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DOH INFOGRAPHIC: HIV AND AIDS One can get HIV through these FOUR body fluids

1. Semen


‣ from unprotected or condomless sex
3 Modes of Transmission
2. Vaginal Fluid

4 Body Fluids
‣ from unprotected or condomless sex
4 Principles of HIV Transmission
3. Blood

5 Prevention
‣ sharing of used needles during injection of
Take the HIV Test if: 4. Breast Milk

✓ You have had sexual unprotected or condomless ‣ during breastfeeding

sex with
‣ IMPORTANT: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6
a) man or woman
b) a partner who is having sexual intercourse with How one can get HIV
1. Blood and Blood Products
✓ You have had signs or symptoms of STI

✓ Used a needle or syringe used by other people

• Screen all blood and blood products: HIV
screening, screening for other blood borne
How can HIV be prevented: ABCDE infections like Syphilis, Malaria, and Hepatitis B/
• A: Abstinence C

• B: Be Faithful to your partner • Don’t share contaminated needles and syringes

• C: Correct and Consistent use of Condoms ➡ DON’T use drugs. If you use drugs,

• D: Don’t use Drugs ➡ DON’T inject. If you inject,

• E: Education
➡ DON’T share used needles and syringes


HIV CANNOT be transmitted through: ‣ protective measures for health care

• Talking
workers to avoid contact with body fluids
• Kissing/ Embracing
of clients who may or may not have an
• Sharing of Utensils

• Swimming in Swimming Pools

‣ always wear protective gloves, mask,
• Sharing of Toilet Seats
goggles, and lab gowns when handling
body fluids

Four principles for successful transmission of HIV ‣ proper waste disposal of all body fluids
and sharps

• E - EXIT

‣ HIV must exit the body of an infected person 2. Sexual Transmission

• When having sexual intercourse, make sure that
‣ there must be specific conditions for HIV to there is no exchange of body fluids such as
survive blood, vaginal and seminal fluid.

• Loss of control happens under the influence of
drugs and alcohol

‣ there must be sufficient amount of HIV for

infection 3. Mother to Child Transmission
a) During Pregnancy

‣ HIV must enter the blood stream for infection

‣ Unborn babies may get HIV through
maternal blood or cervical secretions.

Unsuccessful HIV transmission will happen if any of ‣ Encourage women to continue antenatal
these conditions is missing

A.M. Basa
b) During Labor and Delivery
HIV is an STI
‣ HIV can be transmitted during abruption • STIs, commonly called STDs are infections passed
placenta, haemorrhage and pre-term from person to person through sexual intercourse.

• STI is a part of a broader group of infections known
‣ Encourage all deliveries in health care as reproductive tract infections (RTIs)

• Some types of STIs:

c) Encourage Exclusive Breastfeeding

- Gonorrhea

‣ Breastmilk may transmit HIV to the baby.

- Syphilis

‣ Exclusive breastfeeding;
- Chlamydia

- lower risk of transmission than those - Trichomoniasis

who also consume other liquids, milk - Herpes

or solid food in the first months of life - Hepatitis B/C

due to early immune stimulation, - Human Papillomavirus

gastrointestinal disturbances that - HIV

provides an entry point for HIV

• Signs and symptoms vary

d) Pregnant mothers are encouraged to take the HIV • Some infections may show signs and symptoms
in the reproductive organs, such as pain while
urinating, yellowish or abnormal discharge, pain
‣ HIV infected pregnant women and mothers during sexual intercourse, severe itchiness,
need regular consultation with their health abdominal pain and ulcerations.

care provider to reduce the risk of HIV • Some infections can cause systemic symptoms
transmission to the unborn baby and that cause problems in other parts of the body
(e.g. bones, brain).

‣ Consider the benefits of breastfeeding • Some have no symptoms

depending on the availability of other - have STI that won’t appear for months

options for the mother and child.

- disappears during the phase of active

HIV VS AIDS • Examination and testing at a clinic is the ONLY way

HIV to know if one has an STI.

• A virus which causes AIDS and is transmitted • Most STIs are treatable. Early STI detection and
from an infected HUMAN being to another early treatment is the best.

• Untreated, STIs may lead to serious complications
• IMMUNODEFICIENCY refers to the weakening of for men, women, and newborn children.

the immune system

- Complications such as infertility, ectopic
• VIRUS is a form of germs that needs a living cell pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases
in order to live.
may occur.

• Last stage of HIV infection where opportunistic NOTE: People with STIs have increased risk of
infections such as tuberculosis, and pneumonia acquiring or transmitting HIV. With continued risky
are common.
behaviour practices, the risk gets higher of getting
• ACQUIRED means, it is a result of an exposure either HIV or STIs.
to an infected person, It is not hereditary, nor

collection of signs and symptoms that are non-

‣ fever, chills, diarrhoea, weight loss

A.M. Basa