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The 14th IEEE 2003 International Symposium on Persona1,lndoor and Mobile Radio Communication Proceedings

Performance Analysis of PAPR in MC-CDMA

Using Golay Code

Luan Yingzi Li Jiandoiig

Information Science Institute Information Science Institute
Xidian University Xidian University
Xi'an.China Xi'an,China
luanyz@pub.xaon line.Com j d l i@pcn.xidian,

.4h,~rwcl-A main disadvantage of multicarrier modulatioii is compare the BER(bit error rate) performance of these two
that it erhihits a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). This schemes.
paper analyzes the PAPR complementary cumulative The content i s as following: the second section is the
disrributiun function of MC-CDMA signal by using Golay code detail complementation o f the M C - C D M A transceiver and the
BS spreading code. which is compared with that of Walsh-
definition of the peak-to-average complementary cumulative
Hadmard code, and the performances of two systems in
niultipath channel are analyzed. Simulation results show that the function. The third section i s the general introduction o f Golay
uplink PAPR of MC-CDMA system using Golay code a s code. The fourth section is the simulation results. And the fifth
spreading code is reduced 3dB and there is no performance i s the conclusion.
lost compared with that using WH code.
K ~ v , , ~ o n l . ~ -IWC-CDMA; peuk-tu-overage mtiu(PAPR);
co,,tple,rrwrrrirl.v ciiiiiululive distribiirioii fiirrctio~~(CCDF ): Coluy A. MC-CDMA Irnnsceiver
code: IVtI codc; r n u l l i ~ d clro,znc/
First the data stream o f BPSK signal is serialiparallel to
M groups. then performing the frequency spreading o f gain N:
Through the NM length IFFT; (see Fig.1). then forming tlie
The iiiore and inore important role that the multimedia following symbol:
arid computet- cominunication acts as iii today's world inakes
tlie wireless mobile recearch face i i e w challenges. The great
iiced for liigh speed transportation pi-omotes the exploration o f k=O
iiiulticari-icr inodularion.
MC-CDMA is tit-st proposed in the PIMRC'93 held in .
where C ,,,,k , , = b,,,,ko,ahl,ia
,,. i i s the index o f the IFFT
JAPAN. It combines OFDM and C D M A . M C - C D M A signal block,; = 0, ..., m,w i s the user number, n is the time domain
can be conveniently transceived with IFFT(FFT). without discrete sample, k i s the subcarrier number, k=I ....,NM. NM
increasing tlie complexity o f transceiver. It achieves high
i s the length of IFFT, b,,,,ko6M,j
i s the transmitted data bit o f
sprctriiiii efficiency due to overlapping. I t s coding scheme.
PAI'K. synchronization and the receiver design have gained a the ill' IFFT block of the w"'user. k%M is the residue of k
Ibt o f research. This paper focuses on the PAPR problem of that i s divided by M, representing the group number o f the
MC-CDMA.. transmitted data,a,b,,k i s the spread chip o f the w"' user in the
There is a broad research on how to decrease the PAPR
of iiiulticarrier signal. It includes the following methods: k'" subcarrier. It is Golay code, the length o f which is NM, A,
coding""]. phasing offset'", clipping"], partial transmit is the transmit amplitude of the w'" user. When the PAPR
ssquence'" and selected 'napping, pre-distortion etc. Past problem is in research, we must consider oversampling-factor.
researcli iiiostly considers OFDM scheme. Here we focus on paper[h]indicates that oversampling factor equals 4(p=4) is
MC-CDMA system. enough.
MC-CDMA lias high bandwidth efficiency, but at the Hence the I D F T o f length pNM is:
same riiiie the uplink PAPR o f WH inulticarrier signal is very
high. thus inakes WH code M C - C D M A difficult to be
eliiployed in practical application. While the good /;=0
performance o f Golay code used in O F D M attracts our n=O,l,pNM-l (2)
iiotilication. This promotes us consider to use it as the In wireless channel model. there are lnore than one path
spi-eading code o f MC-CDMA. This paper analyzes the PAPR from the transmitter to the receiver. The time delay and
of Gola! code MC-CDMA and WH code MC-CDMA, and propagation factor of different paths are generally time-

0-7803-7822-9/03/$17.0002003 IEEE.
The 14mIEEE 2003 lntemational Symposiumon Persona1,lndoor and Mobile Radio Communication Proceedings

varying in inobile environment. If we suppose that the channel Fc (x) = 1- Pr( PAPR < x) (6)
is detei-mined by its delay power profile. in the band-limited
case. time-varying multipath channel can be expressed by
lime-varying parameter and fixed finger delay line. Here we
suppose that the RMS(Root Mean Square) delay spread T, is 111. GENERATING GOI.AY COMPLEMENTARY CODE
smaller than or equal to guard interval. A pair of sequences({A},{B)), {A}={a, ,n=I,...N}.
Because in MC-CDMA system the broadband i s divided B={b,,,n=I, ...N } .ifthey satisfy the following condition:
iiiin imany narrow subcarriers. the frequency selective channel
is converted into flat channel o f subcarrier. In addition the
coliei-ence time i s inucli larger than IFFT block interval, the
channel propagation i s also slow. The path gain and phase of ({a,,],{bi,}) are called Golay complementary sequences pair.
each subcarrier in a IFFT block interval[O, NMTy](T, is the one of them is called Golay complementary sequence.
sampling interval) is constant(This i s the key hypothesis), The basic property of complementary sequences can be
expressed with the aid of the aperiodic autocorrelation
which is written as cc ,,., and 8,r,,, a ,,,, is the Rayleigh functions o f the code pair members. The code pair members
distributed random variable. is uniformly distributed in { A } and {B} of length N have auto-correlation function
sidelobes with opposite polarity so that they cancel out when
[0.2n]. tlieii- change speed is detei-mined by the maximum they are summed. This is expressed by the relation
Doppler frequency.
T h e channel impulse response is:

where S(k) i s the unit-impulse function at the origin

and k{lkl 5 N - 1) is the discrete delay variable. The length
where c = I/ i e - ' ' '
i d
' . r, is the delay o f the /'I' path. it can be
o f a complementary sequence inust be expressible as a sum of,
supposed as integer times of the discrete samples. L+I is the at most, twosquares, i.e.2,4,8,I0,16,18,20,26,32,34,36,40.50
wliole number o f delay paths, r is the exponential decay factor. etc. A n exhaustive computer search was performed in order to
For uplink channel. the initial delays o f different user find all the basic complementary code pairs up to the length o f
rI are dil'ferent. For downlink channel, h,,,.i(n)is independent 26.These basic code pairs are usually called Kerne1s"l. Only
four kernels that satisfy the complementary propeny were
on 11'. The detector diagram i s as F i g 2 For downlink and found are listed below (there existed two kernels for the code
uplink channel. we employ different detection scheme. Two- length o f IO):
stage DEC-PIC (Decorrelaling-Parallel Interference { K h } = I I,{ K2b)=IO,
cancellation) multiuser detection is used in the uplink { K l n a ) I = ~ n n ~ n , ~ n oOb]
o ~,=~nnoo,on~
.{~~ in
cIianiieI"'I. (see Fig.3), one-stage MMSEC detection is used in {Kina}z=ninin,nnoi IJKI ob}2=nnooi.ooi O I
d~iwnlink. {K26a}=n1nn1,l0lll,101n1,11lnn,ll ini,o,
N cunnr/otive distrihuiion funcfion of
The c~~mp1e~7ienrurj~ ~~~~~~=~n~in,ninon,n~~ii.~iion.i~~~
P.4PR Starting from the basic kernel it is also possible to
synthesize longer sequences than these basic ones which were
1-lie definition of Peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) of
found. I n the concatenation method, the elements a and b of
multicarrier signal s%\.;(n)is:
the code pair (A,B) members are appended as follows to create
a new pair (C,D) of sequences o f length 2N:

llie above equation is inore suitable to the uplink. but for

downlink. due to the superposition of inany users, so PAPR i s where * denotes the complementation o f a bit. In the
written as: interleaving method, the elements of the code pair(A.B)
members are interleaved instead o f appended:

* *
{F}=ulbl u2h2 ... u N b N *
The complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF 1 ot'l'APR is: The methods described can be applied repeatedly as
Imany times as necessary to increase the sequence length. It i s

The 14IhIEEE 2003 International Symposium on Persona1,lndoor and Mobile Radio Communication Proceedings

also possible to perform code inodification for synthesized V. CONCLUSION

i c e The complementary propeity is preserved
s c c ~ ~ ~ e ~pairs. I t is a good method to use Colay code as spreading code
dui-ing code modification as well as during code synthesis. in M C - C D M A system, it can reduce the high PAPR o f W H
'llie allowed modification are: time reversal of code{A} ,time code MC-CDMA uplink signal from 12dB to 9dB. and having
i-evei-sal of code{B).time reversal o f both codes, no BER performance degradation.
conipleineiiration of.even bils of both codes. complementation
o f odd bits of both codes. complementation of code(A),
c~iiiplemeiitation of code {E}. complementation of both
codes. atid exchange ofcode(A} with code{B}.
Shapiro and Rudin construct a kind o f sequence, This work was supported by the China 863
bclon$ing to the subset of Colay complementary sequence, program(2001AA12303 I) and TRAPOYT(the Teaching and
h i - sliort. is called S-R sequence, this sequence has all the
Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in
properties as Golay code. and it is easy to the Higher Education Institutions of MOE. People's Republic o f
simulation. we used this kind ofcode.


We assume the transmission rate is 3Mb/s, M=8, N=32, Jones A. E.. Wilkinson T. A. . Barton S. K.. Block coding scheme for
o\wsampling factor p=4. the total number of active user i s 32, reduction o f pcak IOmean envelope powcr ratio of inuliicarriri
t~ansrnissioti schmmes[.l]. IEE Electronics Letters. 1994.30(25): 2098-
the IFFT block rate i s (3/8)Mblocksls, It is assumed 2001).
/;,2 1 O M . then ,f,T = 0.000027 , the IFFT interval Davis I . A.. Iedwah J. Pcah-to-meail power control and error correction
T=780 /I.Y . multipath channel model is two-ray uniform for OFDM fraiimission usiiie Golay sequeiiccs and Reed-Muller
codcs[I]. IEE Electronics Letters. I997.33(41:267-268.
disiributed. suppose the delayed path o f the channel is 2011s. it Liu Yuanaii. "Broadband wirzlcss ACCCSSand WLAN:' Brjjing
corresponds to equation (3) r=O, L = 1 . Users are University of Posts and 'relccommuiiicationr pohlishing company.
disritigiiislied by diffei-ent Golay code, it i s being compared 2000: 123-126.
with that of using W H code. C v d oudrraa. Jahan Schookcns and Ican ienneboog. C o m m m s 011
Fig. 4 is the comparisoii of PAPR complementary ~ ~ M u l t i t o i signals
w with crest fiictor"[.l]. IEEE trans on ~ i r u i t and
ryslems. 1987.34(9): 1125-1 127.
c i ~ ~ i i i ~ l a t distribution
ive fiinction o f two systems using Golay
Loan Yingri. Yang Jiawci. Li lisndong Effects o f Amplitude Clipping
code and WH code. By computing we obtained that the on Sigial-lo-Noise Ratio and Spectral Splatter at' Multicarrier DS-
avcrage PAPR o f uplink M C - C D M A transmitted signal using CDhlA[C]. 2000 lnlernatioiial Conlirrnce "11 Communicat~on
Colay code is 9.27dB. but the average PAPR of W H code Technology Proccedings.August21-25. Beijing Cliina.2000. 1,785-780.
MC-CDMA signal i s 12.637dB. So PAPR of Golay code I61 Leonard I . and Nelson R. Sollenheiger. Peak-to-average
power ralio rcdricrion 01 an OFUM signal asin. p a n i a l iriiiwiiii
reduces about 3dB.but in the downlink the average PAPR seqsences[I]. IEEE trans Common Letters. 2000.14(31:86-88.
using Golay is close to that o f using WH code, equaling to
171 Karkkaiiicn Kari H. A. leppanen Peiifli A ].inear complexity of binav
7.66dB. qalay complementary rcqucnces[Il. lElCE trans fund. 1996. E79-A(4)'
Then we analyze the performance characteristic of two 609-613.
systems. respectively corresponding t o uplink and downlink 181 Chai Byouw-lo. Tellamburs C.and Hanzo. L. Crest factors 01 Shapira-
cliatitiel. In the uplink channel (DEC-PIC) multiuser detection Rudin sequence hascd molti-code MC-CDMA signals. Vehicular
is iised. in the downlink MMSEC single user single stage
Technoloqy Conference. VTC Spring 2002. IEEE 55th . Vol.3 1472 -
detection is used. Fig. 5 is the simulation results. From Fig. 5, 191 Liiaii Yingzi.Li Jiandong and Yang I i a W . "The pcrtbrmance analysis
can see that the MC-CDMA system using Golay code is o f iiiulliuser detectors introduced in MC-CDMA syslem:~Joumal o f East
better than or almost the same as that of using W H code. China University of Science and 'i'echnologI(Na1oraI
Sciencc).Z003.29(2): I8 5 - 190.

The 14" IEEE 2003 International Symposium on Persona1,lndoor and Mobile Radio Communication Proceedings

Data from
user to I Spreadi
lnte cycl
basestation ing in
rlea O/A
*-b;T- vin

-. I
r-k - ~

Fig. I MC-CDMA symbol of the w'l' user transmitter diagram

i r

:j --t

Fig.2 MC-CDMA receiver diagram

4 ,
Gain conesponding to the iO+ml~l,
subcarrirroftheOib user


timi corresponding to the

((N-i iMtm)ili
data o i spreading subcairicr of!he Oil, user
the inlh subblocks of I
subblock other users
i ofthem16
I v
subblock o i
Ihc Oil2 user

Fig. 2 The inth subblock multiuser DEC-PIC detection diagram

The 14IhIEEE 2003 InternationalSymposium on Persona1,lndoor and Mobile Radio Communication Proceedings

.Ay. ........&...............
30 20 30 40 50

xidB1 WB)

(a)Uplink (b) Downlink

Fig. 4 Comparison of PAPR CCDF o f t w o systems using Golay code and WH code in the uplink and downlink.

E Bm

(a)Uplink (b) Downlink

Fig. 5 BER performance comparison of two systems in the uplink and downlink