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SIZE REDUCTION

Compiled by: Engr. Albert D.C. Evangelista

Size Reduction, also known as communition, is applied to all ways in which particles of solids are cut or

broken into smaller pieces. The purpose of size reduction is two-fold: (1) To produce solids with desired size

ranges or specific surfaces and (2) To break apart minerals or crystals of chemical compounds which are

intimately associated in the solid state.

Commonly Used Breaking Mechanisms;

1. Compression or Crushing – generally used for reduction of hard solids to coarse sizes.

2. Impact – gives coarse, medium or fine sizes

3. Attrition or Rubbing – yields fine products

4. Cutting – used to give definite sizes

1. Crusher

2. Grinder

Design: large capacity at minimum power

Crushing Operation:

1. Free Crushing – In free crushing, the crushed product with whatever fines have been formed is quickly

removed after a relatively short sojourn in the crushing zone. The product may flow out from gravity, be

blown out with compressed air, be washed out with water, or be thrown out by centrifugal force. This

method of operation prevents the formation of an excessive amout of fines by limiting the number of

contacts.

2. Choke Feeding – In choke feeding, the crusher is equipped with a feed hopper and kept filled (or choked) so

that it does not freely discharge the crushed product.

1. Open Circuit – No material is returned for recrushing

Feed Reject

Crusher

Product

2. Closed Circuit Operation – The oversize material is returned to the crusher. Closed circuit operation is

economical of crushing power, which at least is high, permits smaller units per given tonnage, and produces

a material with greater uniformity of sizes.

Reject

Feed

Crusher

Product

Mohs Scale of Hardness

Although the size of the feed is as important factor in the selection of a machine, other factors must be

considered, such as hardness or structure of the material. The hardness of a mineral, as measured by the Mohs

scale, is a criterion of its resistance to crushing Arranged in increasing order or hardness, the Mohs scale is as

follows:

Soft Materials:

1. Talc, dried filter-press cakes, soapstone, waxes, aggregated salt crystals

2. Gypsum, rock salt, crystalline salts in general, soft coal.

3. Calcite, marble, soft limestone, barites, chalk, brimstone

Intermediate Hardness:

4. Fluorite, soft phosphate, magnesite, limestone

5. Apatite, hard phosphate, hard limestone, chromite, bauxite

6. Feldspar, ilmenite, orthoclase, hornblendes

Hard Materials:

7. Quartz, granite

8. Topaz

9. Corundum, Sapphire, Emery

10. Diamond

Energy Laws

There are empirical laws to estimate the amount of energy needed for size reduction: (1) Von Rittinger’s Law,

(2) Kick’s Law, (3) Bond’s Law

General Equation:

− C dx

𝑑E =

Xn

X = particle size or diameter

C & n = constants depending upon type and size of material and type of machine

1. Rittinger’s Law

Rittinger’s Law states that the work in crushing is proportional to the new surface created. This lead to the

value of n = 2 since area is proportional to the length squared.

dx

dE = −C X2

1 1

𝐸 = −𝐶 [𝑋 − 𝑋 ]

1 2

Let:

E = P/m where P = Total power required; m = Total mass of feed

KR = C = Rittinger’s Law Constant

D𝐹 = X1 = Diameter of the feed

Dp = X2 = Mean Diameter of the product

Therefore:

P 1 1

= KR [ − ]

m Dp DF

2. Kick’s Law

Kick’s Law states that the energy required to reduce a material in size was directly proportional to the size

reduction ratio. This implies n = 1. The size reduction ratio is the ratio of the average diameter of the feed to

the average diameter of the product.

dx

dE = −C X

X

E = −C ln X2

1

Let:

E = P/m where P = Total power required; m = Total mass of feed

𝐾𝐾 = C = Kick’s Law Constant

D𝐹 = X1 = Diameter (mean) of the feed

Dp = X2 = Mean Diameter of the product

Therefore:

P DF

= K K ln

m D𝑃

3. Bond’s Law

Bond’s Law states that the work required using a large-size feed is proportional to the square root of the

surface/volume ratio of the product. This corresponds to n = 1.5.

dx

dE = −C X1.5

1 1

𝐸 = −2𝐶 [ 0.5 − ]

0.5𝑋1 0.5𝑋2 0.5

Let:

E = P/m where P = Total power required; m = Total mass of feed

𝐾𝐵 = 2C = Bonds’s Law Constant

D𝐹 = X1 = Diameter (mean) of the feed

Dp = X2 = Mean Diameter of the product

Therefore:

P 1 1

= KB [ − ]

m √Dp √DF

To use the above equation, Bond proposed a work index Wi as the work in kW-h/ ton required to reduce a

unit weight from a very large size to 80% passing a 100 - µm screen. The work E is the grass work required

to reduce a unit weight of feed with 80% passing a diameter DF µm to a product with 80% passing Dp µm.

Bond’s final equation in terms of more familiar units is

P 1 1

= 1.46Wi [ − ]

m √Dp √DF

Or

P 1 1

= 0.3162Wi [ − ]

m √Dp √DF

where: P = kW; m = tons/hr; DF = mm; Dp = mm; Wi = kW-hr/ton. Typical values of Wi for various

types of materials are given in ChE HB

Shape Factors

Shape factor is the ratio of particle property to the property of a sphere having a diameter equal to the measured

particle dimension.

particle volume

ψv =

volume of the sphere of the same diameter

CDp 3 6𝐶

ψv =π 3 ; ψv =

D

6 p 𝜋

where:

Dp = particle diameter

C = Constant Depending on the shape of the particle by which 𝐷𝑝 3 is multiplied to obtain the

𝜋

volume; for spheres, 1 for cubes, etc.

6

ψ= surface area of the particle

𝐴𝑂 𝜋𝐷𝑂 2

ψ= =

𝐴𝑃 𝐴𝑝

where:

𝐴𝑂 , 𝐴𝑃 = surface area of the equivalent sphere and of particle respectively

𝐷𝑂 = diameter of the equivalent sphere

ɳ=

surface of the sphere of the same diameter

ɳ= 6

ρDP

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