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vinayfantastic

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Re: Number System - 11-07-2009, 11:06 PM - Add Post To Favorites Report Bad Post Quote:

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Originally Posted by saishyam I know this question has been solved.. but I din't get the solution.. can any on explain the solution in detail???

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We need to check the highest power of 97 that can be repeated in 100! Since 10000! will have 97 repeated 103 times. so the highest number that satisfies K is 103.Since it cannot be repeated more than that times. Hope i m clear.

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r11gupta

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Re: Number System - 12-07-2009, 12:30 AM - Add Post To Favorites Report Bad Post

Came across a great post earlier in this thread, reposting here for the benefit of newbie junta All credit is due to khanna_sumit for this post This one is for ignorant buddies who find remainder problems and theorems related to it hard to understand. I believe that algebraic number theory is one of the most intriguing topics of mathematics. Numbers have enchanted mathematicians for centuries and still there is much to be explored. Here is a set of theorems that can be used to solve almost all the problems related with finding remainders. Before starting lets prove that number of primes are infinite. Suppose I have found first few primes as p(1) = 2; p(2) = 3 and so on up to p(n). Product p(1)*p(2)*…*p(n) is divisible by all the primes we have found so far. That means p(1)*p(2)*…*p(n) + 1 is not divisible by any of the known primes. That means either this number is a prime or it is a composite number having prime factors different from that are known (Caveat: -We have no right to say that this number is prime unless we prove it. A number of coaching institutes say this number is a prime but this is not necessarily true). Hence if we have first n primes we can find at least one more prime and that proves infinitude of primes. Wasn’t it a simple way of proving something of quite an elusive nature? Well that’s the beauty of mathematics. Why does ISO insist upon standardizing the methods and approaches of running a business? Because when you follow same process again and again, you become proficient at using the process that brings the efficiency and quality in products and services. So if we follow a prescribed set of rules, we will become proficient at solving even difficult remainder problems. It is necessary to know how a remainder is formally defined. Suppose we have two positive numbers a, b where a>b. a = b*q + R is true for infinite sets of integers (q, R). Lets say that R is the residue (because we have not defined remainder as yet). We define remainder as value of R that is numerically less than the divisor b and either negative or positive. Or ½r½ < b. A sample statement “ When a number is divided by 29 leaves a remainder 5.” should be interpreted as N = 29x + 5. I won’t explain the trivial cases that are given in almost all the materials, as when a number is divided by two different divisors, remainders are same then remainder when LCM divides the number gives the same remainder etc. Here are the theorems you must know. First thing we should be clear about is that whatever operation (addition, subtraction or multiplication) happens on the numbers, same operation happens on the remainders of the numbers from a given divisor. Suppose 2 numbers x and y when divided by divisor ‘a’ leave remainders r and R i.e. x = am + r and y = an + R. (x + y) = a(m + n) + (r + R) hence remainder when (x + y) is divided by a is either (r +

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8/21/2010 3:37 PM

How to find last two digits of 3^16? 3^20 = 3^16 * 3^4 lets say last two digits of 3^16 are xy. Further we know how to solve it (HINDI CHEENI BHAI BHAI). So we can say here that y = 7a + 4. eular’s number is 25(1-1/5) = 20. remainder will be 1 because power of 2 is a multiple of (11-1). 11 leaves either 4 or –3 as remainder from 7 (at times negative remainder makes the calculations easier). Or x = (11y – 2)/7 Lets say that y when divided by 7 leaves a remainder r i. Whatever other remainder conditions are given. 3^41 %7 = 3^5 %7 = 5 {I presume it should be clear by now} 3^41 %11 = 3 3^40 %13 = 3^5 %13 = 9. (Because 3^96 = 3^80 * 3^16 and 3^80 ends in 01) . For 2^2 i. remainder is 1 therefore reminder when 3^1001 is divided by 1001 is same as remainder when 3^41 is divided by 1001. Putting the value of y in N=11y + 3 = 11(7a + 4) + 3 = 77a + 47. I am attaching a list of questions few of which are collected from various threads and a 3 of 7 8/21/2010 3:37 PM . 77%13 = -1 (Usefulness of negative remainders) 41%13 = 2 (Positives are equally useful) That clearly means that a%13 = 2 (-1)*(2) + (2) = 0{I have done the same operation on remainders as done on numbs} Therefore a = 13c + 2. That generalization says that a^e(n)%n = 1. lets try a sample question.11. and putting this value in 77a + 47 = 77(13c + 2) + 47 = 1001c + 154 + 47 = 1001c + 201. What is the remainder when 3^1001 is divided by 1001? 1001 = 7*11*13. That implies 3^{LCM (6. 4. 2^4%5 =1. It is a number which when divided by 7. Prime factors of 1001 are 7. Fermat proved the theorem that for a prime number ‘p’ that is co prime with another number ‘a’. Also a is co prime with the divisor p. I will explain it using a sample problem.Page 854 . That explains why cyclicity of last two places is generally 20 for all numbers co prime with 100.10. Therefore xy * 81 = 01 (considering only last two digits) that’s true for xy = 21. (read % as remainder from divisor). A number when divided by 7 leaves remainder 5 and when divided by 11 leaves remainder 3. Using eular’s theorem. 3^6 %7 = 1. remainder is 1.The Every. How to find e(n)? Suppose I want to find eular’s number of 1001. 3^10 %11 = 1 and 3^12 %13 = 1. Now lets say that in the same question another condition is given that when divided by 13. I presume everyone knows the application of binomial theorem in finding remainders so won’t explain here.. Since x is an integer.g..PaGaLGuY. we can solve in same fashion. Last 2 places of 3^96 will therefore be same as last two places of 3^16. Eular’s number e(n) for divisor n is defined as number of natural numbers less than ‘n’ and co prime with it. y = 7a + r. From given statement we can say that number N = 7x + 5 = 11y + 3. file:///D:/STUDY%20POINT/Number%20System%20.Do not panic by looking at the name. Using this we can reduce the previous problem into a simpler one. Again using the same process. 3^2 %2^2 = 1 and 3^20 %5^2 = 1. What are last two digits of 3^96? Last two digits of this number can be obtained by finding remainder when this number is divided by 100.3 and 11 respectively. That means N = 13b + 6 along with the previous conditions. At r = 4. 100 = (2^2)*(5^2). Now you know CHINESE REMAINDER THEOREM. Chinese remainder theorem: . I hope you can understand the process. 77a + 47 = 13b + 6 Or b = (77a + 41)/13. E. So if the question is 2^1000%11. In general for a number n having prime factors p1..13. 4r – 2 becomes divisible by 7. it gives remainder 0 when divided by 7 therefore 4r – 2 is divisible by 7 since r is the remainder from 7. You can make as many as you wish to.e. Or in more general form a^{n(p-1)}%p = 1. eular’s number is 4(1-1/2) = 2 and for 5^2 (25). Or a^(p-1) % = 1. Q. Similarly (x – y)%a = (r – R)%a and also (x*y)%a = (r*R)%a. What if divisor is not a prime? Then we have eular’s generalization of Fermat’s rule. if we take LCM of the powers of 3 in two cases(LCM is 20) we find that 3^20 %100 = 1 or last two digits of 3^20 are 01. Where e(n) is eular’s number for divisor n. We just need to solve this with the new form 13b + 6. Do you require questions on this? I don’t think so. p2. e(n) = n (1-1/p1)(1-1/p2)(1-1/p3)… This knowledge about eular’s theorem is sufficient. Understand the things clearly here. Putting a = 0..12)} %1001 = 1 or 3^60 %1001 = 1. when a to the power (p-1) is divided by p. 3^10%11 = 1. You need practice to master it. Another question. Now that we know fermat’s rule and eular’s rule. It is just another buddy that helps in solving remainder problems. from 3^960. RULE 1. It can be proved for any other number co prime with hundred. R) or remainder when (r + R) is divided by a ( in case r + R is greater than a). 47 is the first number of this type and 77a + 47 is the general series of such numbers.Number System .com . We have already solve it for two conditions and found the combined form as 77a + 47. N = 7x + 5 = 11y + 3 = 13z + 9. RULE 2: FERMAT’S LITTLE THEOREM Using the properties of infinite arithmetic progressions. e(1001) = 1001(1-1/7)(1-1/11)(1-1/13). number leaves a remainder 6. Don’t forget that this theorem is defined only for prime divisors. find a general solution. 3^1000 = 3^960 * 3^41. you’ll have to try values of r up to 6. p3….11 and 13 gives remainders 5. There may be easier methods available for solving these questions but motive here is to understand the approach that more or less remains the same even when we move towards questions of higher level.e.

3..12-07-2009. few are made by me.What is the remainder when 17^19 + 13^19 is divided by 25? 2.. Regards Sumit.nowhere near jmet : AIR 856 Calls : IIT kgp.Find the remainder when 2 ^ 1990 is divided by 1990... Lets solve all those using the standard methods we have learnt. Expert PaGaL Re: Number System . 12. 4. 1. 04:33 AM . Find last 4 digits of (2319)^{10^12 + 2}. Mani_23 (12-07-2009). Solving the problems will make concepts clearer.PaGaLGuY.Add Post To Favorites Report Bad Post Quote: Posts: 163 Join Date: Jun 2008 Location: Jodhpur Age: 23 Groans: 5 Groaned at 2 Times in 2 Posts Thanks: 99 Thanked 19 Times in 17 Posts Originally Posted by Abhinav90 Doubts. What is the remainder when 17^28820 is divided by 30030? CAT 2009 Converts 99. 07:51 AM .Remainder when (128 )^500 is divided by 153....What is the remainder when 2^10013 is divided by 3125? 11.The Every.. MaskedMenace (12-07-2009). 6.12-07-2009..xx :( verbal fms : Reject orkut || facebook || twitter Groan! Thank! (#8536) 4 of 7 8/21/2010 3:37 PM .What is the remainder when 13^2404 is divided by 2310? 10. And a lengthy one here. 7....xx . manjushaa (12-07-2009). try to standardize your approach.I m getting 3 as answer while the ans is 9. naga25french (01-09-2009). Remember. MDI XLRI .85 | XAT 2010 A C L 99.then?? Posts: 12 Join Date: Jan 2009 Groans: 1 Groaned at 0 Times in 0 Posts Thanks: 50 Thanked 6 Times in 3 Posts pl help to tackle such questions Groan! Thank! (#8535) rupam_1987 Man is the creator of his own destiny. burning_desire (20-08-2010).Find the last two digits in the expansion of 2^ 999.What is the remainder when 2^2002 is divided by 2002? 9.9.. 1)Find the 28383rd term of the series :123456789101112.50 didn't fill any form xat : 84. 1) season 2008: cat 08 : 87.Add Post To Favorites Report Bad Post Q)How many natural numbers between 1 and 100 have exactly four factors? and if it is given find exactly 6 factor natural numbers between 1 and 16598 .BM.. Newbie PaGaL Re: Number System .Find the remainder when 104^303 is divided by 101. 5....01 | Calls MDI A C L .7..BM | Member | Waitlisted PG Dream Team '09 IIM Ahmedabad.What is the remainder when 2^2001 is divided by 2001? 8. XLRI .r snap : 78..Find last 3 digits of 3^1994.k.Number System . file:///D:/STUDY%20POINT/Number%20System%20.Page 854 . rupam_1987 (12-07-2009) (#8534) vin2win has no status. class of 2012 | Mocks FB AIWTSAC The Following 7 Users Say Thank You to r11gupta For This Useful Post: Remove Your Thanks acumind (20-08-2009)..com .4. Options: 3. I am also getting 3 as the answer.

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