Botany Exam 3 Study Stuff: Kingdom Plantae: -Fern Allies and Ferns= Lower Vascular Plants -vascular plants

-Predominant phase in life history=sporophyte -Free-living gametophyte -Phylum Psilotophyta “whisk ferns” Genus: Psilotum -Habit-Hair like out growth- Dichotomously branched plant – no vascular tissue- stem and sporangia – has leaf like enations -Anatomy-Actinostele- stem has photosynthetic organisms -Life History—gametophyte grows into gametangia- antheridia sperm/ archegonium egg- sperm swim toward egg- n generation is not photosynthetic Genus: Tmesipteris -Phylum Lycophyta “club mosses” Genus Lycopodium- “ground pine, running cedar” -Habit- microphylls- rhizome – as leaves, stems, and roots -Anatomy- plectostele -Life History-Sporophylls (leaves that produce spores)- Homosporoussingle type of spore- cone=strobilus (where spores are)- mychrohizzal fungigametophyte- earlier stage sporophyte dependent on gametophyte in we places Genus Selaginella – “spike moss, prince’s pine” -Habit- adventitious roots grow from other places other than root polesstem roots and leaves -Life History- cone thing produced by meiosis- gametophyte= contained mostly inside a spore – wall breaks open a tridiate crest Genus Isoetes- “quillwort” -Habit-Life History-Phylum Equisetophyta “horsetails and scouring rushes” Genus Equisetum -Extinct forms-Habitat-Life History- 1 species – branches no always multibranched leaves produced at node -Phylum Polypodiophyta “ferns” -Geologic history-Habitat -Anatomy-Amphipholic siphonostele dictyostele -Life History -Asexual reproduction Kingdom Metaphyta: -“Seed plants=higher vascular plants”

megaspore goes into megagametophyte winter and spring summer of third growing season.-Vascular plants -Predominant phase in life history= sporophyte .epicotal= stem -Phylum Cycadophyta “cycads” .tropical and subtropical areas -Life history.Fully terestrialized Leaf Evolution-Branching patterns .similar to pines except only one growing season is required .Leaf types SporophyllsSeed Habit-Prerequisites -Heterosporous -Megagametophyte remains in megaspore -Megaspore remains in megasporangium -Integument develops -Ovule retained and nourished by parent “Gymnosperms” -Geologic History -Natural History -Adaptation -Economic Importance -Size and Age -Habitat -Phylum Pinophyta “conifers” -Leaf shape -needle -scale -lanceolate -broad -Life History.radical grow into root system.Geological History.first they covered most of the earth.Gametophyte reduced and dependent .hypocatae.integument= seed coat.pine produces cones within a bud during the fall and winter pollination occurs in early spring – seed coat is digested and modified – pollen settle toward ovule – water pollination drop microphyle – opening through integument megasporangial tissue megaspore= parent cell During the summer the cone enlarges.now in tropical and subtropical areas -Natural History-were alive in Mesozoic era -Habit.sperm arrives at eggfertilization usually only one egg gets fertilized (dormant over winter germinate in spring).declines with flowering plants.dioecious.embryo that is between root and leaves.

produce leaves.grows upwards -Tunica.nodes of tissue -Lateral meristems. but small in diameter -Have vascular bundle arranged all around not in circular manner -ground or fundamental tissue -Primary body of a monocotyledonous plant -Secondary body of a dicotyledonous plant-Secondary -from a lateral meristem in woody plants -not in monocots -wood production takes place -wood comes from – a line between xylem and phloem all around -cells have very thin cell walls. transport material (food (phloem) and water (xylem)) .1-3 layers over the apical meristem.-Phylum Ginkgophyta “ginkgo trees” -Geological history. pith.Procambium protoderm ground meristem.In woody plants it grows lateral also (diameter) -Meristems. and cortex -Primary body of a dicotyledonous plant-Primary -Center – towards pith is where xylem is.primary phloem.Apical meristems.scales pinnate leaves-Natural history-China.Ginkgo Biloba “living fossil” Long branches indeterminate growth – small branches determinate growth -Habit-Life History.Leaf primordia. usually stained red -Phloem is around.Two classes within this group -Class Dicotyledonae “dicots” -Class Monocotyledonae “monocots” -Plant organs: -Stem -Function: to produce more stem. so it pushes itself out . cell divisions are all perpendicular to the cell surface -Corpus.dioecious “Angiosperms” Angion = container~ Sperm in a container -Phylum Magnoliophyta “flowering plants”. very large cells with thick walls.(in woody plants)-grows around trunk -Primary Meristem.where cell divisions is in all planes . actively dividing (can’t make a thick cell wall) -vascular cambium -produces xylem cells within itself. fruit and flowers.to increase length . xylem.slow growing plants.

don’t always do .bark gets knocked off the wood is exposed and can get infected with bacteria or fungus.? -fills in cracks. closets) .Wound healing . farmers use for fence posts -cedar is another example (hangers.sometimes its very close together (look like a rose). Branching .the buds that look like young branches don’t grow into branch 3. so its like a tooth filling -bark stays relatively the same thickness overtime because it gets sleuthed? Off However the wood part will grow -Node. and change physiology of cells.. allows the plant to be competitive 1. will become dormant. Dormancy and vernalization .part in between leaves .where a leaf is at -Internode.over time the distance usually elongates.meristem that have potential to grow into a branch. the amount of water in cells.call it a rosette plant -Sequoia trees live where there is flash fires so it has thick layers of bark which burns off so it doesn’t get to the living tissue. (stimulates hormones which stimulates growth) -WoodOutside à inside àphloemà secondary xylemàprimary xylemàheartwood In red woods the heartwood is read because of the … -good when you want wood to last a long time. so they don’t freeze -in spring it goes through vernalization – when the proper conditions arise that stimulates the plant to grow.-as it divides it will either become xylem (inside) or phloem (outside) Secondary xylem is wood Secondary phloem is bark Cork cambium -produces cells inside (parenchyma cells which become the secondary cortex) and outside (cork cells) -to form protection when there is a hole in epidermis -located around epidermis. so the area around it the tree produces calous tissue and grows over wood that is the same cells that would have been there 2.have to contend with weather. near bark -filled with ..

not exactly at the tip. in older trees find out when it was subject to battles during Civil War Dendroclimatology: -can study the climate of previous times -Root Function: -absorption of water and minerals -anchorage of plant in soil -conduction of water and solutes -storage Monocots: fibrous roots Dicots: tap root with fibrous roots Structure: -root hairs only along bottom.-Economic importance: building materials Grain: -how it is cut depends on what the grain looks like -grain = growth rings -Planed sawed wood = gives the normal grain patterns -cone shaped trees. a cylinder shape) Dendrochronology: -find from evidence of growth rings when events took place. the root cap protects the apical meristem inside -usually has a quiescent center (very few cell divisions) . which is needed to push the soil to grow. there is a root cap. when do a cross-section get a parabola shape -Quarters sawed wood = -can have grain parallel to rings Knots: -a place where a branch connects into the xylem of the main stem -not always same width of rings every year -use a Swedish…to test without cutting the tree down (take out a section. maturation part -very bottom has no root hairs and it the only part that will elongate Meristems: -apical for length -at root tip.

otherwise all looks the same -lateral for diameter Elongation: -at the very tip -adaptation to the dense material it must get through Root hairs are outgrowths of epidermis (protoderm) à cortex àendodermis à pericycle à primary phloem à primary xylem Primary Body -outside towards in epidermis (clear cells) à cortex (bigger cells with intercellular spaces and protoplasm inside some = starch grains (purple)) à endodermis à pericycle (the row of cells right inside the endodermis).-promeristem is the region where new cells are being reproduced. this determines the stele à Secondary Body In a woody plant the primary gives rise to the secondary Epidermis à cortex à endodermis à pericycle à procambium with primary phloem and xylem inside -part that gives rise to secondary à secondary xylem right against primary. this replaces the root cap which is lost to destruction from the soil -protoderm gives rise to procambium à vascular tissues -between is the ground meristem -in slide look at top of cross-section and follow that row of cells down towards the root cap to determine what is what. same for the phloem à also vascular cambium produced by procambium in between xylem and phloem à vascular cambium produced by pericycle in between the pericycle Pericycle produces periderm -it produces cells on either side of itself -outside – cork cambium -inside – a secondary cortex layer -replaces function of epidermis .

then the plant takes up the water and new air enters the soil to replace the water -every time it rains get new oxygen -50% is mineral of this 2-3% is organic matter Root vs. Stem Surface Area -width is about the same at the top of the plant or tree -how long is it though? -an example the length was 200ft longer than the part above soil 51.4 stem 2500 square feet roots with 14 billion root hairs which gives = 6500 square feet -Soil pore volume -Root vs. so it grows faster -can put hyphae in the cell (the fungus) but the cell will keep the cytoplasm separate (put a membrane around it) -Nitrogen fixation symbiosis= mutualism-invade through a root hair and infection goes through cortex -but surrounded by membrane -will expand tissue from the bacteria so you get pustules on roots (root nodules) Soil pore volume -50% is pore space -either filled with water or air. grows from cortex outwards -Endodermis-casparian strip in cell wall. seal off the walls to keep water out. can break down dead organic material -all of this is given to the tree. Stem Surface area -Leaf -Flower -Fruit 1 .arises form meristematic activity at pericycle. after rain the water will push the air out.-Lateral root origin . the water must go through the living tissue of endodermis (selectively permeable membrane) -Mycorrhizal symbiosis= mutualism-symbiotic relationship -expands Surface Area for absorption of minerals and water.

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