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S. K. El-Samahy, E. A. Abd El-Hady, R. A. Habiba, and T. E. Moussa* Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University 41522, Ismailia, Egypt *Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com ABSTRACT Orange-yellow cactus-pear fruits from Egypt, called shameia variety, were collected at the same ripening stage from different regions to evaluate selected chemical properties and to study the rheological behavior of their pulps. The results obtained showed that there were differences between the pulp characteristics, which may be due to environmental effects. The fruits showed pulp ratios between 41.53% to 49.63%. All pulps had low acidity and high pH values ranging between 0.049% to 0.057% and 6.00 to 6.20, respectively. The rheological data obtained indicated that the flow behavior of all pulps was nonNewtonian besides exerting pseudoplastic behavior. Thixotropy values were 4.13 to 19.30 Pa s-1; yield stress reached 2.26 N m-2 at 20ºC. Key words: Cactus pear, Opuntia, pulp properties, Egypt INTRODUCTION Opuntia represents the largest and the most impressive member of the Cactaceae family. The genus Opuntia originates from Mexico and includes approximately 300 to 400 species and great number of varieties (Anaya-Perez, 2001; Benson, 1982; Odoux and Dominguez-Lopez, 1996; Stintzing and Carle, 2005). Prickly pear or cactus pear (Opuntia spp) is the most cultivated edible cactus crop in the world and is widely distributed in Mexico and the South American continent. It is also grown in many other regions of the world such as Africa, Australia, and the Mediterranean basin (Inglese et al., 2002; Mizrahi et al., 1997; Nobel, 1995; Piga, 2004). On the other hand, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller is the most commonly known cactus that is grown for fruits, vegetable forage, and fodder (Pimienta-Barrios and Munoz-Urias, 1995; Rodriguez-Felix, 2002; Russell and Felker, 1987). Cactus-pear plants have two edible parts. First, there is the fleshy stem also known as cladode, cactus pad, cactus stem, nopalito (young pad), vegetable cactus, or cactus leaf (Rodriguez-Felix, 2002). Second, the fruits are highly appealing and nutritious. Cactus-pear fruits are fleshy berries varying in shape, size, and color, and consisting of a thick peel hosting a delicately flavored juicy edible pulp with many hard seeds. The attractive color of both pericarp and pulp varies from a soft green, greenish-white, canary-yellow, orange-yellow, lemon- yellow, red, cherry-red to purple hues (Gurrieri et al., 2000; Munoz De Chavez et al., 1995; Saenz and Sepulveda, 2001). These attractive colors are due to the betalains comprising the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow-orange betaxanthins (Fernandez-Lopez and Almela, 2001; Odoux and Dominguez-Lopez, 1996; Saenz, 2002; Stintzing et al., 1999b, 2002). In contrast to anthocyanins, these colorants maintain their appearance over a wide pH range from 4 to 7, which makes them ideal pigments for coloring especially
Received 9 November 2006 39
J. PACD – 2006
. 2001). in addition to pectin and mucilaginous components (complex plysaccharides. protein. 2003. 2001). Piga. 2003.1). and magnesium. but on other hand. PACD – 2006 . 2004..52 hectares in 2004 with a corresponding production increase from 10233 to 29610 Tons (MALR. 1992. Recent data indicate that cactus-pear pulp has multiple functional properties and could be a good natural source of nutraceuticals (Saenz. Saenz and Sepulveda. Gurrieri et al. Stintzing et al. (Abdel-Nabey. 1983. 2000. 2000).. 1989. 1994. jellies. Sepulveda et al. Saenz-Hernandez. The producing area increased from about 617. calcium. 2000. Sugar. 1997. 2004). Saenz et al. Askar and EL-Samahy. dietary fibers. Thixotropic materials can be defined as those that exhibit decreasing shear stress and apparent viscosity over time at a fixed rate of shear. Barbera. low acidity (0. 2000. Saenz et al. Barbera et al. prickly pears have been grown for many years. 1997.. Krifa et al. Montefiori. 1999.18% as citric acid equivalents) and total soluble solids content ranging from 10. nectars. and El-Samahy et al. rhamnose. 1990. Sawaya et al.. 2002. Sepulveda and Saenz. Sepulveda and Saenz. dominated by proline and taurine is a special feature of cactus fruits (Stintzing et al. natural sweeteners. Gurrieri et al. Knowledge of the rheological properties of fruit pulps is essential for the design of food processing equipment as well as for application of such products in foods (El-samahy et al. beside being pseudoplastic in behavior with the presence of thixotropy. 2000).low-acid foods such as dairy products (Forni et al. Saenz-Hernandez. the production of prickly-pear fruits increased as a result of an increase in producing area. 1995. 1987. Stintzing et al.. candies... phenolics.. Saenz. Saenz. reversible. 1992. Barbagallo et al. 1981. wines and other alcoholic beverages. mainly due to reducing sugars (Abdel-Nabey. Russell and Felker. 2004). 1995.. 1996).. except cow milk. 2001). (2006b) who showed that the flow behavior of cactuspear pulp is non-Newtonian. 1995. The fruit pulp exhibits a high pH value (5. a conditional essential nonproteinogenic amino acid widely distributed in many animal food sources. 1995. 1999. Saenz and Sepulveda.82 hectares in 1994 to 1115. Hoffmann.7° to 17°Brix. 2002 and Stintzing et al. 2000. 40 J. 1999a). such as vitamin C. this action may be irreversible. The pulp is a good source of vitamin C. especially in arid areas. 1994. cactus-pear pulp is rich in taurine. 2001.01% to 0. but their high total amino acid contents. mainly composed of arabinose. very suitable to be added to low-acid foods such as ice cream and other dairy products. and ash contents are similar to those of other fruits (Cantwell. marmalades. Parcell. dehydrated sheets.3 to 7.. and taurine (Kuti. 1995 and Stintzing et al. the rheological properties of cactus-pear pulp are virtually unknown except in data presented by Saenz (2000) who indicated that the viscosity of green and purple cactus-pear pulps amounted to 73. 1999a.. and galacturonic acid) that influence the pleasant flavor of pulp and could serve as thickning agents and form viscous colloids (Piga. respectively. In Egypt. 1992. Saenz et al. 2000. or partially reversible (Steffe. but virtually absent in higher plants. Saenz and Sepulveda. 1998. 2004. Kuti. 2001.. 2004b).. Moreover. SaenzHernandez. et al 2001). Prickly pear fruits usually eaten fresh after peeling could be processed into many different products such as juices. 1992. 2001.. Notably. Kindler. etc.. 2004a. 2003. Piga et al.. 1990). Piga et al. These characteristics make the pulp a very good medium for microbial spoilage (Saenz. 2000. In recent years. jams. The Opuntia plants are grown not only for fruit production but also as defensive hedges or for erosion control in reclaimed areas. especially fruits (AACE. Parish and Felker. 1995. betalains. Stintzing.. canned and frozen fruit. galactose. 1998). 2003.9 and 110.2 mPa s. 2001.
The orchards were located in three different regions: Al Sharqiyah. and blended for 5 seconds in a blender (Moulinex. Figures 1 through 5 show examples of the cladode form.. were collected from three different specialized orchards at the same ripening stage (half ripening) at the end of July. and then the full pulps were sieved to separate only the seeds. The Brookfield small sample adapter and Sc4-14 spindle were used. and Al Isma'iliyah region (30º. USA). 23. 83% and 30%). Tokyo.8º. τ = Kγn . 1995). The resultant pulp samples contained all their components and were tested freshly for all analyses.MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Material Prickly-Pear Fruit Samples Representative fruits of orange-yellow prickly-pear cactus fruits. a* and b*) were evaluated using a Minolta Color Reader CR-10 (Minolta Co. respectively. fruits. Rheology Rheological properties of all pulps were determined at different temperatures within the range of 5 to 90ºC by a Brookfield Digital Rheometer model DV-III+ (Brookfield. Ltd. Japan). 91% and 40%).1º.. called shameia variety. Al Qalyubiyah region (33. The three fields are irrigated by flood from the same water source. and Al Isma'iliyah regions) have a sandy soil.6º. France) just to facilitate the separation of the seeds. IPC paste and Power Law mathematical models to provide a numerical and graphical analysis of the behavior of data sets (Hegedusic et al. manually peeled. These models are: τ = τo + ηγ . type 241.8º. The rainy season extends from December to February for all regions. For each orchard three samples (80 fruits for every sample) were selected randomly from 240 representative fruits. respectively (according to data of the Agricultural Researches Center. The data were analyzed by using the Bingham plastic. and plantations. Environmental Conditions of the Orchard Regions The most effective difference between the orchards regions is the nature of the soil. Al Qalyubiyah.8º. 21. 22. Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Whereas the orchard of Al Sharqiyah region has a loamy soil. The averages of maximum and minimum temperatures and maximum and minimum relative humidity values of air during July are at Al Sharqiyah region (33. Middleboro. the other orchards (Al Qalyubiyah. shear stress at zero shear rate (N m-2) η = plastic viscosity (mPa s) for Bingham and 10 rpm viscosity (mPa s) for IPC paste 41 J. code 222. a grand water canal branched from the Nile River. Egypt). Assessment of Chemical Quality Parameters Chemical analyses were carried out according to AOAC (1990). 79% and 41%). All selected fruits were washed. PACD – 2006 . η = KRn . Color attributes (L*. and Al Isma'iliyah. Where: τ = shear stress (N m-2) τo = yield stress. Climatic Conditions of the Regions The annual average precipitation is about 40 mm for the Al Sharqiyah and Al Isma'iliyah regions and is about 20 mm for the Al Qalyubiyah region.
1995.. which related to non-Newtonian behavior in addition to the presence of thixotropy. this area is given in Pa s-1. such as guava pulp... was used to perform all possible pair comparisons between means of different treatments. Saenz and Sepulveda. the fertility of the soil. Parish and Felker. Askar and EL-Samahy. The values obtained agreed with those obtained by others (Abdel-Nabey. 1995. Saenz-Hernandez. 1983. a low acidity. 1992. Stintzing et al. Statistical Analysis The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to test the possibility of significance of treatment effect. Sawaya et al. LSD. i. consequently. and vitamin C (Table 2). Sepulveda and Saenz. Fruits of the Al Sharqiyah region were significantly higher in fruit weight and pulp content but lower in peels and seeds percentages. 2004. 2005). 1995. and low acidity of all investigated pulps present a great challenge to processing of cactus-pear pulps.. More wariness is required during processing because these characteristics make the pulp a very good medium for spoilage due to microbial activity. Rheological Properties of Cactus-Pear Pulps Table 3 shows that the relationship between shear stress (τ) and shear rate for all cactus-pear pulps were nonlinear. hysteresis was quantified using a planimeter according to Lozano and Ibarz (1994). ash. However. Egyptian cactus-pear pulps were characterized by a high pH. Parish and Felker. Cantwell. Chemical Composition Of Cactus-Pear Pulps In concordance with data obtained by others (Abdel-Nabey. according to spindle type and rotational speeds. high pH values. 1981. Cantwell. 1983. the high soluble solids. Barbera et al. The data 42 J. The differences may be due to the nature and. The orchard of Al Sharqiyah region has a loamy soil while the other regions have a sandy soil. 1999). the shear rate (up curve) and also registering the same parameter using the reverse direction (down curve). 1997. These unique characteristics in addition to its attractive color make the cactus-pear pulps sweeter and very suitable to be a good natural food or natural-food additive with many categories of foodstuffs. 2004. pectin. Sawaya et al. peels. Calculation of thixotropy was based on measuring. The chemical composition of cactus-pear pulps appeared to be similar to some other fruit pulps. 1997. Piga.e. 2001. the area between the ascending and descending curves. Karababa. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General Composition Of Cactus-Pear Fruits Table 1 shows that the fruits of the three regions varied significantly in fruit weight and in each of the pulps. proteins. 1999. but could be higher than some other fruit pulps. PACD – 2006 . 2001.γ = shear rate (s-1) K = consistency multiplier (mPa s) for IPC paste and K = consistency index (mPa s) for Power Law R = rotational speed (rpm) n = shear sensitivity factor for IPC paste and flow index for Power Law. and good contents of sugars. crude fibers. as described by Ott (1984). and seeds percentages. in sugar content..
2000). The flow-behavior index (n) values ranged from 0. 1979). (2006b). and the subsequent recovery of viscosity when shearing is removed (Mewis. The results showed that the pulp extracted from Al Isma'iliyah fruits had higher k. especially in the relation between the manufacturing process and product acceptance. These results agree with those obtained by Crandall et al. Thixotropy values of the pulp extracted from Al Sharqiyah fruits were higher than those from Al Qalyubiyah and Al Isma'iliyah fruits.35 to 0. we suggest that the changes we observed in flow behaviour may also be attributable to changes in the colloid state of the pulp components (especially pectins) that are. nutritive components. while the flow index and plastic-viscosity values decreased. η.38 at 20ºC for the pulp of the three regions’ fruits. and Juszczak and Fortuna (2003). and bivalent cations such as Ca2+. in turn. and 10-rpm viscosity values than those for pulp extracted from Al Sharqiyah and Al Qalyubiyah fruits at the same temperature (20ºC).. and attractive stable colors. and is used to describe a reversible isothermal gel-sol-gel transformation (Kramer and Twigg. sugars. At higher than 50ºC. Based on its low acidity.26 N m-2. Moreover. Goycoolea and Cardenas (2003) reported that pectins of cactus pear do not form gels and only increase the viscosity of the solutions. and antioxidants such as vitamin C. respectively. Because the thixotropy term refers to the time-dependent decrease in viscosity. 2006b). Van Buren (1991) reported that the differences in pectin fractions must be taken into account because polymer interactions play the major role in flow behavior of the fruit products. El-Samahy et al. and correlate with food composition and organoleptical properties.87 and 4. 1998). (1982). J. and total soluble solids (El-Samahy et al. PACD – 2006 43 . cactus-pear pulp is a thixotropic material. Cactus-pear pulp is a non-Newtonian liquid that has pseudoplastic behavior with the presence of thixotropy and yield stress.13 Pa s-1 were registered for Al Qalyubiyah and Al Isma'iliyah pulps. 1984. Steffe. decreased with increasing temperature for the pulp extracted from different fruits up to 50ºC. whereas 19. 1996). acidity. In addition to the influence of temperature and dissolved solids on viscosity of juices (Bayindirli. especially nonsoluble materials. due to shearing. except flow-behavior index and plastic viscosity. strawberry pulp (Bahlol. values of all studied parameters. Ibraz and Pagan (1987). The pulp extracted from Al Sharqiyah fruits had the highest value of yield stress 2. 1992). at 20ºC.30 Pa s-1 was found for Al Sharqiyah fruit pulp and 12. and peach and papaya purees (Guerrero and Alzamora. cactus-pear pulp could be very suitable as a natural additive or substituted material in the production of many foodstuffs.obtained showed that cactus-pear pulp is a pseudoplastic liquid with yield stress like many other fruit pulps and purees such as mango pulp (Bhattacharya. all values of studied parameters increased. CONCLUSION This investigation shows the potential value of cactus-pear fruits as a good natural source of energy. There is a need to do more research on the rheological properties of cactus-pear fruits. These differences may be attributed to the specific chemical composition of the fruit pulps Table 2. influenced by acidity. high sweetness. The rheological properties are important factors. 1999). especially in the areas in the world that have rapidly increasing production of Opuntia ficus-indica fruits.
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PACD – 2006 49 . Overview of Cactus-Pear Plant Figure 5.Figure 1. Orange-yellow cactus-pear fruits Figure 3. Overview of Cactus-Pear Field J. Internal Longitudinal Section of Fruit Figure 4. Cactus-Pear Cladode Figure 2.
80a .73a 88.40b 3.82b 86.61a 2.51a 22.28b 45.02a 85.3b 0.Means having the same letter within each property are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.53a 30.05b 0.Means having the same letter within each property are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.057a 11.63a 39.76a 189.054a 11.Table 1.44a 23.23b 11.50b 23.1b TSS: Total Soluble Solids.40b 2.80b 88.59b 2.18b 27.90a 86.1c 88.44b 2.05 50 J.6a 0. Some Technological and Chemical Properties of Cactus-Pear Pulps Property pH value Acidity (%) TSS (°Brix) Vitamin C (mg 100 g-1) Formol number (mg 100 g-1) Color attributes L* a* b* Moisture (%) TS (%) Total Sugars (%) * Reducing sugars (%) * AIS (%)* Protein (%)* Pectin (%)* Fiber (%)* Ash (%)* Sugar/acidity ratio Al Sharqiyah 6.32a 11.00 b Al Isma'iliyah 6.60a 1.43c 7.b 75.68b 85.Means of triplicates .25b 23.Means of triplicates .37a 12.01a 2.39b 246.86b 4.70b 9.10a 2.20 a Plantation Region Al Qalyubiyah 6.50b 6.50b 21.63a 175.50a 21.19c 41. AIS: Alcohol Insoluble Solids.27b 13.39c 1.50c 30.67b 2.24a 7. * Calculated on dry-weight basis .30a 7.49b 73.53a 13.53b 44.60b 1.10b 4.14c Al Qalyubiyah 120.05 Table 2.50a.59a 6.049b 13.18a 11.50a 49. TS: Total Solids. PACD – 2006 .57b 42.35b Al Isma'iliyah 110. General Composition of Cactus-Pear Fruits Property Fruit weight (g) Pulp (%) Peels (%) Seeds (%) Al Sharqiyah 133.60c 10.81a 1.
6 2.32 50 79.69 19.90 36.30 64.67 35.65 13.9 0.6 0.76 50 56.00 403.98 392.0 2.68 90 344.00 210.4 2.60 195.98 36.3 2.80 34.21 30 136.50 252.20 11. J.6 2.39 46.38 40.3 0.57 18.1 0.5 0.94 344.5 0.01 60 65.55 325.9 0.25 219.42 51.1 2.8 0.50 511.64 19.5 2.58 352.2 0.9 0.99 39.9 0.33 35.1 0.55 229.67 6.65 19.4 157.80 26.59 17.17 174.05 4.9 0.7 0.87 148.8 1.6 0.3 1.9 0.28 20 137.4 0.8 0.20 11.6 1.5 0.3 0.19 35.0 1.1 0.63 60 134.68 18.81 70 90.63 19.34 60 113. τ◦ = Yield stress (N m-2).13 Al Isma'iliyah 40 76.7 0.33 131.11 188.3 3.50 36.2 0.62 12.6 2.3 0.39 20 84.1 0.08 Al Sharqiyah 40 90.1 0. ºC Parameters for Different Rheological Models Power law k n Bingham τo IPC Paste 10 rpm N1 viscosity 315.0 1.45 475.05 8.6 0.3 0.50 216.6 0. n = Flow index (dimensionless).7 2.4 4.58 10.65 13.20 80 352.95 28.31 45.35 35.2 0. Rheological Properties of Cactus-Pear Pulps Plantation Region Temp.67 16.8 0.60 27.26 80 115.3 0.36 34.9 0.05 210.45 3.8 1.13 70 246.37 68.4 0.31 44.68 η = Plastic viscosity (mPa s).40 10 87.43 10 175.26 30 134.0 0.13 70 78.37 56. N1 = Shear sensitivity (dimensionless) Thixotropy Pa s-1 η 5 147.50 279.9 0.6 1.64 4.36 69.32 51.18 368.43 34.5 0.0 0.4 0.27 10 146. (mPa s).34 246.55 20 142.2 0.39 50 96.Table 3.1 1.40 30 52.00 325.8 0.35 55.8 0.4 0.33 52.8 0.31 203.8 1.3 0.44 31.9 1.02 3.30 291.9 0.13 334.5 0.1 0.45 206.33 73.4 1.2 0. PACD – 2006 51 .85 5 92.10 19.4 0.4 0.8 0.68 90 206.50 11.6 0.7 0. 10 rpm viscosity.35 39.56 8.97 Al Qalyubiyah 40 39.49 80 115.63 2.44 51.8 1.18 5 174.0 1.61 20.0 0.6 0.41 36.38 K = Consistency index (mPa sn).5 0.1 0.1 0.81 35.8 1.01 0.8 0.69 18.3 0.70 9.40 54.38 303.56 12.10 90 482.32 2.23 195.6 0.
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