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APPLICATION OF

SURVEYING IN
CONSTRUCTION
Application of Surveying in Construction Report Writing

Acknowledgements
I’m would like to thank all those who have contributed during the development of the report.
First, I want to mention all people participated in the speedup progress of the report. Thank
my lecturer Mrs. Vipula Abeyratne for giving this valuable opportunity to write a report on
“Applications of Surveying in Construction” under the module of Project Study (L1105).
I’m also thank for College of Quantity Surveying for giving this opportunity to complete the
report within our lecture module.

I want to acknowledge every person who contributed towards the finding of facts related to
the topic. I would like to thank every person who coordinate construction industry
professionals with our team to obtain the industrial facts related to the topic.

I take this opportunity to thank to my organizations for given freedom to gather information
about Surveying.

Finally, I’m offer my heartiest gratitude to my parents, my friends and everybody who supported
us for the success.

Thank You,

K.K.A.M. Jayawardhana

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ i

List of Figures ................................................................................................................. ivii

Abstract ................................................................................................................................ vv

1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1

2. What Is the Surveying ....................................................................................................... 2

2.1. Geodetic Syrveying .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.2. Cadastral Surveying.................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.3. Engineering Surveying ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.4. Aerial Surveying ......................................................................................................... 5

2.5. Mining Surveying ....................................................................................................... 6

3. Old Surveying Techniquies ............................................................................................... 6

3.1. B.C Surveying Tools .................................................................................................. 6

3.2. Astrononers contribute ............................................................................ …………..7

3.3. Invention of The 18th Century .................................................................................... 7

3.4. Surveying Blosson of The 19th Century ..................................................................... 7

4. Modern Surveying Techniques (GAMA & GIS) .............................................................. 8

5. New Technoligies In Surveying ........................................................................................ 9

5.1. Total Station ............................................................................................................... 9

5.2. 3D Laser Scanners .................................................................................................. 10

5.3. Satellite Positioning System ................................................................................... 10

5.4. GIS Software ........................................................................................................... 10

5.5. Deep Tows .............................................................................................................. 10

5.6. Drones Or UAV ...................................................................................................... 11

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Application of Surveying in Construction Report Writing

6. Surveying Software ......................................................................................................... 11

7. Geo-InfomatError! Bookmark not defined.c ............................................................... 12

8. Possible Use Of Surveing……………………………………………………………….13

9. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………14

10. References……………………………………………………………………………..15

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List of Figures
Figure 1- Cadastral surveying map ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 2- Topographic or Detail Surveys ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3- Aerial Surveying .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 4- Ancient Surveying Equipment ............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 5- Total Station......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 6- 3D Laser scaning ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

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Abstract

Proper planning for physical development requires maps, prepared by surveyors, showing
the locations of existing features, infrastructures and nature of the terrain. The study defined
surveying and a surveyor. The purpose is to show convincingly that surveying is very
important in National development.

Previous works were reviewed. The reviewed works showed many applications of surveying
in Infrastructural Development. The methodology examined the contributions and necessity
of surveying in National Infrastructural Development. It exposed various applications of
surveying, and various methods of surveying used. Modern surveying techniques and
measuring equipment available and in use were discussed.

It was made clear that Highway Planning, Buildings should be preceded by a massive
gathering of geo-referenced data. The necessary materials are aerial photographs, Satellite
images, Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment, Electronic Distance Measuring
(EDM) equipment, Total Station, etc. Ways that Remote Sensing help to make highway and
Building construction easier were discussed. The findings indicate that applications of
modern surveying techniques are very necessary in physical planning and infrastructural
development. The techniques make planning and implementation easy, straight forward and
more accurate

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1. Introduction

Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or
near the surface of the earth. It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances
between objects, of measuring angles between lines, of determining the direction of lines,
and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements.

Along with the actual survey measurements are the mathematical calculations. Distances,
angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are thus determined from the
data of the survey. Survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles,
cross sections, and diagrams. This report would provide brief idea on Lean Construction
concepts, development of Lean Construction and the application of lean concepts in the
construction industry.

Land surveying is basically an art and science of mapping and measuring land. The entire
scope of profession is wide, it actually boils down to calculate where the land boundaries are
situated. This is very important as without this service, there would not have been railroads,
skyscrapers could not have been erected and neither any individual could have put fences
around their yards for not intruding others land.

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2. What Is the Surveying


Reviewing is the system of deciding the three dimensional places of focuses, including the
separations and edges between these focuses that are typically situated on the surface of the
earth. It normally used to find and measure property lines to construct sewers, pipelines,
expressways, buildings, bridges and channels. And furthermore find stations for propelling
and following satellites and topographic data for mapping and charting. There are six distinct
kinds of looking over that a surveyor can choose from in order to undertake a particular job,
specifically

 Geodetic surveying
 Cadastral surveying
 Engineering surveying
 Aerial surveying
 Mining surveying
 Hydrographic surveying

In the construction industry before beginning the new real task they need to complete most
appropriate looking over techniques to decide area of site and it’s encompassing it named
cadastral map to showing property boundaries. From that guide can comprehend topography
of site and natural resource availability.

2.1. • Geodetic surveying


GEODETIC SURVEYING is a procedure of looking over fit as a fiddle and size of the earth
are considered. This kind of overview is suited for large zones and long queues and is utilized
to discover the precise area of fundamental focuses required for establishing control for
different reviews. In geodetic surveys, the stations are regularly long distances apart, and
more exact instruments and surveying methods are required for this sort of surveying than
for plane surveying (Engineering Aid 3, 2018)

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2.2. Cadastral surveying


The name Cadaster is a Latin base term which refers to a registry of lands. Cadastral
Surveying is surveying of land so as to determine and define land ownership and boundaries.
Most people do not take seriously the issue of surveying their properties before they develop
or erect a fence/wall until they have found ‐ out that they have spent so much money on
those developments etc. on someone else’s property or land.

2.2.1 Survey methods


There are no prescribed methods that are used in cadastral survey, each survey is different
from the other and it all depends on the area and information that land surveyors have. The
only requirement is that all cadastral survey must be adequately and carefully checked. The
control must be based on the National Control Network.

2.2.2 Beacons and Boundaries


A property beacon is a natural or artificial feature which marks the boundary corner of a
piece of land/property. A boundary is an imaginary line between the beacons.

Figure 01: Cadastral surveying map

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2.3. Engineering Surveying

This type of survey is associated with the engineering design (topographic, layout and as
built) often requiring geodetic computations beyond normal civil engineering practice. It is
required in planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. The equipment
commonly used for this are theodolites, GNSS (GPS) and levelling instruments:

2.3.1 Topographic or Detail Surveys


The purpose of topographic is to gather survey data about the natural and manmade featurs
of the lands as well as its elevations. Maps are then prepared from this informations.

Figure 02: Topographic or Detail Surveys

2.3.1 Setting Out


This is done to construct a structure accurately according to a design. The most common
procedure is to establish a grid in relation to the design. Then, particular points are
correctly staked out physically on site either on exact position or at a particular offset as
agreed amongst parties involved

2.3.2 Areas and Volumes


On an engineering site the measurement of areas is more often only a step in the
determination of volumes although occasions do arise when areas are only required for
example;

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Design and Costing: ‐ For capacity of the wall, volume of material within given limits, or
volume required to fill an empty space. All of these are determined by doing a survey and
certain calculations

2.4. Aerial Surveying


Aerial survey is a method of collecting information conducted from an airborne platform.
This is collected by using aerial photography, LiDAR or laser scanning. It is often
recognized similarly as aero photogrammetry, part of photogrammetry where the camera is
mounted on an aircraft. Aerial survey is different to satellite imagery because of its better
resolution, quality and atmospheric conditions

Figure 03: Aerial Surveying

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2.5. Mining Surveying


Mining survey is a specialist area of surveying involving the measurement, representation
and management of data associated with mining operations which could be the underground
and open cut mine workings. These measurements enable new mine works to avoid older
and possibly flooded ones, allow connections to be made between different underground
passages and also to establish the boundaries of mining claims and territories

3. OLD SURVEING TECHNIQUES


An antiquated calling, reviewing has advanced alongside human progress to the degree that
the world as we probably am aware it would not be the same without it. In spite of the fact
that surveyors started with crude instruments, for example, rope to make arrive judgments,
present day arrive experts advantage from a wide cluster of innovation to help with
characterizing property lines, from diopters to 3D scanners. As new instruments rise,
surveyors have possessed the capacity to shape the calling, expanding exactness, learning of
land development, and enthusiasm for arrive callings

3.1. B.C Surveying Tools


Egyptians in 1400 B.C. were the first surveyors documenting their techniques. On the list of
Egyptian surveying tools were sighting and levelling instruments, ropes, and plumb bobs.
To collect taxes and keep a record of land ownership, ancient Egyptians ensured precision
by constructing calculated methods of surveying. A solid truth still recognized today,
recording appropriate land boundaries is critical to protecting land and wealth.

Nearly a thousand years later, magnets were used in China to determine direction, a
predecessor to modern compasses. The diopter soon became the instrument of choice for
surveyors after the development of geometry. Allowing professionals of the era the freedom
of mobility, diopters accurately calculated the division of land while offering a convenient
alternative to ropes, chains, and sighting instruments. Though not extremely complex, this
instrument paved the way for surveyors to explore while practicing their craft.

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3.2. Astronomers Contribute to surveying


By implementing simple navigation tools, Arab surveyors in the 10th century perfected the
art of celestial guidance and, eventually, affected the future of surveying as a profession.
Starting with the use of a Kamal, a specially designed measuring tool, and Arab explorers
refined the practice of surveying to include the use of modern instruments. The astrolabe and
quadrant influenced the surveying discipline, as they provided new insights into the
profession. Half a millennium later, the groma, an instrument used to create 45 or 90 degree
alignments, was developed and widely used by surveyors

3.3. Invention of the 18th Century


Over the next 900 years, surveyors experimented with a device called the cross-staff, which
works in the same manner as its predecessor, the Kamal. As the production of quadrants
became refined, sextants, pendants, and octants were developed to enhance accuracy and
ease of use. Because the quadrant, sextant, and other models were easier to carry and operate,
surveyors began to replace older methods with these inventions. Prior to the turn of the
century, the theodolite was developed and systematically altered surveying, as it played an
integral role in triangulation

3.4. Surveying Blossom of the 19th Century


For topographical surveying, 19th century inventors designed the alidade, which was for
many years considered the most efficient method of surveying. The alidade simplifies the
process of mapping topography and is used in conjunction with a plane table. The transit,
designed by William Young, was introduced in the 1830s, resulting in increased accuracy
and ease of land surveying. Placed on a tripod, the transit was welcome relief for land
professionals of the time who had grown tired of outdated survey instruments. At the same
time, Australians created Gunter’s chain and the steel measuring band to perfect surveying
techniques

Figure 04: Ancient Surveying Equipment

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4. MODERN SURVEYING TECHNIQUES (GAMA & GIS)


The greatest change in assessment practice over the past three decades has involved the use
of computers and mathematical formulas to establish a relationship between property
characteristics and sale prices, thereby permitting an estimate of the market value of other
properties not subject to a recent sale. This approach is known as computer-assisted mass
appraisal (CAMA). Site characteristics such as size and location are important elements of
these mathematical models, raising the possibility of estimating the effect of location on
parcel value.

At the same time, the development of computerized geographic information systems (GIS)
has permitted assessors to develop location based property records or cadasters, and to
coordinate sales data with location. More sophisticated and less expensive GIS technology
now offers the potential for full integration with CAMA for spatial analysis. Initial attempts
to quantify location effects faced difficulties not only in defining and maintaining “economic
neighbourhoods” or zones, contiguous areas of relatively homogeneous land values, but also
in understanding the dynamics of the interactive, elusive locational factor. Some efforts
developed different mathematical models for each geographic region or “cluster” of
properties with similar characteristics. However, these approaches could not capture the
many complex, interrelated and significant micro-variations within any given neighborhood,
and could not reduce the determination of location value to an objective process.

Lucas County pioneered a new approach to location value-the use of GIS tools to develop a
response surface that represents the effect of location on land value. The response surface is
a fitted three-dimensional surface that represents a percentage adjustment to land and/or land
and improvements based on a parcel’s geocoded location. Included in the analysis are
geographic coordinates and distances from important features, such as other recent sales,
institutions, amenities or other “value influence centers.” This analysis results in a three-
dimensional representation, with the height of the surface at any specific x-y coordinate
indicating the approximated location value of that parcel. This variable is then evaluated
with others, such as land and building size, quality, condition and depreciation, to produce a
total estimated value for the parcel.

In the Lucas County example, the response surface differs from a mathematical equation in
that it is developed through a spatial analysis process available in GIS to estimate the effects
of location on value and refine those estimates after comparing them with sales and appraisal
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data. This approach still relies on an element of appraisal and economic judgment in
determining neighborhood boundaries for location effects, but it can be tested and refined
by observing the effect of different neighborhood “breaklines” on the resulting three-
dimensional value surface.

To be used successfully in mass appraisal, these sophisticated approaches must yield results
that are reasonable, understandable and available to typical taxpayers. Lucas County has
pioneered this aspect of the assessment process, as well. All real estate records, values and
maps are available on a CD with GIS viewing software, priced at its production cost of $10,
and online free at all public libraries in the county. Taxpayers can view property records or
create customized maps showing the location of multiple parcels and the relationships
among their taxable values.

5. NEW TECHNOLIGIES IN SURVEYING


Surveyors have been around for centuries. While their tools and techniques have changed
over time the underlying principles of measurement and mapping are still the same today.

The advancement of new technology means Surveyors can now take measurements and
report data with increased speed and accuracy. Modern Surveyors get to use the latest
technology to get their job done every day.

5.1. Total Stations


Surveyors use equipment like total stations, worth upwards of $50K each, to electronically
calculate distances 100’s of meters away, to centimeter accuracy. Robotic versions are also
available, allowing Surveyors to single-handedly operate a total station by remote control.

Figure 05: Total Station


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5.2. 3D laser scanners


These are used to understand and interpret the shape of things such as buildings or land by
collecting clouds of points to create digital 3-D models. These instruments are used by
surveyors to provide data to architects to accurately visualize the land they are going to build
or design on.

Figure 06: 3D Laser scaning

5.3. Satellite positioning systems

Allow the measurement of features or points anywhere in the world, from space. The data
collected by these systems can be used to control large infrastructure projects or provide the
information for In-car navigation systems.

5.4. GIS software


This is used to capture and analyse data to create digital maps of areas. The high-tech
software is used to create programs such as google maps, used by over 100 million people a
month.

5.5. Deep tows


These are deep ocean floor survey systems (often a AUV – autonomous underwater
vehicle) that can be outfitted with sonar or cameras and towed through the water at low
speeds at the end of a cable normally measuring several thousand meters in length.
Read here how they were used in the search for flight MH 370.

With the rapid progression of technology, one thing is certain; Surveyors will be at the
forefront of the latest technology. Who knows what cool gadgets Surveyors will be using
next?

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5.6. Drones or UAVs

‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicle’ come in many different models and sizes dependent on their
application. You may be familiar with its military applications, but drones are starting to be
used for commercial and even recreational purposes. They’re much cheaper and more nimble
than a helicopter or other conventional aircrafts but with the exact same advantages of aerial
photography and mapping. Taswater has recently deployed a drone as part of a $15m dam
project, read about it here.

6. SURVEYING SOFTWEAR
6.1. The MapScenes® System, developed by MicroSurvey, is the premiere software
solution for law enforcement professionals doing crime and accident reconstruction and
animation.

6.2. MicroSurvey sells the industry's most powerful, rugged and reliable data collectors.
When battery life and functionality are paramount, we choose only the best data collectors
available. Choose from the Nautiz X8 or Nautiz 10X by Handheld, or Juniper
Systems' Archer or Mesa. We also carry the T800 tablet by Getac, running a cool Windows
8. And, of course, our very own DC5 which flaunts a value second to none.

6.3. MicroSurvey embeddedCAD™, combines all the surveying functionality of


MicroSurvey CAD wrapped with the Autodesk®engine. Powered by Autodesk
Technology™, embeddedCAD is a stand-alone powerhouse for those that prefer an
AutoCAD environment.

6.4. MicroSurvey FieldGenius®, is the most powerful graphics based surveying data
collection software available. FieldGenius allows you to do more in less time by taking
advantage of the higher power processors, high definition displays, and larger memory in
modern Windows Mobile powered data collectors and Windows 7 powered tablets.

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6.5. MicroSurvey STAR*NET 8, is the most widely used and respected Least Squares
Adjustment package. Available in 4 different versions and with numerous data converters,
it is the easiest Least Squares with the most understandable results.

6.6. MicroSurvey sells the industry's most powerful, rugged and reliable data collectors.
When battery life and functionality are paramount, we choose only the best data collectors
available. Choose from the Nautiz X8 or Nautiz 10X by Handheld, or Juniper
Systems' Archer or Mesa. We also carry the T800 tablet by Getac, running a cool Windows
8. And, of course, our very own DC5 which flaunts a value second to none.

7. GEO-INFORMATIC
Geoinformatics has been described as "the science and technology dealing with the structure
and character of spatial information, its capture, its classification and qualification, its
storage, processing, portrayal and dissemination, including the infrastructure necessary to
secure optimal use of this information or "the art, science or technology dealing with the
acquisition, storage, processing production, presentation and dissemination of geoformation.

Geomatics is a similarly used term which encompasses geoinformatics, but geomatics


focuses more so on surveying. Geoinformatics has at its core the technologies supporting the
processes of acquiring, analyzing and visualizing spatial data. Both geomatics and
geoinformatics include and rely heavily upon the theory and practical implications of
geodesy.

Geography and earth science increasingly rely on digital spatial data acquired from remotely
sensed images analyzed by Geographical Information System (GIS) and visualized on paper
or the computer screen.

Geoinformatics combines geospatial analysis and modeling, development of geospatial


databases, information systems design, human-computer interaction and both wired and
wireless networking technologies. Geoinformatics uses geocomputation and
geovisualization for analyzing geoinformation.

Many fields benefit from geoinformatics, including urban planning and land use
management, in-car navigation systems, virtual globes, public health, local and national
gazetteer management, environmental modeling and analysis, military, transport network

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Application of Surveying in Construction Report Writing

planning and management, agriculture, meteorology and climate change, oceanography and
coupled ocean and atmosphere modelling, business location planning, architecture and
archeological reconstruction, telecommunications, criminology and crime simulation,
aviation, biodiversity conservation and maritime transport.

8. POSSIBLE USE OF SURVEYING TECHNIQUES IN QUANTITY SURVYING


As a quantity surveyors we are the get responsible for quantities whether it pre tender period
or post tender periods in the pre tender period most quantities get from the drawings to
prepared the BOQ for tender purposes but when it comes to the construction stage we must
have get accurate quantities from site as above I identified engineering survey methods now
a days most usable methods in the construction sites to calculate areas volume and setting
out etc.

From this surveyors methods we can do easily our calculation of the areas, volumes and
other measurements very accurately for the example when we have backfilling to the makeup
level if it is not leveled area before filling the soil of that area we should get levels of several
points getting that levels we can calculate volume of back filling area this is one of have to
calculate quantities

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9. CONCLUSION
The main aim of this assignment is to improve my knowledge about Application of
Surveying Techniques in Construction. In here I did and also I got Wide knowledge about
Important of the Surveying, Methodologies of The Surveying, Key concept of Surveying,
Application of Modern Surveying Techniques attached to QS job, Uses of Modern
Surveying equipment, Concept of Geoinformatic, Software tools in Modern Surveying
attached to QS job and Modern Surveying benefits.

Assignment making are one way to repeat what I had learned. I want to collect data to do
the report. I try to find data from internet, journals, articles, newspapers and reading books.
So also we can get knowledge and can improve our knowledge from that.

I think working on this assignment is most valuable to myself to do my future work as a


quantity surveyor and also to do my work as an employee in construction industry.

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10. References
Dasanayake. S., Murayama. Y. (2010). Fundamental of surveying. Journal of construction
surveying, 6(2), 88-98.

Discountpdh. (2017, 04 25). Retrieved from discountpdh web site:


https://www.discountpdh.com/course/basic_concepts_of_surveying.pdf

Engineering aid 3.,(2018/06/02). Retrieved from www.thub.com website:


http://engineeringtraining.tpub.com/14069/css/Geodetic-Surveying-356.htm

Giswin.geo. (2017, 04 23). Retrieved from giswin.geo web site:


http://giswin.geo.tsukuba.ac.jp/sis/tutorial/fundamentals_of_surveying

Lewis, M. J. T. (2001-04-23). Surveying Instruments of Greece and Rome. Cambridge


University Press. ISBN 9780521792974. Retrieved 30 August 2012

Mnembe, L.,Ndaba, N.,Seedath, Y., Thusi,S. & Zaca,M .(June2012). Different Methods of
Surveying. Survey and Land information Department, 5(3), 108-120.

Morton, R. A., Leach, M. P., Paine, J. G., & Cardoza, M. A. (1993). Monitoring beach
changes using GPS surveying techniques. Journal of Coastal Research, 702-720.

Resop, J. P., & Hession, W. C. (2010). Terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring streambank
retreat: Comparison with traditional surveying techniques. Journal of Hydraulic
Engineering, 136(10), 794-798

Sturman, Brian; Wright, Alan. "The History of the Tellurometer" (PDF). International
Federation of Surveyors. Retrieved 20 July 2014

Summers inman. (2017, 04 21). Retrieved from summers inman web site:
http://www.summers-inman.co.uk/digital-surveying/

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