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The list of cloud types Variants
Contents is a description of the modern classification of clouds according to their height,
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history
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mechanism and other characteristics that have been adopted universally. In the troposphere,
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there are ten basic
genus types with Latin names derived from five physical categories that are cross-classified into four families
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altitude range. Most genera are divided into species and varieties, also with Latin names. Mesospheric
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stratospheric clouds have their own classifications of types and subtypes using mostly alpha-numeric
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1 Formation
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2 Classification
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3 Polar mesospheric classification: types and subtypes
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3.1 Extremely high cirriform
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4 Polar
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4.1 Very
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5 Tropospheric classification: families, WMO genera, species,
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varieties, and supplementary features Cloud classification by altitude of occurrence.
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5.1
Data Physical
item category Towering vertical cumulus congestus not shown.
Cite5.2
thisGenus
page and family
5.3 Species,
Print/export varieties, and supplementary features
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5.4 aMother
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5.5 High cirriform, stratocumuliform, and stratiform
Printable version
5.6 Middle stratocumuliform and stratiform
Languages
5.7 Low
Latviešu stratocumuliform, stratiform, and cumuliform
5.8 Vertical
Nederlands or multi-level stratiform, cumuliform, and
日本語
cumulonimbiform (low to middle cloud base)
Norsk nynorsk
6 Alphabetical lists of tropospheric cloud types with Latin
Polski
etymologies
Suomi where applicable
Українська
6.1 WMO genera
Edit links
6.2 WMO species
6.3 WMO varieties
6.4 WMO supplementary features and free-convective
mother clouds
6.5 Informal terms related to clouds of limited convection
6.6 WMO and informal terms related to free-convective
cloud types and storms

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7 Other planets
7.1 Venus
7.2 Mars
7.3 Jupiter and Saturn
7.4 Uranus and Neptune
8 Notes and references
9 See also
10 External links

Formation [edit]

Clouds are formed in the Earth's atmosphere when water evaporates into vapor from oceans, lakes, ponds, and even
streams and rivers; and by evaporation or transpiration over moist areas of Earth's land surface. [1] The vapor rises
up into colder areas of the atmosphere due to convective, orographic, or frontal lifting. This subjects the rising air
to a process called adiabatic cooling.[2]

The water vapor attaches itself to condensation nuclei which can be anything from dust to microscopic particles of
salt and debris. Once the vapor has been cooled to saturation, the cloud becomes visible. All weather-producing
clouds form in the troposphere, the lowest major layer of the atmosphere. However very small amounts of water
vapor can be found higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere and may condense into very thin clouds if the air
temperatures are sufficiently cold. The nephology branch of meteorology is focused on the study of cloud physics.

Classification [edit]

Mesospheric, stratospheric, and tropospheric classes are listed on this page in descending order of altitude range.
Within the troposphere, families of non-vertical clouds are also listed in descending order of altitude. The genus
types within each family are arranged in descending order of average cloud base height. Their constituent species,
varieties, supplementary features and mother clouds are arranged in approximate order of frequency of occurrence.
Vertical/multi-level cloud groups and their constituent genera and species are listed in ascending order of average
altitude of cloud tops. Their varieties, supplementary features, and mother clouds are arranged in order of
approximate frequency of occurrence.

Polar mesospheric classification: types and subtypes [edit]

Clouds that form above the mesosphere have a generally cirriform structure, but are not given Latin names based
on that characteristic. Polar mesospheric clouds are the highest in the atmosphere and are given the Latin name
noctilucent which refers to their illumination during deep twilight. They are sub-classified alpha-numerically
according to specific details of their cirriform physical structure.

Extremely high cirriform [edit]

Noctilucent [edit]

A thin mostly cirriform-looking cloud based from about 264,000 to 280,000


feet (80–85 km) and occasionally seen in deep twilight after sunset and

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before sunrise. [3]


Type 1 
Very tenuous resembling cirrus.
Type 2 
Bands — long streaks often in groups parallel or interwoven at small
Noctilucent cloud over Estonia
angles.
Subtypes
2A 
Streaks with diffuse, blurred edges.
2B 
Streaks with sharply defined edges.
Type 3
Billows — clearly spaced roughly parallel short streaks.
Subtypes
3A 
Short, straight narrow streaks.
3B 
Wave-like structure with undulations.
Type 4 
Whirls — partial or rarely complete rings with dark centers.
Subtypes
4A 
Whirls of small angular radius of curvature, sometimes resembling light ripples on a water surface.
4B 
Simple curve of medium angular radius with one or more bands.
4C 
Whirls with large scale ring structure.

Polar stratospheric classification: types and subtypes [edit]

Polar stratospheric clouds form at very high altitudes in polar regions of the stratosphere. Those that show mother-
of-pearl colors are given the name nacreous.[4] Both these and non-nacreous types are classified alpha-numerically
according to their physical state and chemical makeup.

Very high cirriform [edit]

Nacreous (mother of pearl) and non-nacreous [edit]

A thin usually cirriform-looking cloud based from about 60,000 to 100,000


feet (18–30 km) and seen most often between sunset and sunrise.[4]

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Type 1 (non-nacreous) 
Contains supercooled nitric acid and water droplets.
Subtypes
1A 
Crystals of nitric acid and water.
1B  Stratospheric nacreous clouds over
Antarctica
Additionally contains supercooled sulfuric acid in ternary
solution.
Type 2 (nacreous) 
Consists of ice crystals only.

Columnar clouds – rare, column-shaped.

Tropospheric classification: families, WMO genera, species, varieties, and


supplementary features [edit]
Latin nomenclature as authorized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Physical category [edit]

Tropospheric clouds are divided into physical categories. They have Latin based names that indicate physical
structure and process of formation. The essentials of the modern nomenclature system for tropospheric clouds were
proposed by Luke Howard, a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in
science, in an 1802 presentation to the Askesian Society. Since 1890, clouds have been classified and illustrated in
cloud atlases.
Clouds of the cirriform category are generally thin and occur mostly in the form of filaments. Two other basic
categories are stratiform with non-convective clouds that are mostly sheet-like in structure, and limited or free-
convective cumuliform that appear in heaps. [5] Two additional categories derived from the cumuliform group are
stratocumuliform which comprise rolled or rippled clouds of limited convection that combine cumuliform and
stratiform characteristics, and cumulonimbiform,[6] towering free-convective cumuliform clouds often with
complex structures that include cirriform tops and multiple accessory clouds.

A count of basic variants is shown as a number in parentheses after each variety, after nimbostratus that has no
sub-types, and after certain species that are not always dividable into varieties.

Genus and family [edit]

In the troposphere, ten genus types are derived by cross-classifying the physical categories into four families
defined by altitude range; high, middle, low, and vertical or multi-level (with low to middle cloud base). The last of
these can be subdivided into two sub-families or groups to distinguish between moderate and towering vertical
types.

Cirriform category clouds are only found in the high-altitude family and therefore constitute a single genus cirrus.
High stratiform and stratocumuliform types carry the prefix cirro- which yield the genus names cirrostratus and

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cirrocumulus. Clouds of the middle-altitude family have the prefix alto- (altostratus and altocumulus) to
distinguish them from the high clouds. Strato- is dropped from high and middle stratocumuliform genus names to
avoid double-prefixing. Low altitude stratiform, stratocumuliform, and cumuliform genera (stratus, stratocumulus,
and small cumulus) carry no height-related prefixes.[7]

The family of vertical clouds includes thick stratiform, cumuliform, and cumulonimbiform genera, all of which can
produce precipitation of significant intensity. Within this family, the group of moderate or deep vertical clouds
comprise nimbostratus and cumulus mediocris that form in the low or middle altitude range.[7]

Species, varieties, and supplementary features [edit]

Most cloud genera are divided into species, varieties, or both (with species ranked above varieties), based on
specific physical characteristics of the clouds.[8] Species types and opacity-based varieties are always present with
any genera that characteristically have them. However, pattern-based varieties are only seen with any particular
genus when atmospheric conditions are favorable for their occurrence. [9][10] A total of about ninety sub-types can
be identified that are derived by this process of division and subdivision into species and varieties. Supplementary
features of the main cloud types can take the form of precipitation or special cloud formations that are attached or
located in close proximity to the main cloud. Although accessory clouds are most commonly seen with
cumulonimbus, they are also occasionally seen with other genus and species types as well. They are not further
subdivisions of the basic genera, species, and varieties, but are separately classified clouds associated with the main
types.

Mother clouds [edit]

Any genus type that undergoes a full or partial change into another genus is termed a mother cloud. If the change is
only partial, the mother cloud is a genitus type indicating that some of its physical characteristics can be seen
associated with the new genus type. If the change is complete, the mother cloud carries a mutatus designation to
indicate its mutation into the new type. Changes in species and varieties usually accompany changes in the genus
type, but the genitus and mutatus designations apply directly only to the genus level of classification.

High cirriform, stratocumuliform, and stratiform [edit]

High clouds form in the highest and coldest region of the troposphere from about 16,500 to 40,000 ft (5 to 12 km)
in temperate latitudes. [7][11] At this altitude water almost always freezes so high clouds are generally composed of
ice crystals or supercooled water droplets.

Genus cirrus [edit]

Abbreviation: Ci

Cirrus tends to be wispy, and are mostly transparent or translucent. Isolated


cirrus clouds do not bring rain, however, large amounts of cirrus clouds can
indicate an approaching storm system eventually followed by fair weather.

There are several variations of clouds of the cirrus genus based on species
and varieties:

Species [edit] Cirrus spissatus undulatus clouds


Cirrus fibratus (1)

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High clouds having the traditional "mare's tail" appearance. These clouds
are long, fibrous, and curved, with no tufts or curls at the ends.
Cirrus uncinus (2)
Filaments with up-turned hooks or curls.
Cirrus spissatus (3)
Dense and opaque or mostly opaque patches.
Cirrus castellanus (4)
Cirrus uncinus clouds
A series of dense lumps, or "towers", connected by a thinner base.
Cirrus floccus (5)
Elements which take on a rounded appearance on the top, with the lower part appearing ragged.[8]
Opacity-based varieties
None; always translucent except species spissatus which is inherently upaque. [12]

Fibratus pattern-based varieties


Cirrus fibratus intortus (6)
Irregularly curved or tangled filaments.
Cirrus fibratus vertebratus (7)
Elements arranged in the manner of a vertebrae or fish skeleton.

Pattern-based variety radiatus


Large horizontal bands that appear to converge at the horizon; normally associated with fibratus and
uncinus species.
Cirrus fibratus radiatus (8)
Cirrus uncinus radiatus (9)

Pattern-based variety duplicatus


Sheets at different layers of the upper troposphere, which may be connected at one or more points;
normally associated with fibratus and uncinus species.
Cirrus fibratus duplicatus (10)
Cirrus uncinus duplicatus (11)

Varieties are not commonly associated with Ci species spissatus, castellanus, or floccus. [8][12]

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Not associated with cirrus.

Accessory cloud
Mamma
Bubble-like downward protuberances; mostly seen with species castellanus.

Genitus mother clouds


Cirrus cirrocumulogenitus
Cirrus altocumulogenitus
Cirrus cumulonimbogenitus

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Mutatus mother cloud


Cirrus cirrostratomutatus

Genus cirrocumulus [edit]

Abbreviation: Cc[7][13]

Clouds of the genus cirrocumulus form when moist air at high


tropospheric altitude reaches saturation, creating ice crystals or
supercooled water droplets. Limited convective instability at the cloud
level gives the cloud a rolled or rippled appearance. Despite the lack of
a strato- prefix, cirrocumulus is physically more closely related to
stratocumulus than the more freely convective cumulus genus. [14]

Species [edit]
A large field of cirrocumulus
Cirrocumulus stratiformis[15] (12) stratiformis
Sheets or relatively flat patches of cirrocumulus.
Cirrocumulus lenticularis [15] (13)
Lenticular, or lens-shaped high cloud.
Cirrocumulus castellanus [15] (14)
Cirrocumulus with "towers", or turrets.
Cirrocumulus floccus [15] (15)
Tufts with ragged bases.[8]
Opacity-based varieties Cirrus fibratus radiatus
None (always translucent)[12]

Pattern-based variety undulatus


Cirrocumulus with an undulating base; normally associated with stratiformis and lenticularis species.
Cirrocumulus stratiformis undulatus (16)
Cirrocumulus lenticularis undulatus [15] (17)

Pattern-based variety lacunosus


Cirrocumulus with large clear holes; normally associated with stratiformis, castellanus, and floccus species.
Cirrocumulus stratiformis lacunosus (18)
Cirrocumulus castellanus lacunosus (19)
Cirrocumulus floccus lacunosus [12][15] (20)

Precipitation-based supplementary feature


Virga
Light precipitation that evaporates well above ground level; mostly seen with species
stratiformis, castellanus, and floccus.

Accessory cloud
Mamma
Bubble-like downward protuberances; mostly seen with species castellanus.

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Genitus mother clouds


None associated with cirrocumulus.

Mutatus mother clouds


Cirrocumulus cirromutatus
Cirrocumulus cirrostratomutatus
Cirrocumulus altocumulomutatus

Genus cirrostratus [edit]

Abbreviation: Cs[7][13]

Clouds of the genus cirrostratus consist of mostly continuous, wide sheets of


cloud that covers a large area of the sky. It is formed when convectively
stable moist air cools to saturation at high altitude, forming ice crystals.[16]
Frontal cirrostratus is a precursor to rain or snow if it thickens into mid-level
altostratus and eventually nimbostratus as the weather front moves closer to
the observer.
Cirrostratus nebulosus merging
Species [edit]
into darker altostratus translucidus
Cirrostratus fibratus[17] (21)
Cirrostratus sheet with a fibrous appearance, but not as detached as
cirrus.
Cirrostratus nebulosus[17] (22)
Featureless, uniform sheet.[8]
Opacity-based varieties
None (always translucent)[12]

Fibratus pattern-based varieties


Cirrostratus fibratus duplicatus[17] (23)
Separate or semi-merged sheets with one layer slightly above the other.
Cirrostratus fibratus undulatus [17] (24)
Undulating waves.

Varieties are not commonly associated with Cs species nebulosus.[8][12]

Supplementary features/accessory clouds


Not associated with cirrostratus.

Genitus mother clouds

Cirrostratus cirrocumulogenitus
Cirrostratus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Cirrostratus cirromutatus
Cirrostratus cirrocumulomutatus

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Cirrostratus altostratomutatus.

Middle stratocumuliform and stratiform [edit]

Middle cloud forms from 6,500 to about 23,000 ft (2 to 7 km) in temperate latitudes, and may be composed of
water droplets or ice crystals depending on the temperature profile at that altitude range.[11]

Genus altocumulus [edit]

Abbreviation: Ac[7]

Clouds of the genus altocumulus are not always associated with a weather
front but can still bring precipitation, usually in the form of virga which
does not reach the ground. This genus is generally an indicator of limited
convective instability, and is therefore structurally more closely related to
stratocumulus than to the more freely convectice cumulus genus.
Altocumulus floccus
Species [edit]

Altocumulus stratiformis (Always dividable into opacity-based varieties)


Sheets or relatively flat patches of altocumulus.
Altocumulus lenticularis (25)
Lens-shaped middle cloud. Includes informal variant altocumulus
Kelvin–Helmholtz cloud, lenticular spiral indicative of severe
turbulence.
Altocumulus castellanus (26)
Turreted middle cloud. Altocumulus lenticularis
duplicatus
Altocumulus floccus (27)
Tufted middle clouds with ragged bases.[8]
Stratiformis opacity-based varieties
Altocumulus stratiformis translucidus (28)
Translucent altocumulus through which the sun or moon can be
seen.
Altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus (29)
Opaque middle clouds with translucent breaks.
Altocumulus stratiformis opacus (30) Altocumulus castellanus
Opaque altocumulus that obscures the sun or moon.[12]

Pattern-based variety radiatus


Rows of altocumulus that appear to converge at the horizon;
normally associated with stratiformis species.
Altocumulus stratiformis translucidus radiatus (31)
Altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus radiatus (32)
Altocumulus stratiformis opacus radiatus (33)

Pattern-based variety duplicatus Altocumulus stratiformis

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Altocumulus in closely spaced layers, one above the other; normally translucidus undulatus

associated with stratiformis and lenticularis species.


Altocumulus stratiformis translucidus duplicatus (34)
Altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus duplicatus (35)
Altocumulus stratiformis opacus duplicatus (36)
Altocumulus lenticularis duplicatus (37)

Pattern-based variety undulatus


Altocumulus with wavy undulating base; normally associated with
Fallstreak hole -altocumulus
stratiformis and lenticularis species. [12]
stratiformis translucidus lacunosus
Altocumulus stratiformis translucidus undulatus (38)
Altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus undulatus (39)
Altocumulus stratiformis opacus undulatus (40)
Altocumulus lenticularis undulatus (41)

Pattern-based variety lacunosus


Ac with circular holes caused by localized downdrafts; normally associated with stratiformis, castellanus,
and floccus species. [12]
Altocumulus stratiformis translucidus lacunosus (42)
Altocumulus stratiformis perlucidus lacunosus (43)
Altocumulus stratiformis opacus lacunosis (44)
Altocumulus castellanus lacunosus (45)
Altocumulus floccus lacunosus [8] (46)

Precipitation-based supplementary feature


Virga
Altocumulus producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground; usually
associated with species stratiformis, castellanus, and floccus.

Accessory cloud
Mamma
Altocumulus (usually species castellanus) with downward facing bubble-like protuberances
caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.

Genitus mother clouds


Altocumulus cumulogenitus
Altocumulus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Altocumulus cirrocumulomutatus
Altocumulus alsostratomutatus
Altocumulus nimbostratomutatus
Altocumulus stratocumulomutatus

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Genus altostratus [edit]

Abbreviation: As[7]

Clouds of the genus altostratus form when a large convectively stable


airmass is lifted to condensation in the mid-altitude level of the troposphere,
usually along a frontal system. Altostratus can bring light rain or snow. If
the precipitation becomes continuous, it may thicken into nimbostratus
which can bring precipitation of moderate to heavy intensity.

Species [edit]
Altostratus translucidus near top
No differentiated species (always nebulous). [8] of photo merging into altostratus
opacus near bottom
Opacity-based varieties
Altostratus translucidus (47)
Altostratus through which the sun can be seen.
Altostratus opacus (48)
Altostratus that completely blocks out the sun. [12]

Pattern-based variety radiatus


Bands that appear to converge at the horizon.
Altostratus translucidus radiatus (49)
Altostratus opacus radiatus (50) Altocumulus stratiformis
perlucidus undulatus clouds merging
Pattern-based variety duplicatus into altostratus opacus, with higher
Altostratus in closely spaced layers, one above the other. layer of cirrus fibratus

Altostratus translucidus duplicatus (51)


Altostratus opacus duplicatus (52)

Pattern-based variety undulatus


Altostratus with wavy undulating base.
Altostratus translucidus undulatus (53)
Altostratus opacus undulatus [8] (54)

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Virga
Accompanied by precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground. Seen mostly with
opacus varieties.
Praecipitatio
Produces precipitation that reaches the ground; associated with opacus varieties. [18]

Accessory clouds
Seen mostly with opacus varieties
Pannus
Accompanied by ragged lower layer of fractus species clouds forming in precipitation.[19]
Mamma

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Altostratus with downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts


within the cloud.

Genitus mother clouds


Altostratus altocumulogenitus
Altostratus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Altostratus cirrostratomutatus
Altostratus nimbostratomutatus

Low stratocumuliform, stratiform, and cumuliform [edit]

Low cloud forms from near surface to ca. 6,500 feet (2.0 km) and are generally composed of water droplets.[11]

Genus stratocumulus [edit]

Abbreviation: Sc[7]

Clouds of the genus stratocumulus are lumpy, often forming in slightly


unstable air, and they can produce very light rain or drizzle.

Species [edit]

Stratocumulus stratiformis (always dividable into opacity-based


varieties)
Sheets or relatively flat patches of stratocumulus Stratocumulus cumulogenitus with
Stratocumulus lenticularis (55) higher layer of altocumulus
stratiformis
Lens-shaped low cloud.
Stratocumulus castellanus (56)
Layer of turreted stratocumulus cloud with tower-like formations
protruding upwards. [8]
Stratiformis opacity-based varieties
Stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus (57)
Thin translucent stratocumulus through which the sun or moon
can be seen.
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus (58)
Stratocumulus castellanus
Opaque low clouds with translucent breaks.
Stratocumulus stratiformis opacus (59)
Opaque stratocumulus clouds.[12]

Pattern-based variety radiatus


Stratocumulus arranged in parallel bands that appear to converge on the horizon; normally associated with
stratiformis species..
Stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus radiatus (60)
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus radiatus (61)

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Stratocumulus stratiformis opacus radiatus (62)

Pattern-based variety duplicatus


Closely spaced layers of stratocumulus, one above the other; normally associated with stratiformis and
lenticularis species.
Stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus duplicatus (63)
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus duplicatus (64)
Stratocumulus stratiformis opacus duplicatus (65)
Stratocumulus lenticularis duplicatus (66)

Pattern-based variety undulatus


Stratocumulus with wavy undulating base; normally associated with stratiformis and lenticularis species. [12]
Stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus undulatus (67)
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus undulatus (68)
Stratocumulus stratiformis opacus undulatus (69)
Stratocumulus lenticularis undulatus (70)

Pattern-based variety lacunosus


Sc with circular holes caused by localized downdrafts; normally associated with stratiformis and castellanus
species.
Stratocumulus stratiformis translucidus lacunosus (71)
Stratocumulus stratiformis perlucidus lacunosus (72)
Stratocumulus stratiformis opacus lacunosus (73)
Stratocumulus castellanus lacunosus [8] (74)

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Usually associated with species stratiformis and castellanus:
Virga
Low cloud producing precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Praecipitatio
Stratocumulus clouds producing precipitation that reaches the ground. [18]

Accessory cloud
Mamma
Stratocumulus with bubble-like protrusions on the underside; usually associated with species
castellanus.

Genitus mother clouds


Stratocumulus altostratogenitus
Stratocumulus nimbostratogenitus
Stratocumulus cumulogenitus
Stratocumulus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Stratocumulus altocumulomutatus

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Stratocumulus nimbostratomutatus
Stratocumulus stratomutatus

Genus stratus [edit]

Abbreviation: St [7]

Clouds of the genus stratus form in low horizontal layers having a ragged or
uniform base. Ragged stratus often forms in precipitation while more uniform stratus
forms in maritime or other moist stable air mass conditions. The latter often
produces drizzle.

Species [edit]

Stratus nebulosus (75)


Uniform fog-like low cloud.
Stratus fractus (76)
At level with stratus
Ragged shreds of stratus clouds usually under base of precipitation clouds.[8]
nebulosus clouds
Nebulosus opacity-based varieties
Stratus nebulosus translucidus (77)
Thin translucent stratus.
Stratus nebulosus opacus (78)
Opaque stratus that obscures the sun or moon. [12]

Pattern-based variety undulatus


Wavy undulating base.
Stratus nebulosus translucidus undulatus (79)
Stratus fractus cloud
Stratus nebulosus opacus undulatus (80)

Varieties are not commonly associated with St species


fractus. [8][12]

Precipitation-based supplementary feature


Praecipitatio
Stratus (usually species nebulosus) producing precipitation.[18]

Accessory clouds
Not usually seen with stratus.

Genitus mother clouds


Stratus nimbostratogenitus
Stratus cumulogenitus
Stratus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother cloud


Stratus stratocumulomutatus

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Genus cumulus (little vertical extent) [edit]

Abbreviation: Cu

These are fair weather cumuliform clouds of limited convection that do not
grow vertically. The vertical height from base to top is generally less than
the width of the cloud base. They appear similar to stratocumulus but the
elements are generally more detached and less wide at the base.

Species [edit]
Cumulus humilis
Cumulus fractus (81)
Ragged shreds of cumulus clouds.
Cumulus humilis (82)
"Fair weather clouds" with flat light grey bases and small white domed tops.[8]
Opacity-based varieties
None (always opaque except species fractus which is always translucent).[12]

Humilis pattern-based variety


Cumulus humilis radiatus (83)
Small cumulus clouds arranged in parallel lines that appear to converge at the horizon.

Supplementary features/accessory clouds


Not commonly seen with cumulus fractus or humilis.

Genitus mother clouds


Cumulus altocumulogenitus
Cumulus stratocumulogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Cumulus stratocumulomutatus
Cumulus stratomutatus

Vertical or multi-level stratiform, cumuliform, and cumulonimbiform (low to


middle cloud base) [edit]
Clouds with upward-growing vertical development usually form below 6,500 feet (2.0 km),[11] but can be based as
high as 8,000 feet (2.4 km) in temperate climates, and often much higher in arid regions. Downward-growing cloud
forms mostly above 6,500 feet (2.0 km) and achieves vertical extent as the base subsides into the low altitude range
during precipitation.

Genus nimbostratus: Moderate or deep vertical [edit]

Abbreviation: Ns[7] (86)

Clouds of the genus nimbostratus tend to bring constant precipitation and


low visibility. This cloud type normally forms above 6,500 feet (2.0 km)[11]
from altostratus cloud but tends to thicken into the lower levels during the
occurrence of precipitation. The top of a nimbostratus deck is usually in the

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middle level of the troposphere.

Species [edit]
Nimbostratus virga
No differentiated species (always nebulous). [8]
Varieties
No varieties (always opaque and never forms in patterns).[8][12]

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Virga
Accompanied by precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Praecipitatio
Produces precipitation that reaches the ground. [18]

Accessory cloud
Pannus
Nimbostratus with lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.[19]

Genitus mother clouds


Nimbostratus cumulogenitus
Nimbostratus cumulonimbogenitus

Mutatus mother clouds


Nimbostratus altocumulomutatus
Nimbostratus altostratomutatus
Nimbostratus stratocumulomutatus

Genus cumulus: Moderate vertical [edit]

Abbreviation: Cu [7]

Moderate vertical cumulus is the product of free convective airmass


instability. Continued upward growth suggests showers later in the day.

Species [edit]

Cumulus mediocris (84)


Cumulus mediocris (from above)
Moderate vertical clouds with flat medium grey bases and higher tops
than cumulus humilis. [8]

Opacity-based varieties
None (always opaque)

Pattern-based variety

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Cumulus mediocris radiatus (85)


Moderate cumulus clouds arranged in parallel lines that appear to
converge at the horizon.[8][12]
Cumulus mediocris pileus
Precipitation-based supplementary features
Virga
Accompanied by precipitation that evaporates before
reaching the ground.
Praecipitatio Cumulus mediocris arcus

Produces precipitation that reaches the ground. [18]

Accessory clouds
Pannus
Accompanied by a lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.[19]
Mamma
Downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
Pileus
Small cap-like cloud over parent cumulus cloud.[20]
Velum
A thin horizontal sheet that forms around the middle of a cumulus cloud.
Arcus (including roll and shelf clouds)
Low horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of a thunderstorm outflow.[21]
Tuba
Column hanging from the cloud base which can develop into a small funnel cloud.

Mother clouds
Genitus and mutatus types are the same as for cumulus of little vertical extent.

Genus cumulus: Towering vertical [edit]

Abbreviation: Tcu (towering cumulus) [22]

Species

Cumulus congestus [8] (87)


These large cumulus clouds have flat dark grey bases and very tall
tower-like formations with tops mostly in the high level of the
troposphere. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
designates this species as towering cumulus (Tcu).

Opacity-based varieties
Cumulus congestus
None (always opaque).

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Pattern-based variety
Cumulus congestus radiatus (88)
Towering cumulus arranged in parallel lines that appear to converge at the horizon.[8][12]

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Virga
Accompanied by precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Praecipitatio
Produces precipitation that reaches the ground. [18]

Accessory clouds
Pannus
Accompanied by a lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.[19]
Mamma
Downward facing bubble-like protuberances caused by localized downdrafts within the cloud.
Pileus
Small cap-like cloud over parent cumulus cloud.
Velum
A thin horizontal sheet that forms around the middle of a cumulus cloud.
Arcus (including roll and shelf clouds)
Low horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of a thunderstorm outflow.
Tuba
Column hanging from the cloud base which can develop into a small funnel cloud.

Mother clouds
Genitus and mutatus types are the same as for small and moderate cumulus.

Genus cumulonimbus: Towering vertical [edit]

Abbreviation: Cb [7]

Clouds of the genus cumulonimbus have very dark gray to nearly black flat
bases and very high tops that can penetrate the tropopause. They develop
from cumulus when the airmass is convectively highly unstable. They
generally produce thunderstorms, rain or showers, and sometimes hail,
strong outflow winds, and/or tornadoes at ground level.

Species
Cumulonimbus calvus
Cumulonimbus calvus (89)
Cumulonimbus with high domed top.
Cumulonimbus capillatus (90)
Towering vertical cloud with high cirriform top. [8]
Varieties
No varieties (always opaque and does not form in patterns

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visible from surface level). [8][12]

Precipitation-based supplementary features


Associated with calvus and capillatus species.
Virga
Precipitation that evaporates before reaching the ground.
Praecipitatio
Precipitation that reaches the ground. [18]
Single-cell Cumulonimbus
Accessory clouds capillatus incus
Seen with species and capillatus except where noted.
Pannus
Accompanied by a lower layer of fractus species cloud forming in precipitation.[19]
Incus (species capillatus only)
Cumulonimbus with flat anvil-like cirriform top caused by wind shear where the rising air
currents hit the inversion layer at the tropopause. [23]
Mamma
Also sometimes called Mammatus, consisting of bubble-like protrusions on the underside
caused by localized downdrafts.
Pileus (species calvus only)
Small cap-like cloud over parent cumulonimbus.
Velum
A thin horizontal sheet that forms around the middle of a cumulonimbus.
Arcus (including roll and shelf clouds)
Low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow.
Tuba
Column hanging from the cloud base which can develop into a funnel cloud or tornado.

Genitus mother clouds


Cumulonimbus altocumulogenitus
Cumulonimbus altostratogenitus
Cumulonimbus nimbostratogenitus
Cumulonimbus stratocumulogenitus
Cumulonimbus cumulogenitus

Mutatus mother cloud


Cumulonimbus cumulomutatus

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Alphabetical lists of tropospheric cloud types with Latin etymologies where


applicable [edit]

WMO genera [edit]

Altocumulus – altus and cumulus – high heap; now applied to middle stratocumuliform.
Altostratus – altus and stratus – high sheet; now applied to middle stratiform.
Cirrocumulus – cirrus and cumulus – thin, wispy heap; applied to high stratocumuliform.
Cirrostratus – cirrus and stratus – thin, wispy sheet; applied to high stratiform.
Cirrus – thin and wispy; applied to high cirriform.
Cumulonimbus – cumulus and nimbus (Latin for "raincloud") – precipitation-bearing heap; applied to vertical
cumulonimbiform.
Cumulus – Latin for "heap"; applied to low or vertical cumuliform.
Nimbostratus – nimbus and stratus – precipitation-bearing sheet; applied to deep stratiform with vertical extent.
Stratocumulus – stratus and cumulus – heap partly spread into a sheet; applied to low stratocumuliform.
Stratus – Latin for "sheet"; applied to low mostly shallow stratiform.

WMO species [edit]

Castellanus – castle-like with a series of turret shapes – indicates air mass instability.
Congestus – great vertical development and heaped into cauliflower shapes – indicates considerable airmass
instability and strong upcurrents.
Fibratus – thin filament type clouds, can be straight or slightly curved.
Floccus – looking like a tuft of wool – indicates some mid and/or high level instability.
Fractus – irregular shredded appearance – forms in precipitation and/or gusty winds.
Humilis – small, low, flattened cumulus – indicates relatively slight airmass instability.
Lenticularis – having a lens-like appearance – formed by standing waves of wind passing over mountains or
hills.
Mediocris – medium size cumulus with bulges at the top – indicates moderate instability and upcurrents.
Nebulosus – indistinct cloud without features – indicates light wind if any and stable air mass.
Spissatus – thick cirrus with a grey appearance – indicates some upward movement of air in the upper
troposphere.
Stratiformis – horizontal cloud sheet of flattened cumuliform cloud – indicates very slight airmass instability.
Uncinus – cirrus with a hook shape at the top – indicates a nearby backside of a weather system.

WMO varieties [edit]

Duplicatus – double – partly merged layers of cloud.


Intortus – twisted – curved and tangled cirrus.
Lacunosus – full of holes – thin cloud distinguished by holes (sometimes known as fallstreak holes) and ragged
edges.
Opacus – thick and shadowy – an opaque sheet of cloud.
Perlucidus – translucent – sheet of cloud with small spaces between elements.

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Radiatus – radial – clouds in parallel lines that appear to converge at a central point near the horizon.
Translucidus – transparent – translucent patch or sheet.
Undulatus – wavy – cloud displaying an undulating pattern.
Vertebratus – skeletal and bone-like – cirrus arranged to look like bones, a skeleton or calcium.

WMO supplementary features and free-convective mother clouds [edit]

Arcus – arch or a bow – mostly attached to cumulus, thick with ragged


edges.
Cumulogenitus – formed by the spreading out of cumulus clouds.
Cumulonimbogenitus – formed by the spreading out of cumulonimbus
clouds.
Incus – anvil – top part of Cb cloud, anvil-shaped.
Mammatus (WMO term mamma) – breast cloud – round pouches on A translucent wave cloud -
under-surface of cloud. altocumulus lenticularis

Pannus – shredded cloth – shredded sections attached to main cloud.


Pileus – capped – hood-shaped cumulus cloud.
Praecipitatio – falling – cloud whose precipitation reaches the ground.
Tuba – shaped like a tuba – column hanging from the bottom of
cumulus.
Velum – a ship's sail – sail-like in appearance.

Informal terms related to clouds of limited convection


Mammatus over Squaw Valley
[edit]

Aviaticus cloud - persistent condensation trails (contrails) formed by ice


crystals originating from water vapor emitted by aircraft engines. May resemble cirrus, cirrocumulus, or
cirrostratus depending on atmospheric stability and wind shear.
Fallstreak hole – thin cloud distinguished by holes (sometimes known as fallstreak holes) and ragged edges.
See also lacunosus.
Kelvin-Helmholtz - Crested wave-like clouds formed by wind-shear instability that may occur at any altitude in
the troposphere.

WMO and informal terms related to free-convective cloud types and storms [edit]

Accessory cloud (WMO supplementary feature) – cloud that is attached to and develops on body of main cloud.
Anvil (WMO supplementary feature incus) – the top flatter part of a cumulonimbus cloud.
Anvil dome (WMO supplementary feature incus) – the overshooting top on a Cb that is often present on a
supercell.
Anvil rollover – (slang) circular protrusion attached to underside of anvil.
Arcus cloud (WMO supplementary feature) – arch or a bow shape, attached to cumulus, thick with ragged
edges.
Backsheared anvil – (slang) anvil that spreads upwind, indicative of extreme weather.
Clear slot or dry slot (informal term) – an evaporation of clouds as a rear flank downdraft descends and dries

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out cloud and occludes around a mesocyclone.


Cloud tags (WMO species fractus) – ragged detached portions of cloud.
Collar cloud (WMO supplementary feature velum) – ring shape surrounding upper part of wall cloud.
Condensation funnel (informal term) – the cloud of a funnel cloud aloft or a tornado.
Altocumulus castellanus (WMO genus and species) – castle crenellation-shaped altocumulus clouds.
Cumulus (WMO genus) – heaped clouds.
Cumulus castellanus – (informal variation of WMO genus and species cumulus congestus) cumulus with tops
shaped like castle crenellations.
Cumulus congestus (WMO genus and species) – considerable vertical development and heaped into cauliflower
shapes.
Cumulus fractus (WMO genus and species) – ragged detached portions of cumulus cloud.
Cumulus humilis (WMO genus and species) – small, low, flattened cumulus, early development.
Cumulus mediocris (WMO genus and species) – medium-sized cumulus with bulges at the top.
Cumulus pileus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – capped, hood-shaped cumulus cloud.
Cumulus praecipitatio (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – cumulus whose precipitation reaches the
ground.
Cumulus radiatus (WMO genus and variety) – cumulus arranged in parallel lines that appear to converge near
the horizon.
Cumulus tuba (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – column hanging from the bottom of cumulus.
Cumulonimbus (WMO genus) – heaped towering rain-bearing clouds that stretch to the upper levels of the
troposphere.
Cumulonimbus calvus (WMO genus and species) – cumulonimbus with round tops like cumulus congestus.
Cumulonimbus capillatus (WMO genus and species) – Cb with cirriform top.
Cumulonimbus incus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – Cb with anvil top.
Cumulonimbus mamma (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – Cb with pouch-like protrusions that hang
from under anvil or cloud base.
Cumulonimbus pannus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – shredded sections attached to main Cb
cloud.
Cumulonimbus pileus (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – capped, hood-shaped cumulonimbus cloud.
Cumulonimbus praecipitatio (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – Cb whose precipitation reaches the
ground.
Cumulonimbus tuba (WMO genus and supplementary feature) – column hanging from the bottom of
cumulonimbus.
Debris cloud (informal term) – rotating "cloud" of debris found at base of tornado.
Funnel cloud (informal term) – rotating funnel of cloud hanging from under Cb, not making contact with
ground.
Hail fog (informal term) – a shallow surface layer of fog that sometimes forms in vicinity of deep hail
accumulation, can be very dense.
Hot tower - a tropical cumulonimbus cloud that penetrates the tropopause.
Inflow band (informal term) – a laminar band marking inflow to a Cb, can occur at lower or mid levels of the

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cloud.
Inverted cumulus (informal variation of WMO supplementary feature mamma) – cumulus which has
transferred momentum from an exceptionally intense Cb tower and is convectively growing on the underside of
an anvil.
Knuckles (informal variation of WMO supplementary feature mamma) – lumpy protrusion that hangs from
edge or underside of anvil.
Pyrocumulus – cumulus clouds formed by quickly generated ground heat; including forest fires, volcanic
eruptions and low level nuclear detonation, generally of the WMO species mediocris or congestus.
Roll cloud (may be informal term for WMO genus stratocumulus or
supplementary feature arcus) – elongated, low-level, tube shaped,
horizontal cloud.
Rope – (slang) narrow, sometimes twisted funnel type cloud seen after a
tornado dissipates.
Rope cloud (informal term) – A narrow, long, elongated lines of
cumulus cloud formation that develop at the leading edge of an
advancing cold front or weather fronts that is often visible in satellite Cumulus arcus roll cloud over
imagery. [24] Wisconsin

Scud cloud (informal term for WMO species fractus) – ragged detached
portions of cloud that usually form in precipitation.
Shelf cloud (informal term for WMO supplementary feature arcus) – wedge-shaped cloud often attached to the
underside of Cb.
Stratus fractus (WMO genus and species) – ragged detached portions of stratus cloud that usually form in
precipitation (see also scud cloud).
Striations (informal term for WMO supplementary feature velum) – a groove or band of clouds encircling an
updraft tower, indicative of rotation.
Tail cloud (informal term) – an area of condensation consisting of laminar band and cloud tags extending from
a wall cloud towards a precipitation core.
Towering cumulus (TCu) (aviation term for WMO genus and species cumulus congestus) – a large cumulus
cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic
anvil of a Cb.
Wall cloud (informal term) – distinctive fairly large lowering of the rain-free base of a Cb, often rotating.

Other planets [edit]

Venus [edit]

Thick overcast clouds of sulfur dioxide in three main layers at altitudes of 45 to 65 km that obscure the planet's
surface and can produce virga.[25]

Stratiform [edit]

Overcast opaque clouds sheets.

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Stratocumuliform [edit]

Wave clouds with clear gaps through which lower stratiform layers may be seen. [26]

Cumuliform and cumulonimbiform [edit]

Embedded convective cells that can produce lightning.

Mars [edit]

Clouds resembling several terresrial genus-types can be seen over Mars and are believed to be composed of
water-ice.[27][28]

High cirriform [edit]

Thin scattered wispy cloud resembling cirrus through which the planet's surface can be seen.

High stratocumuliform [edit]

Thin scattered wave-cloud resembling cirrocumulus.

Low stratocumuliform [edit]

Wave-cloud resembling stratocumulus, especially as a polar cap cloud over the winter pole which is mostly
composed of suspended frozen carbon dioxide.[27][28]

Surface-based [edit]

Morning fog of water and/or carbon dioxide commonly forms in low areas of the planet.

Jupiter and Saturn [edit]

Cloud decks in parallel latitudinal bands at and below the tropopause alternatingly composed of ammonia crystals
and ammonium hydrosulfate.

Cirriform [edit]

Bands of cloud resembling cirrus located mainly in the highest of three main layers that cover Jupiter.[29]

Stratiform and Stratocumuliform [edit]

Wave and haze clouds that are seen mostly in the middle layer.

Cumuliform and cumulonimbiform [edit]

Convective clouds in the lowest layer that are capable of producing thunderstorms and may be composed at least
partly of water droplets.[30] an intermediate deck of ammonium hydrosulfide, and an inner deck of cumulus water
clouds.[31][32]

Uranus and Neptune [edit]

Clouds layers made mostly of methane gas.[33]

Cirriform [edit]

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High wispy formations resembling cirrus.

Stratiform [edit]

Layers of haze-cloud that lack any distinct features.

Cumuliform and cumulonimbiform [edit]

Lower-based convective clouds that can produce thunderstorms.[33]

Notes and references [edit]

1. ^ Robert Penrose Pearce (2002). Meteorology at the Millennium . Academic Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-12-548035-2.
2. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Adiabatic Process" . American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
3. ^ Michael Gadsden and Pekka Parviainen (September 2006). Observing Noctilucent Clouds . International Association
of Geomagnetism & Aeronomy. p. 9. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
4. ^ a b Les Cowley (2011). "Nacreous clouds" . Atmospheric optics, atoptics.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
5. ^ NOAA
6. ^ E.C. Barrett and C.K. Grant (1976). "The identification of cloud types in LANDSAT MSS images" . NASA.
Retrieved 2012-08-22.
7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clouds Online (2012). "Cloud Atlas" .
8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Morris (2008). "Clouds – Species and Varieties" . University of Minnesota.
Retrieved 2012-02-04.
9. ^ WMO International Cloud Atlas
10. ^ "Definition of nimbus" . Numen - The Latin Lexicon. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
11. ^ a b c d e JetStream (2010-01-05). "Cloud Classifications" . National Weather Service. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Aerographer/Meteorology (2012). "Cloud Variety" . meteorologytraining.tpub.com.
Retrieved 2012-07-02.
13. ^ a b Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.9. The Lyons Press; 1st edition, Guilford, CT.
ISBN 1-58574-847-9.
14. ^ Burroughs, William James; Crowder, Bob (January 2007). Weather, p.216. Fog City Press, San Francisco. ISBN 978-1-
74089-579-8.
15. ^ a b c d e f Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.66-67. The Lyons Press; 1st edition,
Guilford, CT. ISBN 1-58574-847-9.
16. ^ Burroughs, William James; Crowder, Bob (January 2007). Weather, p.215. Fog City Press, San Francisco. ISBN 978-1-
74089-579-8.
17. ^ a b c d Dunlop, Storm (2003-6-1). The Weather Identification Handbook, p.62-63. The Lyons Press; 1st edition,
Guilford, CT. ISBN 1-58574-847-9.
18. ^ a b c d e f g Dunlop 2003, pp. 77–78
19. ^ a b c d e Allaby, Michael, ed. (2010). "Pannus" . A Dictionary of Ecology (4 ed.). Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780199567669. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
20. ^ Garret, et al. 2006, p. i
21. ^ Ludlum 2000, p. 473
22. ^ Paul de Valk, Rudolf van Westhrenen, and Cintia Carbajal Henken (2010). "Automated CB and TCU detection using
radar and satellite data: from research to application" . Retrieved 2011-09-15.
23. ^ "Cumulonimbus Incus" . Universities Space Research Association. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
24. ^ http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/555

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25. ^ Franck Montmessin (2013). "Clouds in the terrestrial planets" . Retrieved 2013-11-05.
26. ^ David Shiga (2006). "Mysterious waves seen in Venus's clouds" . New Scientist. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
27. ^ a b "Clouds Move Across Mars Horizon" . Phoenix Photographs. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 19
September 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
28. ^ a b "NASA SP-441: Viking Orbiter Views of Mars" . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 26
January 2013.
29. ^ Phillips, Tony (20 May 2010). "Big Mystery: Jupiter Loses a Stripe" . Nasa Headline News – 2010. National
Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
30. ^ Dougherty & Esposito 2009, p. 118
31. ^ A.P. Ingersoll, T.E. Dowling, P.J. Gierasch, G.S. Orton, P.L. Read, A. Sanchez-Lavega, A.P. Showman, A.A. Simon-
Miller, A.R. Vasavada. "Dynamics of Jupiter’s Atmosphere" (PDF). Lunar & Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2007-02-
01.
32. ^ Monterrey Institute for Research in Astronomy (2006-08-11). "Saturn" . Retrieved 2011-01-31.
33. ^ a b Nola Taylor Redd (2012). "Neptune's Atmosphere: Composition, Climate, & Weather" . Space.com. Retrieved
2013-11-05.

See also [edit]

Cloud species
Weather portal

External links [edit]

http://nephology.eu International Cloud Atlas online


Cloud Classification (National Weather Service)
Skywatcher Chart (National Weather Service)
Cloud Appreciation Society
Texas A&M Cloud Glossary
Cloud-identification site
UK Met Office cloud classification page
Cloud Atlas (Atlas Chmur) (in Polish)
NOAA

v ·t·e· Cloud genera and selected species, supplementary features, and other airborne [hide]
hydrometeors - WMO Latin terminology except where indicated
Extreme-level Polar mesospheric cirriform type: Noctilucent ·

Very high-level Polar stratospheric cirriform type: Nacreous ·

Tropospheric cirriform, stratiform, and stratocumuliform genera: Cirrus (Ci) · Cirrostratus (Cs) ·
High-level Cirrocumulus (Cc) ·
General type (non-WMO terminology): Aviaticus cloud (Contrail) ·

Tropospheric stratiform and stratocumuliform genera: Altostratus (As) · Altocumulus (Ac) ·


Medium-level
Stratocumuliform species: Altocumulus castellanus (Ac cas) ·

Tropospheric stratiform, stratocumuliform and cumuliform genera: Stratus (St) · Stratocumulus (Sc) ·
Low-level Cumulus (Cu) · Stratiform and cumuliform species: Fractus · Cumulus humilis (Cu hum) ·

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Stratocumulus variants (non-WMO terminology): Actinoform cloud · Undulatus asperatus ·

Tropospheric stratiform and cumuliform genera: Nimbostratus (Ns) · Cumulus (Cu) · Cumuliform
Moderate vertical species: Cumulus mediocris (Cu med) · Cumuliform supplementary features: Cumulus Pileus ·
Cumulus Arcus (Roll) ·

Tropospheric cumulonimbiform genus: Cumulonimbus (Cb) · Cumuliform species:


Cumulus congestus (ICAO term Towering cumulus [Tcu]) · Cumuliform and cumulonimbiform
Towering vertical supplementary features: mamma · Tuba (Funnel cloud) · Pileus · Arcus (Shelf) · Cumuliform and
cumulonimbiform variants (non-WMO terminology): Wall cloud · Pyrocumulus · Pyrocumulonimbus
· Cumulonimbus Overshooting top · Hot tower ·

Surface based General type: Fog ·

Non-height specific General types: Accessory cloud · Kelvin-Helmholtz cloud ·

Categories: Cloud types Satellite interpretation

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