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WIND LOAD

The flow of wind around a structure produces Wind Loads. The loads that act upon the

structure depend on the geographical location, surrounding obstructions, geometry and the

vibrational characteristics of the structure (Kassimali, 2010). The various codes and procedures

can be found in chapter 2 of the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2015.

PROJECT INFO

Location: Novaliches, Quezon City

Purpose: Standard Occupancy, Quadruplex Residential Building


WIND CRITERIA

The provisions of the National Structural Code of the Philippines 2015 were considered to

determine the following factors needed.

 WIND SPEED

The basic wind speed, V, used to determine the design wind loads on buildings and

other structures shall be given by the occupancy category and geographical location. The

following figure is used to determine the wind speed.

Use V=260 kph

Figure 1
 WIND DIRECTIONALITY FACTOR

The Wind Directionality Factor, kd, was obtained from the table provided below.

Use kd = 0.85.
 IMPORTANCE FACTOR (Section 207.5.5 , NSCP 2010)

The Importance Factor, Iw, was obtained from the Occupancy Category Table and

Importance Factor Table.

Use Iw = 1.00.
 EXPOSURE TYPE

Exposure Categories are based on the Surface Roughness Categories which is

determined by topography, vegetation and constructed structures surrounding the structure.

Use Exposure B, Surface Roughness B: α = 7.0 and Zg = 365.76

 TOPOGRAPHIC FACTOR
Since the site conditions and locations did not meet all the specified conditions,

USE kzt = 1.0.

 GUST FACTOR

Since the structure is a rigid building, Use G = 0.85.

 VELOCITY PRESSURE FACTOR

Velocity Pressure Computation

 Velocity Pressure evaluated @ height z above the ground (qz)

𝑞𝑧 = 47.3 × 10−6 (𝑘𝑧 )(𝑘𝑧𝑡 )(𝑘𝑑 )(𝑉 2 )(𝐼𝑤 )


2
𝑧 7
𝑞𝑧 = 47.3 × 10−6 (2.01) ( ) (0.85)(2002 )(1.0)
365.76
2
𝑧 7
𝑞𝑧 = 3.232482 ( )
365.76

 Velocity Pressure exposure coefficient evaluated @height z = h (kh)


2
ℎ 𝛼
𝑘ℎ = 2.01 ( )
𝑧𝑔
2
6.65 7
𝑘ℎ = 2.01 ( )
365.76

𝑘ℎ = 0.63966

 Velocity Pressure evaluated @height z = h (qh)


𝑞ℎ = 47.3 × 10−6 (𝑘ℎ )(𝑘𝑑 )(𝑉 2 )(𝐼𝑤 )

𝑞ℎ = 47.3 × 10−6 (0.63966)(0.85)(2002 )(1.0)

𝑞ℎ = 1.02869

Wall Pressure Computation

 Wall Pressure Coefficient, Cp

L = 8m (Horizontal Dimension) – parallel to wind direction

B = 8m (Horizontal Dimension) – normal to wind direction

𝐿 8
= =1
𝐵 8

Use Windward Wall = 0.8

Use Leeward Wall = -0.5

Use Side Wall = -0.7

Roof Pressure Computation


 Roof Pressure Coefficient, Cp

h = 6.65m (mean height)

L = 8m (horizontal dimension) – parallel to wind direction

1.3
Ɵ = tan−1 ( ) = 18.00˚
4

ℎ 6.65
= = 0.8313
𝐿 8
WINDWARD ROOF

20˚ 23.9625˚ 25˚

-0.7 -0.5415 -0.5

-0.18 -0.03735 0.0

Use Windward Roof (Case 1) = -0.5415


Cp G qh(kPa) ph = qhGCp wh = phS

WWRoof (Case 1) -0.5415 0.85 1.79928 -0.828163 -6.625304

WWRoof(Case 2) -0.03735 0.85 1.79928 -0.057233 -0.457864

LWRoof -0.6 0.85 1.79928 -0.917633 -7.341064

LWWall -0.5 0.85 1.79928 -0.764694 -6.117552

SWall -0.7 0.85 1.79928 -1.070572 -8.564576

WWWall 0.8 0.85 1.79928 1.223510 9.78808

Use Windward Roof (Case 2) = -0.03735

Use Leeward Roof = -0.6

Table #. Wind Load Summary

𝑝𝑧 = (𝑞𝑧 )(𝐺)(𝐶𝑝 ) (𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑤𝑎𝑙𝑙)

Z pz Wz = pzS

0 1.0574 8.4592

1 1.0574 8.4592

2 1.0574 8.4592

3 1.0574 8.4592
4 1.0574 8.4592

4.5 1.0574 8.4592

5 1.0897 8.7176

6 1.1479 9.1832

7 1.1996 9.5968

Table #: Windward Wall Values