# 4 - 190

BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN

For meaning of symbols, see page 4-187 1. SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
x

l wl
R

Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . = wl
R=V
l 2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

wl 2 ⎛l ⎝2 ⎞

R

l 2
V

Vx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟

M max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear

V

Mx
Mmax

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

⎠ wl 2 = 8 wx = (l − x) 2

Δ max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment

=

Δx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5wl 4 384 EI wx = (l2 − 2lx 2 + x3 ) 24EI

2. SIMPLE BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO ONE END
Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . =
x

16W = 1.0264W 9√ ⎯ ⎯3

l
W

R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R2

=

R1

R 2 = V2 V x

max

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

W 3 2W = 3 W Wx 2 − 2 3 l 2Wl = = .1283 Wl 9√ ⎯ ⎯3 Wx 3l2 (l2 − x2 ) Wl 3 EI (3x4 − 10l2 x2 + 7l4 )

.5774 l
V1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
l = .5774 l) . . . . . . . ⎯ √ ⎯3

Shear

V2

M max (at x = Mx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

M max

Moment

Δ max (at x = l 1 − Δx

⎯ √⎯ √⎯⎯⎯⎯8 ⎯ 15

= .5193 l) . .

= 0.1304
Wx

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =

180 EIl2

3. SIMPLE BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO CENTER
l
W
R

Total Equiv. Uniform Load . . . . . . =
R=V V x

x

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l 2

R

l 2
V

l 2

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . =

4W 3 W = 2 W

Shear

M max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
V

2l2 Wl = 6

(l2 − 4x2)

Mx
M max

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . = Wx ⎜ −
⎝2

l 2

⎛1

2x 2 ⎞ ⎟ 3l2 ⎠

Δ max (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment

=

Δx

(when x < ) . . . . . . . . . . =

l 2

Wl 3 60EI Wx 480 EIl2

(5l2 − 4x2 )2

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . = (2a + b) 2l Vx (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . . . . . = R 1x − (when x > (a + b)) . . .= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 − w 2 (l − x) R1 R1 ⎞ ⎛ = ⎜at x = w when R 1 < w 1a ⎟ 2w 1 1 ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 ⎛ ⎞ 2 ⎜at x = l − w when R 2 < w 2 c⎟ = 2w 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ Shear V2 R1 w1 M max Moment Mx Mx w 1x2 2 w1a (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 ⎜a + 2w ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ (when x < a) . . . see page 4-187 4. = R 1x − (2x − a) 2 (when x < a) . . .191 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . = (when x > a) . = R 2(l − x) − w 2(l − x)2 2 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . .= wa (2l − a) 2l wa 2 2l R2 1 2w wx 2 2 a wa R 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . when a > c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − wx ⎛ R ⎞ ⎜at x = 1 ⎟ w⎠ ⎝ . . . . . . . . . = R 1x V1 Shear V 2 R1 a+ w M max M max Mx Mx (when x > a and < (a + b)) . . = R2 R 1 x wb (2c + b) 2l wb R 2 = V2 (max. . . . = R 1 − w 1x (when x > a and < (a + b)) = R 1 − w 1a 2 x (when x > (a + b)) .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 .= V1 V 2 Shear R1 w M max Mx Mx Δx (when x < a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .= w 1a(2l − a) + w 2 c2 2l w 2c(2l − c) + w 1 a2 2l a w1 a R1 V1 l c w2 c R2 Vx Vx Vx M max M max Mx (when x < a) . .= x Vx M max (when x < a) . . = wx (a 2 (2l − a)2 − 2ax 2 (2l − a) + lx 3 ) 24EIl wa 2 (l − x) (4xl − 2x2 − a 2 ) 24EIl Moment Δx 6. . . when a < c) . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2(l − x) 5. . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED AT EACH END R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 b . = R 2 (l − x) (when x < a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1x − w (x − a)2 2 Moment Mx (when x > (a + b)) . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED AT ONE END l R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 R2 max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—UNIFORMLY LOAD PARTIALLY DISTRIBUTED a l b wb c R 1 = V1 (max. . = R 1x − (when x > a) . . = R 1 − w(x − a) ⎛ R1 ⎞ R1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜at x = a + w ⎟ . .

. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . .193 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. = P (l − a) + P b 1 2 l P a + P2 (l − b) 1 l R 1 a b R 2 = V2 Vx V1 (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . = (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . see page 4-187 10. . wx 3 (l − 3lx + 2x3 ) 48EI AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R1x − ⎞ ⎛ wl 4 l ⎯ 33 ⎯ ⎜at x = (1 + √⎯ ) = . . . . . = 128 8⎠ ⎝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 b (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO UNEQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED x P1 l P2 R 1 = V1 R2 . . . . . . . . . . = wl l R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 max R2 . . = P (l − a + b) l P (l − b + a) l P (b − a) l 1 a b V 1 Shear V2 M1 M2 (max.4215 l⎟ . . . = . Uniform Load . . . when R 2 < P2) . . . . . . = 3wl 8 5wl 8 wl R 1 x Vx M max . . . . . . . = 16 185 EI ⎝ ⎠ wx 2 2 M1 Mx M max Moment Δ max Δx . . . . . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 a (max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLE BEAM—TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED l x R P P R2 R 1 = V1 R 2 = V2 Vx (max. . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD Total Equiv. = R 1 x − P(x − a) Shear V2 M1 M2 M1 M2 Mx Mx Moment 12. . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x (when x > a and < (l − b)) . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . when R 1 < P1) . . = . = (max. . . . . . = R 1 x − P(x − a) M1 M2 Mx Mx Moment 11. . . = R 1 − wx . . . . = R 1 a (max. . = wl 2 8 V1 Shear 3 l 8 V2 Mx l 4 ⎛ 9 3⎞ wl 2 ⎜at x = l⎟ . . . . . = R 2 b (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − P1 (max. . . . . . . . . . . . when a < b ) . . . . . . . when a < b ) . . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. = R 1 = V1 . . see page 4-187 13. . . . .414 l at x = l Δ max ⎜when a > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER Total Equiv. . ... . √⎯⎯+ a ⎟⎠ 2l a ⎞ = Pab 2 6EI ⎯ 2l⎯ √⎯ + a (3l + a) (3al 2 − 2lx 2 − ax 2) (l − x)2 (3l2 x − a 3 x − 2a 2l) a Δa Δ Δx (at point of load) . . . . . . = R 1 a (at fixed end) . . Uniform Load . .009317 ⎠ ⎝ EI 48EI√ ⎯ ⎯5 (at point of load) . . . . .4 . . . . . . . = l Pb 2 2l3 Pa 2l3 (a + 2l) (3l2 − a2 ) x R P M R2 (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . SUPPORTED AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT R 1 = V1 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . = P ⎜ − 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 16 ⎠ 3 ⎛ ⎞ Pl 3 ⎜at x = l√ 1 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . = P x M max (at fixed end) .. . . . . = 7PL 3 768 EI Δx Δx Δx ⎛ Px l⎞ (3l2 − 5x2 ) ⎜when x < ⎟ . .. . . . = 2⎠ 96EI ⎝ 14. . . = Pa 2 b3 12EIl3 Pb 2 x 12EIl3 Pa 12EIl2 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . .194 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . .4472 l⎟ . = Pl ⎯5 = . . . . .414 l at x = l Moment Pa R2 M1 M2 ⎯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 x − P(x − a) ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ Pa(l2 + a2 )3 (l2 + a 2) ⎞ ⎟ = (3l2 − a 2) ⎠ 3EI(3l2 − a2 )2 V1 Shear V2 Δ max ⎜when a < . . . . . . .. . . = 96EI 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ l⎞ P (x − l)2(11x − 2l) ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . = R 1 x (when x > a ) . . . = Pab 2l2 (a + l) M2 Mx Mx 1 a b (when x < a ) . . . = V1 Shear V2 M1 Moment 3 11 l Δ max M max ⎛ 5Px l⎞ ⎜when x < ⎟ . . . . . . = l 3P 2 5P 15 11P 16 3Pl 16 5Pl 32 R 2 = V2 max . . . . . = (when x > a ) . . . . . . . = 16 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎛ l 11x ⎞ l⎞ ⎟ ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . = l 2 l 2 R 1 R 2 M1 Mx Mx (at point of load) . . . . . .. . = R 2 = V2 . . . . . . . .

. . . . . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER l Total Equiv. . . . = 2 R l 2 l 2 Vx M max . . . = V Shear l 4 V M max ⎛ ⎜when x < ⎝ P l⎞ ⎟ . . . = (max. . when a < b ) . . . . . .2113 l V M1 Mx M1 M max Moment M max Δ max Δx ⎛l ⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ wl 2 12 wl 2 24 w (6lx − l2 − 6x2 ) 12 wl 4 384 EI wx 2 (l − x)2 24EI 16. . . . . . = 192 EI M max Moment M max Δx ⎛ l⎞ Px 2 (3l − 4x) ⎜when x < ⎟ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS Total Equiv. = l Pb 2 l3 Pa 2 (3a + b) x P R2 M1 b (max. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 8 . . . = (at point of load) . . . = P P x R=V l 2 R l 2 R M max Mx Δ max P 2 Pl (at center and ends) . BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT R 1 = V1 (max. Uniform Load . = (at center) . . . . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . = ⎜when a > b at x = 3a + b ⎠ 3EI(3a + b)2 ⎝ (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . = (a + 3b) l3 Pab 2 l2 Pa 2 b l2 2Pa 2b 2 l3 Pab 2 l2 3 2 R1 V1 a M2 Ma Shear V2 Mx Δ max Δa Δx (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟ (at ends) . . = . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = 2⎠ 48EI ⎝ 17. . . . . = (4x − l) 8 2⎠ Pl 3 (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (at center) . . = V Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . = R 2 = V2 (max. . .195 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . = x l wl R=V R 2wl 3 wl . . . = Pa 3 b3 3EIl3 Pb 2 x2 6EIl2 (3al − 3ax − bx) AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . = R 1 x − Ma M1 Moment M2 ⎛ 2Pa b 2al ⎞ ⎟ . . when a < b ) . see page 4-187 15. . . . . . when a > b ) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . = Moment M max Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . = wx wl 2 2 wx 2 2 wl 4 8EI w (x 4 − 4l3 x + 3l4 ) 24EI x M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = Δ max (at deflected end) . . FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT NOT ROTATE AT OTHER—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD Total Equiv. . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . = 4wl R = V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = l 8 wl 3 wl M R x R = V . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . =W Wl 3 x2 l2 M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . = V Shear Mx M max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 19. . = Δx . . . . . . = M max Δx . . . . = Wx 3 3l2 Wl 3 15EI W 60EIl2 (x5 − 5l4 x + 4l5 ) Moment Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . . . . = Shear . . . . . . . . . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO FIXED END Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =W Vx W R x . . . . . . . . . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD l Total Equiv. . . . . = W l 8 3 R=V . . = wl R wl Vx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see page 4-187 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . .196 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . = wl Vx . . . . . . = V Shear Mx . = wx wl 2 3 w 2 (l − 3x2 ) 6 wl 4 24EI w(l2 − x2 )2 24EI M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4227 l M1 Moment V Mx . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 20. = Δx . .

. . . . . . . . . =P x P R M max (at fixed end) . . . = R=V 8Pb l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . . = 4P R=V P M x . . . . . . . . . see page 4-187 21. . . = (when x > a) . CANTILEVER BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT FREE END l Total Equiv. . . = P(x − a) Pb 2 (3l − b) 6EI Pb 3 3EI Pb 2 (3l − 3x − b) 6EI P(l − x)2 (3b − l + x) 6EI a b V Shear Δ max (at free end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = P ⎜ − x⎟ ⎠ pl 12EI P(l − x)2 (l + 2x) 12EI ⎞ Shear M max l 2 Δ max (at deflected end) . . . . . . = M max Moment Δx . . . . . . . . . . = Pl Mx V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END. . . . . . . = Moment Mmax Δx Δx 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = Px Pl 3 3EI P (2l3 − 3l2x + x3 ) 6EI Shear Δ max (at free end) . = Δa (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT NOT ROTATE AT OTHER—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT DEFLECTED END l Total Equiv. . . . . . . . = Mx V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = 8P R=V P . . . . . . . . . . . . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . = M max Moment Δx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . =P Pl 2 ⎛l ⎝2 3 R M max (at both ends) . . . CANTILEVER BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT Total Equiv. . . =P x R M max (at fixed end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . . . . . . = Pb Mx (when x > a) . Uniform Load . . . . = 23.197 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. = (when x < a) . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . = wa wa 2 2 wa 2 x 2l w (a − x 1)2 2 a x1 Vx 1 (for overhang) . . . = wa . . . . . . . . . . . . = Δ x 1 (for overhang) . . . = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . = Δx (between supports) . . . . = R2 V2 l wa 2 2l wa (2l + a) 2l V1 + V2 . . . . . . . . = w(a − x 1) V2 V3 M 1 ⎜at x = M2 Shear M1 Moment a2 l (1 – 2 ) l M2 M x (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . = R1 V1 a2 l 1 – 2) 2 ( l R2 (between supports) . . . . . . . . . = 25. . . . . . . . . . .198 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . = l w 2 (l − a2 ) 2l w (l + a)2 2l w 2 (l + a2 ) 2l x w(l +a) a x1 V2 V3 Vx . = R 2 = V2 + V3 . . = M x1 (for overhang) . = Δ x 1 (for overhang) . . see page 4-187 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . = w(a − x 1) M max (at R 2) . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . = M x (between supports) . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD ON OVERHANG R 1 = V1 . . . . . . . . . .03208 ⎟ = EI 18√ EI ⎯ ⎯3 ⎯ √ ⎠ ⎯3 wa 3 (4l + 3a) 24EI wa 2x 2 (l − x 2) 12EIl wx 1 (4a2 l + 6a 2x 1 − 4ax 2 + x3) 1 1 24EI Δ max (for overhang at x1 = a ) . . . . . . = Δ max ⎜between supports at x = Shear ⎛ ⎝ Moment M max wa 2 l2 l ⎞ wa 2 l2 = 0. = V2 x wa R2 R1 V1 M x1 (for overhang) . . . . . . . . . . = 2 wx 2 (l − a 2 − xl) 2l w (a − x1 )2 2 wx (l4 − 2l2 x2 + lx 3 − 2a 2l2 + 2a 2x 2) 24EIl wx 1 (4a2 l − l3 + 6a 2 x1 − 4ax 2 + x3 ) 1 1 24EI Vx 1 (for overhang) . = 2 (l + a)2 (l − a)2 2⎢ 8l l ⎦⎠ ⎝ ⎣ wa 2 (at R 2) . . . . . . . . . . . = R 1 − wx ⎛ a 2 ⎤⎞ w l ⎡ 1 − 2 ⎥⎟ . = Δx (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see page 4-187 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . = (at center) . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . = l x a x1 P R 2 = V1 + V2 . . . . Uniform Load . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . . . . . . = EI 9√ EI ⎯ ⎯3 ⎯ √ ⎠ ⎯3 ⎝ (for overhang at x1 = a) . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD BETWEEN SUPPORTS Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . = ⎛ ⎜at x = ⎝ R1 R2 a b Mx Δ max Δa V1 Shear M max V2 ⎯ a(a +⎯ √⎯⎯⎯2b) when a > b⎟ ⎠ 3 ⎞ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R1 R2 M x1 Δ max V1 Shear (for overhang) . . . . . . . Uniform Load . . . .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . . . . . . = Pa l P = (l + a) l =P = Pa Pax = l = P(a − x 1) Δ max Moment M max Δx Δ x1 Pa 2 (l + a) 3EI Pax 2 (between supports) . . . . . . . . . . (between supports) . . . . . . . . = (l − x2) 6EIl Px 1 (for overhang) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT BETWEEN SUPPORTS Total Equiv. . . . . . . . . . . . = l 8Pab l2 Pb l Pa l Pab l Pbx l Pab (a + 2b)√⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ ⎯ 3a(a + 2b) 27EIl Pa 2b 2 3EIl Pbx 2 (l − b 2 − x2 ) 6EIl Pa(l − x) (2lx − x 2 − a2 ) 6EIl Pabx1 (l + a) 6EIl x P x1 R 2 = V2 (max. . . . . . . (at R 2) . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V2 M max Mx V2 . . . ⎛ Pal 2 l ⎞ Pal 2 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = w ⎜ − x⎟ (at center) . . . . . . = wl 2 ⎛l ⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ 2 wl 8 wx (l − x) 2 5wl 4 384 EI wx 2 (l − 2lx 2 + x3) 24EI 3 wl x1 24EI x . . . . . . . . . . . = Moment Δx Δx Δ x1 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . = . . . . . . . . . . = R l 2 R M max Mx V V Shear M max Δ max Δx Moment Δ x1 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (when x < a ) . . . = (when x > a ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (2al + 3ax 1 − x2 ) 1 6EI 27. . . . . . . = R 1 = V1 (max. when a < b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . = M max (at point of load) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = wl R=V Vx l 2 l a wl x1 . = . . . . when a > b ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT END OF OVERHANG R 1 = V1 .06415 ⎜between supports at x = ⎟ . . .199 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.

. . . . see page 4-187 29. = AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT a P b R 1 = V1 . R2 l R1 V1 7l 16 l R3 R 3 = V3 . . . . . . . .472 l from R 1 ) . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER OF ONE SPAN Total Equiv. . . . Moment Pab Pab 4l2 M1 (at support R 2) . . = . . . . . . . . . R 2 = V2 + V3 . . R3 R1 V1 V2 l R2 R 2 = V2 + V3 . . . = . . . = Mx Δ max (at 0. . = Δ max (at 0. . . . = = 19 P 32 13 Pl 64 3 Pl 32 M max M1 M max (at point of load) . . . . . Uniform Load l 2 = = = P l 2 13 P 8 13 P 32 11 P 16 3 P 32 R 1 = V1 . . = (when x < l) . Uniform Load R 1 = V1 . . R 3 = V3 . . V3 = = Pb 4l3 Pa 2l3 (4l2 − a(l + a)) (2l2 + b(l + a)) (l + a) R1 V1 V2 l R2 l R3 =− Pab 4l3 Shear V2 . . . . . . V3 l =− Shear V2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . . . = = Pa 4l3 4l3 (4l2 + b(l + a)) (4l2 − a(l + a)) (l + a) M max M1 M max (at point of load) . . . . . . . .0092 wl 4 / EI 30.4 . . . . CONTINUOUS BEAM—TWO EQUAL SPANS—UNIFORM LOAD ON ONE SPAN Total Equiv. . . = ⎛ ⎝ 7 ⎞ l⎟ 16 ⎠ 9 wl 16 49 wl 2 512 1 wl 2 16 wx (7l − 8x) 16 M max ⎜at x = M max . . . . . . . . M1 Moment (at support R 2) .480 l from R 1 ) . . . . . . . . . wl = = = 49 wl 64 7 wl 16 5 wl 8 1 wl 16 x R 2 = V2 + V3 . . . . R 3 = V3 . . V3 =− V2 Shear V2 . . . . . . . = M1 M1 Moment (at support R 2) . . . . . . . . .015 Pl 3 / EI 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛P M1 − M2 ⎞ ⎟ x − M1 =⎜ + l ⎠ ⎝2 (M 1 − M 2)x P (l − x) + − M1 2 l Moment M1 M2 = ⎞ ⎛ 8(l − x) l⎞ Px ⎛ 2 ⎜ 3l − 4x2 − Δ x ⎜when x < ⎟ = [M 1 (2l − x) + M 2 (l + x)]⎟ 2 ⎠ 48EI ⎝ Pl ⎠ ⎝ AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . = l R 2 = V2 wl M 2 . . . . 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ l⎞ M x ⎜when x > ⎟ . . . . V2 M3 = V 1 Shear ⎛ l⎞ M x ⎜when x < ⎟ .BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 . = w ⎜ − x⎟ + ⎛l ⎝2 V 1 Shear V2 M3 M2 ⎛ l M1 − M2 ⎞ ⎟ . . . . . . = 1 l 2 M >M 1 2 l 2 M 3 (at center) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = wx (l − x) + 2 M1 ⎛M − M ⎞ 2 ⎜ 1 ⎟ x − M1 l ⎝ ⎠ 2 b Moment b b (to locate inflection points) = + ⎯ l4 − ⎛⎜⎝ M w M ⎞⎟⎠ + ⎛⎜⎝ M wl M √⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯− ⎯ ⎞⎟⎠ 2 1 2 1 2 Δx = 8M 1l 4M 2l ⎤ 4M 1 4M 2 ⎞ 2 12M 1 wx ⎡ 3 ⎛ ⎟x + − x + l2 − − x − ⎜ 2l + 24EI ⎢ wl wl ⎠ w w w ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ ⎣ 33. . BEAM—CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER AND VARIABLE END MOMENTS P M1 − M2 + 2 l P M1 − M2 − 2 l Pl M 1 + M 2 − 4 2 R 1 = V1 . . . . see page 4-187 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BEAM—UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD AND VARIABLE END MOMENTS wl M 1 − M 2 + 2 l wl M 1 − M 2 − 2 l ⎞ ⎠ M1 − M2 l R 1 = V1 . . . . . . = M1 R1 x M >M 1 2 R2 Vx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = M1 R x l P M2 R2 R 2 = V2 . . . . . . . . . . .201 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols. . M 3 ⎜at x = + wl ⎠ 2 ⎝ = 2 wl 2 M 1 + M 2 (M 1 − M 2) − + 8 2 2wl 2 Mx . .

0534 w l 2 –0.0059 wl 4/ El 35.500 w l 0.0099 wl / El 4 36.500 l 0.583 l Δmax (0.1013 w l 2 Moment 0.450 w l l D RB = 1.202 BEAM AND GIRDER DESIGN BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.550 wl 0.430 l from A) = 0.500 w l –0.383 l 0.450 w l 0.400 w l 0.383 w l l C RC = 0.400 l 0.20 w l 0.080 w l2 +0.550 wl RD = 0.033 w l 0.10 w l l A RA = 0.400 l Δmax (0.4 .100 w l 2 RD = 0.600 w l 0.383 w l 0.1167 w l 2 RD = –0. see page 4-187 34.550 w l Shear –0.025w l 2 +0.479 l from A or D) = 0.417 w l Shear +0.500 l 0.450 w l 0.400 w l 0.446 l from A or D) = 0.100 w l 2 Shear +0.033 w l 0.550 w l l D RB = 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—END SPANS LOADED wl wl B l A RA = 0.450 l Δmax (0.583 w l 0.050 w l 2 +0.450 l 0.617 w l –0.080 w l 2 Moment 0.400 w l l D RB = 1.10 w l 0.400 w l 0.033 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—ONE END SPAN UNLOADED wl wl B l A RA = 0.0735 w l 2 +0.1013 w l 2 +0.0069 w l 4/ El AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .450 wl l C RC = 0.0333 wl 2 Moment 0.450 w l 0.600 w l –0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—THREE EQUAL SPANS—ALL SPANS LOADED wl wl B l wl C R C = 1.

058 w l 2 +0.603 l 0.442 l Δ max (0.0996 w l 2 –0.0977 w l 2 Moment 0.482 w l 0.518 w l Shear –0.446 l 0.393 w l l E RE = 0.442 w l 0. see page 4-187 37.0357 w l 2 +0.0714 w l 2 +0.598 w l l E RB = 1.357 w l l A RA = 0.380 w l l D R D = 0.464 w l 0.393 l 0.603 w l RE = 0.558 w l 0.607 w l 0.143 w l 0.475 l from E) = 0.054 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—THIRD SPAN UNLOADED wl wl B l wl C RC = 0.572 w l l E RB = 0.440 l from A and D) = 0.0364 w +0.203 BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS For Various Static Loading Conditions For meaning of symbols.446 w l 0.143 w l l A RA = 0.536 w l 0.446 w l l C RC = 0.442 w l 0.464 w l 0.393 w l 0.1205 w l 2 +0.0611 w l 2 –0.380 w l 0.393 w l RB = 1. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—LOAD FIRST AND THIRD SPANS wl wl B l A RA = 0.1071 w l 2 +0.0065 w l 4/ El AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION .477 l from A) = 0.0536 w l 2 +0.536 l 0.0772 wl 2 –0.0094 wl 4/ El 38.223 w l 0.464 w l l D R D = 0.072 w l 2 –0.393 w l 0.1071 w l 2 l2 +0.518 l Δ max (0.0179 w l 2 +0.620 w l 0.040 w l Shear –0.607 w l 0.380 l 0.0805 w l 2 –0.397 w l 0.572 w l 0.BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS 4 .393 l Δ max (0.0772 w l 2 Moment 0.554 w l 0.928 w l l wl D RD = 1.536 l 0.0364 w l 2 –0.054 w l 0.536 w l Shear –0.054 w l 0. CONTINUOUS BEAM—FOUR EQUAL SPANS—ALL SPANS LOADED wl wl B l wl C RC = 0.0536 w l 2 Moment 0.0097 wl 4/ El 39.018 w l RE = –0.