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Running head: MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING COMPETENCIES IN


PHILIPPINES AND OF THE TOP COUNTRIES IN TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL
MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE STUDIES 2015

A Research Proposal
Presented to the Graduate School of
Negros Oriental State University

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Course
Methodology of Research in
Master of Science in Mathematics

LEE MARIE M. MARFIEL


EUNILYN T. PORIO
JENALYN Y. MANLANGIT

Negros Oriental State University


September 2017
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE .......................................................................................................................1

APPROVAL SHEET ...........................................................................................................

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………….....

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .....................................................................................................

ABSTRACT ..........................................................................................................................

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ...................................................................................

CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND..........................................20-30

Background of the Study ................................................................................................20

Statement of the Problem ...............................................................................................26

Significance of the Study ...............................................................................................

Scope and Limitations of the Study ...............................................................................

Operational Definition of Terms ....................................................................................

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................................

Review of Related Literature and Studies .......................................................................

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework.................................................................................

Theoretical/Conceptual Diagram .....................................................................................

CHAPTER 3: METHOD AND PROCEDURES ..............................................................

Research Design...............................................................................................................

Methodology ....................................................................................................................

Research Respondents .....................................................................................................

Research Instrument.........................................................................................................
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 4

Statistical Treatment of the Data......................................................................................

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Results of the Study .........................................................................................................

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............

Restatement of the Problem .............................................................................................

Summary of Findings .......................................................................................................

Conclusions ......................................................................................................................

Recommendations ............................................................................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................

APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................

Appendix A – Letter of Approval ....................................................................................

Appendix B – Research Instrument/Questionnaire..........................................................

Curriculum Vitae .............................................................................................................


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 5

Chapter 1

The Problem and its Background

Introduction

The Philippines was the last country in Asia having a 10-year basic education and pre-

university program (SEAMEO & INNOTECH, 2012). Worldwide, the Philippines were joined

by Djibouti and Angola of Africa having the shortest pre-university education system with other

countries having 13 or 14-year cycles (Senate of the Philippines, 2011). This has always been

seen as a disadvantage for the students who are competing in an increasingly global job

market. Therefore, the longer educational cycle of the K-12 curriculum was implemented with

the main objective which to provide Filipino students a higher quality of education making them

more prepared to enter the labor force. The 12 years or more is in accordance with international

practice as stipulated in the Washington Accord, Bologna Process as well as in the ASEAN and

APEC Mutual Recognition Projects and much more. The much-needed overhaul of the

Philippine basic education system becomes a reality through Republic Act 10533, also known as

the Enhanced Basic Education Act which was passed last May 2013 making the preuniversity

and basic education from 10 to 13 years (Congress of the Philippines, 2011). The enhanced basic

education program encompasses at least one (1) year of kindergarten, six (6) years of elementary,

and six (6) years in secondary education; the secondary education has four (4) years of junior

high school and two (2) years of senior high school education.

Best educational systems are often identified based on the performance of students in the

international standardized examinations. In the world, East Asian countries like Singapore,

Hongkong SAR, Korea, Chinese Taipei and Japan ranks top in the 2015 International

Mathematics Achievement for Grade 4 and Grade 8 (TIMSS & PIRLS 1, 2015).
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 6

But Philippines is still ranks 65th in the world. A Science and Education Institute study

on Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2003 showed that Philippines’ 8th

grade (2nd year high school) students’ skills and competencies in Math ranked a pitiful 42nd out

of 46 participating countries while the Philippine 4th grade students placed 23rd out of 25

participating countries. The 2004 executive report on Philippine TIMSS showed that in four

years since the Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat (TIMSS-R) in 1999,

only seven regions showed improvements in Math competencies among the 8th grade students.

Results of the student achievement test indicate very poor performance in each content domain at

this early education stage. The problem seems to be double-edged, with the students’ lack of

interest to the lack of professionals who can teach Math and Science. Those who teach Math and

Science in public schools are not Math and Science majors, but Education majors that may lack

expertise in the subjects.(Carballo,2009)

The pitiful plight of education in the country is a reflection of how we do as a country in

general. Education, being one of the basic rights of a child, should be given to him in its fullest

and in its most complete form.

The country, being a signatory to the Millenium Development Goal, which states that “by

2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary

schooling,” has the responsibility to give each Filipino child the kind of education he deserves.

Education is ubiquitous in a developed society. In our aim to become an economic power, we

envision the Philippines to be solving the problems of Reodica which is the first step in

achieving such dream.


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 7

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to assess and compare Philippine K-12 Mathematics Curriculum

with the Mathematics Curricula of top countries in TIMSS 2015

Specifically, it seeks to answers the following questions:

1. What are the standards of the Mathematics, and Mathematics Revised Basic

Education Curriculum offered to Philippines school pupils in Grades 4 to 8 relative to

the equivalent Mathematics standards used in the following:

1.1 TIMSS 2003;

1.2 K-12 Mathematics Curriculum in Philipines; and

1.3 Curriculum in Singapore?

2. What are the standards of the Mathematics, and K to 12 Mathematics Curriculum

offered to Philippines school pupils in Grades 4 to 8 relative to the equivalent

curriculum in Singapore?

2.1 TIMSS 2016;

Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following:

Curriculum Developers and Policy Makers

This study will be of greater help for further development and possible revision of

the Philippine K-12 Mathematics Curriculum.


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 8

DepEd (PHILIPPINES)

This will help to review and improve educational practice in the department.

Further, this research will also provide suggestions for strengthening the research-to-

practice channel.

Teachers and Education Practitioners

Practitioners have to comply with policies, and teachers are accountable for what

learners learn. This research gives teachers the tools to analyze and make informed

decisions about their practice. This will guide them on what competencies or learning

standards to give much importance in classroom instruction.

Researchers

Researchers will be inclined to do their best in order to contribute to the

enhancement and revisionof the Philippine Mathematics curriculum.

Future Researchers

This study will serve as future reference in enhancing their research regarding

Philippine Mathematics curriculum.

B. Scope and Limitations

Scope of the Study

The research aims to identify the most significant differences and similarities

between the Mathematics Philippine revised curriculum (RBEC) and the Mathematics K-
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 9

12 Curriculum with Singapores. Without claiming a direct causal link between the nature

of the intended curriculum and student outcomes, the research uses student performance

as a limited indicator of the efficiency and effectiveness of the education systems of

various countries. The crucial issue of classroom practices and the quality and nature of

the schooling system in general is not taken into account in the research. However, we do

provide some context below regarding the countries involved in the study and their

schooling systems. The duration of this study is intended only for seven months –

September to March 2018.

Limitations of the study

There are few factors that are beyond the control of the researchers such as: lack

of available and/or reliable data on the curriculum of other countries, conflicting business

schedules and lack of resources.

C. Definition of Terms

TIMSS – Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study.

CURRICULUM –refers to the lessons and academic content in Mathematics taught in a

school or in a specific course or program. It also refers to the knowledge and skills

students are expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning

objectives they are expected to meet; the units and lessons that teachers teach; the
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 10

assignments and projects given to students; the books, materials, videos, presentations,

and readings used in a course; and the tests, assessments, and other methods used to

evaluate student learning.

CONTENT – are the specific subject areas such as Algebra, Trigonometry, Calculus and

etc.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES– specific learning objectives that are expected to meet

by the learners.

D. Conceptual Framework
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 11

Comparison of Mathematics Revised


Basic Curriculum (RBEC) and
Mathematics K12 Curriculum in terms
of:
• Content Areas
• Learning Competencies

Comparison of Mathematics K12


Curriculum and Mathematics
Curriculum of Singaporein terms of:
• Content Areas
• Learning Competencies

Comparison of Mathematics K12


Curriculum and TIMSS in terms of:
• Content Areas
• Learning Competencies

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the study


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 12

E. Review of Related Literature and Studies

Singapore has a superior education system. It has earned the title of being the best

education system in the world because of its success in international academic competitions in

science and mathematics. Currently, Singapore ranks first in the world while Philippines ranks

65th (Carballo,2009). It is the Department of Education which oversees the basic education in the

Philippines while it’s the Ministry of Education for Singapore. As compared to the Philippines

15% budget allocation, Singapore allots 17% of the national budget to its education spending. In

terms of educational structure Singapore has a very different but very effective system. In the

Philippines graduates of the primary education undergo the national achievement test, the result

of which is but used to see whether the student has learned the needed competencies. In

Singapore, graduates of primary level have to sit for the Primary School Leaving Examination

(PSLE) the result of which is used to determine which type of secondary school the student will

have to pursue his education. The result will tell whether the student will be accommodated in

the Integrated program which leads directly to University, or the Secondary express course, the

Secondary normal academic course, secondary normal technical, or in the technical and

vocational courses. There are two levels of qualification for admission in the University, the

GCE “O” level which is taken at around age of 17 or 18, and the GCE “A” level which is taken

after taking Junior Colleges or Polytechnics. This system is not present in the Philippine

education or in any other educational system in the world. The teacher-student ratio in Singapore

is 1:22, another reason why the country has an excellent education structure. In the Philippines,

the typical ratio is 1:50, the worst scenario is 1:55 or even 1:60. Teachers in Singapore are hired

and employed based on meritocracy. This entails hiring the teacher based on her capability and

intellect. The same process is being followed here in the Philippines. The Philippine
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 13

education system’s priority programs are multi-grade program, alternative delivery modes,

Conditional Cash transfer, GASTPE and Child Protection Policy, Mother Tongue

Education. Singapore on the other hand focuses on meritocracy, bilingualism, compulsory

education act, focus on Science, English, and Mathematics, “Teach Less, Learn More”, ICT

Integration, and Internationalization of Education. The “Teach Less, Learn More” program is

utilizing technology in the teaching-learning scenario (Del Mundo, n.d.).

If the Philippines has AACUP, PAASCU, and PACUCUA as accrediting agencies,

Singapore has Standards, Productivity, and Innovation Board (SPRING), Higher Education

Division, Council for Private Education, Singapore Quality Class for Private Education

Organization, and Singapore Pre-School Accreditation Framework. It’s worthy to note that

Singapore is the only Asian country which has an accreditation framework for pre-school. On

critical issues and concerns the “superior” Singapore is not an exception to have them. If the

Philippines has concerns on Education budget, Mismatch, fly-by-night education, monolithic

education the Singaporean education has issues like Over-focus on examination and grades,

social inclusion, disregard on special education, parentocracy, and according to critics

the primary school leaving examination is too early. Unlike the Philippines which have already

established a system for the education of the children with special needs, Singapore has only

started focusing their concern on the issue. Nevertheless, there is no objection that Singapore has

the best educational system in the world. It has the best practices that make them number one

like the Compulsory education act, gifted education program, primary school leaving

examination, special, express, and normal secondary schools, two years of pre-college education

, and GCE “O” and “A” levels exam as qualifications for admission in universities (Ramos, n.d.).
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 14

Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the

medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-

government). The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary

level (nursery and kindergarten) offered in most private schools; six years of primary

education, followed by four years of secondary education. College education usually

takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as

eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Metro Manila has a

high literacy rate of 96 percent with student population of 2,351,944. Classes in

Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the

semestral calendar from June-October and November-March.

Basic education in the Philippines intended to meet basic learning needs, lays the

foundation on which subsequent learning can be based and encompasses early

childhood, elementary, high school.

BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FOR ELEMENTARY (6 years)

Grade 1 – Grade 6 Subject Area

1). English

2). Science

3). Filipino

4). Edukasyong Pangtahanan at Pangkabuhayan (Home Economics and Livelihood)

5). Mathematics

- Mathemetics I - Mathematics III

- Mathematics II - Mathematics IV
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 3

- Mathemetics V - Mathematics VI

6). Makabayan (PE, Health, Music and Social Studies)

7).Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (Character and Values Education)

- PELC - Kapayapaan (Peace)

- PELC - Paggalang (Respect)

- PELC - Pagmamahal 1 (Love)

- PELC - Pagmamahal (Disiplina) (Love and Discipline)

- PELC - Pagmamalasakit sa Kapwa (Caring for Others)

- PELC - Pananampalataya (Faith)

- PELC - Pinagkukunang Yaman (Pagtitipid) (Frugality)

- PELC - Katotohanan (Honesty)

- PELC - Pangkabuhayan (Love of Labor)

- PELC - Kalusugan (Value for Health)

- PELC - Saloobin (Self Reflection and Principles)

BASIC SECONDARY EDUCATION, BSE (4 years) First year to Fourth year • Stage of

free formal education following the elementary level below college level corresponding

to four (4) years of high school • Can be attained through alternative learning system

(Florido,
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 3

In the case of Philippines, Filipinos have a deep point of view of education, in which it is

treated as the main street of further social and economic mobility. This was materialized

from the Americans due to their colonial rule, where the ideal of democratic society in

which individuals could get ahead through good educational attainment (Country Studies,

n.d.).

Implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum

The Department of Education is implementing this school opening the 2002

Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). It is the product of 16 years of study conducted

under the various DepEd secretaries (Lourdes Quisumbing, Isidro Cariño, and Bro.

Andrew Gonzalez). Starting 1995, intensive consultations were held with various

stakeholders – the schools, parents, students, business, trade and industry, NGOs and the

people in the Education Department who administer the education system on ground

level. Almost immediately the consultations started on March 2001. The DepEd people

consulted included experts, public and private school teachers, the 16 regional directors,

145 superintendents, at least 20,000 principals, and representative teachers of the

different subject areas in different and year levels. The Philippine Commission on

Educational Reforms (PCER), created on Dec. 7, 1998 through Executive Order No. 46,

recommended the adoption of the restructured BEC and its implementation starting 2002.

The BEC focuses on the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, science and patriotism.

Values is integral to all the subject areas. Students can then be ready for lifelong learning.

It seeks to cure the inability of students who cannot read with comprehension at grade 3

and worse, at grade 6. The BEC decongests the overcrowded curriculum. Integrative and

interactive teaching-learning approaches are stressed. These are characterized by group


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 4

learning and sharing of knowledge and experiences between teachers, between teachers

and students and among students. For instance, under the old curriculum, English

teachers prepared lesson plans for English and values teachers prepared for values

education. Under the BEC, the English and Values Education teachers work together on

their lesson plans. High school math shifts from the spiral system which introduced all

math subjects in every level to the linear, sequential approach where only Elementary

Algebra is taught in 1st year, Intermediate Algebra in the 2nd year and Geometry in

3rd year.

TIMSS 2003 is the third in a continuing cycle of international mathematics and science

assessments conducted every four years. TIMSS assesses achievement in countries

around the world and collects a rich array of information about the educational contexts

for learning mathematics and science, with TIMSS 2003 involving more than 50

participants. At both the eighth and fourth grades, Singapore was the top-performing

country having significantly higher average achievement in mathematics than the rest of

the participating countries. At the eighth grade, several countries showed significantly

higher average achievement in 2003 compared to the previous assessments in 1995 and

1999. Korea, Hong Kong SAR, Latvia (LSS), Lithuania, and the United States, as well as

the benchmarking Canadian province of Ontario, showed pattern of improvement from

assessment to assessment with significant change over 8-year period from 1995 to 2003.

Of the countries participating only in the 1999 and 2003 assessments, Israel and the

Philippines showed significant improvement. The girls had significantly higher average

achievement than the boys in Serbia, Macedonia, Armenia, Maldovia, Singapore Cyprus,
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 5

Jordan, Bahrain, and the Philippines. Mathematics achievement was also positively

related to computer usage particularly at the eighth grade, with average achievement

highest among students reporting using computers at home but not school, followed by

students using computers at school but not home, and then those using computers at other

places or not using them at all. Mathematics teachers reported considerable teaching

experiences. At both the eighth and fourth grade, on average, students were taught by

teachers with 16 years of experience (Mullis, 2004).

Transcript of Basic Education Curriculum- Subject Areas, Units and MG

Basic Education Curriculum- Subject Areas, Units and MG

Medium of Instruction:

Pursuant to the DepEd Bilingual Policy (Dep.Ed Order No. 52, s,1987), the media of

instruction shall be as follows:

K-12 CURRICULUM

The Structure of the 2002 BEC

The Education Act of 1982 or Batas Pambansa Blg. 232

The Curriculum Structure of the 2002 BEC

The CORE SUBJECTS: Filipino; English; Math; Science (Science and Health for Elem.);

Science and Technology for Secondary

For Elementary Education:

Filipino shall be used in the following areas: Filipino; Makabayan

English shall be used in the following learning areas: English; Science; Mathematics
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 6

For Secondary Education:

English: Mathematics, Science and Technology, English, Technology and Livelihood

Education, Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health/CAT

Filipino: Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (Values Education), Araling Panlipunan, Filipino

The Experiential Area:

Makabayan: Araling Panlipunan; MAPEH (Music, Arts, PE and health); TLE;

Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (the practice environment for holistic learning to develop a

healthy personal and national self-identity”.

Mother-Tongue-Based

Multi-Lingual Education (MTB-MLE)

The other 12 local languages used in MTB-MLE are Tagalog, Kapampangan,

Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan,

Maranao and Chabacano. The MTB-MLE is implemented in two modules: 1) as a

learning/subject area and 2) as medium of instruction.

The additional languages are Ybanag for pupils in Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, and
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 7

Isabela; Ivatan for the Batanes Group; Sambal in Zambales; Aklanon in Aklan, Capiz;

Kinaray-a in Capiz, Aklan; Yakan in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao and

Surigaonon covering Surigao City and provinces.

Several countries were found to have mandatory or recommended time allocations

for mathematics, science and literacy. For mathematics around 3 hours per week

was the most common time al. Furthuer,location, but Singapore gave more time to

mathematics, rising to 5.5 hours by the end of the primary years. Science allocations

were lower than for mathematics, substantially so in some countries. Literacy

allocations tended to be higher than those for mathematics, but this was sometimes

because pupils were not being taught in their native languages. Interestingly, no

consistency was found in whether the time allocated to subjects increased with time,

stayed the same or decreased (Ruddock, G. & Sainsburry, M.,2008).

Budy Sugandi and Ali Delice (2014) conducted a study on Comparison of

Turkish and Indonesian Secondary Mathematics curricula wherein they focus only on the

paradigm embedded. Methodologically, their study uses comparative with qualitative

approaches. The main data collection tools are the curricula and mathematics textbooks

of both countries and was analyze by coding and presented by descriptive statistic

Also on one early work by Graham Ruddock and Sainsburry, M. (2008), six

curricula were compared with England’s Key Stage 2 mathematics curriculum,those of

Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Singapore, the Netherlands, Ontario andLatvia. The

comparisons have revealed a range of similarities and differences.At the most general
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 8

level the Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Singapore and Ontariomathematics curricula can,

like England, be described as being objective driven,specifying detailed objectives for

students but with little ethos projected. TheNetherlands, on the other hand, can be

described as ethos driven, without detailedobjectives. Latvia falls somewhere between

these two approaches. The Netherlandsalso differs in being much shorter, with all

subjects presented in one document.

In another work of Zarina Bibi Ibrahim and Khairil Iskandar Othman (2010), they

compared the Malaysian Secondary Mathematics (MSM) curriculum publish in 2013

with the Singapore Secondary Mathematics (SSM) implemented in 2007. Their aimed to

examined the math content and level at which the content is introduced between the two

countries. The results from their study indicated that there is a need for Malaysian

Mathematics curriculum to be revised in order to enable students to have literacy in

Mathematics and ability to apply mathematics into other disciplines at higher level.

Meanwhile, the present researcher will use documentary analysis with the aim of

examining the math content and learning competencies of the Philippines, Singapore,

Korea and Hong Kong but not the level at which the content is introduced.
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 9

Chapter II

Research Methodology

A. Research Design

The paper is all based on secondary information using the literature review protocol.

The literature review stated planning a review protocol, then searching for potentially

relevant literature and snowballing (backward and forward) to exhaust all available literature,

selecting the relevant articles, analyzing and synthesizing then writing this manuscript

(Myllarniemi, 2015). The paper uses official publication of each government, specifically the

agencies that have authority over the delivery of the basic education, such as their respective

Department of Education, its affiliates or their partner institutions. International organizations

conducting researches on education were also considered as sources of data. On the other

hand, the paper has also used literature published in other agencies including news articles to

enrich discussions about the issues regarding the subject under assessment.

B. Data Gathering Procedures

The researcher will gather all the Mathematics curricula of the Philippines,

Singapore, and the learning areas focused by TIMSS. Then they will analyze and

determine the similarities and differences of Philippine Mathematics curriculum to the

Mathematics curricula Singapore and in TIMSS in terms of content and learning

competencies using separate tables for each.


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 10

CHAPTER IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation Of Data

PHILIPPINES RBEC PHILIPPINES K12 Singapore curriculum


CURRICULUM CURRICULUM

KINDERGARTEN
Kindergarten is mandatory and
compulsory for five-year-old
learners with public schools
offering it for free. The
Kindergarten is the first stage of
the basic education and is
delivered using mother tongue
(SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2012).

ELEMENTARY
Elementary level is completed
within six (6) years. The first 3
grade is conducted using mother
tongue and succeeding levels are
bilingual using English and
Filipino as medium of
instruction. (SEAMEO
INNOTECH, 2012)
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (JHS)
Grades 7 to 10 (four years) are
the first part of the secondary
education. Grades 7 and 8
students are exposed to core
learning areas and TLE
exploratory courses are
introduced. On the other hand,
Grades 9 and 10 will be based on
the preferred learning areas of
the student. (DepEd)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL (SHS)
The career pathway
specialization started in JHS
continues in the SHS. Grades 11
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 11

and 12 is the second part of the


secondary education in the
Philippines. In addition to the
core competencies, students
takes electives under three
groups, academic, tech-voc and
entrepreneurship. It is envisioned
that the end-of-Grade 12
examination is the exit
examination for the secondary
level and at the same time an
entrance examination for
college. (SEAMEO
INNOTECH, 2012)

STAT Philippines Singapore


94.5
93.6
Adult literacy rate > Total Ranked 41st. 1% more than
Ranked 43th.
Philippines
8.2
Average years of schooling of 7
Ranked 28th. 17%
adults Ranked 39th.
more than Singapore
3
Child care (preschool) 1
Ranked 25th. 3 times
>Duration Ranked 200th.
more than Philippines
38.04%
College and university > Share 11.96%
Ranked 1st. 3 times
of total education spending Ranked 91st.
more than Philippines
6
Compulsary education 6
Ranked 176th. The same as
duration Ranked 157th.
Singapore
3.23%
Government spending on 2.65%
Ranked 13th. 22% more than
education >Proportion of GDP Ranked 108th.
Philippines
97.51
91.49
High school enrolment rate Ranked 43th. 7% more than
Ranked 59th.
Singapore
95.8%
89.7%
Literacy > Female Ranked 52nd. 7% more than
Ranked 75th.
Singapore
95.9%
93.2%
Literacy > Total population Ranked 56th. 3% more than
Ranked 68th.
Singapore
Primary education, duration 6 6
> Years Ranked 105th. The same as Ranked 26th.
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 12

Singapore
4.74
Primary education, teachers 3.39
Ranked 67th. 40%
per 1000 Ranked 107th.
more than Singapore
31.44
17.44
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary Ranked 38th. 80%
Ranked 81st.
more than Singapore
34.81
14.91
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary Ranked 6th. 2 times
Ranked 47th.
more than Singapore
3.83 per 1,000 people
Secondary education 2.06 per 1,000 people
Ranked 66th. 86% more than
(Teachers > Per capita) Ranked 108th.
Philippines
4
Secondary education, duration 4
Ranked 197th. The same as
(years) Ranked 196th.
Singapore
Table 1 showa the compared educational statistics of Philippines and Singapore.

Mathematics Concepts and Skills

Primary Mathematics Grades 1–6 Lower Secondary Mathematics Grades 7–8

Numbers and Algebra

 Whole numbers, fractions, and decimals,  Negative numbers, integers, rational numbers,
and the four arithmetic operations (addition, and real numbers, and the four arithmetic
subtraction, multiplication, and division) operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication,
 Calculation with calculators and division)
 Factors and multiples  Calculation with calculators
 Ordering of numbers  Prime numbers, highest common factor, and
 Approximation and estimation lowest common multiple
 Percentage  Ordering of numbers
 Ratio  Use of symbols including <, >, ≤, ≥
 Speed  Approximation and estimation
 Algebraic expressions in one variable  Percentage
 Ratio, and direct and inverse proportion
 Map scales
 Rate and speed
 Algebraic expressions and formulas
 Algebraic manipulation (linear and quadratic)
 Functions and graphs (linear and quadratic)
 Linear equations with one unknown
 Simultaneous linear equations with two
unknowns
 Quadratic equations
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 13

 Linear inequalities with one unknown

Geometry and Measurement


 Measurement of length, mass, volume, time, Properties and construction of simple geometric
and angle figures
 
Area and perimeter of triangles, squares, and Angles associated with parallel lines
rectangles, area and circumference of  Angles of polygons
circles, and volume of cubes and cuboids  Congruence and similarity
 Properties of simple geometric figures  Area of plane figures, volume and surface area of
 Nets of simple solids three-dimensional solids
 Line symmetry  The Pythagorean Theorem
 Ideas of tessellation  Trigonometric ratios of acute angles in a right-
angled triangle

Statistics and Probability


 Picture graphs, bar graphs, tables, line  Data analysis (including interpretation and
graphs, and pie charts (including analysis of various statistical representations)
interpretation and use of information to  Probability
solve problems)
 Average

Table 1 shows that that the Singapore express learning strand is consistent from

The curriculum structure of the Two study countries:

Singapore

The Singapore primary school system is organized in key stages: Primary 2, Primary 4,

and Primary 6. The Singaporean curriculum is organized around subject syllabi, each one a self-

contained entity. The content, concepts, and skills specific to that subject area are used as the

basis for organization. Content is specified per level in detail. Aims for the subjects curriculum

for that particular subject. These vary across subjects, as does the presentation of content. In

Social Studies themes are used as an organizing principle, in Health Education objectives are

used, in Mathematics topics and in English Language required learning is specified in terms of

learning outcomes (language skills, strategies, and attitudes), text types, and grammar focus. The
MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 14

single document per subject is concise, comprehensive, and clear. The following subjects make

up the primary school curriculum in Singapore:

• English

• Mother tongue

• Mathematics

• Science (included from Primary 3)

• Arts and Craft

• Music

• Social Studies

• Civics and Moral Education

• Health Education

• Physical education.

The Singapore MoE develops the curriculum and at the end of primary education, pupils sit

the Primary School Leaving Examination.

Since the 1980’s Singapore secondary pupils have been doing the Syllabus D. The

Ministry of Education issues the syllabus for the Lower Secondary levels.

•This syllabus covers topics in Arithmetic, Mensuration, Algebra, Graphs, Geometry,

Statistics and Trigonometry.


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 15

•For each topic, the syllabus describes the instructional objectives, lists the main concepts

and learning outcomes. These topics are a subset of the syllabus for the “Ordinary” level

UCLES mathematics examination.

Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Restatement of the Problem

This study aimed to assess and compare Philippine K-12 Mathematics Curriculum

with the Mathematics Curricula of top countries in TIMSS 2015

Specifically, it seeks to answers the following questions:

3. What are the standards of the Mathematics, and Mathematics Revised Basic

Education Curriculum offered to Philippines school pupils in Grades 4 to 8 relative to

the equivalent Mathematics standards used in the following:

3.1 TIMSS 2003;

3.2 K-12 Mathematics Curriculum in Philipines; and

3.3 Curriculum in Singapore?

4. What are the standards of the Mathematics, and K to 12 Mathematics Curriculum

offered to Philippines school pupils in Grades 4 to 8 relative to the equivalent

curriculum in Singapore?

4.1 TIMSS 2016; Philippines and Singapore;

4.2 Philippines and Hong Kong;

4.3 Philippines and Korea?


MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND TIMSS 16

1. What are the percentage distributions of the content areas used by TIMSS in

evaluating?

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