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Gear box design by Dawit Tesfaye KIOT 2009

PHASE ONE
1. GEARBOX
1.1 INTRODUCTION

Gearbox is a mechanical device used to change speed and torque of vehicle


according to variety of road and load location. It also changes the engine speed into
torque when climbing hills and when the vehicle required. Main function of a
gearbox is as follow.

➢ Provide the torque needed to move the vehicle under the variety of road and
load condition. It does this by changing the gear ratio between the engine
crank shaft and vehicle drive wheels.

➢ Be shifted in to reverse so the vehicle can move back ward.

➢ Be shifted in to neutral for starting the engine.

1.2Component of gear box


- Gears - shafts - bearings

1.3 Housings - keys - lubrication


Types of transmission system
1.3.1 Manual transmission
1.3.2 Automatic transmission
1.3.3 Semi-automatic transmission
1.3.1 Manual transmission

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A manual transmission is a type of transmission used in automotive


applications. Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch
and a movable gear selector, although some do not. If you have a manual
transmission, you have to shift the gears yourself, usually with a stick
located on your console and the clutch pedal. Manual transmissions are
characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by engaging pairs of gears
inside the transmission.

There are three forms of manual transmission gearbox. Those forms are

1.3.1.1 Slide mesh gear box

1.3.1.2 Constant mesh gear box

1.3.1.3 Synchromesh gear box

1.3.1.1 Synchro mesh gear box:-


If the dog clutches could be replaced by some kind of friction clutch perfect
Synchronization of the output shaft and the selected gearwheel could be
achieved rapidly and smoothly. A friction clutch strong enough to transmit
full torque would be far too big and heavy, but small clutch that had to do no
more than overcome the inertia of a freely rotating gearwheel and lay shaft
assembly could be quite small.

❖ The two synchromesh devices used in the gear box are constant load and baulk
ring. (5)

1.3.1.1.1 Constant load synchro mesh gear box

The earliest form of synchromesh gear box, commonly used in automotive gear box
is known as constant load type. The female cone of the clutch is formed in the hub,

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which has internal and external splines. A series of spring loaded balls are carried in
radial holes in the hub, and these push out wards in to a grooved machined in the
sleeve. Moments of selected fork carries the sleeve and hub on splines along the
main shaft towards the gear selected and allow the cone to contact. At these points
the gear while to suite the hub allows the hub and main (5)

Shaft.

The main advantage of the constant load synchronizer is that it is works on the
principle of friction. A friction clutch strong enough to transmit full torque would be
far too big and heavy, but small clutch that had to do no more than overcome the
inertia of a freely rotating gearwheel and lay shaft assembly could be quite small.

Works on the principle of friction.

One of the oldest types, and operates by means of two Conical surface, whose
engagement is caused by the gear-change the friction surface brings the rotating parts
to a similar speed. Another member is also moved but delayed by a spring loading
arrangement. The teeth positively engaging the two rotating part. (2)

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Fig 1.1 Synchronized system

1.4 Objective
1.4.1 Main objective:-

To design constant load synchromesh gear box with given specification


Drive power 75bhp@4000rpm and Drive torque 190Nm@1500- 2500rpm

1.4.2 Specific objective:-

To design constant synchromesh unit gear box with the

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To know the general idea about manual gear box and its
component.
To calculate and design the required parameters of all the
components.
To know the application of manual transmission gearbox
To develop the idea and knowledge design.

2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE ENTIRE GEARBOX


ASSEMBLY

It is the determination of the engine power, engine torque and engine speed. The
power of the engine is driven by ‘p’ as:

𝑃 = 2𝜋𝑁𝑇/60

We have 1, Drive power=75bhp @ 4000rpm

2, Drive torque=190Nm @1500-2500rpm

Case one: - indicating power:- is the power actually Developed in the cylinder.
Case two:-brake power (bp):- is the output power measured at the crankshaft.

b𝑃 = 2𝜋𝑁𝑇/60 T=P*60/2𝜋N 1hp = 746watt, and then 75*746 =

55,950 watt T=133.64Nm the torque gained by brake power.

Case 3 counter shaft power

We select our speed 1800rpm .so we can calculate brake power


2𝜋𝑁𝑇 2𝜋∗1800∗190
❖𝑃= = =35796watt=47.89hp
60 60

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❖ 𝑇 = 190𝑁𝑚

Therefore:-the brake power must less than indicating power b/c of mechanical
Losses
Friction losses
Pump losses

∴ip− fp= bp
Torque and speed have inversely proportional to each other

3 Determination of gear ratio


The gear ratio can be determined by considering the main shaft gear speed and the
speed of the engine shaft .on our design specification the value of gear ratio is
already given.so depend on our gear ratio we analyse (determine ) number of each
teeth .(1)

speed of the engine shaft


𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
speed of the main shaft

We have gear ratio value

✓ Top 0.5

✓ 4th 1

✓ 3rd 1.2

✓ 2nd 2.3

✓ 1st 3.3

✓ Reverse 3.5

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By the above gear ratio value we can calculate number of teeth

T1 +T2 =T3+T4 =T5+T6 =T7+T8 =T9+T10 =T11+T12+T13

Then assuming the number of teeth for the lower pinions (NT=number of
teeth), NT for each gear is taking from standards. NTG1 is 20.

𝑇2
𝐺1 = = 3.3 𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑇1 = 20
𝑇1
𝑇2
= 3.3 , 𝑇2 = 𝑇1 ∗ 3.3 = 20 ∗ 3.3 = 66
𝑇1
T4
𝐺2 = = 2.3 , 𝑇4 = 2.3 ∗ 𝑇3 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 = 𝑇3 + 𝑇4
T3

20+66=T3+2.3*T3 86=3.3*T3 T3=26

From T4=2.3*T3 T4=2.3*26 T4=60

𝑇6
𝐺3 = = 1.2 , 𝑇6 = 1.2 ∗ 𝑇5 , 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑇3 + 𝑇4 = 𝑇5 + 𝑇6
𝑇5

26+60=T5+1.2*T5 86=2.2*T5 T5=39

From T6=1.2*T5 T6=1.2*39 T6=47

𝑇8
𝐺4 = = 1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑇8 = 𝑇7 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑇5 + 𝑇6 = 𝑇7 + 𝑇8
𝑇7

39+47=T8+T7 86=2*T7 T7=43 and T8=43

𝑇10
𝐺5 = = 0.5 , 𝑇10 = 0.5 ∗ 𝑇9 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑇7 + 𝑇8 = 𝑇9 + 𝑇10
𝑇9

43+43=T9+0.5*T9 86=1.5*T9 T9= 57

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From T10=0.5*T9 T10=0.5*57 T10=29


𝑇12 𝑇12 𝑇13 𝑇12
𝐺𝑟 = = 3.5 ∗ = We assume gear teeth of T11=18 b/c, the
𝑇11 𝑇13 𝑇11 𝑇11

standard pinion gear teeth value 18 up to 20.

T12=18*3.5=63=T12 , the sum of T11, T12 & T13 equal to 86 so

63+18=81 depend on this value we assume T13=32


𝑇12 63 𝑇13 32
= =1.968 &∗ = = 1.778 𝑠𝑜 1.968 ∗ 1.778 = 3.4999 =
𝑇13 32 𝑇11 18

3.5 , 𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡.

4 DETERMINATION OF TORQUE

The input torque T1=T3=T5=T7=T9=T11 =190Nm, then the output torque are
calculated from the gear ratio.

𝑇2
𝐺1 = 3.3 =
𝑇1

So T2=T1*3.3 =>190*3.3=627Nm =T2

T4=T3*2.3 =>190*2.3= 437Nm=T4

T6=T5*1.2 =>190*1.2=228Nm =T6

T8=T7*1 =>T8=T7 =190Nm

T10=T9*0.5 =>190*0.5=95Nm

(T12/T13 * T13/T11) =>T12=T11*3.5 T12=190*3.5=665Nm

Gear number No of tooth Torque value in Nm

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1 20 190
2 66 627
3 26 190
4 60 437
5 39 190
6 47 228
7 43 190
8 43 190
9 57 190
10 29 95
11 18 190
12 63 665

5 SHAFT LAYOUT
Shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross section, used to transmit power
or motion. A vehicle gear box having

A) Input shaft

B) Output shaft

C) Counter shaft

Input shaft-transfer rotation from the clutch disc to the counter shaft gears. Any time
the clutch disc turns, the input shaft gear turns.

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Output shaft - holds the output gear and synchronizer, Connects to the drive shaft to
turn the wheels. Accept positively locked gear on output shaft the other gear is rotate
freely.

Counter shaft- holds the counter shaft gears into mesh with the input gear and other
gears. Located slightly below and to one slide of the input shaft. There are a number
of gears fixed along the counter shaft.(1)

6 TYPES OF SHAFTS

The following two types of shaft are important from the subject point of view

1. Transmission shafts: These shafts transmit power between the source and the
machine absorbing power. The counter shaft, lay shaft, overhead shaft and all factory
head shafts are transmission shafts since these shafts carry machine parts such as
pulley, gear etc. Therefore they are subjected to bending in addition to twisting

2. Machine shaft: The shafts from an inert parts of the machine itself. The crank shaft
is an example of machine shaft. That is shaft used to change reciprocating to rotation.

PHASE TWO
2 Gear design:-

2.1 Gears
Gears are toothed members which transmit power motion between two shafts by
meshing without any slip. Hence, gear drives are also called positive drives. In any

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pair of gear the smaller one is called pinion and the larger one is called gear
immaterial of which is driving the other.

Types of gears used for gear box

Spur gears:- is have teeth parallel to the axis of rotation and are used to
transmit motion from one shaft to another, parallel, shaft. Of all types, the spur
gear is the simplest and, for this reason, will be used to develop the primary
kinematic relationships of the tooth form.

fig 2.1 spur gear

Helical gears:- is have teeth inclined to the axis of rotation. Helical gears can
be used for the same applications as spur gears and, when so used, are not as
noisy, because of the more gradual engagement of the teeth during meshing.
The inclined tooth also develops thrust loads and bending couples, which are
not present with spur gearing. Hence helical gears give smooth drive with a
high efficiency of transmission but the disadvantage is a resultant thrust
along the axis of the gear.(6)

We select Helical gear for gear 1-gear 5 b/c of

- stronger than spur gear


- greater load carrying capacity
- increase contact ratio
- smother than spur gear

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N.B we select spur gear for reverse gear and helical gear for others gears for
our gear box design b/c of the following characteristics of both gears

fig 2.2 helical gear

Type Features and precision Application Comments regarding


rating precision
Spur gear • Parallel shafting. To all type of • Simplest tooth
• High speed and train and a elements aftering
load. wide range of max precision.
• Highest velocity ratio. • Recommended
efficiency. for all the gear
• Precision rating is meshes, except
excellent. where very high
speed and load or
special features of
other, such as
high angle drive,
cannot be
avoided.

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Helical • parallel shafting Most Equivalent quality to


gear • Very high speed applicable to spur, except for
and load. high speed and complicated of helix
• Efficiency load, also used angle.Recommonded for
slightly less than whenever spur all high speed and load
spur mesh. are used. meshes. Axial thrust
component must be
accommodated.

2.2 KEYS ON GEAR

Fig 2.3 name of part gear

FOR calculate the module size and face width of the gear, we need to define the

1. Pitch circle. It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the
same motion as the actual gear.

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2. Pitch circle diameter. It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is
usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.

3. Pitch point. It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles.

4. Pitch surface. It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing gears have
replaced at the pitch circle.

5. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity. It is the angle between the common normal
to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point.
It is usually denoted by φ. The standard pressure angles are 14 /1 2° and 20°.

6. Addendum. It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of
the tooth.

7. Dedendum. It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom
of the tooth.

8. Addendum circle. It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is
concentric with the pitch circle.

9. Dedendum circle. It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also
called root circle. Note: Root circle diameter = Pitch circle diameter × cos φ, where
φ is the pressure angle.

10. Circular pitch. It is the distance measured on the circumference of the pitch
circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth. It is
usually denoted by 𝑃𝑐

Mathematically, Circular pitch, 𝑃𝑐 = π D/T

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Where D = Diameter of the pitch circle, and T= Number of teeth on the wheel. A
little consideration will show that the two gears will mesh together correctly, if the
two wheels have the same circular pitch. (1)

Note: If 𝐷1 and 𝐷2 are the diameters of the two meshing gears having the teeth 𝑇1
and 𝑇2 respectively; then for them to mesh correctly,

𝜋 𝐷1 𝜋 𝐷2 𝐷1 𝑇1
𝑃𝑐 = = 𝑜𝑟 =
𝑇1 𝑇2 𝐷2 𝑇2

11. Diametric pitch. It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in
millimeters. It denoted by 𝑃𝑑. Mathematically,
𝑇 𝜋
Diametric pitch , 𝑃𝑑 = =
𝐷 𝑃𝑐

12. Module. It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the number
𝐷
of teeth. It is usually denoted by m. Mathematically, Module, 𝑚 =
𝑇

Note: The recommended series of modules in Indian Standard are 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2,
2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50. The modules 1.125, 1.375, 1.75,
2.25, 2.75, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 18, 22, 28, 36 and 45 are of second choice.

.13. Clearance. It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the
tooth, in a meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is
known as clearance circle. 14. Total depth. It is the radial distance between the
addendum and the addendum circle of a gear. It is equal to the sum of the addendum
and dedendum.

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The standard module in helical gear is the range between 2.5 to 3.5 but we
can take or use 3mm. by using these module and the number of teeth in each gear
use confine the diametric pitch

2.3 GEOMETRY OF GEAR BOX

Fig 2.4 geometry of gear box


2.4 Determine the pitch diameter (𝑝𝑐 ) for each teeth
For first gear (𝑮𝟏 )
𝑑𝑎
𝑇1= 20 𝑑1 = 𝑀𝑇=3 ×20=60→ 𝑟1 = =30mm
2

𝑇2 =66 𝑑2 =MT=3×66=198→ 𝑟2 =99mm

C1=𝑟1 + 𝑟2 = 30+99=129mm

For second gear (𝑮𝟐 )

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𝐺2 → 𝑇3 =26 d3=MT=3×26=78 r3 =39mm

𝑇4 =60 d4=MT=3×60=180 r4=90mm

C2=r3+r4= 39+90=129mm

For third gear (𝑮𝟑 )

𝐺3 → 𝑇5 =39 𝑑5 =MT=3×39=117 r5=58.5mm

𝑇6 =47 𝑑6 =MT=3×47=141 r6=70.5mm

C3= r5+r6= 58.5+70.5=129mm

For fourth gear (𝑮𝟒 )

𝐺4 → 𝑇7 =43 𝑑7 =MT=3×43=129 𝑟7 =64.5

𝑇8 =43 𝑑8 =MT=3×43=129 r8=64.5

C4=129mm

For fifth gear (𝑮𝟓 )

𝐺5 → 𝑇9 =57 𝑑9 =MT=3×57=171 r9 =85.5

𝑇10 =29 𝑑10 =MT=3×29=87 r10=43.5

C5=81mm

For reverse gear (𝑮𝑹 )

𝐺𝑅 → 𝑇11 =33 𝑑11 =MT=3×18=54 r11=27

𝑇12 =33 𝑑12 =MT=3×63=189 r12=94.5

𝑇13 =20 d13 =MT=3*32=96 r13=48mm

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Then next we calculate outside diameter:-

Determination of outside diameter

By using the formula of Do= (T+2) * M M->module

T->no of teeth

DO1=(20+2)*3=66m DO4=186mm DO7= 135mm DO10=93mm

DO2=(66+2)*3=204mm DO5=123mm DO8= 135mm DO11=105mm

DO3=(26+2)*3=84mm DO6=147mm DO9= 177mm DO12=105mm

The idler gear diameter= 20*3 =60mm

2.5 force ANALYSIS OF HELICAL GEAR

Fig 2.5 force analyses tooth


𝜶=helix angel 200-450 for our design we select 350
∅ =pressure angle 200

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T1
Gear 1 Tangential force (Ft) = =190Nm/30mm =6333.3N
𝑟1

Ft tan ∅ 6333.3∗0.364
Radial force 𝐹𝑟 = = =2811.4N
cos 𝛼 0.82

T2
Gear 2 Ft = =627Nm/99mm =6333.33N
𝑟1

6333.3∗0.364
Fr = =2811.4N
0.82

Gear 3 Ft =T3/r3 =190Nm/39mm =4871.8N


4871.8∗0.364
Fr = =2162.6N
0.82

Gear 4 Ft =T4/r4 =437Nm/90mm =4855.6N


4855.6∗0.364
Fr = =2155.4N
0.82

Gear 5 Ft =T5/r5 =190Nm/58.5mm =3247.9N


3247.9∗0.364
Fr = =1441.7N
0.82

Gear 6 Ft =T6/r6 =228Nm/70.5mm =3234N


3234∗0.364
Fr = =1435.6N
0.82

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Gear 7 Ft =T7/r7 =190Nm/64.5mm =2945.74N “both Ft & Fr of


gear 7 =gear 8”
2945.74∗0.364
Fr = =1307.6N
0.82

Gear 9 Ft =T9/r9 =190Nm/85.5mm =2222.2N


2222.2∗0.364
Fr = =986.44N
0.82

Gear 10 Ft =T10/r10 =95Nm/43.5mm =2183.9N


2183.9∗0.364
Fr = =969.44N
0.82

2.6 FORCE ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEAR


∅ =pressure angel .we select 200

T11
Gear 11 Ft = =190Nm/27mm =7037N
𝑟11

Fr =Ft tan ∅ = 7037N *0.364 =2561.5N

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T12
Gear 12 Ft = =665Nm/94.5mm =7037N
𝑟12

Fr =Ft tan ∅ = 7037N *0.364 =2561.5N (1)

2.7 determination OF FACE WIDTH FOR HELICAL GEAR


.

On machine design book shigliy used the next formula

𝑭𝒕
𝝈= = Ft=m∗ 𝛿𝑎𝑙𝑙 *y *f
𝒇𝒚𝑫

Where m=module σall=allowable stress

Y=Lewis factor Ft=tangential force on the gear

D=circular pitch diameter f=face width

NB “when we use above formula for our design we must assume factor
of safety .for factor safety assumption must we select material and we
𝛿𝑢𝑙𝑡
use ultimate strength of our material 𝛿𝑎𝑙𝑙 = so we will get
𝑓𝑠

allowable stress by assumption of factor of safety but these allowable


stress is not our design working stress .b/c of that I don’t use the above
formula. Instead of that we used the next derived formula. “ (1)

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Overlap =b*tanα=1.15*Pc

1.15 ∗ 𝑝c 1.15 ∗ 𝜋𝑚 𝛱𝑑
𝑏= = =
tan 𝛼 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼 𝑃𝑐 𝑇

Where b minimum face width

M =module

Assume the pressure angle = 200

NB: The face width of helical gear is equal.so by using the below formula we can
calculate our face width and we get it equal value of face width for all helical and
spur gears.

1.15 ∗ 𝑝c 1.15 ∗ 𝜋𝐷
b= =
tan 𝛼 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼 𝑇

D =pitch diameter T= number of teeth

We must check our face width by 3q<b<5q

q= 𝜋 ∗ 𝑚 = 3.14 ∗ 3 = 9.42
Example for

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Gear one
1.15 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 60
b1 = = 29.76𝑚𝑚
𝑡𝑎𝑛 20 ∗ 20

Gear two

1.15 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 198
b2 = = 29.76𝑚𝑚
𝑡𝑎𝑛 20 ∗ 66

There for all gears have the same face width:-

 b1=b2=b3=b4=b5=b6=b7=b8=b9=b10=b11=b12=b13=29.76mm
 So when we check our face width b=29.76

Therefore 3*9.42<b<5*9.42
28.26mm< 29.76mm <47.1mm so our face width value is safe

2.8 stress calculation and material selection


❖ By using tangential load and Lewis factor we can calculate the maximum
bending stress and we select the gear material for our gear design
𝑭𝒕
𝝈= the maximum tangential load is appeared on gear 1 and 2
𝒃𝒎𝒚
so we select Ft =6333.3 N and we have the maximum tooth number is 66
in gear 2 so we select the Lewis factor from below table

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𝑭𝒕 6333.3
Y =0.422 so 𝝈= = 29.76∗3∗ = 168 N/m2
𝒃𝒎𝒚 0.422

So depend on this stress we select the material having greater tensile strength.

The selection of a proper material, for engineering purposes, is one of the most
difficult problem for the designer. The best material is one

Which serve the desired objective at the minimum cost. The following factors should
be considered while selecting the materials:

1. Availability of the materials,

2. Suitability of the materials for the working Conditions in service, and

3. The cost of the materials.

The gear material should have the following property:

High tensile strength to prevent failure


High endurance strength to with stand dynamic load
Low coefficient of friction

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Good manufacturability

Depend on the above considered we select “”GRAY CAST IRON” for our project
b/c of having the following property

It is available in large quantities and produced in mass production.

It can get any complex shape without involving costly medical.

Has low notch sensitivity.

It has good tensile properties.

It has very low cost and tensile property.

Due to the above characteristics we select grade of FG 600 that means the tensile
strength is 630 pa. So our factor of safety Fs =630/168 =3.75 (6)

2.9 Determination of each gear speed


The speed of N1 = N3 = N5 = N7 = N9 = N11 = 1800 rpm is accepted from
given parameter of speed between 1(500-2500 rpm, S0 by using below formula
we can calculate the value of N2, N4, N6, N8, N10, & N12.

𝑵𝟏
V.R=velocity ratio =gear ratio V.R=
𝑵𝟐

By using the following gear ratio, we calculate speed


𝑵𝟏
1st gear ratio 3.3= =1800/N2
𝑵𝟐

N2=1800/3.3 =545.45rpm
𝑵𝟑
2nd gear ratio 2.3=
𝑵𝟒

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N4=1800/2.3=782.6rpm
𝑵𝟓
3rd gear ratio 1.2=
𝑵𝟔

N6=1800/1.2=1500rpm
𝑵𝟕
4th gear ratio 1=
𝑵𝟖

N8 =N7
𝑵𝟗
5th gear ratio 0.5=
𝑵𝟏𝟎

N10=1800/0.5=3600rpm
𝑵𝟏𝟏
Reverse gear ratio 3.5= N12=1800/3.5=514.3rpm
𝑵𝟏𝟐

2.10 DETERMINATION OF PERIPHERIAL VELOCITY FOR ALL


GEAR

𝜋𝐷𝑝𝑁
Vm = in meter per second where DP =pitch diameter
60∗1000

N=speed of the teeth

πD1N1 3.14∗60∗1800
FOR gear 1 V1= = =5.65m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD2N2 3.14∗198∗545.45
For gear 2 V2 = = =5.65m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

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πD3N3 3.14∗78∗1800
For gear 3 V3 = = =7.35m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD4N4 3.14∗180∗782.6
For gear 4 V4= = =7.372m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD5N5 3.14∗117∗1800
For gear 5 V5= = =11.02m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD6N6 3.14∗141∗1500
For gear 6 V6= = =11.07m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD7N7 3.14∗129∗1800
For gear 7 V7= = =12.15m/s = V8=V7
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD9N9 3.14∗171∗1800
For gear 9 V9= = =16.11m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD10N10 3.14∗87∗3600
For gear 10 V10= = =16.4m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD11N11 3.14∗54∗1800
For gear 11 V11= = =5.08m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

πD12N12 3.14∗189∗514.3
For gear 12 V12= = =5.08m/s
60∗1000 60∗1000

Gear Tangential Radial load Face width Velocity


load mm m/s

Gear 1 6333.3 2811.4 29.76mm 5.65

Gear 2 6333.3 2811.4 29.76mm 5.65

Gear 3 4871.8 2162.6 29.76 7.35

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Gear 4 4855.6 2155.4 29.76 7.35

Gear 5 3248 1442 29.76 11.02

Gear 6 3234 1436 29.76 11.02

Gear 7 2946 1308 29.76 12.15

Gear 8 2946 2946 29.76 12.15

Gear 9 2222.2 986.44 29.76 16.11

Gear 10 2184 969.4 29.76 16.11

Gear 11 7037 2561.5 29.76 5.08

Gear 12 7037 2561.5 29.76 5.08

2.11 Determination of Dynamic tooth load


In the previous article, the velocity factor was used to make approximate allowance
for the effect of dynamic loading. The dynamic loads are due to the following
reasons:

1. Inaccuracies of tooth spacing,

2. Irregularities in tooth profiles, and

3. Deflections of teeth under load.

A closer approximation to the actual conditions may be made by the use of equations
based on extensive series of tests, as follows:

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WD = WT + WI

Where WD = Total dynamic load,

WT = Steady load due to transmitted torque, and

WI = Increment load due to dynamic action.

The increment load (WI) depends upon the pitch line velocity, the face width,
material of the gears, the accuracy of cut and the tangential load. For average
conditions, the dynamic load is determined by using the following Buckingham
equation, i.e.

Where WD = Total dynamic load in newton,

WT = Steady transmitted load in newton,

v = Pitch line velocity in m/s,

b = Face width of gears in mm, and

C = A deformation or dynamic factor in N/mm.

A deformation factor (C) depends upon the error in action between teeth, the class
of cut of the gears, the tooth form and the material of the gears. The following table
shows the values of deformation factor (C) for checking the dynamic load on gears.

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We select values of deformation factor =57 b/c of we select 14.5 involute tooth form
and cast iron for our design. The increase of the pressure angle from
14 /2° to 20° results in a stronger tooth, because the tooth acting as a beam is
Wider at the base/c of that we select our pressure angle 20.
𝟐𝟏𝒗(𝒃 ∗ 𝒄 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐∝ + 𝑭𝒕) 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜶
𝑭 𝑫 = 𝑭𝑻 +
𝟐𝟏𝒗 + √𝒃 ∗ 𝒄 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝟐∝ + 𝑭𝒕

Pressure angle & Helix angle, φ = 15° to 25° & α = 20° to 45° respectively for
helical gear.so we select value of helix angle for our project α=35 0 (6)

Face width and helix angle are constant for all helical gear ,b=29.76mm
21v1(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 1= FT 1 +
21v1+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗5.65(29.76∗55 cos 235 +6333.3) cos 35


=6333.3 +
21∗5.65+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +6333.3

=9655.275N

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21v2(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α


FD 2 = FT 2 +
21v2+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗5.65(29.76∗55 cos 235 +6333.3) cos 35


= 6333.3 +
21∗5.65+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +6333.3

=9655.275N
21v3(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 3= FT 3 +
21v3+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗7.35(29.76∗55 cos 235 +4871.8) cos 35


= 4871.8 +
21∗7.35+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +4871.8

=7883.219N
21v4(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 4 = FT 4 +
21v4+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗7.37(29.76∗55 cos 235 +4855.6) cos 35


=4855.6+
21∗7.37+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +4855.6

=7862.12N
21v5(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 5 = FT 5 +
21v5+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗11.02(29.76∗55 cos 235 +3247.9) cos 35


= 3247.9 +
21∗11.02+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +3247.9

=6010.392N

21v6(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α


FD 6= FT 6 +
21v6+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗11.07(29.76∗55 cos 235 +3234) cos 35


= 3234 +
21∗11.07+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +3234

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=5690.779N
21v7(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 7 = FT 7 +
21v7+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗12.15(29.76∗55 cos 235 +2945.74) cos 35


= 2945.74 +
21∗12.15+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +2945.74

=5276.476N
21v8(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α
FD 8= FT 8 +
21v8+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗12.15(29.76∗55 cos 235 +2945.74) cos 35


=2945.74 +
21∗12.15+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +2945.74

=5276.476N

21v9(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α


FD 9= FT 9 +
21v9+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗16.11(29.76∗55 cos 235 +2222.2) cos 35


= 2222.2 +
21∗16.11+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +2222.2

=4193.722N

21v10(b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft) cos α


FD 10= FT 10 +
21v10+√b∗c cos 2∝ +Ft

21∗16.4(29.76∗55 cos 235 +2183.9) cos 35


= 2183.9 +
21∗16.4+√29.76∗55 cos 235 +2183.9

=4134.718N

For spur gear

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21v(bC+WT)
FD = WT + WI =𝑊𝑇 + where
21v+√bc+WT

WD= Total dynamic load in newton’s,


WT= Steady transmitted load in newton’s,
v = Pitch line velocity in m/s,
b= Face width of gears in mm, and
C= A deformation or dynamic factor in N/mm
c = 57 N/mm deformation factor from Table 28.5. Values of deformation
factor (C), for full depth cast iron Gear is(3).
b=29.76mm

𝟐𝟏𝐯(𝐛𝐂+𝐖𝐓𝟏𝟏) 21∗5.08∗(29.76∗55+7037)
FD11=𝐅𝐓𝟏𝟏 + 𝟐𝟏𝐯+√𝐛𝐜+𝐖𝐓𝟏𝟏 = 7037 + =124.3N
21∗5.08+√(29.76∗55+7037)

𝟐𝟏𝐯(𝐛𝐂+𝐖𝐓𝟏𝟐) 21∗5.08∗(29.76∗55+7037)
FD12=𝐅𝐓𝟏𝟐 + 𝟐𝟏𝐯+√𝐛𝐜+𝐖𝐓𝟏𝟐 = 7037 + =124.3N
21∗5.08+√(29.76∗55+7037)

2.12 Determination of wear load for all teeth


The maximum load that gear teeth can carry, without premature wear, depends upon
the radii of curvature of the tooth profiles and on the elasticity and surface fatigue
limits of the materials. The maximum or the limiting load for satisfactory wear of
gear teeth, is obtained by using the following Buckingham equation, i.e.

Ww = DP . b. Q. K Where

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✓ Ww= Maximum or limiting load for wear in newtons,

✓ DP = Pitch circle diameter of the pinion in mm,

✓ b= Face width of the pinion in mm,

✓ Q= Ratio factor

2∗𝑉.𝑅 2𝑇𝐺
= = for external gears
𝑉.𝑅+1 𝑇𝐺+ 𝑇𝑃

V.R. = Velocity ratio = TG/TP,

✓ K= Load-stress factor (also known as material combination factor) in


N/mm

2 2
Ww = DP . b. Q. K K=0. 714 *(δs2*sinα) =0.714(630, 0002* Sin35)*
E 90000

=3.15N/mm2

2T2 2(66) 2T3 2(26)


Q1 = = =1.53 Q2 = = =0.565
T2 +T1 66+20 T2 +T3 66+26

2T4 2(60) 2T5 2(39)


Q3 = = =1.396 Q4 = = =0.788
T3 +T4 26+60 T4 +T5 60+39

2T6 2(47) 2T7 2(43)


Q5 = = = 1.09 Q6 = = = 0.955
T5 +T6 39+47 T6 +T7 47+43

2T8 2(43) 2T9 2(43)


Q7 = = =1 Q8 = = =1
T7 +T8 43+43 T8 +T9 43+43

2T10 2(29) 2T11 2(18)


Q9 = = = 0.67 Q10 = = = 0.76
T9 +T10 57+29 T10 +T11 29+18

2(T12) 2(63) 2(T13) 2(32)


Q11 = = = 1.55 Q12 = = = 0.67
T11+T12 18+63 T12+T13 63+32

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So next we calculate wear load

DP1 .b.Q1.K
Ww 1 = =( 60*29.76*1.53*3.15)/0.67=12844N
cos2 35

DP2 .b.Q2.K
Ww 2 = = (198*29.76*0.565*3.15)/0.67=15652N
cos2 35

DP3 .b.Q3.K
Ww 3 = = (78*29.76*1.396*3.15)/0.67=15235N
cos2 35

DP4 .b.Q4.K
Ww 4 = = (180*29.76*0.788*3.15)/0.67=1984N
cos2 35

DP5 .b.Q5.K
Ww 5 = = (117*29.76*1.09*3.15)/0.67=19546N
cos2 35

DP6 .b.Q5.K
Ww 6 = = (141*29.76*0.955*3.15)/0.67=20637N
cos2 35

DP7 .b.Q7.K
Ww 7 = =Ww 8 =(129*29.76*1*3.15)/0.67 =18049N
cos2 35

DP10 .b.Q10.K
Ww 10= =(87*29.76*0.76*3.15)/0.67=9252N
cos2 35

For spur gear (reverse gear)

Ww 11=DP11 . b. Q11. K =54*29.76*1.55*3.15=7847N

Ww 12=DP12 . b. Q12. K = 189*29.76*0.67*3.15= 11871N

number Dynamic load compare Wear load


Gear 1 9655.3N < 12844N

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Gear 2 9655.3N < 15652N


Gear 3 7883N < 15235N
Gear 4 78.62N < 1984N
Gear 5 6010N < 19546N
Gear 6 5691N < 20637N
Gear 7 5277N < 18049N
Gear 8 5277N < 18049N
Gear 9 4194N < 6193N
Gear 10 4135N < 9252N
Gear 11 124.3N < 7848N
Gear 12 124.3N < 11871N

Therefore:- b/c of dynamic load of our gear less than wear load,

our design is safe

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Phase three
3 SHAFT DESIGN
Shaft is a rotating member, in general has a circular cross section and is used to
transmit power. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the
resultant torque set up with in the shaft permits the power to be transferred various
machine linked up to the shaft .In order to transfer the power from one shaft to
another, the various member such as pulleys, gears etc. are mounted on it.

3.1 Stresses in Shaft


The following stresses are induced in the shaft; Shear stresses due to transmission of
torque i.e. due to torsion load.
Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the force acting upon
machine elements like gear and pulley etc. . . . . As well as due to the weight
of the shaft itself.
Stresses due to combined torsion and bending load. (1)

In designing of shaft on the basis of strength, the following causes may be


considered.
Shafts subjected to twisting moment on torque only
Shafts subjected to bending moment only
Shafts subjected to combined twisting and bending moment
Shafts subjected to axial load in addition to combined tensional and bending
loads. (2)

We use sap software for finding shaft maximum moment and


Maximum Shear force

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3.2 General consideration on shaft design


1. To minimize both deflections and stresses, the shaft length should be kept as
short as possible and overhangs minimized.
2. A cantilever beam will have a larger deflection than a simply supported
(straddle mounted) one for the same length, load, and cross section, so straddle
mounting should be used unless a cantilever shaft is dictated by design
constraints.
3. A hollow shaft has a better stiffness/mass ratio (specific stiffness) and higher
natural frequencies than a comparably stiff or strong solid shaft, but will be
more expensive and larger in diameter.
4. Try to locate stress-raisers away from regions of large bending moment if
possible and minimize their effects with generous radii and relief.
5. General low carbon steel is just as good as higher strength steels (since
deflection is typical the design limiting issue).
6. Deflections at gears carried on the shaft should not exceed about 0.005 inches
and the relative slope between the gears axes should be less than about 0.03
degrees.(4)
3.3 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR SHAFTS
The material used for shafts should have the following properties;
❖ It should have high strength
❖ It should have good machinability
❖ It should have low notch sensitivity factor
❖ It should have good heat treatment properties
❖ It should have high wear resistance properties (4)

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3.4 MAIN SHAFT DESIGN

Fr
Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr
Ft
Fa Ft Ft Ft
Ft
Fa Ft
Fa Fa
Fa

2 4 6 8 10 12

20mm 1 1 20
0 0 150mm
150mm

30mm
30 30mm
30
30
30mm

FIG 3.1 2D of main shaft

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Fr 2 Fr 4 Fr 6 Fr 8 Fr 10 Fr 12

6.39kN
6.54kN

6.39
3.83
1.27
SHEAR
FORCE
-0.004
DIAGRAM
-1.47 in KN
MAX -3.733
SHEAR
FORCE -6.54

BENDING
MOMENT
DIAGRAM
IN
0.23
MAX 0.22 KN
BENDING per m
MOMENTEM
0.9 0.9

0.96 0.96

FIG 3.2 MAIN SHAFT MOMENT DEAGRAM

For our design we not gain full given so we must flow our assumption

b/c we cannot know the area of shear force applay

shear force

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b/c of we not know area of green shaded part we


not know our working stress ,so we must assume diameter for our design

Assume D main shaft =60mm

We know that the equivalent twisting moment is given by

𝑇𝑒 = √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 (6)

M=maximum moment we gain from graph =0.96kNm=960Nm

Tmax=627Nm
𝑇𝑒 = √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 =√9602 + 6272 =1147Nm

According to maximum shear stress theory

𝜋
Te= 𝜏warking d3
16

1147=0.19625*𝜏*0.063

𝜏w =27Mpa

We Assume our factor of safety n=8 is large number b/c of not know our exact
working stress

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𝑦𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
=>n= yield strength=8*27=216Mpa
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

So our material strength must greater than 216Mpa.

We know working stress then we can select material. The material of the shafts is
plan carbon steel 50C.4 with ultimate tensile strength =440-760= and Yield strength
320Mpa from van mosses stress theory of failure

320
n= = 10 so our design is safe
27

3.5 Input shaft design


We have input speed 4000rpm and power 75hp=55950watt Torque =133.64Nm

For our design we select speed=1800rpm and torque =190Nm

𝑇𝑎 𝑁𝑏 4000
Therefor gear ratio= = = =2.2222
𝑇𝑏 𝑁𝑎 1800

𝑇𝑎
Assume Tb =20 tooth =2.222
20

Ta=45tooth Pitch diameter =D=mT Da=mTa =3*45=135mm


Db=mTb=3*20=60mm ra=67.5mm rb=30mm

Then calculate tangential force and radial force

𝑇𝑎 190𝑁𝑚 𝑇𝑏 133.64𝑁𝑚
Fta= = =2815NFtb== = =4454N
𝑟𝑎 0.0675𝑚 𝑟𝑏 0.03𝑚

Ft tan ∅ 2815∗0.364 Ft tan ∅ 4454∗0.364


Fra= = = 1250NFrb= = =1977N
cos 𝛼 0.82 cos 𝛼 0.82

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Fr

Ft
Fa

a
input shaft

30mm

30
30 30 30
30
30

30
7 9
11

b 1 3 5 150
20 150 150
150 20

Fa

Ft Fa
Fr

Ft Fa
Fr Fa
Ft
Ft
Fr Fa Fr
Ft
Fr
Fa
Ft
Fr
Ft
Fr

counter shaft

FIG 3.3 &3.4 INPUT SHAFT AND COUNTER SHAFT

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Fr b

0.99

Shear force

0.99

Moment dia

0.06

FIG 3.5 INPUT SHAFT DIAGRAM

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Fr a Fr 1 Fr 3 Fr 5 Fr 7 Fr 9 Fr 11

6.57
4.01
3.03
1.72
0.28 SHEAR
FORCE
DIAGRAM
in KN
1.87

4.7

5.96

BENDING
MOMENT
MAX
DIAGRAM
BENDING
0.21 IN
MOMENTEM 0.23
KN
1.05 1.07 0.95
per m
1.4 1.4

FIG 3.6 COUNTER SHAFT MOMENT DEAGRAM

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3.6 Design of counter and input shafts


Both of them counter and input shafts are not have other different concepts

First we calculate for counter shaft

We assume the same diameter D=60mm

M=maximum moment we gain from graph =1.4kNm=1400Nm

Tmax=190 Nm
𝑇𝑒 = √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 =√14002 + 1902 =1413Nm

According to maximum shear stress theory

𝜋
Te= 𝜏warking d3
16

1413=0.19625*𝜏*0.063

𝜏w =33.3Mpa this is our working stress

We Assume our factor of safety n=8 is large number b/c of not know our exact
working stress

𝑦𝑖𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
=>n= yield strength=8*33.3=266.4Mpa
𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

So our material strength must greater than 266.4Mpa.

We know working stress then we can select material. The material of the shafts is
plan carbon steel 50C.4 with ultimate tensile strength =440-760= and Yield strength
320Mpa from van mosses stress theory of failure

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320>266

320
n= = 9.6 so our design is safe
33.3

Assume for input shaft the same as counter and main shaft

D=60mm

Mmax =60Nm Tmax=133.4Nm

𝑇𝑒 = √𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 =√602 + 133.42 =146.3Nm

According to maximum shear stress theory

𝜋
Te= 𝜏warking d3
16

146.3=0.19625*𝜏*0.063

𝜏w =3.45Mpa
We us the same material as privies design and our work is more safe

PHASE FOUR
4.1 BEARING DESIGN

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A bearing is a machine element which support moving element (known as journal).


It permits of a relative motion between contact surfaces of the members, while
carrying the head a little considering shown that due to the relative between the
contact surfaces, a certain amount of power is wasted in overcoming frictional
resistance and if the rubbing surfaces are in direct contact. There will be rapid wear
in order to reduce frictional resistance and wear and in some cases. To carry away
the heat generated, layer of fluid (known as lubricant) may be provide .Material
selected for bearing design is bronze steel because it has high wear resistance and
strength. For this design the selected bearing is rolling contact bearing. (1)

4.1.1 ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


In rolling contact bearing in the contact between the bearing surfaces is rolling
instead of sliding as in sliding constant bearings.

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Fig 4.1 rolling bearing

4.1.2 ADVANTEGES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARINGS


➢ Low starting and running friction except at very high speeds
➢ Ability to with stands momentary shock loads.
➢ Accuracy of alignment.
➢ Low cost of maintenance.
➢ Small over all dimensions.
➢ Reliability of services.
➢ Easy to mount and erect
➢ Cleanliness
4.1.3 TYPES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING

There are two types of rolling contact bearing.

1 ball bearing
2 roller bearing

The selected single row groove ball bearing for this design. Double row
bearing made with radial or contact between the balls of races. Double row bearing
is applicable than two single row bearing. So, by selecting a single row deep groove
ball bearing for a radius head is (2811.4N) maximum valve. And axial head (4434.62
N) operating as speed 1800rpm.

Assuming for an average life 10 years at 9 hours per day and uniform and
steady state.

LH=10*320*9=28800hrs

Assuming 320 day per year and life of bearing in the revolution.

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LB=60*NLH=60*1800*28800

LB= 311 ∗ 107 Where N=Number of revolution

We know that the basing dynamic equivalent radial load.

F=x*v*FR+Y*FA Where x=the radial load factor

Y=axial load factor

V=rotational factor

FR=radial load

FA=axial load
𝐹𝐴
Therefore let us take = 0.5 now from standard table 27.4 (text of machine design
𝐶𝑜
𝐹𝐴 𝐹𝐴
page 1008). We find that the value of x and y corresponds to = 0.5 and =
𝐶𝑜 𝐹𝑅
4434.62𝑁
= 1.5774 which is greater than e=0.44 (6)
2811.4𝑁

X=0.56 and y=1

Since the rotational factor (v) for most of the bearings is 1. Therefore basic dynamic
equivalent radial load.

F=x*v*FR+Y*FA

F= 0.56*1*2811.4+1*4434.62

F= 6009.004N

To find uniform and steady load, if the services factor (Ks) for ball bearing is 1.
Therefore bearing should be selected for F = 6009.004N

𝐿𝐵 1⁄
C=F[ ] 𝑘 [k=3 for all bearings]
106

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311∗107 1
C= 6009.004[ ]3 = 87.711KN
106

Let us select the bearing number 314 from standard table 27.1 and table 27.6(text
book of machine design page 1000 and 1013) which have the following capacity.
Co=63KN=63000N and C=81.5KN=81.5000N

Bore = 70mm

Outside diameter = 125mm

Width = 24 mm

Fig 4.2 Ball bearing


𝐹𝐴 4434.62
= =0.0703
𝐶𝑜 63000

From standard table the values of x and y are

X=0.56 y=1.6

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F=x*v*FR+Y*FA

= 0.56*1*2811.4+1.6*4434.62

F=8669.78N=8.67KN

Basic dynamic load rating

1⁄3
311∗107
C=F
𝐿𝐵
[ 6 ]1⁄𝑘 = 8669.78[ ] = 126.55𝐾𝑁
106
10

4.2 KEY DESIGN

A key is piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of pulley to
connect this together in order to prevent relative motion between them, it always
inserted parallel to axis of shaft.

Keys are used as temporary fastenings and are subjected to considerable crashing
and shearing stresses .a key way is a slot or recess in shaft to the supporting element.

Key can be used on shaft to rotating element, such as gears, pulleys or other
elements, such as wheels, keys are used to enable transmission of torque from the
shaft to the supporting element.

Material selected for key is mild steel because it has high heat transfer and strength
and also,keys can be classified as

➢ parallel key
➢ Tapered key
➢ wood ruff key
➢ Gibb-head key
➢ Sun key

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The selected key is sun key because it is suitable for heavy duty application since
there is no possibility the key to slip along the shaft. It is positive drive. This is main
advantages of sun key above saddle key. (3)

4.2.1 Key design for counter shaft

The material of the key is the same as input shaft 𝑆𝑦𝑡 =440_760N/𝑚𝑚2 and factor of
safety=3
𝑆𝑦𝑡
𝑆𝑦 = = 440/8 = 55 𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠

𝑆𝑆𝑦 =0.5*Syt=0.5*440=220N/𝑚𝑚2

𝑆𝑠𝑦 220
𝜏= = = 27.5𝑁/𝑚𝑚2
𝑓𝑠 8

1. Considering shearing of the key


𝑑 60
T=L*W*𝜏 ∗ = 𝑙 ∗ 18 ∗ 27.5 ∗ =14850𝑙Nmm
2 2

Where w=18mm t =11mm d=60mm

Considering torsional shear strength[torque transmitted]


𝜋 𝜋
T= *𝜏 ∗ 𝑑 3 = ∗ 27.5 ∗ 603
16 16

T= 1.16*106 Nmm

From above two equation

1.16∗106
L= = 78.54mm
14850

2. Considering crushing of the key

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𝑡 𝑑 11 60
T=L* ∗ 𝛿𝑐 ∗ =T=L* ∗ 55 ∗
2 2 2 2

T=9075L N/mm

1.16∗106
L= =127.82 mm
9075

From the two equation the accepted length is L=127.82mm

4.2.2 Key design for output shaft

Considering shearing of the key


𝑑 60
T=L*W*𝜏 ∗ =L*18*27.5*
2 2

T =14850 L Nm

Where w=18mm, t=11mm, d=60mm

1 Consider torsional shear strength


𝜋
T= *27.5*603 =1.16*106 Nm
16

1.16∗106
L= = 78.54𝑚𝑚
14850

2. Considering crushing of the key


𝑡 𝑑 11 60
T=L* *𝛿𝑐 ∗ =L* ∗ 55 ∗
2 2 2 2

T=9075L Nm

1.16∗106
L= =127.82mm
9075

From equation, take the two values.

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The accepted value is L=127.3mm

The same method for the left shaft.

4.3 HOUSING DESIGN

Gear box housing or casing are containers in which the internals, namely, the gears,
the shafts, bearings, oil seals, bearing covers and other components mounted as a
material for gear box casings, good quality cast iron is damping properties and free
from noise .Suitable gaskets are provided between them to secure tightness against
entry of dust and leaking of oil

✓ Generally the housings are serves as


➢ Abase for mounting gears.
➢ Ensure a relative alignment of their axis.
➢ A support for bearing and bearing seals and as an oil both for gears.
✓ Material selected for housing is grey steel casting, because it has high noise
resistance and high strength to support all force.

The housing dimensions of three shafts two stages reduce units can be determined
from the following empirical relation.

Known values

➢ The largest outside diameter of counter shaft gear (Do9) = 177


➢ The largest outside diameter of main shaft gear (Do2) = 204
➢ Center distances between counter shaft and output shaft (C1)
𝐷1 𝐷2 30 198
C1 = + = + =114mm
2 2 2 2

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Center distances between input shaft and counter shaft is (C2)


𝐷𝑏 𝐷𝑎 60 135
C2= + = + = 97.5𝑚𝑚
2 2 2 2

Clearance between a gear and gear box (C’) making it 50mm

Where (L) is the largest dimensions of the housings in (mm)


𝐷𝑜2 𝐷𝑂9
L= +C1+ +𝐶
2 2

204 177
𝐿= + 114 + + 50𝑚𝑚 = 354.5𝑚𝑚
2 2

We select steel castings which are case hardened so having these dimensions the
wall thickness(S) of the gear box can be found according to the following table.

The thickness of the housing is calculated as follows

s=0.007L+ 4mm

=0.007(354.5) +4

=6.4815 mm

The thickness of the gearbox housing is 6.5 mm

The largest length of the gear box is the length of the lay shaft=870 mm

The largest width of the gear box

w =largest gear diameter +clearance =204 +50 w=254 mm

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4.4 LUBRICATION

Protects against rust, corrosion, scuffing and wear Non-chlorinated additive


systemFluid which is introduced in between moving parts in order to reduce the
friction, generated heat & wear and tear of machine parts are called Lubricants. This
process of introducing lubricant is called Lubrication.

When one surface moves over another, there is always some resistance to
movement, and the force, which opposes movement, is called friction. If the friction
is low and steady, there will be smooth, easy movement. At the other extreme, the
friction may be so great or uneven, that movement becomes challenging or
the surfaces can overheat or be seriously damaged.

Lubrication is simply the use of material to improve the smoothness of movement


of one surface over another, and the material used to facilitate this process is called
lubricant. Lubricants are usually liquids or semi liquids, but may be solids, gases, or
any combination of solids, liquids and gases. In addition to reducing or
controlling friction, lubricants are usually expected to reduce wear and often
to prevent overheating and corrosion.

4.4.1 Basic classes of lubricants


Lubricants are usually divided into four basic classes, these are:

Oils: - a general term used to cover all liquid lubricants, whether they are mineral
oils, natural oils, synthetics, and process fluids.

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Greases: - there are oils, which contain a thickening agent to make them semisolid,
but it is sometimes convenient to include anti-seize pastes and the semi-fluid greases
under the same leading.

Dry lubricants: - there include any lubricants, which are used in solid form and
may be bulk solids, point like coatings or loose powders.

Gases: - the gases usually used in gas bearings is air, but any gas can be used which
will not attack the bearings, or itself decomposed.

4.4.2 FUNCTIONS OF LUBRICANTS:


Reduces the frictional resistance.
Reduces wear & tear, surface deformation
Acts as a coolant
Provides protection against corrosion
Acts as a seal in some cases
Improves the efficiency of the machine

4.4.3 LUBRICANT TYPE SELECTION


The two main factors needed for selecting the type of lubricants are speed and the
load. At high speed, we need less viscous lubricant, where as to increase the load
and decrease the speed, we need higher viscous lubricant. Viscosity, film strength,
lubricity, adhesion, gear speed and temperature are applicable characteristics to all
gear lubricants.

Manual Power transmission system From the oil type lubricants, we selected mineral
oil because of Wide range of viscosity are available, Good boundary lubrication,
Long life and Cheap (low cost)

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4.4.4 SELECTION OF GEAR LUBRICATION METHOD


There are two methods recommended for lubricating gears

➢ The splash method


➢ The pressure or jet method

The splash method in which the gear deeps in oil dump in the bottom of the gearbox
is satisfactory for gears operating at peripheral speeds up to 2000 rpm. At higher
speeds, churning of the oil is likely to cause overheating. For speeds above 2000-
rpm jet oil should be directed on the leaving side of mesh point to cover the
full strength of the teeth on both members. If the drive is reversible, jets
should be directed at both the entering and leaving mesh.so we have selected splash
method for our gear box (4)

The lubricant must possess the following properties

Enough oiliness to reduce the friction between the rubbing tooth surfaces
Enough viscosity to develop a suitable film between the tooth surfaces
It should remove the heat developed by the gears fast enough
It should flash away the wear products and corrosion formed on the tooth
surfaces
No dirt and metal particles, sludge or acids should mix with the lubricant

In the selection of lubricant we have selected mineral oil Synthetic PAO-based


extreme pressure gear lubricant, available in two viscosity grades (ISO 320 and 680),
used in General Electric wheel motors used in mining haul trucks. Syncon-Premium
EP Gear Oil is formulated with synthetic polyalphaolefin (PAO) base oils, a
no chlorinated extreme pressure additive and select inhibitors. It has outstanding
oxidation resistance and thermal stability at high temperatures to help minimize

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deposit formation and provide long service life. It has high load-carrying capacity to
protect against scuffing and wear, and protects against rust, corrosion and foaming

4.4.5 APPLICATIONS:
GE wheel motors found in mining haul trucks
Enclosed industrial gearboxes operating at very high or very low
temperatures, or operating continuously at higher than normal operating
temperatures.
Heavily loaded plain and rolling-element bearings operating under extreme
temperatures.
Applications where the manufacturer recommends a synthetic EP gear
oil 1 Syncon Premium EP Gear Oil is not recommended for use in worm gear
drives with bronze-on-steel gears, or in automotive differentials with hypoid
gears.

4.4.6 FEATURES/BENEFITS:
Outstanding oxidation resistance and thermal stability at high temperatures
Outstanding low-temperature properties
High load-carrying capacity
Suitable for year-round use
Extended service intervals compared with conventional mineral oil based

Gear oils (5)

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Conclusion
In this project we have discussed about manual transmission system and is parts we
have designed the slid mesh gear box .we have designed and calculated the
fundamentals parts of the gears, shaft, bearing and lubrication needed for the them
is analyzed and suggested accordingly at the end the design is checked and proved
safe. Finally we would like to suggest that extending this project in detail and further
analysis can be made in software to know the most venerable parts of the design

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REFERENCE

1,textbook of machine design r.s. khurmi and j.k. GUPTA chapter 24

2,hh://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission

3,www.howacarworks.com/basics/how-manual-gearboxes-work

4, Book of Gear design By William Alfred Tuplin.

5, Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org)

6, shegliy Machin design book 9th edition

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FRONT VIWE OF OUR DESIGN PROJECT

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