is said to have "chemical energy" because the glucose releases
energy when chemically reacted (combusted) with oxygen. Your muscles
use this energy to generate mechanical force and also heat. Chemical
energy is really a form of microscopic potential energy, which exists
because of the electric and magnetic forces of attraction exerted between
the different parts of each molecule - the same attractive forces involved in
thermal vibrations. These parts get rearranged in chemical reactions,
releasing or adding to this potential energy.

Electrical Energy

All matter is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of smaller particles,
called protons (which have positive charge), neutrons (which have neutral
charge), and electrons (which are negatively charged).Electrons orbit
around the center, or nucleus, of atoms, just like the moon orbits the earth.
The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons.

Some material, particularly metals, have certain electrons that are


only loosely attached to their atoms. They can easily be made to move
from one atom to another if an electric field is applied to them. When
those electrons move among the atoms of matter, a current of electricity
is created.

This is what happens in a piece of wire when an electric field,


or voltage, is applied. The electrons pass from atom to atom, pushed by
the electric field and by each other (they repel each other because like
charges repel), thus creating the electrical current. The measure of how
well something conducts electricity is called its conductivity, and the
reciprocal of conductivity is called the resistance. Copper isused for
many wires because it has a lower resistance than many other metals and is
easy to use and obtain. Most of the wires in your house are made of copper.
Some older homes still use aluminum wiring.

The energy is really transferred by the chain of repulsive interactions


between the electrons down the wire - not by the transfer of electrons
per se. This is just like the way that water molecules can push on each
other and transmit pressure (or force) through a pipe carrying water. At
points where a strong resistance is encountered, its harder for the
electrons to flow - this creates a "back pressure" in a sense back to the
source. This back pressure is what really transmits the energy from
whatever is pushing the electrons through the wire. Of course, this
applied "pressure" is the "voltage".

As the electrons move through a "resistor" in the circuit, they interact


with the atoms in the resistor very strongly, causing the resistor to heat
up - hence delivering energy in the form of heat. Or, if the electrons are
moving instead through the wound coils of a motor, they instead create a
magnetic field, which interacts with other magnets in the motor, and
hence turns the motor. In this case the "back pressure" on the electrons,
which is necessary for there to be a transfer of energy from the applied
voltage to the motor's shaft, is created by the magnetic fields of the
other magnets (back) acting on the electrons - a perfect push-pull
arrangement!

Electrochemical Energy:

Consider the energy stored in a battery. Like the example above


involving blood sugar, the battery also stores energy in a chemical way.
But electricity is also involved, so we say that the battery stores energy
"electro-chemically". Another electron chemical device is a "fuel-cell".

Electromagnetic Energy (light):

Consider the energy transmitted to the Earth from the Sun by light (or by
any source of light). Light, which is also called "electro-magnetic
radiation". Why the fancy term? Because light really can be thought of as
oscillating, coupled electric and magnetic fields that travel freely
through space (without there having to be charged particles of some kind
around).

It turns out that light may also be thought of as little packets of energy
called photons (that is, as particles, instead of waves). The word
"photon" derives from the word "photo", which means "light". Photons are
created when electrons jump to lower energy levels in atoms, and absorbed
when electrons jump to higher levels. Photons are also created when a
charged particle, such as an electron or proton, is accelerated, as for
example happens in a radio transmitter antenna.

But because light can also be described as waves, in addition to being a


packet of energy, each photon also has a specific frequency and wavelength
associated with it, which depends on how much energy the photon has
(because of this weird duality - waves and particles at the same time -
people sometimes call particles like photons "wavicles"). The lower the
energy, the longer the wavelength and lower the frequency, and vice versa.
The reason that sunlight can hurt your skin or your eyes is because it
contains "ultraviolet light", which consists of high energy photons. These
photons have short wavelength and high frequency, and pack enough energy
in each photon to cause physical damage to your skin if they get past the
outer layer of skin or the lens in your eye. Radio waves, and the radiant
heat you feel at a distance from a campfire, for example, are also forms of
electro-magnetic radiation, or light, except that they consist of low energy
photons (long wavelength and high frequencies - in the infrared band and
lower) that your eyes can't perceive. This was a great discovery of the
nineteenth century - that radio waves, x-rays, and gamma-rays, are just
forms of light, and that light is electro-magnetic waves

Sound Energy:

Sound waves are compression waves associated with the potential and
kinetic energy of air molecules. When an object moves quickly, for example
the head of drum, it compresses the air nearby, giving that air potential
energy. That air then expands, transforming the potential energy into
kinetic energy (moving air). The moving air then pushes on and compresses
other air, and so on down the chain. A nice way to think of sound waves is as
"shimmering air".

Nuclear Energy:

The Sun, nuclear reactors, and the interior of the Earth, all have
"nuclear reactions" as the source of their energy, that is, reactions that
involve changes in the structure of the nuclei of atoms. In the Sun,
hydrogen nuclei fuse (combine) together to make helium nuclei, in a process
called fusion, which releases energy. In a nuclear reactor, or in the interior
of the Earth, Uranium nuclei (and certain other heavy elements in the
Earth's interior) split apart, in a process called fission. If this didn't happen,
the Earth's interior would have long gone cold! The energy released by
fission and fusion is not just a product of the potential energy released by
rearranging the nuclei. In fact, in both cases, fusion or fission, some of
thematter making up the nuclei is actually converted into energy. How
can this be? The answer is thatmatter itself is a form of energy! This
concept involves one of the most famous formula's in physics, the formula,

E=mc2.

This formula was discovered by Einstein as part of his "Theory of Special


Relativity". In simple words, this formula means:

The energy intrinsically stored in a piece of matter at rest equals its mass
times the speed of light squared.

When we plug numbers in this equation, we find that there is actually an


incredibly huge amount of energy stored in even little pieces of matter (the
speed of light squared is a very very large number!). For example, it would
cost more than a million dollars to buy the energy stored intrinsically stored
in a single penny at our current (relatively cheap!) electricity rates. To get
some feeling for how much energy is really there, consider that nuclear
weapons only release a small fraction of the "intrinsic" energy of their
components.
TAXONOMIC RANK

Species  Genus  Family  Order 


Class  Phylum  Kingdom
Circulatory System
The circulatory system is the body's transport system. It is made up of a group of organs that
transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and
the arteriesand veins transport it. Oxygen-rich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the
biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into
even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels,
which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells
and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and
nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and
bring blood back to the heart , which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste
carbon dioxide.

Digestive System
The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals,
carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. After food is chewed
and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is further broken down
by powerful stomach acids. From the stomach the food travels into the small intestine. This is where
your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair-like
projections. The excess food that the body doesn't need or can't digest is turned into waste and is
eliminated from the body.

Endocrine System
The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance
messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as
metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid
gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes,
release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and
tissues throughout the body.

Immune System
The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues,
cells, and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria)
and substances that may enter the body from the environment. There are three types of response
systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune
response.
 The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your
body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If
substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack.

 The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny
noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though
you don't feel well while it's happening, your body is fighting illness.

 When the inflammatory response fails, the immune response goes to work. This is the
central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection
by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes,
migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.

Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause
disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes
fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The
lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels
carry excess fluid away from the spaces between tissues and organs and return it to the
bloodstream.

Muscular System
The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement
of the body. Some muscles—like the ones in your arms and legs—are voluntary, meaning that you
decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other
organs, are involuntary. This means that they are controlled automatically by the nervous system and
hormones—you often don't even realize they're at work.

The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Each of these
has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. .

 Skeletal muscles help the body move.

 Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach
and intestines.

 Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Its motion is involuntary

Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and nerves. One of the most important
systems in your body, the nervous system is your body's control system. It sends, receives, and
processes nerve impulses throughout the body. These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs
what to do and how to respond to the environment. There are three parts of your nervous system
that work together: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic
nervous system.

 The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. It sends out nerve
impulses and analyzes information from the sense organs, which tell your brain about things
you see, hear, smell, taste and feel.

 The peripheral nervous system includes the craniospinal nerves that branch off from the
brain and the spinal cord. It carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to
the muscles and glands.

 The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary action, such as heart beat and
digestion.

Reproductive System
The reproductive system allows humans to produce children. Sperm from the male fertilizes the
female's egg, or ovum, in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg travels from the fallopian tube to the
uterus, where the fetus develops over a period of nine months.

Respiratory System
The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. It includes the nose,
trachea, and lungs. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube
called the trachea. The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes, or primary bronchi, which go to
the lungs. The primary bronchi branch off into even smaller bronchial tubes, or bronchioles. The
bronchioles end in the alveoli, or air sacs. Oxygen follows this path and passes through the walls of
the air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. At the same time, carbon dioxide
passes into the lungs and is exhaled.

Skeletal System
The skeletal system is made up of bones, ligaments and tendons. It shapes the body and protects
organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move. Marrow, which
is soft, fatty tissue that produces red blood cells, many white blood cells, and other immune system
cells, is found inside bones.
Urinary System
The urinary system eliminates waste from the body, in the form of urine. The kidneys remove waste
from the blood. The waste combines with water to form urine. From the kidneys, urine travels down
two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is discharged through the
urethra.

Cell Parts and Functions Table

Cell Organelle Cell Function


Directs all cell activities "Brain or Control
Nucleus
Center of cell"
Nuclear Envelope (Membrane) Controls what passes in and out of the nucleus
Jelly-like substance found inside cell that acts
Cytoplasm as a medium for chemical reactions within the
cell
Packages the proteins made by the ribosomes so
Golgi Body (Apparatus) they can be sent out of the cell. The UPS store
of the cell
"powerhouse of the cell" breaks down sugar
molecules to release energy, site of cellular
Mitochondrion
respiration, double membrane, self-replicating,
contains own DNA, cristae
"Storage tanks" Can hold food, water or waste
Vacuole
for the cell
Makes proteins for the cell, can be found
Ribosome attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free in
the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Transportation network for the cell, moves
materials around in the cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)- endoplasmic
reticulum that has ribosomes attached.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)- does not


have ribosomes attached

"Stomach of the cell" Helps the cell digest food,


Lysosome
waste and worn out cell parts
Produces ribosomes and rRNA( stuff ribosomes
Nucleolus
are made of)
"Gatekeeper" Separates the cell from the rest
Cell Membrane (plasma of the environment and helps control what
membrane) passes in and out of the cell. Semi-permeable:
allows some materials to pass through but not all
A special plastid that contains chlorophyll a
pigment that captures the sun's energy to
Chloroplast
produce glucose in a process called
photosynthesis
Rigid outer layer made of cellulose that supports
Cell Wall and protects the cell (plant, fungi, and bacterial
cells)
Stores and Transports substances from the
Vesicle Golgi Body to the cell membrane for export.
"The UPS truck of the cell"
gives support and shape to the cell, made of
Cytoskeleton
proteins
Organizes special parts of the cytoskeleton
called microtubules for cell division, migrates to
Centriole
opposite ends (poles) of the cell to assist with
cell division
SOLAR SYSTEM

The solar system is made up of the sun and everything that orbits around it,
including planets, moons, asteroids, comets and meteoroids. It extends
from the sun, called Sol by the ancient Romans, and goes past the four
inner planets, through the Asteroid Belt to the four gas giants and on to the
disk-shaped Kuiper Belt and far beyond to the giant, spherical Oort Cloud
and the teardrop-shaped heliopause. Scientists estimate that the edge of
the solar system is about 9 billion miles (15 billion kilometers) from the sun.

Discovery

For millennia, astronomers have followed points of light that seemed to move among
the stars. The ancient Greeks named these planets, meaning "wanderers." Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were known in antiquity, and the invention of the
telescope added the Asteroid Belt, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and many of these worlds'
moons. The dawn of the space age saw dozens of probes launched to explore our
system, an adventure that continues today. The discovery of Eris kicked off a rash of
new discoveries of dwarf planets. [Infographic: Structure of the Solar System]

Formation

Many scientists think our solar system formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and
dust known as the solar nebula. As the nebula collapsed because of its gravity, it spun
faster and flattened into a disk. Most of the material was pulled toward the center to
form the sun. Other particles within the disk collided and stuck together to form asteroid-
sized objects named as planetesimals, some of which combined to become the
asteroids, comets, moons and planets.

The solar wind from the sun was so powerful that it swept away most of the lighter
elements, such as hydrogen and helium, from the innermost planets, leaving behind
mostly small, rocky worlds. The solar wind was much weaker in the outer regions,
however, resulting in gas giants made up mostly of hydrogen and helium.

The sun

The sun is by far the largest object in our solar system, containing 99.8 percent of the
solar system's mass. It sheds most of the heat and light that makes life possible on
Earth and possibly elsewhere. Planets orbit the sun in oval-shaped paths called
ellipses, with the sun slightly off-center of each ellipse.

Inner solar system

The four inner four planets — Mercury, Venus,Earth and Mars — are made up mostly of
iron and rock. They are known as terrestrial or earthlike planets because of their similar
size and composition. Earth has one natural satellite — themoon— and Mars has two
moons — Deimos and Phobos.

Between Mars and Jupiter lies the Asteroid Belt. Asteroids are minor planets, and
scientists estimate there are more than 750,000 of them with diameters larger than
three-fifths of a mile (1 km) and millions of smaller asteroids. The dwarf planet Ceres,
about 590 miles (950 km) in diameter, resides here. A number of asteroids have orbits
that take them closer into the solar system that sometimes lead them to collide with
Earth or the other inner planets.

Outer solar system

The outer planets — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — are giant worlds with thick
outer layers of gas. Nearly all their mass is made up of hydrogen and helium, giving
them compositions like that of the sun. Beneath these outer layers, they have no solid
surfaces — the pressure from their thick atmospheres liquefy their insides, although
they might have rocky cores. Rings of dust, rock, and ice encircle all these giants, with
Saturn's being the most famous.

Comets are often known as dirty snowballs, and consist mainly of ice and rock. When a
comet's orbit takes it close to the sun, some of the ice in its central nucleus turns into
gas that shoots out of the comet's sunlit side, which the solar wind carries outward to
form into a long tail. Short-period comets that complete their orbits in less than 200
years are thought to originate from the disk-shaped Kuiper Belt, while long-period
comets that take more than 200 years to return are thought to come from the
sphericalOort Cloud.

Trans-Neptunian region

Astronomers had long suspected that a band of icy material known as the Kuiper Belt
existed past the orbit of Neptune extending from about 30 to 55 times the distance of
Earth to the sun, and from the last decade of the 20th century up to now, they have
found more than a thousand of such objects. Scientists estimate the Kuiper Belt is likely
home to hundreds of thousands of icy bodies larger than 60 miles (100 km) wide, as
well as an estimated trillion or more comets.

The Oort Cloud lies well past the Kuiper Belt, and theoretically extends from 5,000 to
100,000 times the distance of Earth to the sun, and is home to up to 2 trillion icy bodies,
according to NASA. Past the Oort Cloud is the very edge of the solar system, the
heliosphere, a vast, teardrop-shaped region of space containing electrically charged
particles given off by the sun. Many astronomers think that the limit of the heliosphere,
known as the heliopause, is about 9 billion miles (15 billion km) from the sun.

Pluto, now considered a dwarf planet, dwells in the Kuiper Belt. It is not alone — recent
additions include Makemake, Haumea and Eris. Another Kuiper Belt object
dubbed Quaoar is probably massive enough to be considered a dwarf planet, but it has
not been classified as such yet.Sedna, which is about three-fourths the size of Pluto, is
the first dwarf planet discovered in the Oort Cloud. NASA's New Horizons mission
performed history's first flyby of the Pluto system on July 14, 2015, and continues to
explore the Kuiper Belt.

Terrestrial planets

The inner four worlds are called “terrestrial planets,” because, like Earth, their surfaces
are all rocky. Pluto, too, has a solid surface (and a very frozen one) but has never been
grouped with the four terrestrials

Jovian planets

The four large outer worlds — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune — are known as
the “Jovian planets” (meaning “Jupiter-like”) because they are all huge compared to the
terrestrial planets, and because they are gaseous in nature rather than having rocky
surfaces (though some or all of them may have solid cores, astronomers
say). According to NASA, "two of the outer planets beyond the orbit of Mars — Jupiter
and Saturn — are known as gas giants; the more distant Uranus and Neptune are
called ice giants." This is because, while the first two are dominated by gas, while the
last two have more ice. All four contain mostly hydrogen and helium.
Dwarf planets

The new IAU definition of a full-fledged planet goes like this: A body that circles
the sun without being some other object's satellite, is large enough to be rounded by its
own gravity (but not so big that it begins to undergo nuclear fusion, like a star) and has
"cleared its neighborhood" of most other orbiting bodies. Yeah, that’s a mouthful.

The problem for Pluto, besides its small size and offbeat orbit, is that it shares its space
with lots of other objects in the Kuiper Belt, beyond Neptune. Still, the demotion of Pluto
remains controversial.

The IAU planet definition puts other small, round worlds in the dwarf planetcategory,
including the Kuiper Belt objects Eris, Haumea, and Makemake.

Also now a dwarf planet is Ceres, a round object in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and
Jupiter. Ceres was actually considered a planet when discovered in 1801 and then later
deemed to be an asteroid. Some astronomers like to consider Ceres as a 10th planet
(not to be confused withNibiru or Planet X), but that line of thinking opens up the
possibility of there being 13 planets, with more bound to be discovered.

The planets

Below is a brief overview of the eight primary planets in our solar system, in order from
the inner solar system outward:

Mercury

The closest planet to the sun, Mercury is only a bit larger than Earth's moon. Its day
side is scorched by the sun and can reach 840 degrees Fahrenheit(450 Celsius), but on
the night side, temperatures drop to hundreds of degrees below freezing. Mercury has
virtually no atmosphere to absorb meteor impacts, so its surface is pockmarked with
craters, just like the moon. Over its four-year mission, NASA's MESSENGER
spacecraft has revealed views of the planet that have challenged astronomers'
expectations.

 Discovery: Known to the ancients and visible to the naked eye

 Named for: Messenger of the Roman gods


 Diameter: 3,031 miles (4,878 km)

 Orbit: 88 Earth days

 Day: 58.6 Earth days

Venus

The second planet from the sun, Venus is terribly hot, even hotter than Mercury. The
atmosphere is toxic. The pressure at the surface would crush and kill you. Scientists
describe Venus’ situation as a runaway greenhouse effect. Its size and structure are
similar to Earth, Venus' thick, toxic atmosphere traps heat in a runaway "greenhouse
effect." Oddly, Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction of most planets.

The Greeks believed Venus was two different objects — one in the morning sky and
another in the evening. Because it is often brighter than any other object in the sky —
except for the sun and moon — Venus has generated many UFO reports.

 Discovery: Known to the ancients and visible to the naked eye

 Named for: Roman goddess of love and beauty

 Diameter: 7,521 miles (12,104 km)

 Orbit: 225 Earth days

 Day: 241 Earth days

Earth

The third planet from the sun, Earth is a waterworld, with two-thirds of the planet
covered by ocean. It’s the only world known to harbor life. Earth’s atmosphere is rich in
life-sustaining nitrogen and oxygen. Earth's surface rotates about its axis at 1,532 feet
per second (467 meters per second) — slightly more than 1,000 mph (1,600 kph) — at
the equator. The planet zips around the sun at more than 18 miles per second (29 km
per second).

 Diameter: 7,926 miles (12,760 km)

 Orbit: 365.24 days


 Day: 23 hours, 56 minutes

Mars

The fourth planet from the sun, is a cold, dusty place. The dust, an iron oxide, gives the
planet its reddish cast. Mars shares similarities with Earth: It is rocky, has mountains
and valleys, and storm systems ranging from localized tornado-like dust devils to planet-
engulfing dust storms. It snows on Mars. And Mars harbors water ice. Scientists think it
was once wet and warm, though today it’s cold and desert-like.

Mars' atmosphere is too thin for liquid water to exist on the surface for any length of
time. Scientists think ancient Mars would have had the conditions to support life, and
there is hope that signs of past life — possibly even present biology — may exist on the
Red Planet.

 Discovery: Known to the ancients and visible to the naked eye

 Named for: Roman god of war

 Diameter: 4,217 miles (6,787 km)

 Orbit: 687 Earth days

 Day: Just more than one Earth day (24 hours, 37 minutes)

Jupiter

The fifth planet from the sun, Jupiter is huge and is the most massive planet in our solar
system. It’s a mostly gaseous world, mostly hydrogen and helium. Its swirling clouds are
colorful due to different types of trace gases. A big feature is the Great Red Spot, a giant
storm which has raged for hundreds of years. Jupiter has a strong magnetic field, and
with dozens of moons, it looks a bit like a miniature solar system.

 Discovery: Known to the ancients and visible to the naked eye

 Named for: Ruler of the Roman gods

 Diameter: 88,730 miles (428,400 km)

 Orbit: 11.9 Earth years


 Day: 9.8 Earth hours

Saturn

The sixth planet from the sun is known most for itsrings. When Galileo Galilei first
studied Saturn in the early 1600s, he thought it was an object with three parts. Not
knowing he was seeing a planet with rings, the stumped astronomer entered a small
drawing — a symbol with one large circle and two smaller ones — in his notebook, as a
noun in a sentence describing his discovery. More than 40 years later, Christiaan
Huygens proposed that they were rings. The rings are made of ice and rock. Scientists
are not yet sure how they formed. The gaseous planet is mostly hydrogen and helium. It
has numerous moons.

 Discovery: Known to the ancients and visible to the naked eye

 Named for: Roman god of agriculture

 Diameter: 74,900 miles (120,500 km)

 Orbit: 29.5 Earth years

 Day: About 10.5 Earth hours

Uranus

The seventh planet from the sun, Uranus is an oddball. It’s the only giant planet whose
equator is nearly at right angles to its orbit — it basically orbits on its side. Astronomers
think the planet collided with some other planet-size object long ago, causing the tilt.
The tilt causes extreme seasons that last 20-plus years, and the sun beats down on one
pole or the other for 84 Earth-years. Uranus is about the same size as Neptune.
Methane in the atmosphere gives Uranus its blue-green tint. It has numerous
moons and faint rings.

 Discovery: 1781 by William Herschel (was thought previously to be a


star)

 Named for: Personification of heaven in ancient myth

 Diameter: 31,763 miles (51,120 km)


 Orbit: 84 Earth years

 Day: 18 Earth hours

Neptune

The eighth planet from the sun, Neptune is known for strong winds — sometimes faster
than the speed of sound. Neptune is far out and cold. The planet is more than 30 times
as far from the sun as Earth. It has a rocky core. Neptune was the first planet to be
predicted to exist by using math, before it was detected. Irregularities in the orbit of
Uranus led French astronomer Alexis Bouvard to suggest some other might be exerting
a gravitational tug. German astronomer Johann Galle used calculations to help find
Neptune in a telescope. Neptune is about 17 times as massive as Earth.

 Discovery: 1846

 Named for: Roman god of water

 Diameter: 30,775 miles (49,530 km)

 Orbit: 165 Earth years

 Day: 19 Earth hours

Pluto (Dwarf Planet)

Once the ninth planet from the sun, Pluto is unlike other planets in many respects. It is
smaller than Earth's moon. Its orbit carries it inside the orbit of Neptune and then way
out beyond that orbit. From 1979 until early 1999, Pluto had actually been the eighth
planet from the sun. Then, on Feb. 11, 1999, it crossed Neptune's path and once again
became the solar system's most distant planet — until it was demoted to dwarf planet
status. Pluto will stay beyond Neptune for 228 years. Pluto’s orbit is tilted to the main
plane of the solar system — where the other planets orbit — by 17.1 degrees. It’s a
cold, rocky world with only a very ephemeral atmosphere. NASA's New Horizons
mission performed history's first flyby of the Pluto system on July 14, 2015.
[Related: New Horizons' Pluto Flyby: Latest News, Images and Video]

 Discovery: 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh


 Named for: Roman god of the underworld, Hades

 Diameter: 1,430 miles (2,301 km)

 Orbit: 248 Earth years

 Day: 6.4 Earth day

Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic Explanation


for the Behavior
gas liquid solid
assumes the shape and assumes the shape of the retains a fixed volume and
volume of its container part of the container which shape
particles can move past one it occupies rigid - particles locked into
another particles can move/slide place
past one another
compressible not easily compressible not easily compressible
lots of free space between little free space between little free space between
particles particles particles
flows easily flows easily does not flow easily
particles can move past one particles can move/slide rigid - particles cannot
another past one another move/slide past one
another
Warm-blooded
Animal Groups animals regulate
their own body
temperatures; their
Vertebrates and Invertebrates bodies use energy
to maintain a
Almost all animals fall into one of two groups. Adult vertebrates have a spinal constant
column, or backbone, running the length of the body;invertebrates do not. temperature.Cold-
Vertebrates are often larger and have more complex bodies than invertebrates. blooded
However, there are many more invertebrates than vertebrates. animals depend
on their
surroundings to
Vertebrates establish their
body
 Fish breathe through gills, and live in water; most are cold-blooded temperatures.
and lay eggs (although sharks give birth to live young).
 Amphibians are cold-blooded and live both on land (breathing with lungs) and in water
(breathing through gills) at different times. Three types of amphibians are frogs and toads,
salamanders, and caecilians. Caecilians are primitive amphibians that resemble earthworms.
They are found in the tropics.

 Reptiles are cold-blooded and breathe with lungs. They have scales, and most lay eggs.
Reptiles include snakes, turtles and tortoises, crocodiles and alligators, and lizards.
Dinosaurs were reptiles, although some scientists believe that some were warm blooded.

 Birds are warm-blooded animals with feathers and wings. They lay eggs, and most can fly
(although many, including penguins and ostriches, cannot).

 Mammals are warm-blooded, and are nourished by their mothers' milk; most are born live
(however, the platypus lays eggs). Most mammals also have body hair.

Invertebrates
 Sponges are the most primitive of animal groups. They live in water (usually saltwater), are
sessile (do not move from place to place), and filter tiny organisms out of the water for food.

 Coelenterates are also very primitive. Their mouths, which take in food and get rid of waste,
are surrounded by stinging tentacles. Some coelenterates are jellyfish, corals, and sea
anemones.

 Echinoderms include starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. They live in seawater and
have external skeletons.

 Worms come in many varieties and live in all sorts of habitats — from the bottom of the
ocean to the inside of other animals. They include flatworms (flukes), roundworms
(hookworms), segmented worms (earthworms), and rotifers (philodina).

 Mollusks are soft-bodied animals, which often live in hard shells. They include snails, slugs,
octopus, squid, mussels, oysters, clams, scallops, chitons, and cuttlefish. Mollusks are the
second-largest group of invertebrates, with 50,000 living species.

 Arthropods are the largest and most diverse of all animal groups. They have segmented
bodies supported by a hard external skeleton (or exoskeleton). Arthropods include insects,
arachnids (spiders and their relatives), centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans like crabs,
lobsters, and shrimp.