4 - 190

BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN

BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions
For meaning of symbols, see page 4-187 1. SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
x

l wl
R

Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . = wl
R=V
l 2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

wl 2 ⎛l ⎝2 ⎞

R

l 2
V

Vx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟

M max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear

V

Mx
Mmax

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

⎠ wl 2 = 8 wx = (l − x) 2

Δ max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment

=

Δx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5wl 4 384 EI wx = (l2 − 2lx 2 + x3 ) 24EI

2. SIMPLE BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO ONE END
Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . =
x

16W = 1.0264W 9√ ⎯ ⎯3

l
W

R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R2

=

R1

R 2 = V2 V x

max

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

W 3 2W = 3 W Wx 2 − 2 3 l 2Wl = = .1283 Wl 9√ ⎯ ⎯3 Wx 3l2 (l2 − x2 ) Wl 3 EI (3x4 − 10l2 x2 + 7l4 )

.5774 l
V1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
l = .5774 l) . . . . . . . ⎯ √ ⎯3

Shear

V2

M max (at x = Mx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

M max

Moment

Δ max (at x = l 1 − Δx

⎯ √⎯ √⎯⎯⎯⎯8 ⎯ 15

= .5193 l) . .

= 0.1304
Wx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

180 EIl2

3. SIMPLE BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO CENTER
l
W
R

Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . =
R=V V x

x

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l 2

R

l 2
V

l 2

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . =

4W 3 W = 2 W

Shear

M max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
V

2l2 Wl = 6

(l2 − 4x2)

Mx
M max

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . = Wx ⎜ −
⎝2

l 2

⎛1

2x 2 ⎞ ⎟ 3l2 ⎠

Δ max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment

=

Δx

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . =

l 2

Wl 3 60EI Wx 480 EIl2

(5l2 − 4x2 )2

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . = (2a + b) 2l Vx (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . . . . . = R 1x − (when x > (a + b)) . . .= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 − w 2 (l − x) R1 R1 ⎞ ⎛ = ⎜at x = w when R 1 < w 1a ⎟ 2w 1 1 ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎜at x = l − w when R 2 < w 2 c⎟ = 2w 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ Shear V2 R1 w1 M max Moment Mx Mx w 1x2 2 w1a (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 ⎜a + 2w ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ (when x < a) . . . see page 4-187 4. = R 1x − (2x − a) 2 (when x < a) . . .191 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . = (when x > a) . = R 2(l − x) − w 2(l − x)2 2 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . .= wa (2l − a) 2l wa 2 2l R2 1 2w wx 2 2 a wa R 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . when a > c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − wx ⎛ R ⎞ ⎜at x = 1 ⎟ w⎠ ⎝ . . . . . . . . . = R 1x V1 Shear V 2 R1 a+ w M max M max Mx Mx (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . = R2 R 1 x wb (2c + b) 2l wb R 2 = V2 (max. . . . = R 1 − w 1x (when x > a and < (a + b)) = R 1 − w 1a 2 x (when x > (a + b)) .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 .= V1 V 2 Shear R1 w M max Mx Mx Δx (when x < a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .= w 1a(2l − a) + w 2 c2 2l w 2c(2l − c) + w 1 a2 2l a w1 a R1 V1 l c w2 c R2 Vx Vx Vx M max M max Mx (when x < a) . .= x Vx M max (when x < a) . . = wx (a 2 (2l − a)2 − 2ax 2 (2l − a) + lx 3 ) 24EIl wa 2 (l − x) (4xl − 2x2 − a 2 ) 24EIl Moment Δx 6. . . when a < c) . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2(l − x) 5. . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED AT EACH END R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 b . = R 2 (l − x) (when x < a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1x − w (x − a)2 2 Moment Mx (when x > (a + b)) . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED AT ONE END l R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 R2 max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORMLY LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED a l b wb c R 1 = V1 (max. . = R 1x − (when x > a) . . = R 1 − w(x − a) ⎛ R1 ⎞ R1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜at x = a + w ⎟ . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R=V a 8Pa l . . . = (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = Pa (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = ⎛ ⎜when x < ⎝ 1⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ P 2 Pl 4 Px 2 Pl 3 48EI R l 2 M max Mx Δ max V Shear V . .4 . Uniform Load . . . . = Moment Δa Δx (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . = 9. . . . . = (when x > a and < (l − a)) . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = ⎛ ⎜at x = ⎝ V1 Shear Mx Δ max M max ⎯ a(a +⎯ √⎯⎯⎯2b) when a > b⎟ ⎠ 3 ⎞ . . . = R 1 = V1 (max when a < b ) . . . SIMPLE BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER l x Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 2P P R=V l 2 R . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . see page 4-187 7. . . . . = R 2 = V2 (max when a > b ) . . Uniform Load . . = (when x < a ) . .192 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . = 48EI 2⎠ ⎝ 8. . . . = Px (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS SYMMETRICALLY PLACED l x R P P R Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . = b R2 8Pab l2 Pb l Pa l Pab l Pbx l Pab (a + 2b)√⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ ⎯ 3a(a + 2b) 27EIl Pa 2b 2 3EIl Pbx 2 (l − b 2 − x2 ) 6EIl l x R P 1 a M max V2 (at point of load) . . . . = Pa (3l2 − 4a2 ) 24EI Px (3la − 3a 2 − x2 ) 6EI Pa (3lx − 3x2 − a 2) 6EI a V M max Mx Shear V Δ max Δx M max Moment Δx AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . =P (between loads) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT Total Equiv. . . = M max Moment Δx ⎛ Px 1⎞ (3l2 − 4x2 ) ⎜when x < ⎟ . . . . . . . . .

. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . .193 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. = P (l − a) + P b 1 2 l P a + P2 (l − b) 1 l R 1 a b R 2 = V2 Vx V1 (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . = (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . see page 4-187 10. . wx 3 (l − 3lx + 2x3 ) 48EI AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R1x − ⎞ ⎛ wl 4 l ⎯ 33 ⎯ ⎜at x = (1 + √⎯ ) = . . . . . = 128 8⎠ ⎝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 b (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO UNEQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED x P1 l P2 R 1 = V1 R2 . . . . . . . . . . = wl l R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 max R2 . . = P (l − a + b) l P (l − b + a) l P (b − a) l 1 a b V 1 Shear V2 M1 M2 (max.4215 l⎟ . . . = . Uniform Load . . . when R 2 < P2) . . . . . . = 3wl 8 5wl 8 wl R 1 x Vx M max . . . . . . . = 16 185 EI ⎝ ⎠ wx 2 2 M1 Mx M max Moment Δ max Δx . . . . . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 a (max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED l x R P P R2 R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 Vx (max. . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD Total Equiv. = R 1 x − P(x − a) Shear V2 M1 M2 M1 M2 Mx Mx Moment 12. . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . when R 1 < P1) . . = . = (max. . . . . . = R 1 x − P(x − a) M1 M2 Mx Mx Moment 11. . . = R 1 − wx . . . . = R 1 a (max. . = wl 2 8 V1 Shear 3 l 8 V2 Mx l 4 ⎛ 9 3⎞ wl 2 ⎜at x = l⎟ . . . . . = R 2 b (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − P1 (max. . . . . . . . . . . . when a < b ) . . . . . . . when a < b ) . . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. = R 1 = V1 . . see page 4-187 13. . . . .414 l at x = l Δ max ⎜when a > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER Total Equiv. . ... . √⎯⎯+ a ⎟⎠ 2l a ⎞ = Pab 2 6EI ⎯ 2l⎯ √⎯ + a (3l + a) (3al 2 − 2lx 2 − ax 2) (l − x)2 (3l2 x − a 3 x − 2a 2l) a Δa Δ Δx (at point of load) . . . . . . = R 1 a (at fixed end) . . Uniform Load . .009317 ⎠ ⎝ EI 48EI√ ⎯ ⎯5 (at point of load) . . . . .4 . . . . . . . = l Pb 2 2l3 Pa 2l3 (a + 2l) (3l2 − a2 ) x R P M R2 (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT R 1 = V1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . = P ⎜ − 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 16 ⎠ 3 ⎛ ⎞ Pl 3 ⎜at x = l√ 1 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . = P x M max (at fixed end) .. . . . . = 7PL 3 768 EI Δx Δx Δx ⎛ Px l⎞ (3l2 − 5x2 ) ⎜when x < ⎟ . .. . . . = 2⎠ 96EI ⎝ 14. . . = Pa 2 b3 12EIl3 Pb 2 x 12EIl3 Pa 12EIl2 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . .194 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . .4472 l⎟ . = Pl ⎯5 = . . . . .414 l at x = l Moment Pa R2 M1 M2 ⎯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x − P(x − a) ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ Pa(l2 + a2 )3 (l2 + a 2) ⎞ ⎟ = (3l2 − a 2) ⎠ 3EI(3l2 − a2 )2 V1 Shear V2 Δ max ⎜when a < . . . . . . .. . . = 96EI 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ l⎞ P (x − l)2(11x − 2l) ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . = R 1 x (when x > a ) . . . = Pab 2l2 (a + l) M2 Mx Mx 1 a b (when x < a ) . . . = V1 Shear V2 M1 Moment 3 11 l Δ max M max ⎛ 5Px l⎞ ⎜when x < ⎟ . . . . . . = l 3P 2 5P 15 11P 16 3Pl 16 5Pl 32 R 2 = V2 max . . . . . = (when x > a ) . . . . . . . = 16 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎛ l 11x ⎞ l⎞ ⎟ ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . = l 2 l 2 R 1 R 2 M1 Mx Mx (at point of load) . . . . . .. . = R 2 = V2 . . . . . . . .

. . . . . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER l Total Equiv. . . . = 2 R l 2 l 2 Vx M max . . . = V Shear l 4 V M max ⎛ ⎜when x < ⎝ P l⎞ ⎟ . . . = (max. . when a < b ) . . . . . .2113 l V M1 Mx M1 M max Moment M max Δ max Δx ⎛l ⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ wl 2 12 wl 2 24 w (6lx − l2 − 6x2 ) 12 wl 4 384 EI wx 2 (l − x)2 24EI 16. . . . . . = 192 EI M max Moment M max Δx ⎛ l⎞ Px 2 (3l − 4x) ⎜when x < ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS Total Equiv. = l Pb 2 l3 Pa 2 (3a + b) x P R2 M1 b (max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 8 . . . = (at point of load) . . . = P P x R=V l 2 R l 2 R M max Mx Δ max P 2 Pl (at center and ends) . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT R 1 = V1 (max. Uniform Load . = (at center) . . . . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . = ⎜when a > b at x = 3a + b ⎠ 3EI(3a + b)2 ⎝ (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . = (a + 3b) l3 Pab 2 l2 Pa 2 b l2 2Pa 2b 2 l3 Pab 2 l2 3 2 R1 V1 a M2 Ma Shear V2 Mx Δ max Δa Δx (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟ (at ends) . . = . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = 2⎠ 48EI ⎝ 17. . . . . = (4x − l) 8 2⎠ Pl 3 (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (at center) . . = V Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 = V2 (max. . .195 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . = x l wl R=V R 2wl 3 wl . . . = Pa 3 b3 3EIl3 Pb 2 x2 6EIl2 (3al − 3ax − bx) AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . = R 1 x − Ma M1 Moment M2 ⎛ 2Pa b 2al ⎞ ⎟ . . when a < b ) . see page 4-187 15. . . . . . when a > b ) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . = Moment M max Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . = wx wl 2 2 wx 2 2 wl 4 8EI w (x 4 − 4l3 x + 3l4 ) 24EI x M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = Δ max (at deflected end) . . FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT NOT ROTATE AT OTHER—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD Total Equiv. . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . = 4wl R = V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = l 8 wl 3 wl M R x R = V . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . =W Wl 3 x2 l2 M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . = V Shear Mx M max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 19. . = Δx . . . . . . = M max Δx . . . . = Wx 3 3l2 Wl 3 15EI W 60EIl2 (x5 − 5l4 x + 4l5 ) Moment Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . . . . = Shear . . . . . . . . . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO FIXED END Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =W Vx W R x . . . . . . . . . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD l Total Equiv. . . . . = W l 8 3 R=V . . = wl R wl Vx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 4-187 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . .196 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . = wl Vx . . . . . . = V Shear Mx . = wx wl 2 3 w 2 (l − 3x2 ) 6 wl 4 24EI w(l2 − x2 )2 24EI M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4227 l M1 Moment V Mx . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20. = Δx . .

. . . . . . . . . =P x P R M max (at fixed end) . . . = R=V 8Pb l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . = 4P R=V P M x . . . . . . . . . see page 4-187 21. . . = (when x > a) . CANTILEVER BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT FREE END l Total Equiv. . . = P(x − a) Pb 2 (3l − b) 6EI Pb 3 3EI Pb 2 (3l − 3x − b) 6EI P(l − x)2 (3b − l + x) 6EI a b V Shear Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = P ⎜ − x⎟ ⎠ pl 12EI P(l − x)2 (l + 2x) 12EI ⎞ Shear M max l 2 Δ max (at deflected end) . . . . . . = M max Moment Δx . . . . . . . . . . = Pl Mx V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . . . = Moment Mmax Δx Δx 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = Px Pl 3 3EI P (2l3 − 3l2x + x3 ) 6EI Shear Δ max (at free end) . = Δa (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT NOT ROTATE AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT DEFLECTED END l Total Equiv. . . . . . . . = Mx V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 8P R=V P . . . . . . . . . . . . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . = M max Moment Δx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . =P Pl 2 ⎛l ⎝2 3 R M max (at both ends) . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT Total Equiv. . . =P x R M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . . . . . . = Pb Mx (when x > a) . Uniform Load . . . . = 23.197 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. = (when x < a) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . = wa wa 2 2 wa 2 x 2l w (a − x 1)2 2 a x1 Vx 1 (for overhang) . . . = wa . . . . . . . . . . . . = Δ x 1 (for overhang) . . . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . = Δx (between supports) . . . . = R2 V2 l wa 2 2l wa (2l + a) 2l V1 + V2 . . . . . . . . = w(a − x 1) V2 V3 M 1 ⎜at x = M2 Shear M1 Moment a2 l (1 – 2 ) l M2 M x (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . = R1 V1 a2 l 1 – 2) 2 ( l R2 (between supports) . . . . . . . . . = 25. . . . . . . . . . .198 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . = l w 2 (l − a2 ) 2l w (l + a)2 2l w 2 (l + a2 ) 2l x w(l +a) a x1 V2 V3 Vx . = R 2 = V2 + V3 . . = M x1 (for overhang) . = Δ x 1 (for overhang) . . see page 4-187 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . = w(a − x 1) M max (at R 2) . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . = M x (between supports) . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD ON OVERHANG R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . .03208 ⎟ = EI 18√ EI ⎯ ⎯3 ⎯ √ ⎠ ⎯3 wa 3 (4l + 3a) 24EI wa 2x 2 (l − x 2) 12EIl wx 1 (4a2 l + 6a 2x 1 − 4ax 2 + x3) 1 1 24EI Δ max (for overhang at x1 = a ) . . . . . . = Δ max ⎜between supports at x = Shear ⎛ ⎝ Moment M max wa 2 l2 l ⎞ wa 2 l2 = 0. = V2 x wa R2 R1 V1 M x1 (for overhang) . . . . . . . . . . = 2 wx 2 (l − a 2 − xl) 2l w (a − x1 )2 2 wx (l4 − 2l2 x2 + lx 3 − 2a 2l2 + 2a 2x 2) 24EIl wx 1 (4a2 l − l3 + 6a 2 x1 − 4ax 2 + x3 ) 1 1 24EI Vx 1 (for overhang) . = 2 (l + a)2 (l − a)2 2⎢ 8l l ⎦⎠ ⎝ ⎣ wa 2 (at R 2) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − wx ⎛ a 2 ⎤⎞ w l ⎡ 1 − 2 ⎥⎟ . = Δx (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see page 4-187 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . = (at center) . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . = l x a x1 P R 2 = V1 + V2 . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . = EI 9√ EI ⎯ ⎯3 ⎯ √ ⎠ ⎯3 ⎝ (for overhang at x1 = a) . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD BETWEEN SUPPORTS Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . = ⎛ ⎜at x = ⎝ R1 R2 a b Mx Δ max Δa V1 Shear M max V2 ⎯ a(a +⎯ √⎯⎯⎯2b) when a > b⎟ ⎠ 3 ⎞ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R1 R2 M x1 Δ max V1 Shear (for overhang) . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . = Pa l P = (l + a) l =P = Pa Pax = l = P(a − x 1) Δ max Moment M max Δx Δ x1 Pa 2 (l + a) 3EI Pax 2 (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . (between supports) . . . . . . . . = (l − x2) 6EIl Px 1 (for overhang) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT BETWEEN SUPPORTS Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . = l 8Pab l2 Pb l Pa l Pab l Pbx l Pab (a + 2b)√⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ ⎯ 3a(a + 2b) 27EIl Pa 2b 2 3EIl Pbx 2 (l − b 2 − x2 ) 6EIl Pa(l − x) (2lx − x 2 − a2 ) 6EIl Pabx1 (l + a) 6EIl x P x1 R 2 = V2 (max. . . . . . . (at R 2) . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V2 M max Mx V2 . . . ⎛ Pal 2 l ⎞ Pal 2 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟ (at center) . . . . . . = wl 2 ⎛l ⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ 2 wl 8 wx (l − x) 2 5wl 4 384 EI wx 2 (l − 2lx 2 + x3) 24EI 3 wl x1 24EI x . . . . . . . . . . . = Moment Δx Δx Δ x1 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = R l 2 R M max Mx V V Shear M max Δ max Δx Moment Δ x1 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . = (when x > a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (2al + 3ax 1 − x2 ) 1 6EI 27. . . . . . . = R 1 = V1 (max. when a < b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . = M max (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = wl R=V Vx l 2 l a wl x1 . = . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT END OF OVERHANG R 1 = V1 .06415 ⎜between supports at x = ⎟ . . .199 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.

. . . . see page 4-187 29. = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT a P b R 1 = V1 . R2 l R1 V1 7l 16 l R3 R 3 = V3 . . . . . . . .472 l from R 1 ) . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER OF ONE SPAN Total Equiv. . . . Moment Pab Pab 4l2 M1 (at support R 2) . . = . . . . . . . . . R 2 = V2 + V3 . . R3 R1 V1 V2 l R2 R 2 = V2 + V3 . . . = . . . = Mx Δ max (at 0. . = Δ max (at 0. . . . = = 19 P 32 13 Pl 64 3 Pl 32 M max M1 M max (at point of load) . . . . . Uniform Load l 2 = = = P l 2 13 P 8 13 P 32 11 P 16 3 P 32 R 1 = V1 . . = (when x < l) . Uniform Load R 1 = V1 . . R 3 = V3 . . V3 = = Pb 4l3 Pa 2l3 (4l2 − a(l + a)) (2l2 + b(l + a)) (l + a) R1 V1 V2 l R2 l R3 =− Pab 4l3 Shear V2 . . . . . . V3 l =− Shear V2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . = = Pa 4l3 4l3 (4l2 + b(l + a)) (4l2 − a(l + a)) (l + a) M max M1 M max (at point of load) . . . . . . . .0092 wl 4 / EI 30.4 . . . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—UNIFORM LOAD ON ONE SPAN Total Equiv. . . = ⎛ ⎝ 7 ⎞ l⎟ 16 ⎠ 9 wl 16 49 wl 2 512 1 wl 2 16 wx (7l − 8x) 16 M max ⎜at x = M max . . . . . . . . M1 Moment (at support R 2) .480 l from R 1 ) . . . . . . . . . wl = = = 49 wl 64 7 wl 16 5 wl 8 1 wl 16 x R 2 = V2 + V3 . . . . R 3 = V3 . . V3 =− V2 Shear V2 . . . . . . . = M1 M1 Moment (at support R 2) . . . . . . . . .015 Pl 3 / EI 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛P M1 − M2 ⎞ ⎟ x − M1 =⎜ + l ⎠ ⎝2 (M 1 − M 2)x P (l − x) + − M1 2 l Moment M1 M2 = ⎞ ⎛ 8(l − x) l⎞ Px ⎛ 2 ⎜ 3l − 4x2 − Δ x ⎜when x < ⎟ = [M 1 (2l − x) + M 2 (l + x)]⎟ 2 ⎠ 48EI ⎝ Pl ⎠ ⎝ AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . = l R 2 = V2 wl M 2 . . . . 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ l⎞ M x ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . V2 M3 = V 1 Shear ⎛ l⎞ M x ⎜when x < ⎟ .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . = w ⎜ − x⎟ + ⎛l ⎝2 V 1 Shear V2 M3 M2 ⎛ l M1 − M2 ⎞ ⎟ . . . . . . = 1 l 2 M >M 1 2 l 2 M 3 (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = wx (l − x) + 2 M1 ⎛M − M ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 ⎟ x − M1 l ⎝ ⎠ 2 b Moment b b (to locate inflection points) = + ⎯ l4 − ⎛⎜⎝ M w M ⎞⎟⎠ + ⎛⎜⎝ M wl M √⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯− ⎯ ⎞⎟⎠ 2 1 2 1 2 Δx = 8M 1l 4M 2l ⎤ 4M 1 4M 2 ⎞ 2 12M 1 wx ⎡ 3 ⎛ ⎟x + − x + l2 − − x − ⎜ 2l + 24EI ⎢ wl wl ⎠ w w w ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ 33. . BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER AND VARIABLE END MOMENTS P M1 − M2 + 2 l P M1 − M2 − 2 l Pl M 1 + M 2 − 4 2 R 1 = V1 . . . . see page 4-187 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD AND VARIABLE END MOMENTS wl M 1 − M 2 + 2 l wl M 1 − M 2 − 2 l ⎞ ⎠ M1 − M2 l R 1 = V1 . . . . . . = M1 R1 x M >M 1 2 R2 Vx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = M1 R x l P M2 R2 R 2 = V2 . . . . . . . . . . .201 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . M 3 ⎜at x = + wl ⎠ 2 ⎝ = 2 wl 2 M 1 + M 2 (M 1 − M 2) − + 8 2 2wl 2 Mx . .

0534 w l 2 –0.0059 wl 4/ El 35.500 w l 0.0099 wl / El 4 36.500 l 0.583 l Δmax (0.1013 w l 2 Moment 0.450 w l l D RB = 1.202 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.550 wl 0.430 l from A) = 0.500 w l –0.383 l 0.450 w l 0.400 w l 0.383 w l l C RC = 0.400 l 0.20 w l 0.080 w l2 +0.550 wl RD = 0.033 w l 0.10 w l l A RA = 0.400 l Δmax (0.4 .100 w l 2 RD = 0.600 w l 0.383 w l 0.1167 w l 2 RD = –0. see page 4-187 34.550 w l Shear –0.025w l 2 +0.479 l from A or D) = 0.417 w l Shear +0.500 l 0.450 w l 0.400 w l 0.446 l from A or D) = 0.100 w l 2 Shear +0.033 w l 0.550 w l l D RB = 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—END SPANS LOADED wl wl B l A RA = 0.450 l Δmax (0.583 w l 0.050 w l 2 +0.450 l 0.617 w l –0.080 w l 2 Moment 0.400 w l l D RB = 1.10 w l 0.400 w l 0.033 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—ONE END SPAN UNLOADED wl wl B l A RA = 0.0735 w l 2 +0.1013 w l 2 +0.0069 w l 4/ El AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .450 wl l C RC = 0.0333 wl 2 Moment 0.450 w l 0.600 w l –0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—ALL SPANS LOADED wl wl B l wl C R C = 1.

058 w l 2 +0.603 l 0.442 l Δ max (0.0996 w l 2 –0.0977 w l 2 Moment 0.482 w l 0.518 w l Shear –0.446 l 0.393 w l l E RE = 0.442 w l 0. see page 4-187 37.0357 w l 2 +0.0714 w l 2 +0.598 w l l E RB = 1.357 w l l A RA = 0.380 w l l D R D = 0.464 w l 0.393 l 0.603 w l RE = 0.558 w l 0.607 w l 0.143 w l 0.475 l from E) = 0.054 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—THIRD SPAN UNLOADED wl wl B l wl C RC = 0.572 w l l E RB = 0.440 l from A and D) = 0.0364 w +0.203 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.446 w l 0.143 w l l A RA = 0.536 w l 0.446 w l l C RC = 0.442 w l 0.464 w l 0.393 w l 0.1205 w l 2 +0.0611 w l 2 –0.380 w l 0.393 w l RB = 1. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—LOAD FIRST AND THIRD SPANS wl wl B l A RA = 0.1071 w l 2 +0.0065 w l 4/ El AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .477 l from A) = 0.0536 w l 2 +0.536 l 0.0772 wl 2 –0.0094 wl 4/ El 38.223 w l 0.464 w l l D R D = 0.072 w l 2 –0.393 w l 0.1071 w l 2 l2 +0.518 l Δ max (0.0179 w l 2 +0.620 w l 0.040 w l Shear –0.607 w l 0.380 l 0.0805 w l 2 –0.397 w l 0.572 w l 0.BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 .393 l Δ max (0.0772 w l 2 Moment 0.554 w l 0.928 w l l wl D RD = 1.536 l 0.0364 w l 2 –0.054 w l 0.536 w l Shear –0.054 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—ALL SPANS LOADED wl wl B l wl C RC = 0.0536 w l 2 Moment 0.0097 wl 4/ El 39.018 w l RE = –0.

. . . P2 R2 b l 2 M Moment AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . .4 . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED MOVING LOADS R 1 max = V1 max (at x = 0) . . . P > P2 1 =P+P 1 2 l−a l x2 l under P1 . (2 − ⎯ ) l . . at x = P2 R2 x R1 P1 a P 2a ⎞ 1⎛ l− 2 ⎜ P1 + P2⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = (P1 + P2 ) M max M max may occur with larger load at center of span and other l load off span (Case 40) . . . . . . = P ⎜2 − ⎟ ⎝ ⎛ a⎞ l⎠ when a <.586 l √ ⎯2 x P R1 a P 2 l under load 1 at x R2 1⎛ a⎞ ⎜l − ⎟ . . . . . . The maximum bending moment produced by moving concentrated loads occurs under one of the loads when that load is as far from one support as the center of gravity of all the moving loads on the beam is from the other support. . . . . . . . . R2 =P = Pl 4 ⎛ 1⎞ M max ⎜at point of load. 2⎠ ⎝ 41.586 l √ ⎯2 with one load at center of span = (Case 40) Pl 4 42. . In the accompanying diagram. when x = ⎟ . . = P1 l 4 GENERAL RULES FOR SIMPLE BEAMS CARRYING MOVING CONCENTRATED LOADS The maximum shear due to moving concentrated loads occurs at one support when one of the loads is at that support. SIMPLE BEAM—ONE CONCENTRATED MOVING LOAD x P R1 l R 1 max = V1 max (at x = 0) .G. SIMPLE BEAM—TWO UNEQUAL CONCENTRATED MOVING LOADS R 1 max = V1 max (at x = 0) . . = . . . the location that will produce maximum shear must be determined by trial. . . . . = . . see page 4-187 40. . . It should also be noted that this condition occurs when the centerline of the span is midway between the center of gravity of loads and the nearest concentrated load. . With several moving loads. . . .204 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. the maximum bending moment occurs under load P1 when x = b . . . 2⎠ 2⎝ = P ⎛ a⎞ ⎜l − ⎟ 2l ⎝ 2⎠ 2 1 M max when a > (2 − ⎯ )l . l P 1 R1 x a C. .

833P 2.172P 0.143L 0.211L 0.958P 2.125P 2.204L 0.222L 0.000P 0.200P 5.278PL 0.176L 0.231L 0.083PL 0.229L 0.480PL 0.667P 4.250P 3.086P 1.250L 0.109P 0.917P 4.063P 1.667P 1.BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 .182L 0.220L 0.182L 0. Spans 2 M1 System a M1 M1 B A A 3 M2 C M1 A b b M3 M3 D M1 M4 M3 M2 D c c C M1 M1 E E A 4 M1 A d M1 M5 F e M3 b M3 M3 M2 D C G 5 M2 C M1 A b M3 M3 f f b M3 M3 M3 H M3 M2 d M3 D M1 M5 F G d H e M3 M3 e D M1 M1 F C M3 M5 G A ≥6 (even) ≥7 (odd) C d M1 M1 A e M3 f f M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 H b M3 M2 D C M5 F G H b f f f f b M3 M2 D M1 M1 A F M5 M3 M3 d H e M3 M3 M3 H f M3 M3 f M3 M3 M3 H M3 M3 M5 G e d M3 M2 D M1 M1 F A C H M3 M3 M3 M3 H G H n Typical Span Loading ∞ P P 2 2 P P 2 P 2 3 P P P 2 P 2 4 P P P P 2 P 2 5 P P P P P 2 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 A B C D E F G H a b c d e f 0.096PL 0.750P 4.147L 0.039PL 0.167L 0.205 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS Design properties of cantilevered beams Equal loads.429P 5.438P 1.871P 5.200L 0.250P 3.250L 0.000P 0.086PL 0.333P 4.172L 0.188PL 0.250PL 0.176L 0.167P 2.071P 5. equally spaced No.203L 0.051PL 0.167P 3.250PL 0.977P 1.157L 0.333P 2.429PL 0.171PL 0.139PL 1.063PL 0.167PL 0.000P 0.250P 4.333P 3.333PL 0.308L 0.200L 0.143L 0.375PL 0.167PL 0.208P 1.150L Cantilever Dimensions Reactions Moments AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .249PL 2.000P 0.160L 0.417P 3.300P 5.273L 0.333P 0.500P 1.300PL 0.333L 0.857P 2.000P 0.083PL 0.250L 0.875P 2.167L 0.104PL 0.125PL 0.414P 1.557P 4.208PL 1.167PL 0.130L 0.917P 3.125L 0.

107 –.071 –.35 P P .69 P .157 +.11 1.11 +.69 .025 –.35 P .11 +.03 1.50 .211 +.24 +.099 –.267 +.07 1.303 +.106 +.066 +.079 +.105 +.022 +.07 0 3 8 0 4 10 0 11 28 +.03 SHEAR in terms of P +.28 P P .27 +.156 –.077 –.125 UNIFORM LOAD SHEAR in terms of wl +.175 .66 .078 0 15 38 17 15 28 23 20 38 13 13 28 11 0 28 15 0 38 41 0 104 36 0 142 –.078 –.73 P 1.0 1.119 –.87 P P P 1.146 –.97 P P P 1.156 CONCENTRATED LOADS at center .267 +.204 +.085 –.13 1.72 P 1.296 -.158 MOMENT in terms of Pl +.076 –.258 +.079 -.10 +.106 5 6 10 15 17 28 4 0 10 +.0 .054 +.89 1.333 +.006 +.078 –.54 –.267 +.206 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS CONTINUOUS BEAMS MOMENT AND SHEAR COEFFICIENTS EQUAL SPANS.277 +.314 +.073 –.111 –.054 +.31 SHEAR in terms of P +.078 –.079 +.15 +.08 5 8 6 5 10 5 3 8 0 +.036 +.46 .13 +.372 P P P 1.0 P 1.138 –.171 P .178 –.222 CONCENTRATED LOADS at 1⁄3 points .066 –.077 –.282 -.107 +.07 –.076 +.003 +.078 0 41 104 0 36 142 18 19 38 19 18 38 20 23 38 –.60 P P P 1. EQUALLY LOADED MOMENT in terms of wl2 +.277 +.24 P .097 +.65 P .50 P P P 1.10 +.281 +.65 P .89 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .73 P 1.28 1.34 .222 +.156 +.93 MOMENT in terms of Pl +.4 .394 -.07 P P .40 P P P 1.87 1.314 +.036 +.073 –.46 .11 1.085 –.244 +.155 +.465 CONCENTRATED LOADS at 1⁄4 points P P P 1.296 -.122 +.156 +.106 63 55 104 86 75 142 43 51 104 53 53 104 51 49 104 55 63 104 67 70 142 72 71 142 71 72 142 70 67 142 75 86 142 MOMENT in terms of Pl +.258 -.93 1.155 +.372 -.10 –.40 1.13 –.50 .006 +.50 P .211 +.50 1.27 P P P .106 +.086 –.022 +.119 +.50 1.128 +.111 +.33 P 1.394 P P P P P P 1.077 +.67 P P .077 –.67 SHEAR in terms of P P P 1.077 –.097 +.244 P .003 +.72 +.171 +.54 .099 +.08 –.267 +.078 –.15 +.60 1.50 P .97 1.146 +.105 +.122 –.34 +.66 .50 P P P 1.31 P .079 +.281 +.077 –.282 +.303 +.0 P 1.33 P 1.

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